Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsLymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases: Clonal myeloid disorders that possess both dysplastic and proliferative features but are not properly classified as either MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES or MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Abdominal NeoplasmsCerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Facial NeoplasmsRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neoplasms by Site: A collective term for precoordinated organ/neoplasm headings locating neoplasms by organ, as BRAIN NEOPLASMS; DUODENAL NEOPLASMS; LIVER NEOPLASMS; etc.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant: Distinctive neoplastic disorders of histiocytes. Included are malignant neoplasms of MACROPHAGES and DENDRITIC CELLS.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Spinal NeoplasmsSkull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial: Neoplasms composed of neuroepithelial cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into NEURONS, oligodendrocytes, and ASTROCYTES. The majority of craniospinal tumors are of neuroepithelial origin. (From Dev Biol 1998 Aug 1;200(1):1-5)Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Lip Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIP.Fibroma: A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Gingival NeoplasmsGallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Neoplasm Seeding: The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial: Neoplasms composed of fibrous and epithelial tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue or epithelium.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsNeoplasms, Connective Tissue: Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Polycythemia Vera: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.Thrombocythemia, Essential: A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Trophoblastic Neoplasms: Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Thoracic NeoplasmsCecal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.Leukemia, B-Cell: A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.Hemangioendothelioma: A neoplasm derived from blood vessels, characterized by numerous prominent endothelial cells that occur singly, in aggregates, and as the lining of congeries of vascular tubes or channels. Hemangioendotheliomas are relatively rare and are of intermediate malignancy (between benign hemangiomas and conventional angiosarcomas). They affect men and women about equally and rarely develop in childhood. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Tracheal NeoplasmsAdenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Jejunal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cyst Fluid: Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Histiocytic Sarcoma: Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.Keratoacanthoma: A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A condition characterized by poorly-circumscribed gelatinous masses filled with malignant mucin-secreting cells. Forty-five percent of pseudomyxomas arise from the ovary, usually in a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (CYSTADENOCARCINOMA, MUCINOUS), which has prognostic significance. Pseudomyxoma peritonei must be differentiated from mucinous spillage into the peritoneum by a benign mucocele of the appendix. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Genital Neoplasms, Male: Tumor or cancer of the MALE GENITALIA.Infratentorial Neoplasms: Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Iris Neoplasms: Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Urethral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms: A family of mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. These cells do not have a normal anatomic homolog. (From Fletcher CDM, et. al., World Health Organization Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone, 2002).Rats, Inbred F344Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsPapilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Hypothalamic Neoplasms: Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)Oligodendroglioma: A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous: A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MAXILLARY SINUS. They represent the majority of paranasal neoplasms.

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (1/19029)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (2/19029)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/19029)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (4/19029)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors. (5/19029)

The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation mainly through interaction with other HLH proteins and by blocking their DNA-binding activity. Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain proteins have key functions in regulating immediate-early gene expression in response to mitogenic stimulation. TCFs form DNA-bound complexes with the serum response factor (SRF) and are direct targets of MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and TCFs. Ids bind to the ETS DNA-binding domain and disrupt the formation of DNA-bound complexes between TCFs and SRF on the c-fos serum response element (SRE). Inhibition occurs by disrupting protein-DNA interactions with the TCF component of this complex. In vivo, the Id proteins cause down-regulation of the transcriptional activity mediated by the TCFs and thereby block MAPK signalling to SREs. Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in the coordination of mitogenic signalling and cell cycle entry.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. (6/19029)

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical expression of mdm2 and p21WAF1 in invasive cervical cancer: correlation with p53 protein and high risk HPV infection. (7/19029)

AIM: To investigate the immunocytochemical staining pattern of mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins in invasive cervical cancer and to determine its relation with the expression of p53 and with the high risk HPV infection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry for p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 was performed in 31 paraffin embedded sections of invasive cervical cancer. The results were assessed by image analysis, evaluating for each protein the optical density of the immunostained area, scored as percentage of the total nuclear area. The presence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Immunostaining for both mdm2 and p21WAF1 was correlated with p53 expression; however, the correlation between p53 and mdm2 (R = 0.49; p < 0.01) was more significant than between p53 and p21WAF1 (R = 0.31; p < 0.05); the less stringent correlation between p53 and p21WAF1 might reflect the p53 independent mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction. Similar average levels of p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining were found in the presence or absence of high risk HPV-DNA, without significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins are expressed in invasive cervical cancer and that their immunocytochemical staining pattern is not abrogated by the presence of high risk HPV genomic sequences.  (+info)

Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study. (8/19029)

AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study.  (+info)

The major factor in the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients is metastasis. There exists a relative lack of specific therapeutic approaches to control metastasis, and this is a fruitful area for
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Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (TUMOR MARKERS, BIOLOGICAL) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm ...
DB-ID: Database ID of variant, grouping multiple observations of the same variant together, starting with the HGNC gene symbol, followed by an underscore (_) and a six digit number (e.g. DMD_012345). _000000 is used for variants where DNA was not analysed (change predicted from RNA analysis), variants seen in animal models or variants not seen in humans but functionally tested in vitro ...
