Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Spinal NeoplasmsColonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Abdominal NeoplasmsMyeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neoplasm Seeding: The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases: A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Metastasectomy: Surgery to remove one or more NEOPLASM METASTASES.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsDog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Thoracic NeoplasmsBiopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Uveal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UVEA.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLCranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gingival NeoplasmsAdrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Facial NeoplasmsNeck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (1/13013)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

Control of metastasis by Asn-linked, beta1-6 branched oligosaccharides in mouse mammary cancer cells. (2/13013)

Studies in cell lines and malignant human tissues have shown that increased cell-surface Asn-linked beta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-6Man) branching is associated with increased tumorigenic and metastatic properties. In this study, three mouse mammary cancer cell lines were transfected with an expression vector containing the mouse cDNA for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V EC 2.4.1.155), the glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating beta1-6 branching on Asn-linked carbohydrates. The cell lines were screened for increased cytotoxicity to L-PHA, a lectin specific for beta1-6 branching structures. Cell lines exhibiting increased L-PHA cytotoxicity expressed increased levels of beta1-6 branching structures. Northern blots detected the presence of GlcNAcT-V transcribed from the expression vector in the L-PHA sensitive cell lines. After injection into the tail veins of mice, transfected cell lines with increased beta1-6 branching on the cell surface formed elevated levels of lung tumors relative to control transfected cell lines (P < 0.002). Western blots of membrane proteins from GlcNAcT-V transfected and control cells probed with the lectins DSA and WGA did not show an increase in polyN-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid content in the transfected cell lines. These results demonstrate that a specific increase in beta1-6 branching due to an elevation in GlcNAcT-V expression increases metastatic potential.  (+info)

Role of thrombin receptor in breast cancer invasiveness. (3/13013)

Invasion, the ability of an epithelial cancer cell to detach from and move through a basement membrane, is a central process in tumour metastasis. Two components of invasion are proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular movement through it. A potential promoter of these two processes is thrombin, the serine proteinase derived from the ubiquitous plasma protein prothrombin. Thrombin promotes the invasion of MDA-MB231 breast tumour cells (a highly aggressive cell line) in an in vitro assay. Invasion by MDA-MB436 and MCF-7 cells, less aggressive cell lines, is not promoted by thrombin. Thrombin, added to the cells, is a stimulator of cellular movement; fibroblast-conditioned medium is the chemotaxin. Thrombin-promoted invasion is inhibited by hirudin. Stimulation of invasion is a receptor-mediated process that is mimicked by a thrombin receptor-activating peptide. Thrombin has no effect on chemotaxis in vitro. Thrombin receptor is detectable on the surface of MDA-MB231 cells, but not on the other two cell lines. Introduction of oestrogen receptors into MDA-MB231 cells by transfection with pHEO had no effect on thrombin receptor expression, in the presence or absence of oestradiol. This paper demonstrates that thrombin increases invasion by the aggressive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 by a thrombin receptor-dependent mechanism.  (+info)

Development of a sensitive, specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based assay for epithelial tumour cells in effusions. (4/13013)

We developed a sensitive and specific method for the detection of epithelial cancer cells in effusions with a two-stage molecular-based assay which combined enrichment for cancer cells by immunomagnetic bead selection and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of epithelial glycoprotein 2 (EGP-2) RNA. Preliminary experiments indicated that immunobead selection was essential to avoid occasional false-positive RT-PCR results, and this method detected ten breast cancer cells electively added to 10(7) cytologically negative effusion cells. We studied 110 cases of pleural (n = 68) and peritoneal (n = 42) effusions (30 from patients with known carcinoma and 80 from those without known carcinoma), and the results were compared with cytological findings. Of 18 effusions that were cytologically positive or suspicious for malignant cells, 17 (94%) were positive for EGP-2 RNA (the one negative sample was from a patient who recently received combination chemotherapy). Of 92 cytologically negative samples, 11 (12%) were positive for EGP-2, including six patients with a history of previous or current carcinoma. Our method appears to be highly specific and increases the sensitivity of detection of malignant cells; it may be a useful adjunct to routine cytopathological examination.  (+info)

Expression of tissue factor in non-small-cell lung cancers and its relationship to metastasis. (5/13013)

Tissue factor (TF) is an initiator of the extrinsic cascade of blood coagulation. Although recent studies have revealed a relationship between metastatic properties and TF expression in some neoplastic cells, the significance of TF in lung cancer, especially in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is still unclear. In this study, TF was detected in NSCLC cell lines by functional study, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. TF levels in eight NSCLC cell lines were also quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and TF expression was evaluated in 55 specimens of surgically resected NSCLCs. NSCLC cell lines derived from metastatic lesions produced high levels of TF (48.3+/-23.5 ng 10(-6) cells, mean +/- s.e.m.), whereas those derived from primary lesions produced low levels of TF (0.2+/-0.1 ng 10(-6) cells). Immunohistochemical studies disclosed significantly stronger staining for TF in cells from NSCLC patients with metastasis than in those without metastasis. Among the 28 patients with metastasis, ten were strongly positive, 16 were moderately positive and two were negative for TF. In contrast, among the 27 patients without metastasis, only two were strongly positive, 18 were moderately positive and seven were negative for TF. Therefore, malignant cells from patients with lung cancer produce various levels of TF, and TF may play an important role in the metastatic process.  (+info)

Peritoneal cytology in the surgical evaluation of gastric carcinoma. (6/13013)

Many patients undergoing surgery for gastric carcinoma will develop peritoneal metastases. A method to identify those patients at risk of peritoneal recurrence would help in the selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. Peritoneal cytology has received little attention in the West, but may prove a useful additional means of evaluating patients with gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate sampling techniques for peritoneal cytology in patients with gastric cancer, to assess the prognostic significance of free peritoneal malignant cells and to discover the effect of the operative procedure on dissemination of malignant cells. The study is based on 85 consecutive patients undergoing surgical treatment of gastric cancer and followed up for 2 years or until death. Peritoneal cytology samples were collected at laparoscopy, and at operation prior to resection by intraperitoneal lavage and serosal brushings. After resection, samples were taken by peritoneal lavage, imprint cytology of the resected specimen and post-operatively by peritoneal irrigation via a percutaneous catheter. Malignant cells were diagnosed by two independent microscopists. Preoperative peritoneal lavage yielded malignant cells in 16 out of 85 cases (19%). The yield of free malignant cells was increased by using serosal brushings (by four cases) and imprint cytology (by two cases); all of the cases had evidence of serosal penetration. One serosa-negative case exhibited positive cytology in the post-resection peritoneal specimen in which the preresection cytology specimen was negative. Survival was worse in the cytology-positive group (chi2 = 25.1; P< 0.0001). Among serosa-positive patients, survival was significantly reduced if cytology was positive, if cases yielded by brushings and imprint cytology were included (log-rank test = 8.44; 1 df, P = 0.004). In conclusion, free peritoneal malignant cells can be identified in patients with gastric cancer who have a poor prognosis; the yield can be increased with brushings and imprint cytology in addition to conventional peritoneal lavage. Evaluation of peritoneal cytology by these methods may have a role in the selection of patients with the poorest prognosis who may benefit most from adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase mRNA plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with oesophageal cancer. (7/13013)

To clarify the significance of the expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNPase) mRNA as a predictive factor for the prognosis of patients with oesophageal carcinoma, the PyNPase mRNA in the tumours and normal tissues from 55 resected cases of oesophageal carcinoma was examined by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the tumour/normal (T/N) ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR and that of the enzyme activity of PyNPase based on the findings of an enzyme linked immunosolvent assay (r = 0.594, P = 0.009). The T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was significantly higher in the cases with lymph vessel invasion (P = 0.013), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0016), and an advanced stage of the disease (P = 0.021) than those without these factors. The patients with a higher T/N ratio of PyNPase mRNA showed significantly worse prognosis than those with a lower T/N ratio (P = 0.023 with log-rank tests). A multivariate analysis for the cumulative survival rates revealed that a high T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was independently related to a poor prognosis. These findings suggested that the determination of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR thus appears to be a new useful parameter for identifying both a poor prognosis and a highly malignant potential of oesophageal carcinoma.  (+info)

Phase I study of escalating doses of edatrexate in combination with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (8/13013)

Motivated by the observation of preclinical synergy, a Phase I dose escalation study of edatrexate in combination with a 3-h paclitaxel infusion was performed in patients with advanced breast cancer to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of edatrexate and the toxicities associated with this combination and to report preliminary observations of efficacy with this novel combination. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this Phase I trial. Thirty-five eligible patients were treated every 21 days in cohorts of at least three patients and were assessable for toxicity. One patient was ineligible due to hyperbilirubinemia. Stepwise dose escalations of edatrexate were administered until grade >3 nonhematological dose-limiting toxicities were reported. The initial dose level of edatrexate was 180 mg/m2; subsequent cohorts were treated with escalating doses of edatrexate (210, 240, 270, 300, 350, and 400 mg/m2). Edatrexate was administered by i.v. infusion over 1 h. Paclitaxel was administered 24 h later at a fixed dose of 175 mg/m2 as a 3-h infusion with standard dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and cimetidine premedication. The MTD of edatrexate was reached at the 350 mg/m2 level in this study. Grade 3 diarrhea was seen in one patient at the 300 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels, requiring dose reductions. Two patients experienced grade 4 stomatitis at the 400 mg/m2 dose level and also required dose reduction, establishing the MTD as 350 mg/m2. Grade 3 nausea and vomiting were noted in two of three patients at the highest dose level. Of 35 patients, 4 patients reported grade 3 myalgias and 1 patient reported grade 3 neurosensory complaints, which were seen mostly at the 350 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels; however, 1 patient reported grade 3 myalgias at 180 mg/m2. No cumulative neurotoxicity was observed, and no patient experienced an allergic reaction to paclitaxel. In 23 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, there were four complete (17%) and seven partial responses, with an overall response rate of 48% (95% confidence interval, 27-69%). All of the responses were seen in patients who had not received prior chemotherapy for stage IV disease. The median duration of response was not assessable because many responding patients went on to receive high-dose chemotherapy treatment with stem cell support. The combination of edatrexate and paclitaxel for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is a feasible and safe regimen. The MTD of edatrexate was 350 mg/m2 when combined with a 3-h infusion of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) given 24 h later. Activity was noted even among patients who had relapsed shortly after receiving methotrexate- and/or doxorubicin-containing adjuvant regimens. Additional studies evaluating the sequences and dosing schema for this combination are warranted to improve the response proportion and define the duration of the response.  (+info)

Metastasis is a complicated multistage process that requires the coordination of multiple genes, including both metastasis stimulating genes and metastasis suppressor genes (22) . Genomic instability is one of the driving forces for tumor progression and metastasis development. Among all genetic alterations, inactivation of metastasis suppressor genes is one important factor contributing to the formation of tumor metastasis. Chromosome 11, in particular 11p, is one of the most common regions undergoing genetic alterations in human breast cancer (3, 4, 5) . A previous study demonstrated that a breast cancer metastasis gene or genes exists on chromosome 11 by the fact that the introduction of a normal copy of chromosome 11 into malignant breast cancer cells significantly suppressed their metastatic ability (6) .. The KAI1 gene, located on human chromosome 11p11.2, was initially identified as a metastasis suppressor gene for human prostate cancer (7) . Down-regulation of the KAI1 protein was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion Characteristics of Murine Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Tumor Cells in Vitro. AU - Murray, J. Clifford. AU - Liotta, Lance. AU - Rennard, Stephen I.. AU - Martin, George R.. PY - 1980/2/1. Y1 - 1980/2/1. N2 - We have studied the attachment of mouse fibroblasts, transformed nonmetastatic fibroblasts, and metastatic fibrosarcoma cells to various substrates. The metastatic cells attach preferentially to type IV (basement membrane) collagen in the absence of serum, compared to type I collagen and plastic. In the presence of fibronectin, these cells attach well to both type I and type IV collagens. The normal and transformed fibroblasts attach to all these substrates, although the transformed fibroblasts attach more slowly. The ability to attach to type I collagen and plastic is correlated with the levels of fibronectin and collagen produced by these cells. The data indicate that the transformed and metastatic cells differ from normal cells in their attachment properties and ...
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether hematogenous clonal pulmonary melanoma metastases originate from the expansion of a single cell and if so, by extrapolation, metastasis can be considered a cloning process. Three different cell lines of murine K-1735 melanoma with different metastatic properties and unique karyotypes were injected i.v. into syngeneic C3H/HeN mice as multicell aggregates of individual cell lines or combinations of cell lines. Resultant solitary lung metastases were isolated in culture as individual lines and then karyotyped. Even when heterogeneous clumps of tumor cells were injected, the individual metastases exhibited a karyotype unique to one metastatic cell type. Furthermore, when cellular aggregates were composed of metastatic cells admixed with cells that were tumorigenic but nonmetastatic, the resultant metastases exhibited only the karyotype of the metastatic cells. This finding suggests that the presence of metastatic cells did not change the ...
A new study with mice shows that the "fight or flight" response to stress can promote breast cancer metastasis to the bone.. Researchers at the Vanderbilt University Center for Bone Biology demonstrated in mice that activation of the sympathetic nervous system - the "fight-or-flight" response to stress - primes the bone environment for breast cancer cell metastasis. The researchers were able to prevent breast cancer cell lesions in bone using propranolol, a cardiovascular medicine that inhibits sympathetic nervous system signals.. Metastasis - the spread of cancer cells to organs and bone - is more likely to kill patients than a primary breast tumor, said Florent Elefteriou, Ph.D., director of the Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology.. "Preventing metastasis is really the goal we want to achieve," he said.. Elefteriou and his colleagues learned in previous studies that the sympathetic nervous system stimulated bone remodeling, and that it used some of the same signaling molecules that have been ...