Title: Structure and Function of the Human Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2). VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Zhanglin Ni, Zsolt Bikadi, Mark F. Rosenberg and Qingcheng Mao. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutics,School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Health Science Building H272, 1959 NE Pacific Street , Seattle, Washington 98195-7610, USA.. Keywords:Breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP, ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2, multidrug resistance, drug disposition, homology model, mutation analysis, BCRP/ABCG2, mitoxantrone-resistant human cancer cell lines, MXR, human placenta, ABCP, nucleotide binding domains, membrane spanning domains, MSDs, affinity constants, SAR, QSAR, flavonoids, tamoxifen analogues, cyclindependent kinase inhibitors, tariquidar analogues, FTC analogues, 2D-QSAR, CoMFA, CoMSIA, 3D-QSAR, MIFs, HEK cells, Pichia pastoris, Lactococcus lactis, fluorescence resonance energy transfer v, MODELLER. Abstract: The human breast cancer resistance protein ...
The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
The human fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene encodes a protein that is involved in purine metabolism. Aberrant transcripts from this gene, typically from carcinogen-induced damage and translocations, have been found in about half of all esophageal, stomach, and colon carcinomas. Although the exact function of human FHIT protein is not known, animal studies have demonstrated its role as a tumor suppressor in breast and lung cancers. FHIT protein is also known as bis(5-adenosyl)-triphosphatase, diadenosine 5,5-P1,P3-triphosphate hydrolase, AP3A hydrolase, AP3Aase, dinucleosidetriphosphatase, and FRA3B.. ...
The human fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene encodes a protein that is involved in purine metabolism. Aberrant transcripts from this gene, typically from carcinogen-induced damage and translocations, have been found in about half of all esophageal, stomach, and colon carcinomas. Although the exact function of human FHIT protein is not known, animal studies have demonstrated its role as a tumor suppressor in breast and lung cancers. FHIT protein is also known as bis(5-adenosyl)-triphosphatase, diadenosine 5,5-P1,P3-triphosphate hydrolase, AP3A hydrolase, AP3Aase, dinucleosidetriphosphatase, and FRA3B.. ...
Objective(s) The growing trend of research demonstrates that dynamic expression of two metastasis repressor classes (metastasis suppressor genes and anti-metastatic miRNA) has a close relationship with tumor invasion and metastasis. Using different strategies, it was revealed that cellular levels of miR-31 and Breast cancer Metastasis Suppressor1 (BRMS1) protein, which are among the most significant modulators of metastasis, have a correlation with the cells capability for invading and metastasizing; cells containing higher levels of miR-31 or BRMS1 were less metastatic. This project was carried out to determine whether the combinations of miR-31 and BRMS1 genes are able to enhance the capability of repressing the claudin-low breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) invasion. Materials and Methods This study used a restoration-based approach by miR-31 mimic and optimized BRMS1 gene sequences, which were cloned into a chimeric construct and transfected to the MDA-M231cells. Results Our data revealed that the
We have shown: (a) that adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of the wild-type FHIT gene efficiently inhibited growth of tumor cells of varying FHIT gene and gene product status in vitro; (b) that the tumorigenicity of the Ad-FHIT-transduced tumor cells was eliminated in vivo; and (c) that tumor growth was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the FHIT-expressing adenoviral vector into s.c. tumors in nude mice. These results provided direct evidence for the biological function of FHIT as a tumor suppressor gene both in vitro and in vivo.. The lung cancer cell lines H1299, A549, and H460 and the head and neck carcinoma cell line 1483 all exhibit an altered or inactivated FHIT gene, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analysis (7 , 9 , 18) , lack endogenous Fhit protein expression, as shown by Western blot analysis, and are highly tumorigenic. Alterations in the FHIT locus have been shown to be correlated with loss or reduction of Fhit protein expression in tumors ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that 44% of colorectal cancers have markedly reduced expression of Fhit protein. A similar reduction of Fhit protein expression has been reported in other human tumors such as lung (4) , cervical (12) , renal (11) , pancreatic (10) , head and neck (6) , and breast (5) carcinomas. The frequent loss of Fhit protein expression, the expression of aberrant FHIT transcripts, and numerous deletions within the FHIT gene suggest that FHIT is a candidate suppressor gene common to many cancers (reviewed in Ref. 1 ). In addition to the loss of Fhit protein expression, our studies found additional evidence that suggests that Fhit is important in colon tumorigenesis. A trend of increased proportions of colorectal cancers expressed reduced levels of Fhit (a) with decreasing degrees of differentiation, (b) with more advanced stages (Dukes stage C and D) compared with less advanced stages (Dukes stage A and B) of primary tumors, and (c) in metastatic lesions compared with ...
1FHI: Genetic, biochemical, and crystallographic characterization of Fhit-substrate complexes as the active signaling form of Fhit.
Nightboat Books, 160 pp.. When I begin to think of a (any) body and its liminal (autocorrect wants to reaffirm it as "luminal") itineraries in a world that aches to slap a miscellany of labels onto it, two different declarations splice my grasp of reality -. We have acceleration. We have trajectory. But above all, we have synthesis. (Ahmed Salman). I, the holding and the holding back. (Traci Brimhall, closing lines to "Arctic Lullaby" ). Is the parallax from synthesis to separation (and subtraction even, if we delve further into the act of holding back following the holding) merely another form of contour rivalry or an active, ungoverned metamorphosis?. Seattle-based poet Maged Zaher likes to send his poems swimming in this very fathomless arroyo, like the small, yet ancient pupfish of Death Valley, which I had the privilege and delight of saying hi to earlier this year. I also had the privilege and delight of spending time listening to Maged in his house, seated amidst books and plants, ...
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The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Biology are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s ...
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Эндосиалин (CD248), называемый также TEM1 (от англ. tumor endothelial marker 1), экспрессирован на стромальных клетках растущих тканей на эмбриональной стадии. Во взрослом организме отсутствует, но может быть экспрессирован на опухолевых клетках и при воспалении. Играет роль в росте опухоли и воспалении, но механизм его влияния неизвестен.[1][2]. Экспрессирован на сосудистых эндотелиальных клетках злокачественных опухолей, но не на клетках нормальных сосудов.[3] ...