We have developed a robust approach for imaging of BCSC growth and dissemination, which permits both macroscopic and microscopic analysis of cancer progression. In our studies, the imaging assays facilitated development of visible human-in-mouse xenograft tumor models with spontaneous metastases to lungs or local/distant lymph nodes. Our patient-tumor derived xenograft models will be able to overcome some limitations of previous metastatic models with human cancer cell lines or mouse tumor models. Spontaneous metastases present representative features of patient tumors that can be used in predictive models of metastasis and therapeutic response, but cannot be recapitulated by lung/bone colonization models via tail-vein or intracardiac injections. This point is driven home by the observation that these xenografts metastasize to the lungs but not the bones when grown in the mammary fat pads. This likely reflects that "triple-negative" ER− breast cancers tend to metastasize to the lungs rather ...
Cancer cell metastasis is one of the most critical steps in tumor development and is responsible for more than 80 of cancer related deaths. Among the molecules involved in promoting cancer metastasis, the role of the cell adhesion molecules, CD44 and CD146 are well known in promoting cancer cell motility and metastasis. Despite this knowledge, the molecular mechanism through which CD44 promotes tumor development and cell metastasis is still nascent. CD146 (MUC 18) was, first identified in highly metastatic melanomas. The absence of CD146 in normal melanocytes and its high expression in melanomas suggests its tumor promoting actions. Despite the association between CD146 expression and development of melanoma, its expression patterns and role in normal and metastatic breast tissues still remains controversial. This study aims to elucidate some of these discrepancies by presenting CD146 as a downstream target for CD44, in a way such that CD146 expression is related to CD44 and regulates the tumor ...
Most cancer deaths are due to spreading of the primary tumor to one or several secondary sites, in a process called metastasis. These metastases are often more difficult to treat than the primary tumor and their presence marks severe progression of the disease. Tumor cell metastasis involves cell migration through heterogenous microenvironments in tissues, along anatomical features such as blood vessels and nerves, and into and out of vasculature. Mounting evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that metastatic tumor cells can migrate via several modes or mechanisms of migration, and can switch between these modes depending on the specific features of the microenvironment. Our research in this area is focused on understanding how distinct physical and biochemical cues from the tumor cells microenvironment affect the phenotype, biological signaling, mechanical properties, and interactions with other cells during metastasis. We are interested in metastasis to the brain, which is especially ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biopsy of breast cancer metastases. T2 - BMC Cancer. AU - Shachar,Shlomit Strulov. AU - Mashiach,Tanya. AU - Fried,Georgeta. AU - Drumea,Karen. AU - Shafran,Noa. AU - Muss,Hyman B.. AU - Bar-Sela,Gil. PY - 2017/1/4. Y1 - 2017/1/4. N2 - Background: Discordance in hormone receptors (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary tumors and metastatic sites for breast cancer is well established. However, it is uncertain which patient-related factors lead to biopsy when metastases are suspected and whether having a biopsy impacts survival. Methods: The medical charts of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients diagnosed January 2000-August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A biopsy was defined as a procedure where tissue was obtained and assessed for both HR and HER2. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess patient characteristics related to biopsy and whether having a biopsy was associated with improved survival. Results: Of ...
Liver is the organ responsible for hematopoiesis during fetal life, which is also a target organ of metastasis for several cancers. In order to recognize the hepatic metastatic changes, obtain a...
Quantitative multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple-gene expression levels of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples. Candidate genes were selected from previous microarray data relevant to breast cancer markers that had the potential to serve as predictive markers for metastatic risk. This multiplex gene set included 11 candidate and 3 housekeeping genes, and the aim was to predict breast cancer progression based on lymph node involvement status.
We report a comprehensive analysis of breast cancer metastases by analyzing the full spectrum of metastatic lesions derived from 10 patients who died of metastatic breast cancer and underwent rapid autopsy. By comparing the primary neoplasms from these patients with their metastases and by comparing metastases from one site to another, we identified marked heterogeneity among breast cancer metastases, as well as markers which remained consistent among these lesions. Our results expand the existing body of knowledge regarding breast cancer metastases and have both biological and therapeutic implications.. With regard to distribution of metastases, we confirm the liver, bone, and lung as the most frequent sites of hematogenous dissemination. We also confirm the striking tendency of lobular carcinoma to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract, as illustrated by cases MBC1 and MBC5. Case MBC5 is particularly instructive, as the invasive ductal carcinoma primary lost E-cadherin expression in most ...
We have investigated the antitumor effects of synthetic MMP inhibitor MMI270 against postoperative lung metastasis from colon cancer in nude rat. The KM12SM human colon cancer cells were injected into the cecal wall, and at 5 weeks after the injection, the cecum was removed including the tumor. Then, 30 mg/kg of MMI270 was administered perorally twice per day for 2 or 4 weeks, either immediately after removal or after week 2 after the removal. At week 7 after the removal, lung metastasis was significantly inhibited by the early administration of MMI270 immediately after the tumor removal but not by the late administration. The survival rates were significantly higher in the rats treated by early administration of MMI270 compared to the survival rate in untreated rats. Moreover, no lung metastasis was detected in some rats with 24-weeks survival treated by early administration. Lower microvessel density, lower PCNA Index and higher Apoptotic Index in the lung metastases of the rats treated with MMI270
UNLABELLED: Metastatic spread of cancer cells to the brain is associated with high mortality, primarily because current diagnostic tools identify only well-advanced metastases. Brain metastases have been shown to induce a robust glial response, including both astrocyte and microglial activation. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that this stromal response may provide a sensitive biomarker of tumor burden, in particular through the use of SPECT/PET imaging agents targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) that is upregulated on activated glia. Our goals, therefore, were first to determine the spatial and temporal profile of glial activation during early metastasis growth in vivo and second to assess the potential of the radiolabeled TSPO ligand (123)I-DPA-713 for early detection of brain metastases. METHODS: Metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1-green fluorescent protein cells were injected either intracerebrally or intracardially into female BALB/c mice to induce brain metastases.
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
The number of clinicians whose eyes glaze over as metastasis researchers dutifully recite the many steps of the metastatic process, and go on to examine tumor cell invasion in minute detail, signals either that we give boring lectures or that we have evoked the so what? response. Those who would favor the latter response might state that, even for the greater than 90% of patients without detectable distant metastases at surgery, it remains possible that tumor cells have already invaded out of the primary tumor and are sitting contentedly in distant sites undetected. Only growth and angiogenesis remain. Why study metastasis when it may be virtually complete by the time the patient walks into the clinic? Has the barn door been left open? Should we all drop our experiments and switch to antiangiogenesis projects?. Two reviews in this series have addressed this critical question, and arrived at similar answers. Investigators from Dr Ann Chambers laboratory have watched it all happen. She and ...
Cancer is a disease of cell growth, but most tumors only become lethal once they metastasize or spread from their first location to sites throughout the body. For the first time, researchers at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia report a single molecule that appears to be the central regulator driving metastasis in prostate cancer. The study, published online July 13th in Cancer Cell, offers a target for the development of a drug that could prevent metastasis in prostate cancer, and possibly other cancers as well.. "Finding a way to halt or prevent cancer metastasis has proven elusive. We discovered that a molecule called DNA-PKcs could give us a means of knocking out major pathways that control metastasis before it begins," says Karen Knudsen, Ph.D., Director of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University, the Hilary Koprowski Professor and Chair of Cancer Biology, Professor of Urology, Radiation Oncology, and Medical Oncology at Jefferson.. Metastasis is thought of ...