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ラット・モノクローナル抗体 ab24115 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,ICC,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF…BCRP/ABCG2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
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Definition of fragile histidine triad. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Breast Tumor Kinase (Brk/PTK6) has a relatively limited expression profile in normal tissue. Its expression is restricted to epithelial cells that are differentiating such as those in the epidermis, and Brk expression appears to be absent from proliferating cells in normal tissue. Also, there is now some evidence to suggest that Brk plays a functional role in the differentiation of the keratinocytes in the epidermis. We have, therefore, investigated the role that Brk/PTK6 plays in normal human primary keratinocytes by suppressing protein levels using RNA interference. We show that as primary human keratinocytes are induced to differentiate in vitro, Brk levels decrease. Decreasing Brk protein levels lead to an increase in the number of cells with a permeable plasma membrane, a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and a parallel increase in keratin 10 levels, but classical markers of apoptosis or terminal differentiation are not affected. We propose Brk, Keratin 10 and EGFR are ...
Background: Development of a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype to chemotherapy remains a major barrier in the treatment of cancer. Gankyrin (p28, p28GANK or PSMD10) is an oncoprotein overexpressed in different carcinoma cell lines. The aim of this study was to compare Gankyrin expression level in MDR cells (MCF-7/ADR and MCF-7/ MX) and non-MDR counterparts (MCF-7). Methods: Gankyrin, MDR1 (also known as ABCB1; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1) and ABCG2 (also known as BCRP; the human breast cancer resistance protein) mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression levels of Gankyrin. Results: The PCR results showed that the expression of Gankyrin was significantly lower in the ABCG2 overexpressing cell line MCF-7/MX than in non-resistanct MCF-7 cells. In contrast, there were no significant differences in mRNA expression of Gankyrin in the MDR1 overexpressing cell line MCF-7/ADR in comparison with MCF-7 cells. Similarly,
Differential Effects of Chrysin on Nitrofurantoin Pharmacokinetics Mediated by Intestinal Breast Cancer Resistance Protein in Rats and Mice
Human melanoma antigen (MAGE) genes have been shown to be expressed in both normal tissues and in various tumors and tumor related cells. Two types of MAGE genes have been characterized based on their expression: type-I members are silent in all normal tissues except for in the male germ line and placenta while type-II members are expressed ubiquitously in both tumor and normal cells (Figure 1). MAGE-C subfamily members are type-I genes expressed in various tumor types; their proteins are tumor-specific antigens that can be recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes. MAGE-D subfamily members are type-II members they do not encode for those tumor-specific antigens seen in type-I MAGE and are also expressed ubiquitously in normal adult tissues. While MAGE genes could be targets for immunotherapy, information on the function and expression pattern of MAGE-C and MAGE D genes, however, remains incomplete. Analysis of the gene expression of type-I and type-II MAGE genes in various histological tumors may ...
Get this from a library! Analyse des tumorrelevanten proteins survivin : molekulare charakterisierung der dimerisierung. [Cecilia Vallet; Shirley Knauer] -- Cecilia Vallet untersucht, wie der Wechsel zwischen der monomeren und der dimeren Form des Proteins Survivin reguliert ist. Survivin ist in nahezu allen malignen Tumorerkrankungen überexprimiert und ...
Purified Recombinant Human ABCG2, GST-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human ABCG2, GST-tagged can be used for research.
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目的 系统评价卵巢癌组织中 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌的相关性。 方法 计算机检索 PubMed、The Cochrane Library(2016 年 11 期)、CBM、CNKI、VIP 和 WanFang Data 数据库,搜集公开发表的所有关于 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌临床病理特征关系的病例-对照研究,检索时限均为从建库至 2016 年 11 月。由 2 位评价员独立筛选文献、提取资料并评价纳入研究的偏倚风险后,采用 RevMan 5.2 软件进行 Meta 分析。 结果 共纳入 10 个病例-对照研究。Meta 分析结果显示:Survivin mRNA 表达在卵巢癌组高于对照组[OR=24.63,95% CI(13.44,45.15),P|0.000 01],其在低分化组表达高于高分化组[OR=3.69,95% CI(2.29,5.93),P|0.000 01],在临床 Ⅲ~Ⅳ 期组表达高于临床 Ⅰ~Ⅱ 期组[OR=4.76,95% CI(2.99,7.57),P|0.000 01]。但其表达与有无淋巴结转移
目的 系统评价卵巢癌组织中 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌的相关性。 方法 计算机检索 PubMed、The Cochrane Library(2016 年 11 期)、CBM、CNKI、VIP 和 WanFang Data 数据库,搜集公开发表的所有关于 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌临床病理特征关系的病例-对照研究,检索时限均为从建库至 2016 年 11 月。由 2 位评价员独立筛选文献、提取资料并评价纳入研究的偏倚风险后,采用 RevMan 5.2 软件进行 Meta 分析。 结果 共纳入 10 个病例-对照研究。Meta 分析结果显示:Survivin mRNA 表达在卵巢癌组高于对照组[OR=24.63,95% CI(13.44,45.15),P|0.000 01],其在低分化组表达高于高分化组[OR=3.69,95% CI(2.29,5.93),P|0.000 01],在临床 Ⅲ~Ⅳ 期组表达高于临床 Ⅰ~Ⅱ 期组[OR=4.76,95% CI(2.99,7.57),P|0.000 01]。但其表达与有无淋巴结转移
Mouse monoclonal Stromal interaction molecule 1 antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications and…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Online fluorescent method to assess BCRP/ABCG2 activity in suspension cells. AU - Hooijberg, J H. AU - Peters, G J. AU - Kaspers, G J L. AU - Wielinga, P R. AU - Veerman, A J P. AU - Pieters, R. AU - Jansen, G. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - An online method was developed to monitor BCRP mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates in suspension cells. To this end, a 2-compartment system consisting of a transwell cup and a cuvette was used. In this system we were able to observe differences in efflux kinetics between BCRP overexpressing RPMI 8226/MR cells and parental myeloid RPMI 8226(s) cells using only 50,000 cells per experiment. 8226/MR cells displayed a larger cellular efflux rate of the BCRP substrate Hoechst 33342, as compared to the wildtype cells. This difference in efflux rate was completely decreased in the presence of the BCRP inhibitor Ko143.. AB - An online method was developed to monitor BCRP mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates in suspension cells. To this ...