Breast cancer (BCa) remains as the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. The majority of the deaths are due to its progression to metastatic BCa. Although Grb2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1) has been implicated in tumor proliferation and metastasis in multiple tumors including colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian cancer, whether and how it regulates BCa metastasis are still poorly understood. Western blot assay and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed to assess expression of Gab1 in primary and metastatic BCa clinical samples. Biological function assay studies in vitro and in vivo were employed to investigate the functions of Gab1 during BCa metastasis. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assessment, western blot assay and immunofluorescence (IF) staining were carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism for the function of Gab1 on BCa metastasis. In this study, we found that expression level of Gab1 was increased significantly in BCa
SENP3 promotes gastric cancer cell metastasis in vivo(A) The efficiency of SENP3 overexpression in SGC7901-SENP3 cells used for tumorigenesis in nude mice. (B)
Background Metastasis is the most frequent cause of treatment failure and death in colorectal cancer. Early detection of tumors and metastases is crucial for improving treatment strategies and patient outcome. Development of reliable biomarkers and simple tests routinely applicable in the clinic for detection, prognostication, and therapy monitoring is of special interest. We recently identified the novel gene Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer 1 (MACC1), a key regulator of the HGF/Met-pathway. MACC1 is a strong prognostic biomarker for colon cancer metastasis and allows identification of high-risk subjects in early stages, when determined in patients primary tumors. To overcome the limitation of a restricted number of molecular analyses in tumor tissue, the establishment of a non-invasive blood test for early identification of high-risk cancer patients, for monitoring disease course and therapy response is strongly needed. Methodology/Principal Findings For the first time, we describe a non
Previously, we showed that a chemokine CCL2 recruits IMs to metastatic sites where they differentiate to MAMs (Qian et al., 2011). In this study, we revealed a novel role for CCL2 as a trigger of a prometastatic chemokine cascade involving CCL3 signaling via CCR1 that is required for efficient metastasis. These data illustrate a signaling relay that amplifies the pathology already in the system by promoting retention of recruited monocytes that stimulate tumor cell establishment at the metastatic site.. Our in vivo and in vitro results indicate that CCL2 can increase CCL3 expression in MAMs at the metastasis site. The CCL2-induced CCL3 expression is likely to be specific to the prometastatic macrophage lineage, as neutralization of CCL2 by antibodies significantly reduced Ccl3 expression in IMs and MAMs, but not in resident monocytes or macrophages. Consistent with this interpretation, expression of Ccl3 was highest in MAMs compared with other leukocytes in the tumor-bearing lung. Importantly, a ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Enhanced metastatic potential of tumor cells harvested from spontaneous metastases of heterogeneous murine tumors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common reasons of cancer-related death with few biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 protein SLC2A1, also known as glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), has been associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in many human solid tumors. However, little is reported about its clinical significance and biological functions in GC. Here we observed a strong up-regulation of SLC2A1 in patients with GC and found that SLC2A1 was significantly correlated with depth of invasion and clinical stage. Additionally, over-expression of SLC2A1 in GC cells promotes cellular proliferation and metastasis in vitro and enhances tumor growth in vivo as well as enhancement of glucose utilization. Meanwhile, elevated SLC2A1 also contributes to tumor metastasis in vitro. Our results indicate SLC2A1 exhibits a pivotal role in tumor growth, metastasis and glucose metabolism, and also suggest SLC2A1 as a
A role for bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in promoting metastatic tumor growth is emerging, with important implications for therapeutic strategies to decrease tumor metastases. While previous work has shown accumulation of CD11b+ BMDCs in the lungs of mice bearing metastatic breast tumors, questions remain about the precise identity of these cells, the factors that regulate CD11b+ cell accumulation, and the potential long-term influence of CD11b+ cells on metastatic growth. We used transplantable (4T1, 4TO7, 67NR) and spontaneous (polyomavirus middle-T; PyVmT) mammary tumor models to study the identity, induction, longevity, and function of CD11b+ BMDCs in tissues. Using flow cytometry and ex vivo immune suppression assays, we established that metastatic mammary tumors induce splenic expansion and pulmonary accumulation of functional CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages (Mϕs). MDSCs suppress T cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells and ...
Next, they found that the Skp2 overexpression also results in more RhoA, and that both Skp2 and Myc were required for the metastasis-producing RhoA to be overexpressed. This cancer-promoting pathway is the second way Skp2 fuels cancer growth, Lin said. Skp2 has been shown to work through a separate E3 ligase pathway to destroy tumor-suppressing proteins, causing heightened cellular proliferation and the transition from normal cell to tumor.. "Skp2s E3 ligase activity is required for tumorigenesis, but not involved at all in metastasis," Lin said. Lin and colleagues also previously found that Skp2 blocks cellular senescence - a halt in cell division - in cancer cells.. The research team then found that Skp2 recruits two other proteins, p300 and Miz1, to join Myc and form the complex that transcribes RhoA. Experiments in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to the lung showed that deficiency of either Myc, Skp2 or Miz1 restricted metastasis, while overexpression of each of the three proteins ...
Read about how researchers discovered that a densely packed tumor environment triggers cancer spread by switching on metastasis genes.
Free Online Library: New candidate drug stops cancer metastasis and regenerates nerve cells. by Asian News International; News, opinion and commentary General interest Cancer Care and treatment Drug therapy Cancer metastasis Cancer treatment G proteins Metastasis Neurons
Many cancer cell types, as well as their metastases, express high levels of CD44. Whereas some tumors, such as gliomas, exclusively display CD44s, other neoplasms, including brain metastases, gastrointestinal cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, bladder cancer, uterine cervical cancer, breast cancer and non-Hodgkins lymphomas, additionally and sometimes preferentially express CD44 variants. Hence, CD44, particularly its variants, may be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of at least some human malignant diseases. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in animal models that upon transfection with CD44s, or CD44v cDNA, nonmetastatic tumor cells acquire metastatic potential. In addition, injection of reagents interfering with CD44-ligand interaction (e.g. CD44s- or CD44v-specific mAb) inhibit local tumor growth and metastatic spread in murine species. In this context, CD44 may confer a growth advantage on some neoplastic cells, and consequently could be used as a target for cancer therapy. The ...
A chip developed by mechanical engineers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) can trap and identify metastatic cancer cells in a small amount of blood drawn from a cancer patient. The breakthrough technology uses a simple ...
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease of rapidly dividing cells with multiple mechanisms of survival. In one such survival mechanism, cancerous cells metastasize to a location distal from the original tumor. The complex process of metastasis often requires a cell to undergo multiple transformative events. First, a cancerous cell must break down the extracellular matrix and break contacts with adjacent cells to migrate from the original tumor through a blood or lymphatic vessel wall. The cancerous cell then circulates through the bloodstream, adheres to the vessel wall at a distal location, and migrates through the blood vessel again. Ultimately, the metastatic cell establishes a new site for growth, forming a secondary tumor. Tumor metastases are typically found first in the lymph nodes near the primary tumor, and only later at other distal locations. Metastatic tumors often prove difficult to treat because they may continually metastasize to multiple locations. New metastatic mechanisms are ...