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Complete information for STIM2 gene (Protein Coding), Stromal Interaction Molecule 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
MAAAPGLLVW LLVLRLPWRV PGQLDPSTGR RFSEHKLCAD DECSMLMYRG EALEDFTGPD CRFVNFKKGD PVYVYYKLAR GWPEVWAGSV GRTFGYFPKD LIQVVHEYTK EELQVPTDET DFVCFDGGRD DFHNYNVEEL LGFLELYNSA ATDSEKAVEK TLQDMEKNPE LSKEREPEPE PVEANSEESD SVFSENTEDL QEQFTTQKHH SHANSQANHA QGEQASFESF EEMLQDKLKV PESENNKTSN SSQVSNEQDK IDAYKLLKKE MTLDLKTKFG STADALVSDD ETTRLVTSLE DDFDEELDTE YYAVGKEDEE NQEDFDELPL LTFTDGEDMK TPAKSGVEKY PTDKEQNSNE EDKVQLTVPP GIKNDDKNIL TTWGDTIFSI VTGGEETRDT MDLESSSSEE EKEDDDDALV PDSKQGKPQS ATDYSDPDNV DDGLFIVDIP KTNNDKEVNA EHHIKGKGRG VQESKRGLVQ DKTELEDENQ EGMTVHSSVH SNNLNSMPAA EKGKDTLKSA YDDTENDLKG AAIHISKGML HEEKPGEQIL EGGSESESAQ KAAGNQMNDR KIQQESLGSA PLMGDDHPNA SRDSVEGDAL VNGAKLHTLS VEHQREELKE ELVLKTQNQP RFSSPDEIDL PRELEDEVPI LGRNLPWQQE RDVAATASKQ MSEKIRLSEG EAKEDSLDEE FFHHKAMQGT EVGQTDQTDS TGGPAFLSKV EEDDYPSEEL LEDENAINAK RSKEKNPGNQ GRQFDVNLQV PDRAVLGTIH PDPEIEESKQ ETSMILDSEK TSETAAKGVN TGGREPNTMV EKERPLADKK AQRPFERSDF SDSIKIQTPE LGEVFQNKDS DYLKNDNPEE HLKTSGLAGE PEGELSKEDH ENTEKYMGTE SQGSAAAEPE DDSFHWTPHT ...
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Survivin expression becomes gradually restricted to β-cells after birth. A: Survivin expression in pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells from E15.5 to P21, a
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
The first human (mammalian) members of the MAGE (Melanoma-associated antigen) gene family that have been described are expressed in tumor cells but silent in
TaeKwonDood tips us to news that a new cancer resistance treatment is going into clinical trials after being quite successful at eradicating cancer in mice. Researchers discovered that certain white blood cells called granulocytes from cancer-immune mice were able to cure cancer in other mice. Now, ...
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TTYH1 - TTYH1 (untagged)-ORIGENE UNIQUE VARIANT 1 of Human tweety homolog 1 (Drosophila) (TTYH1), available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti cancer protein which can help in the diagnosis of liver cancer. The protein is ...
View mouse Fermt1 Chr2:132904389-132945906 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Prostate stem cell antigen expression is associated with gleason score, seminal vesicle invasion and capsular invasion in prostate cancer.: We found that high P
Altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in benign and malignant bone and soft tissue neoplasms. „In Vivo". 21 (5 ... Cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of the beta-catenin protein is a frequent event in human osteosarcoma. „Int J Cancer". ...
S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100P gene. The protein encoded by this ... Harvell JD, Fulton R, Jones CD, Terris DJ, Warnke RA (2001). "Composite dendritic cell neoplasm (NOS) and small lymphocytic ... This protein, in addition to binding Ca2+, also binds Zn2+ and Mg2+. This protein may play a role in the etiology of prostate ... "Conformational and thermodynamic properties of peptide binding to the human S100P protein". Protein Sci. 11 (6): 1367-75. doi: ...
Maul RS, Chang DD (Feb 2000). "EPLIN, epithelial protein lost in neoplasm". Oncogene. 18 (54): 7838-41. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... LIM domain and actin-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LIMA1 gene. EPLIN is a cytoskeleton- ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... Epithelial Protein Lost in Neoplasm) gene reveals distinct promoters for the two EPLIN isoforms". Gene. 248 (1-2): 69-76. doi: ...
... a marker protein for neuroendocrine cells and neoplasms" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... The encoded protein has 313 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 33.845 kDa. The protein is a synaptic vesicle ... Synaptophysin, also known as the major synaptic vesicle protein p38, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYP gene. ... The exact function of the protein is unknown: it interacts with the essential synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin, but when ...