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease of rapidly dividing cells with multiple mechanisms of survival. In one such survival mechanism, cancerous cells metastasize to a location distal from the original tumor. The complex process of metastasis often requires a cell to undergo multiple transformative events. First, a cancerous cell must break down the extracellular matrix and break contacts with adjacent cells to migrate from the original tumor through a blood or lymphatic vessel wall. The cancerous cell then circulates through the bloodstream, adheres to the vessel wall at a distal location, and migrates through the blood vessel again. Ultimately, the metastatic cell establishes a new site for growth, forming a secondary tumor. Tumor metastases are typically found first in the lymph nodes near the primary tumor, and only later at other distal locations. Metastatic tumors often prove difficult to treat because they may continually metastasize to multiple locations. New metastatic mechanisms are ...
This increased metastatic cell line was derived using an in vivo selection process of highly metastatic cells from a population of poorly metastatic tumor cells, A375  (ATCC CRL-1619). The A375-M1 (ATCC CRL-3222) cell line was derived by i.v. injection of A375 cells into nude mice. Lung metastases were harvested and amplified in vitro as cell lines. The A375-M1 cell line was reinjected into mice for a second round of selection, lung metastases harvested and amplified in vitro as A375-M2 (ATCC CRL-3223) cells. The A375-M1 and A375-M2 cell lines were  transfected with a plasmid containing the ecotropic receptor for murine retrovirus and selected for neomycin resistance. This is useful for RNAse protection assays.
Bone metastases from breast cancer are common, causing significant morbidity. Preclinical data of dasatinib, an oral small molecule inhibitor of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases, suggested...
Metastasis causes the death of patients with solid cancers. The core molecular mechanism of metastasis remains largely unknown. The research of Dr. Zhang "John" Weihuas laboratory focuses on understanding the following metastasis-related molecular mechanisms:. 1. The tyrosine kinase independent function of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR.. 2. The impact of organ microenvironment on the energy metabolism of cancer metastasis.. 3. The role of intracellular ATP levels of cancer cells in the development of cancer metastasis.. ...
Metastases, or secondary tumours, cause around 90 per cent of all deaths from cancer. The ability to gain knowledge as soon as possible about the cancer cells tendency to spread and form metastases could save many lives.. The Cellrace research is based on studies of a biopsy on a specially designed nanosurface.. "It is not possible to study the cells movements and behaviour on a microscope slide, as that is not their natural environment. On our nanosurface, we have imitated critical properties from the environment in which they usually operate, i.e. in the body. There we can study them in real time", says Michael Andäng.. At present there is a prototype and the researchers have been able to show statistically significant differences between metastasising cells and non-metastasising cells.. "Now we are refining the product and preparing to collaborate with clinics. For example, we want to repeat the tests with recently obtained biopsies." ...
The second major focus of our research is the spread of cancer from its initial site of growth to other locations in the body (metastasis), which is a major factor influencing the likelihood of successful treatment. The formation of metastasis by tumour cells is thought to be dependent on the expression of specific phenotypes by individual tumour cells. Our research is examining metastatic phenotypes that are expressed only transiently and that may be induced by exposure of tumour cells to conditions, such as hypoxia, which occur in the tumour microenvironment. Recent clinical results have suggested that tumours that contain substantial hypoxic regions may be more likely to form metastases. We have found in animal model systems that exposure to hypoxia, both in vitro and in vivo, can cause transient increases in the metastatic potential of tumour cells and that exposure to transient hypoxic episodes may be particularly important for this increased metastatic potential. We are examining the ...
Colon cancer is one of the most frequent malignant diseases worldwide. About 50% of the patients develop distant metastasis. These patients have only few therapy options and very poor survival rates. Therefore cancer research focuses on the identification of novel molecular markers to provide a better prognosis of the metastatic risk. Identified high-risk patients would get access to an early, individualized therapy. MACC1 (metastasis associated in colon cancer 1) is a newly identified gene that is overexpressed in colon carcinomas and their distant metastases. The MACC1 domain structure is characteristic for proteins of the receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. Aim of this study was the analysis of the cellular function of MACC1, its role in tumor progression and its evaluation as a molecular, prognostic marker for metastasis. MACC1 overexpressing tumor cells revealed higher migratory, invasive, and proliferative potential in in vitro assays. The impact of MACC1 on the metastatic ...
Endpoints:. - Response Rate, Disease control rate, The duration of overall response, Overall survival, PFS, Time to treatment failure, Quality of Life, Incidence of AEs, Frequency and nature of serious adverse reactions (SADRs), Premature withdrawals. Statistical methods:. Assuming a randomization ratio of 1:1, 282 deaths are required in order to achieve a power of 80% of detecting a hazard ratio of 0.72 in favour of one of the two sequences, translating in an increase of median survival time from 10 to 14 months, with a type I error of 5%, two-sided, using the Mantel-Cox version of the log-rank test. With a uniform accrual period of 3 years and a follow-up of 18 months, about 350 patients will be needed to reach the target number of events.. All statistical analyses will be based on an intention-to-treat approach. CONSORT rules will be applied to describe study flow and protocol deviations.. All OS and PFS curves will be drawn with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results will be presented as Hazard ...
Oligometastatic prostate cancer has been considered an intermediate state between localized disease and widespread metastases, but there is no
The most widely used staging system for colorectal cancer is the AJCC tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) classification system, which classifies patients into prognostic groups according to the depth of the primary tumor, presence of regional LN metastases, and evidence of distant metastases. Recently, the AJCC TNM stage was updated and the T and N stages were further specified to improve prognostic capacity. More emphasis has been made to the number of retrieved malignant LNs. Accordingly, pN1 (metastasis in 1 to 3 regional LNs) has been subdivided into pN1a (metastasis in 1 regional LN) and pN1b (metastasis in 2 to 3 regional LNs), and pN2 (metastasis in 4 or more regional LNs) has been subdivided into pN2a (metastasis in 4 to 6 regional LNs) and pN2b (metastasis in 7 or more regional LNs).11. However, the number of malignant LNs in rectal cancer depends on the number of retrieved LNs, which varies with treatment, patient, and tumor characteristics. There is, in practice, wide variation in the ...
BARCELONA - It is clinically feasible to measure breast tumor cells in a patients circulation, according to the findings of an observational study.. The next step is to determine whether the presence of these cells is truly predictive of impending recurrence or metastasis.. Breast cancer kills only if it metastasizes, so it is important to identify the earliest signs of metastasis. Measuring circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be a key step in this direction, said Dr. Julia Jueckstock of the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, where the technique is being pioneered.. Earlier findings showing that CTCs can be measured in bone marrow samples suggest that the presence of tumor cells outside the primary tumor site are indeed predictive of metastasis and poor prognosis. But the difficulty of obtaining bone marrow makes this approach impractical for routine clinical use. Analysis of peripheral blood is potentially much more useful.. Dr. Jueckstock and her ...