Eye cancer Eye examination Retinoblastoma Protein American Cancer Society (2003). "Chapter 85. Neoplasms of the Eye". Cancer ... Incidence of second neoplasms in patients with bilateral retinoblastoma" Ophthalmology. 1988;95:1583-1587 Shields, CL; ... Although RB1 interacts with over 100 cell proteins, its negative regulator effect on the cell cycle principally arises from ... Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein bound to E2F peptide Polymer. Identifying the RB1 gene ...
JAK2 phosphorylates the BCR-ABL fusion protein at Y177 and stabilizes the fusion protein, strengthening tumorigenic cell ... JAK2 mutations have been shown to be central to myeloproliferative neoplasms and JAK kinases play a central role in driving ... a gene which encodes a protein that acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPase proteins.[citation needed] ... coding for a hybrid protein: a tyrosine kinase signalling protein that is "always on", causing the cell to divide ...
Screening for Muir-Torre syndrome using mismatch repair protein immunohisochemistry of sebaceous neoplasms. J Genet Counsel. ... Along with neoplasms of the sebaceous gland, this patient developed cerebral neoplasms, characteristic of Turcot syndrome. ... Colorectal cancer is the most common visceral neoplasm in Muir-Torre syndrome patients. It is named for EG Muir and D Torre. A ... Many patients who have sebaceous neoplasms with mutations in MSH2 and MLH1 do not in fact have Muir-Torre syndrome. The Mayo ...
TET2 encodes a protein that catalyzes the conversion of the modified DNA base methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. ... Mutations in this gene were first identified in myeloid neoplasms with deletion or uniparental disomy at 4q24. TET2 may also be ... Somatic TET2 mutations are frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), MDS/MPN ...
2006). "Aberrant methylation of the Human Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) gene in pancreatic neoplasms". Cancer Biol. Ther ... Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HHIP gene. This gene encodes a protein ... 2003). "The Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), a Large-Scale Effort to Identify Novel Human Secreted and ... 2004). "Hedgehog-interacting protein is highly expressed in endothelial cells but down-regulated during angiogenesis and in ...
2007). "Expression of the RNA-binding protein VICKZ in normal hematopoietic tissues and neoplasms". Haematologica. 92 (2): 176- ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF2BP2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: IGF2BP2 insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2". Yisraeli JK (2005). "VICKZ proteins: a multi- ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
"Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms of the Pancreas". The Sol Goldman Pancreas Cancer Research Center. ... "The human pathology proteome in pancreatic cancer - The Human Protein Atlas". www.proteinatlas.org. Retrieved 28 September 2017 ... Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms are a broad group of pancreas tumors that have varying malignant potential. They are being ... This is also true of protein-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel), which was licensed by the FDA in 2013 for use with gemcitabine ...
... is a human gene coding for the protein product FABP1 (Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 1). It is also frequently known as liver ... a marker for studying cellular differentiation in gut epithelial neoplasms". Gastroenterology. 99 (6): 1727-35. PMID 1699834. ... Altered expression of the protein has been linked to metabolic conditions including obesity. The fatty acid-binding proteins ( ... Shi J, Zhang Y, Gu W, Cui B, Xu M, Yan Q, Wang W, Ning G, Hong J (2012-11-07). "Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels ...
"Expression of N-acetyl transferase human and human Arrest defective 1 proteins in thyroid neoplasms". Thyroid. 15 (10): 1131-6 ... acetylation of ribosomal protein S18". Protein Science. 17 (10): 1781-90. doi:10.1110/ps.035899.108. PMC 2548364 . PMID ... "N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein suppresses cancer cell metastasis by binding PIX proteins and inhibiting Cdc42/Rac1 activity ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Expression of N-acetyl transferase human and human Arrest defective 1 proteins in thyroid neoplasms". Thyroid. 15 (10): 1131-6 ... Because TPR motifs mediate protein-protein interactions, it has been postulated that this domain may facilitate the interaction ... NatA may also regulate co-translational protein folding and protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum, possibly through ... NMDA receptor-regulated protein 1 (NARG1), and Tbdn100 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAA15 gene. NARG1 is the ...
This protein is also overexpressed in a large number of malignant neoplasms and precancerous dysplasias. NUP88 has been shown ... "Developing chick embryos express a protein which shares homology with the nuclear pore complex protein Nup88 present in human ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the nucleoporin family and is associated with the oncogenic nucleoporin CAN/Nup214 ... Nucleoporin 88 (Nup88) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUP88 gene. The nuclear pore complex is a massive ...
Roskoski R (2016). "Ibrutinib inhibition of Bruton protein-tyrosine kinase (BTK) in the treatment of B cell neoplasms". ... Without Syk, the protein it makes, and genetic disruption in a panel of 55 genes thought also to be controlled by Syk, breast ... Sada K, Minami Y, Yamamura H (September 1997). "Relocation of Syk protein-tyrosine kinase to the actin filament network and ... Chung J, Gao AG, Frazier WA (June 1997). "Thrombspondin acts via integrin-associated protein to activate the platelet integrin ...
PaSCs express the intermediate filament proteins desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The expression of a diverse range ... distinguished by an increase in the connective tissue that surrounds the neoplasm. Activated PaSCs in the tumour desmoplasia of ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... Matri-cellular proteins may therefore directly contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer through stimulating cancer ...
This V617F mutation render's the protein's tyrosine kinase continuously active and results in a myeloproliferative neoplasm ... The FLT3 gene codes for the cluster of differentiation antigen 135 (i.e. CD135) protein or FLT3 protein. This protein is a ... The ACSL6 gene encodes a protein, CSL6 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 (or ACSL6 protein). This protein is a ... BCR encodes the breakpoint cluster region protein. This protein possess Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase activity and ...
The protein was identified during investigations on the origin of multiple myeloma, a B-cell hematologic neoplasm. To ... In 2014, a protein was described called Protein M from M. genitalium. Infection with Mgen produces a combination of clinical ... The discovery of Protein M, a new protein from M. genitalium, was announced in February 2014. ... The protein is about 50 kDa in size, and composed of 556 amino acids. Future research must focus on the development of novel ...
The encoded protein is a type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found ... Epithelioid blue nevus List of cutaneous neoplasms associated with systemic syndromes Carney Syndrome at eMedicine Carney, J.; ... transition in the second codon position of the 74th codon in the protein) mutation in the PRKAR1A gene confirming the diagnosis ... "Pancreatic ductal and acinar cell neoplasms in Carney complex: a possible new association". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (11): ...
RNA transcription and subsequent protein synthesis are less affected by folate deficiency, as the mRNA can be recycled and used ... Folate deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting hematopoietic cells and neoplasms the most because of ... with abundant cytoplasm capable of RNA and protein synthesis, but with clumping and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin. Some of ...
... protein, in association with an underlying neoplasm". A study concluded in 2009, summarized in 2010, surrounded the surgical ... Suggested theories include tumor production of plakin proteins which initiate an autoimmune response against them, and cross- ... The precise mechanism for how tumors are able to induce autoantibodies toward the plakin proteins is unknown. ...
Within this protein-coding DNA (called the exome), an average cancer of the breast or colon can have about 60 to 70 protein ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... The term 'neoplasm' is a synonym of "tumor". 'Neoplasia' denotes the process of the formation of neoplasms/tumors, the process ... "II Neoplasms". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 June 2014.. *^ a b Abrams, Gerald. "Neoplasia I". Retrieved 23 January ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAO1 gene. Mutations in ... in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and neoplasms". Pathol. Int. 46 (6): 393-8. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1827.1996.tb03629.x. PMID ... Chen C, Zheng B, Han J, Lin SC (1997). "Characterization of a novel mammalian RGS protein that binds to Galpha proteins and ... Chen C, Zheng B, Han J, Lin SC (1997). "Characterization of a novel mammalian RGS protein that binds to Galpha proteins and ...
Activating mutations in PDGFRA are also involved in the development of 2-15% of the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the ... This gene encodes a typical receptor tyrosine kinase, which is a transmembrane protein consisting of an extracellular ligand ... The molecular mass of the mature, glycosylated PDGFRα protein is approximately 170 kDA. cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor ... The fused gene encodes a FIP1L1-PDGFRA protein that causes: a) chronic eosinophilia which progresses to chronic eosinophilic ...
The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms).[15] Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at a young age, small in size, present ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ...
Plasma Cell Neoplasms Essential Monoclonal Gammopathy Chronic Cold Agglutinin Syndrome Cryoglobulins Transient M Proteins ... GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Williams Hematology CHAPTER 104 PLASMA CELL NEOPLASMS: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS STEPHEN M. BAIRD ... FIGURE 104-2 M protein electrophoresis. (A) Fast-moving M protein spike; (B) slow-moving M protein spike. ... In a given neoplasm the monoclonal proteins generally have the same heavy-chain class (g, a, µ, d, or e), same light-chain (k ...
"Neoplasm Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Neoplasm Proteins" was a major or minor topic ... or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune ... Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (TUMOR MARKERS, BIOLOGICAL) when they are ... "Neoplasm Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Genomes and Genes about Experts and Doctors on neoplasm proteins in United States ... muts homolog 2 protein*chromosome fragility*inhibitor of differentiation protein 1*hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms ... Experts and Doctors on neoplasm proteins in United States. Summary. Locale: United States ... myelin p2 protein*chromosome fragile sites*inhibitor of differentiation proteins*factor viiia*factor ixa* ...
biomarker, early diagnosis, Glycoproteomics, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, pancreatic cancer, serum. in Scandinavian ... and targeted glycoproteomic profiling of serum proteins in pancreatic cancer and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. ... Tumor-specific variations in protein glycosylation might be potential targets for the development of new cancer diagnostics. ... Tumor-specific variations in protein glycosylation might be potential targets for the development of new cancer diagnostics. ...
BET protein bromodomain inhibitor-based combinations are highly active against post-myeloproliferative neoplasm secondary AML ... "BET protein bromodomain inhibitor-based combinations are highly active against post-myeloproliferative neoplasm secondary AML ... Reverse-phase protein array, mass-cytometry and Western analyses revealed that BETi treatment attenuated the protein ... While BETi or heat shock protein (HSP) 90 inhibitor alone exerted lethal activity, co-treatment with BETi and HSP90i was ...
... predisposes individuals to developing synchronous and metachronous LS-associated neoplasms (LSANs). Mismatch repair protein ... Discordant Mismatch Repair Protein Immunoreactivity in Lynch Syndrome-Associated Neoplasms: ?A Recommendation for Screening ... Neoplasms involved large and small intestine (n?=?19), ampulla (n?=?1), endometrium (n?=?1), and skin (sebaceous neoplasms, n ... Homepage , Research & Education , Find a Scientific Publication , Discordant Mismatch Repair Protein Immunoreactivity in Lynch ...
Tuberous Sclerosis-associated Neoplasms Express Activated p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase, and Inhibition of MAP ... Tuberous Sclerosis-associated Neoplasms Express Activated p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase, and Inhibition of MAP ... Tuberous Sclerosis-associated Neoplasms Express Activated p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase, and Inhibition of MAP ... Tuberous Sclerosis-associated Neoplasms Express Activated p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase, and Inhibition of MAP ...