SCC-S2/GG2-1/NDED (approved gene symbol TNFAIP8) is a transcription factor NF-kappaB-inducible, antiapoptotic, and oncogenic molecule. In this study, we examined the role of SCC-S2 in invasion and experimental metastasis. We demonstrate that expression of SCC-S2 cDNA in MDA-MB 435 human breast cance …
View Notes - Cancer Biology. Metastasis from 26CB 880 at University of Cincinnati. METASTASIS RANDOM DISTRIBUTION OF CANCER CELLS THROUGH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM OR GENETICALLY DETERMINED PROCESS OF
Metastatic cancer is the term used for any cancer that has spread from its original location to other parts of the body. This spreading may be present at the time of your cancer diagnosis or may develop later, during or after treatment. The most common areas for metastatic cancer are the liver, brain, lungs and bone.. There have been many recent advances in treatment options and supportive care for those with metastatic cancer. Legacy Cancer Institutes approach focuses not just on beating the disease but also on improving your quality of life.. Legacy Cancer Institute offers a variety of approaches to treat and/or support those with metastatic cancer. ...
The most deadly aspect of cancer is its ability to spread, or metastasize. Cancer cells initially group together to form a primary tumor. Once the tumor is formed, cells may begin to break off from this tumor and travel to other parts of the body. This process is metastasis. These cancer cells that travel through the body are capable of establishing new tumors in locations remote from the site of the original disease. Metastasis is a very complicated process that still has yet to be completely understood.. To metastasize, a cancer cell must break away from its tumor, invade either the circulatory or lymph system, which will carry it to a new location, and establish itself in the new site. The body has many safeguards to prevent cells from doing this, yet many cancer cells have the ability to overcome these safeguards. Research is now focused on understanding in what ways cancer cells have mutated to circumvent the bodys defenses and freely travel to other locations.. When cancer is diagnosed, ...
Patient has a known history of breast cancer and this represents osseous metastases. Absent pedicle sign refers to the destruction of one pedicle, it is said to give the frontal view of the vertebral body the appearance of a winking owl, hence ...
ago, on CT a new lymphadenopathy in the mediastinum and hematogenous metastatic spread in left lung was demonstrated. Chemotherapy with ... different from the previous specimen. No other metastases were found anywhere on CT and PET CT. The disease was staged as 3 A .... ...
Metastasis is defined as the spread of a tumor or cancerous cells from the primary site to one or more sites elsewhere in the body. Visceral metastasis is defined as the spread of cancer to viscera, the internal organs of the body, specifically those within the chest (as the heart or lungs) or abdomen (as the liver, pancreas, or intestines). Non-visceral organs are defined as any organ not considered visceral ...
... Metastatic seeding may be related to leakiness of tumor blood vessels, and factors dealing with dissolving the framework [matrix] around normal cells, so that cancer cells can get in and invade. Bills Cocktail cannot prevent metastases from occurring. However, by preventing blood vessel growth to the tumors, it can deprive metastases of growth. So…
This trial will investigate the efficacy and tolerability of adjuvant sunitinib after resection of lung, bone, or brain metastases in patients with renal
Occasionally, a bone metastasis of a GCCL could potentially be mistaken for a primary giant-cell tumor of bone - interestingly ... Spivach A, Borea B, Bertoli G, Daris G (July 1976). "[Primary lung neoplasm of rare incidence: giant cell carcinoma]". Minerva ... Within the small bowel, the jejunum seems to be a preferred site for metastasis of GCCL. GCCL also often metastasizes to bone, ... Hagihara N, Abe T, Wakamiya T, Sugita Y, Watanabe M, Tabuchi K (2010). "A case of brain metastasis from pulmonary giant cell ...
breast cancer metastasis neoplasm chemotherapy Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis Phyllodes tumour "Secondary (metastatic ... Brain metastases. Brain metastases occur in up to 10-15% of breast-cancer patients, and often (but not always) occur late in ... Bone metastases. The bones are a very common site of metastatic disease from breast cancer, and bone metastases can cause ... In breast cancer, spinal-cord compression occurs when a bone metastasis or spinal metastasis begins to push on the spinal cord ...
1. 3. 2001). „Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings". Radiographics. 21 (2): 403-417. PMID 11259704.. ... Tan D, Zander DS (2008). „Immunohistochemistry for Assessment of Pulmonary and Pleural Neoplasms: A Review and Update". Int J ...
Malignant neoplasms are commonly called cancer. They invade and destroy the surrounding tissue, may form metastases and, if ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... The term 'neoplasm' is a synonym of "tumor". 'Neoplasia' denotes the process of the formation of neoplasms/tumors, the process ... "II Neoplasms". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 June 2014.. *^ a b Abrams, Gerald. "Neoplasia I". Retrieved 23 January ...
Metastasis to ipsilateral mediastinal and/or subcarinal lymph nodes. N3. Any of:. Metastasis to scalene or supraclavicular ... Horn, L; Lovly, CM; Johnson, DH (2015). "Chapter 107: Neoplasms of the lung". In Kasper, DL; Hauser, SL; Jameson, JL; Fauci, AS ... Metastasis[edit]. Typical Napsin-A and TTF-1 immunostaining in primary lung carcinoma[1]. Histological type. Napsin-A. TTF-1. ... It may be useful in the treatment of bone metastases.[132]. Bronchoscopy[edit]. Several treatments can be administered via ...
There are four main groups of vaginal neoplasms: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - Metastasis". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2018-03-13.. ... p. Neoplasm. ISBN 0781733901.. *^ "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - Neoplasm". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2018-03-13. ... Vaginal tumors are neoplasms (tumors) found in the vagina. They can be benign or malignant.[1][a] A neoplasm is an abnormal ...
... is a malignant form of a cystadenoma and is a malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which ... The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. ... It usually presents with omental metastases which cause ascites. Papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma "Female Genital Pathology ...
The most common malignant neoplasms (cancers) of the liver are metastases; those arising from colorectal cancer are among the ... Most hepatectomies are performed for the treatment of hepatic neoplasms, both benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms include ... Prior to surgery, cytotoxic agents such as oxaliplatin given systemically for colorectal metastasis, or chemoembolization for ... repeat resections for reincident colorectal cancer metastases).[citation needed] Liver surgery is safe when performed by ...
"ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the management of patients with liver and other distant metastases from neuroendocrine neoplasms ... "Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms of the Pancreas". The Sol Goldman Pancreas Cancer Research Center. ... Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms are a broad group of pancreas tumors that have varying malignant potential. They are being ... The third type, pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) mainly occur in women, and may remain benign or progress to cancer. ...
... which may be benign neoplasms) or else a malignant neoplasm (cancer). These neoplasms are also indicated, in the diagram below ... tissue invasion and metastasis.. Genetic instability is defined as an "enabling characteristic" that facilitates the ... The Hallmarks of Cancer as evolutionary adaptations in a neoplasm[edit]. In their landmark paper, The Hallmarks of Cancer,[3] ... Cells in neoplasms compete for resources, such as oxygen and glucose, as well as space. Thus, a cell that acquires a mutation ...
Intracranial neoplasm, brain tumour. Brain metastasis in the right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer, shown on magnetic ... Secondary, or metastatic, brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors,[2] with about half of metastases coming from ... Neoplasms will often show as differently colored masses (also referred to as processes) in CT or MRI results. ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ...