The oncofetal protein IMP3 plays a role in cell growth and its expression has a prognostic value in lung neoplasms. ... Expression of Oncofetal Protein IMP3 in Lymph Node Metastases of Small Intestine Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A New Predictor of ... Introduction: Small intestine neuroendocrine neoplasm (SINENs) are heterogeneous neoplasms arising from endocrine cells of the ... Introduction: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of unknown primary (NENs-UP) account for 10-13% of all NENs and show different biologic ...
The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and tolerability of an oral Farnesyl Protein Transferase Inhibitor (SCH ... The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and tolerability of an oral Farnesyl Protein Transferase ... Safety and Tolerability Study of Farnesyl Protein Transferase Inhibitor in Combination With Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in ...
... inhibitors in breast cancer treatment is examined and the results of preliminary studies on the expression of stress proteins ... Research into heat shock proteins (HSPs) for the clinical management of tumours has intensified as new evidence shows they can ... The Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Mammary Neoplasms: A Brief Review 757 ... The Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Mammary Neoplasms: A Brief Review 759 ...
Studies on the cellular location, physical properties and endogenously attached lipids of acylated proteins in human squamous- ...
JAK2V617F mutation and p-STAT5 protein expression in peripheral blood cells of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm and ... This study was aimed to explore the JAK2V617F mutation and p-STAT5 expression in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN ... JAK2V617F mutation proportion and p-STAT5 protein expression level showed a linear correlation (P , 0.05). PV patients with ... JAK2V617F mutation and p-STAT5 protein expression in peripheral blood cells of patients wi ...
Neoplasm Proteins/analysis*. *Reproducibility of Results. *Specimen Handling/methods*. Substance. *Neoplasm Proteins ... Sample preparation of human tumors prior to two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins.. Franzén B1, Hirano T, Okuzawa K, Uryu ... By these procedures, tumor cells are enriched from serum proteins and contaminating stromal cells. Tumors can be prepared with ...
Neoplasm Proteins. Grant support. *R01 CA109182-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ...
Previously, we showed that insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), ... Background Myelofibrosis is a Philadelphia chromosomeCnegative myeloproliferative neoplasm connected with cytopenias,. ... Melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) protein comprise a structurally and biochemically similar ... Background Myelofibrosis is a Philadelphia chromosomeCnegative myeloproliferative neoplasm connected with cytopenias, ...
In-vivo-studies; Laboratory-animals; Asbestos-fibers; Inhalation-studies; Long-term-study; Lung-tissue; Lung-fibrosis; Proteins ... Malignant-neoplasms. CAS No.. 1332-21-4; 12001-29-5; 12001-29-5; 14567-73-8; 77536-66-4 ...
2 neoplasms had solitary loss of MSH6, and 7 sebaceous neoplasms had intact protein expression. BRAF/KRAS testing revealed all ... BRAF/KRAS gene sequencing of sebaceous neoplasms after mismatch repair protein analysis.. Cornejo KM1, Hutchinson L2, Deng A2, ... MMR immunohistochemistry showed that 7 neoplasms had combined loss of MLH1-PMS2, 16 neoplasms had combined loss of MSH2-MSH6, ... Sebaceous neoplasms are cutaneous markers for the autosomal-dominant Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). This phenotypic variant of ...
Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ... protein (hr); протеин, белки, протеины (ru); протеин (tt-cyrl); protein, Bílkoviny ve výživě člověka (cs); Protein (nutrien) ( ...
Neoplasm Proteins. *Neoplasm Proteins: immunology. *Neoplasm: immunology. *Neoplasms. *Neoplasms: blood. *Neoplasms: immunology ...
Experimental: High-protein diet Dietary Supplement: High-protein diet The high-protein diet is made up of 50% carbohydrate, 40 ... of protein and 10% of fat, providing 480 kcal.. A protein part of the high-protein diet is mostly composed of a grilled Jeju ... Effects of Jeju Red Horsehead Fish-based, High Protein Diet on Satiety and Incretin Hormones in Diabetes Patients. This study ... The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of high-protein diet on satiety and incretin hormones in patients with ...
protein coding gene. Chr9:120929216-120960507 (+). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0035439. protein coding gene. Chr9:123837051- ... protein coding gene. Chr9:131892128-131923875 (+). DBA/2J MGP_DBA2J_G0035250. protein coding gene. Chr9:118611794-118643365 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr9:122318958-122350170 (+). BALB/cJ MGP_BALBcJ_G0035416. protein coding gene. Chr9:119063348-119094669 ... protein coding gene. Chr9:122782121-122817441 (+). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0035939. protein coding gene. Chr9:127206184- ...
View mouse Terf2ip Chr8:112011398-112020528 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
NEOPLASMS; OLIGONUCLEOTIDES; PROTEINS; TYROSINE. ... two components of the shelterin protein complex which protects ... Additionally, upregulation of downstream DNA damage response proteins, including E2F1, p53 or p73, was observed. In LoVo cells ... Treatment with T-oligo downregulates telomere-associated proteins. • T-oligo combined with an EGFR-TKI additively inhibits ... T-oligo induced senescence, decreased clonogenicity, andmore » increased expression of senescence associated proteins p21, p27 ...
Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Lymphoproliferative Disorders. Lymphatic Diseases. Immunoproliferative Disorders. ... Human anti-fusion protein antibodies (HAFA) levels - phase I study [ Time Frame: (1) at Day 2, (2) at Day 23, (3) from Day 38 ... Human anti-fusion protein antibodies (HAFA) levels - phase II study [ Time Frame: (1) at Day 2, (2) at Day 23, (3) from Day 38 ... A Phase I/II Study of the Tumor-targeting Human L19-IL2 Monoclonal Antibody-cytokine Fusion Protein in Combination With ...
Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Lymphoproliferative Disorders. Lymphatic Diseases. Immunoproliferative Disorders. ... Clinical Phase I Study Investigating MSC2490484A, an Inhibitor of a DNA-dependent Protein Kinase, in Advanced Solid Tumors or ...
  • All the differentiated cells within such a neoplasm produce the same whole immunoglobulin chain or chain fragment. (wordpress.com)
  • Microsatellite instability or loss of protein expression suggests a mutation or promoter hypermethylation in 1 of the MMR genes. (cdc.gov)
  • The ensemble of proteins expressed from protein-coding genes in the human genome by a particular cell at a given point in time, including splice variants and post-translationally modified protein species. (biologists.org)
  • We have further established the gene map location encoding one of these unique proteins and is found to be distinct from the immediate early genes. (duke.edu)
  • The Max Planck researchers break down proteins into smaller pieces called peptides and use a so-called mass spectrometer to ionise them and sort them according to their masses in an electrical field. (medgadget.com)
  • On the basis of the signal strength of the marked and unmarked peptides in the mass spectrometer, Tami Geiger can recognise whether a protein is formed more strongly or more weakly within cancer cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Studies on the cellular location, physical properties and endogenously attached lipids of acylated proteins in human squamous-carcinoma cell lines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To evaluate the expression of survivin protein in low- and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ . (scielo.br)
  • We conclude that a V600E BRAF mutation may not be helpful in distinguishing sporadic from MTS-associated sebaceous neoplasms. (cdc.gov)
  • Chow-fed 17-wk-old female Apoe mice treated with 4-PBA-supplemented drinking water for 5 wk exhibited smaller lesions as well as increased plasma levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 25, the mouse homolog of human HSP27, compared with controls. (bioportfolio.com)
  • One feature that is common to most neoplasms is their rapid proliferation rate compared to normal tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we have investigated the proliferative status of a range of human tissues, using antibodies against nuclear proteins involved in regulating DNA replication as novel markers of cellular proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteins are made from amino acids and are important parts of all cells and tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Protein is involved in the constitution of human tissues and the regulation of various physiological functions. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present studies, we demonstrate that treatment with BET (bromodomain and extra terminal) protein inhibitor (BETi), e.g. (fluidigm.com)
  • While BETi or heat shock protein (HSP) 90 inhibitor alone exerted lethal activity, co-treatment with BETi and HSP90i was synergistically lethal against the ruxolitinib-persister or ruxolitinib-resistant sAML cells. (fluidigm.com)
  • Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) protects KIT oncoproteins from proteasome-mediated degradation, and we therefore did preclinical validations of the HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-18-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG), in an imatinib-sensitive GIST cell line (GIST882) and in novel imatinib-resistant GIST lines that are either dependent on (GIST430 and GIST48) or independent of (GIST62) KIT oncoproteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ensemble of molecular interactions in a particular cell at a given point in time, including physical protein-protein interactions. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular chaperones that utilize ATP in cycles of substrate binding and release in order to support the folding or refolding of their cognate client proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular chaperones that act in an ATP-independent manner by binding and shielding exposed hydrophobic regions of nascent or misfolded polypeptides as well as folding intermediates to prevent their aggregation or aberrant interaction with cellular proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Here bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in live cells was used to examine the molecular basis for the interaction of VE-PTP with VE-cadherin, two proteins involved in endothelial cell contact and maintenance of vascular integrity. (bireme.br)
  • There are more than 100 known HSP90 client proteins, and many of these, such as KIT, serve oncogenic roles, making HSP90 an attractive therapeutic target in various human cancers ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protein is important to the human body, and different sources of protein may have different effects on the risk of breast cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Protein is important to the human body. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we have identified shank-interacting protein-like 1 (SIPL1) as a PTEN-NR in human tumor cell lines and human primary cervical cancer cells. (jci.org)
  • Testicular neoplasms are relatively uncommon compared with those of other genitourinary organs, accounting for approximately 1% of human malignancies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have used novel antibodies against minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins to examine the proliferative status of a range of histological lesions and to characterize dysplastic cells in functional terms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Breast cancer is the second most frequent type of neoplasm among women, ( 1 ) representing approximately 22% of new cases diagnosed every year. (scielo.br)
  • Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between different dietary protein sources and breast cancer risk. (mdpi.com)
  • Different sources of protein might have different effects on breast cancer risk. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, in this study, we wanted to investigate the association between the consumption of different sources of dietary protein and the risk of breast cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • We also intend for this article to serve as a reference for further research into the relationship between different sources of dietary protein and breast cancer incidence, and as guidance for the different dietary sources of protein intake. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA modifications impact numerous cellular processes such as pre-mRNA splicing and protein synthesis. (mendeley.com)
  • The interconnected network of chaperones and co-chaperones that work cooperatively in cellular protein folding, refolding and degradation. (biologists.org)
  • Chaperones bind to exposed hydrophobic regions of nascent or misfolded polypeptides, shielding these residues from forming aberrant interactions with cellular proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Presently using a recombinant virus containing the gene for green fluorescent protein we will attempt to localize the cellular reservoir latent virus by confocal microscopy. (duke.edu)
  • Infection (secondary obstruction) Neoplasm (secondary obstruction) Sarcoidosis (secondary obstruction). (wikipedia.org)