Intracranial neoplasm, brain tumour. Brain metastasis in the right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer, shown on magnetic ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ... "CNS and Miscellaneous Intracranial and Intraspinal Neoplasms" (PDF). SEER Pediatric Monograph. National Cancer Institute. pp. ... More generally a neoplasm may cause release of metabolic end products (e.g., free radicals, altered electrolytes, ...
In its malignant form, metastasis to the lungs, liver, brain, and extremities may occur. It most commonly manifests itself in ... Hemangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm, or abnormal growth, that may either be benign or malignant. ...
Of further relevance is that this tumour is more commonly calcified than any other kidney neoplasm. Surgery is curative and no ... There is so far no evidence of metastases or local recurrence. Metanephric adenoma is diagnosed histologically. The tumours can ... the frequent gain of chromosomes 7 and 17 and losses of the Y chromosome that are typical of papillary renal cell neoplasms, ...
... primary liver tumours known as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Lung cancer: usually lung metastases or ... Pancreatic cancer: inoperable advanced neoplasms. 1930 - First therapeutic embolization procedure (of a carotid-cavernous ... Bone Cancer: for bone metastases located in the spine, pelvis and long bones. Breast Cancer: for small tumours. Prostate Cancer ... Ablation of musculoskeletal metastases: pain palliation, fracture risk reduction, and oligometastatic disease. Tech Vasc Interv ...
A pattern of multiple small nodular metastases has been described as miliary carcinosis which has a radiographic appearance ... Young, Robert H. (2004). "Pseudomyxoma peritonei and selected other aspects of the spread of appendiceal neoplasms". Seminars ... Currall, Verity A.; Dixon, John H. (2008). "Synovial Metastasis". The Journal of Arthroplasty. 23 (4): 631-636. doi:10.1016/j. ... Carcinosis, or carcinomatosis, is disseminated cancer, forms of metastasis, whether used generally or in specific patterns of ...
Chapter 107: Neoplasms of the lung. (编) Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Loscalzo J. Harrison's Principles ... Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings. Radiographics. 2001-03-01, 21 (2): 403-17. PMID 11259704. doi: ... D'Antonio C, Passaro A, Gori B, Del Signore E, Migliorino MR, Ricciardi S, Fulvi A, de Marinis F. Bone and brain metastasis in ... Immunohistochemistry for Assessment of Pulmonary and Pleural Neoplasms: A Review and Update. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2008, 1 (1 ...
"A case of ovarian metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma simulating primary ovarian neoplasm: diagnostic pitfalls and review of ...
"Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings". Radiographics 21 (2): 403-417. PMID 11259704. Cite uses ... "Immunohistochemistry for Assessment of Pulmonary and Pleural Neoplasms: A Review and Update". Int J Clin Exp Pathol 1 (1): 19- ...
HS and MH are capable of widespread metastasis, hence in time the 2 syndromes merge clinically and it is not always possible to ... histiocytic neoplasm which arises in multiple sites simultaneously. Most lesions previously defined as MH are probably more ... Disseminated HS (including MH) is not readily treated surgically, since even in the splenic form, early metastasis to the liver ... The liver is usually bile stained (jaundice) and disruption of the lobular pattern due to metastasis is observed - marked liver ...
... parotid gland neoplasms or metastases. Sometimes, the facial nerve cannot be preserved during resection of these tumours. ...
Tumors that express keratin include carcinomas, thymomas, sarcomas and trophoblastic neoplasms. Furthermore, the precise ... while metastases of colorectal carcinomas express K20, but not K7. Keratin is highly resistant to digestive acids if it is ... expression pattern of keratin subtypes allows prediction of the origin of the primary tumor when assessing metastases. For ...
... neoplasms are somewhat difficult to differentiate between being benign or malignant. Since the size and growth ... On few occasions, patients with Hürthle cell carcinoma have distant metastases in the lungs or surrounding bones. ... Some scientists have identified these mutations as deletions in the mitochondrial DNA of Hürthle cells found in neoplasms and ... Erickson, Lori A. "Hurthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasms." Atlas of Endocrine Pathology. Springer New York, 2014. 63-66. EndocrineWeb ...
... or metastases of other tumours. Often, since facial neoplasms have such an intimate relationship with the facial nerve, ... While this will inevitably lead to heightened paralysis, safe removal of a malignant neoplasm is worth the often treatable ... Common culprits are facial neuromas, congenital cholesteatomas, hemangiomas, acoustic neuromas, parotid gland neoplasms, ...
... s are neoplasms located in the spinal cord. Extradural tumors are more common than intradural neoplasms. Depending ... It may prompt a bone scan to confirm or exclude spinal metastasis. Rapid identification and intervention of malignant spinal ... "Vertebral Metastases with High Risk of Symptomatic Malignant Spinal Cord Compression". Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. ... "A Systemic and Evidence-Based Approach to the Management of Vertebral Metastasis". ISRN Surg. 2011: 1-6. doi:10.5402/2011/ ...
... metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial toxicity - molecule - molluscum ... neoplasm - nephrotoxic - neuralgia - neurological complications of AIDS - neuropathy - neutralization - neutralizing antibody ...
Imaging studies can show metastasis in testicular cancer (TCa); however, a test for risk of metastasis in TCa has not been ... The role of metastasis-directed therapy and local therapy of the primary tumor in the management of oligometastatic prostate ... Amino-terminal enhancer of split gene AES encodes a tumor and metastasis suppressor of prostate cancer. Major cause of cancer ... Impact of subsequent metastases on costs and medical resource use for prostate cancer patients initially diagnosed with ...
Colorectal Neoplasms Cancer trial. Review trial description, criteria and location information here. ... Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT00037180 Neoplasm Metastasis, ...
... develop hepatic metastases in 50-95 %. The aims of this study were to evaluate the outcome/prognosis of patients following ... Patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) develop hepatic metastases in 50-95 %. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ... Surgical therapy of neuroendocrine neoplasm with hepatic metastasis: patient selection and prognosis. ... ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the management of patients with liver and other distant metastases from neuroendocrine neoplasms ...
Neoplasms Metastasis Terminated Phase 2 Trials for Paclitaxel (DB01229). Back to Neoplasms Metastasis ...
Neoplasms Metastasis Completed Phase 3 Trials for Actinium (DB12860). Back to Neoplasms Metastasis ...
Tumor-to-tumor metastasis in thyroid neoplasms is exceedingly uncommon [14, 15]. In the present case, the identification of ... develop metachronous metastases [2]. In autopsy series, thyroid metastases from CCRCC have been detected in 4-5% of patients, ... were the most common sites of metastases origin in autopsy series [9-12]. While in autopsy series, metastases to the thyroid ... Metastases from nonthyroid malignancies to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4%-3% of all patients who have surgery for ...
Distant metastasis of gastrointestinal endocrine neoplasm is definitely resistant to available. January 20, 2019. ... Distant metastasis of gastrointestinal endocrine neoplasm is definitely resistant to available remedies. G. , Kuang W. J. , ... Asano M. , Yukita A. , Matsumoto T. , Kondo S. and Suzuki H.Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by an immunoneutralizing ... and experimental metastasis . Cancer Res. , 56 , 172 C 181 ( 1996. ). [PubMed] 29. ) Dvorak H. F. , Brown L. F. , Detmar M. and ...
The patient was admitted to our Department in 2017 with a liver metastasis of a neuroendocrine tumour. On admission she had no ... Liver metastasis of a neuroendocrine neoplasm of unknown primary origin in a female patient with a history of breast cancer. ... "Liver metastasis of a neuroendocrine neoplasm of unknown primary origin in a female patient with a history of breast cancer". ... "Liver metastasis of a neuroendocrine neoplasm of unknown primary origin in a female patient with a history of breast cancer." ...
... ... Introduction: Up to 73% of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) present with distant metastases at diagnosis. Advanced ... in patients with bone metastases (BM). In neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), BM are a negative prognostic factor, however tend to ... in Patients with Bone Metastases of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Introduction: Antiresorptive therapy (ART) with bisphosphonates ...
Expression of Oncofetal Protein IMP3 in Lymph Node Metastases of Small Intestine Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A New Predictor of ... Introduction: Small intestine neuroendocrine neoplasm (SINENs) are heterogeneous neoplasms arising from endocrine cells of the ... Introduction: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of unknown primary (NENs-UP) account for 10-13% of all NENs and show different biologic ... 1069 Gastric Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitors: Need for a Revision of Classifications?. ...
Build: Fri Jul 27 09:23:34 EDT 2018 (commit: a5c8d99). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Cervical lymph node metastases in epithelial neoplasms of the upper respiratory-digestive tract]. by Chiara Cavina et al. ... Cervical lymph node metastases in epithelial neoplasms of the upper respiratory-digestive tract].. *. Chiara Cavina, G Pelú ... article{Cavina1962CervicalLN, title={[Cervical lymph node metastases in epithelial neoplasms of the upper respiratory-digestive ...
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site. ...
Silencing of a novel tumor metastasis suppressor gene LASS2/TMSG1 promotes invasion of prostate cancer cell in vitro through ... Preliminary studies showed that it not only suppressed tumor growth but also closely related to tumor metastasis, however, its ... Homo sapiens longevity assurance homologue 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2), also known as tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 (TMSG1), ... In primary cancer cultures and cell lines, their antitumor actions were by inhibiting cancer proliferation, metastasis, and ...
Tag: Neoplasm metastasis. Outcomes Following Complete Surgical Metastasectomy for Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma ...
Based on autopsy reports, lung metastases occur in 33% to 50% of all non-lung malignancies. Most metastases are caused by the ... Beware: there are other diseases that can mimic lung neoplasms:*How and/or why did the patient develop a lung neoplasm?*Which ... Results of resection of other solitary metastases or multiple metastases vary greatly, depending on the biology of the primary ... What other considerations exist for patients with lung neoplasms?. There are no genetic predispositions to the neoplasms ...
no metastasis Accumulation of cancer cells The expanding mass compresses nearby blood vessels leading to necrosis. increasing ... Distant metastasis Irritation and build up of fluid in adjacent tissues T.Unblocked blood vessels drain towards the venous ... and area of inflammation around the tumor.no metastasis Cancer moves to etracellular matrix by secreting enzymes Surrounding ... Chemotherapy Poor Prognosis Organ Failure New metastasis on lungs and other organs Lymphadema Cardiac Arrest Failure of liver ...
Malignant neoplasms have the ability to invade adjacent structures, spread through the lymphatic system or metastasize to ... Molecular Basis of Malignant Neoplasms Metastasis. The main difference between benign and malignant neoplasms lies in the ... Organ-specific Metastasis in Malignant Neoplasms. The most commonly involved organs in metastatic disease are the lungs, liver ... Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Malignant Neoplasms. At this stage, it should be evident that malignant neoplasms in ...
Potential symptoms of plasma cell neoplasms include fatigue, bone pain, weakness and fevers, says the National Cancer Institute ... What Symptoms Occur With Bone Metastasis?. A: Symptoms of bone metastasis include bone pain, leg weakness, broken bones and ... A plasma cell neoplasm is a disease that causes the human body to produce too many plasma cells, reports the National Cancer ... Plasma cell neoplasms are more common in middle-aged people and senior citizens, with males more at risk than females, notes ...
... metastases are tumors caused by cancer cells that break off from the primary tumor and attach to the bones, the American Cancer ... What symptoms are associated with a neoplasm?. * Q: Where can you find lymphoma images?. ... What is the life expectancy with bone metastases?. A: The life expectancy for a person with bone metastases depends on many ... Osseous, or bone, metastases are tumors caused by cancer cells that break off from the primary tumor and attach to the bones, ...
Metastasis. Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: Chichester : Wiley, 1988Availability: Items available for loan: WHO ...
Brain Neoplasms - psychology - popular works Neoplasm Metastasis - diagnosis Neoplasm Metastasis - therapy Language. English ... Brain Neoplasms - secondary Brain Neoplasms - therapy Brain Neoplasms - radiotherapy Neoplasm Metastasis - therapy Radiosurgery ... Neoplasm Metastasis - physiopathology Neoplasm Metastasis - therapy ISBN. 9780521887212 Language. English Material Type. Book ... Lung Neoplasms - drug therapy Lung Neoplasms - therapy Neoplasm Metastasis - therapy ISBN. 9781891483585 Language. English ...
Metastases of malignant neoplasms: Historical, biological, & clinical considerations. Review article. In Press, Corrected Proof ... Diagnosis and management of metastatic neoplasms with unknown primary. Review article. In Press, Corrected Proof, Available ...
... metastasis or primary neoplasm? by Silvia Bondini et al. ... metastasis or primary neoplasm?}, author={Silvia Bondini and ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the liver: metastasis or primary neoplasm?. *. Silvia Bondini. , Simona Leoni. , Luigi Bolondi ...
Neoplasm Metastasis - psychology - videocassettes Survivors - videocassettes Breast Neoplasms - psychology - videocassettes ...
  • Plasma cell neoplasms are more common in middle-aged people and senior citizens, with males more at risk than females, notes the NCI. (reference.com)
  • There have been significant changes in the evaluation and management of lymphatic metastases in the neck during the past several decades, and knowledge of the functional anatomy of the cervical lymphatics is fundamental to the clinical management of metastasis in this region. (elsevier.com)
  • Surveillance of Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasms With Peritoneal Metastases After Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: Are 5 Years Enough? (wustl.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Surveillance of Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasms With Peritoneal Metastases After Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: Are 5 Years Enough? (wustl.edu)
  • It is important to distinguish the different etiologies because treatment varies widely, from observation for granulomas or hamartomas to surgery for malignancies like carcinoid tumor and solitary metastasis. (pulmonologyadvisor.com)
  • Here, we report a rare case of woman who has severe hepatomegaly due to multiple hepatic metastases of SPN of pancreas. (bvsalud.org)
  • After 2 years of follow up, multiple small hepatic metastases were presented. (bvsalud.org)
  • With some malignancies, such as those involving the colon or kidney, the treatment for multiple pulmonary metastases may be resection, but chemotherapy may offer the best option for other malignancies. (pulmonologyadvisor.com)
  • Hepatectomy has been the standard treatment for metachronic metastases of non-colorectal (NCR) origin, mainly when the disease-free interval is more than two years. (scielo.br)
  • Hepatectomy has been selected as the curative treatment of choice for metastases of colorectal (CR) origin. (scielo.br)