The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
Surgery to remove one or more NEOPLASM METASTASES.
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Tumors or cancer of the UVEA.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (1/13013)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

Control of metastasis by Asn-linked, beta1-6 branched oligosaccharides in mouse mammary cancer cells. (2/13013)

Studies in cell lines and malignant human tissues have shown that increased cell-surface Asn-linked beta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-6Man) branching is associated with increased tumorigenic and metastatic properties. In this study, three mouse mammary cancer cell lines were transfected with an expression vector containing the mouse cDNA for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V EC, the glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating beta1-6 branching on Asn-linked carbohydrates. The cell lines were screened for increased cytotoxicity to L-PHA, a lectin specific for beta1-6 branching structures. Cell lines exhibiting increased L-PHA cytotoxicity expressed increased levels of beta1-6 branching structures. Northern blots detected the presence of GlcNAcT-V transcribed from the expression vector in the L-PHA sensitive cell lines. After injection into the tail veins of mice, transfected cell lines with increased beta1-6 branching on the cell surface formed elevated levels of lung tumors relative to control transfected cell lines (P < 0.002). Western blots of membrane proteins from GlcNAcT-V transfected and control cells probed with the lectins DSA and WGA did not show an increase in polyN-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid content in the transfected cell lines. These results demonstrate that a specific increase in beta1-6 branching due to an elevation in GlcNAcT-V expression increases metastatic potential.  (+info)

Role of thrombin receptor in breast cancer invasiveness. (3/13013)

Invasion, the ability of an epithelial cancer cell to detach from and move through a basement membrane, is a central process in tumour metastasis. Two components of invasion are proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular movement through it. A potential promoter of these two processes is thrombin, the serine proteinase derived from the ubiquitous plasma protein prothrombin. Thrombin promotes the invasion of MDA-MB231 breast tumour cells (a highly aggressive cell line) in an in vitro assay. Invasion by MDA-MB436 and MCF-7 cells, less aggressive cell lines, is not promoted by thrombin. Thrombin, added to the cells, is a stimulator of cellular movement; fibroblast-conditioned medium is the chemotaxin. Thrombin-promoted invasion is inhibited by hirudin. Stimulation of invasion is a receptor-mediated process that is mimicked by a thrombin receptor-activating peptide. Thrombin has no effect on chemotaxis in vitro. Thrombin receptor is detectable on the surface of MDA-MB231 cells, but not on the other two cell lines. Introduction of oestrogen receptors into MDA-MB231 cells by transfection with pHEO had no effect on thrombin receptor expression, in the presence or absence of oestradiol. This paper demonstrates that thrombin increases invasion by the aggressive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 by a thrombin receptor-dependent mechanism.  (+info)

Development of a sensitive, specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based assay for epithelial tumour cells in effusions. (4/13013)

We developed a sensitive and specific method for the detection of epithelial cancer cells in effusions with a two-stage molecular-based assay which combined enrichment for cancer cells by immunomagnetic bead selection and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of epithelial glycoprotein 2 (EGP-2) RNA. Preliminary experiments indicated that immunobead selection was essential to avoid occasional false-positive RT-PCR results, and this method detected ten breast cancer cells electively added to 10(7) cytologically negative effusion cells. We studied 110 cases of pleural (n = 68) and peritoneal (n = 42) effusions (30 from patients with known carcinoma and 80 from those without known carcinoma), and the results were compared with cytological findings. Of 18 effusions that were cytologically positive or suspicious for malignant cells, 17 (94%) were positive for EGP-2 RNA (the one negative sample was from a patient who recently received combination chemotherapy). Of 92 cytologically negative samples, 11 (12%) were positive for EGP-2, including six patients with a history of previous or current carcinoma. Our method appears to be highly specific and increases the sensitivity of detection of malignant cells; it may be a useful adjunct to routine cytopathological examination.  (+info)

Expression of tissue factor in non-small-cell lung cancers and its relationship to metastasis. (5/13013)

Tissue factor (TF) is an initiator of the extrinsic cascade of blood coagulation. Although recent studies have revealed a relationship between metastatic properties and TF expression in some neoplastic cells, the significance of TF in lung cancer, especially in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is still unclear. In this study, TF was detected in NSCLC cell lines by functional study, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. TF levels in eight NSCLC cell lines were also quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and TF expression was evaluated in 55 specimens of surgically resected NSCLCs. NSCLC cell lines derived from metastatic lesions produced high levels of TF (48.3+/-23.5 ng 10(-6) cells, mean +/- s.e.m.), whereas those derived from primary lesions produced low levels of TF (0.2+/-0.1 ng 10(-6) cells). Immunohistochemical studies disclosed significantly stronger staining for TF in cells from NSCLC patients with metastasis than in those without metastasis. Among the 28 patients with metastasis, ten were strongly positive, 16 were moderately positive and two were negative for TF. In contrast, among the 27 patients without metastasis, only two were strongly positive, 18 were moderately positive and seven were negative for TF. Therefore, malignant cells from patients with lung cancer produce various levels of TF, and TF may play an important role in the metastatic process.  (+info)

Peritoneal cytology in the surgical evaluation of gastric carcinoma. (6/13013)

Many patients undergoing surgery for gastric carcinoma will develop peritoneal metastases. A method to identify those patients at risk of peritoneal recurrence would help in the selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. Peritoneal cytology has received little attention in the West, but may prove a useful additional means of evaluating patients with gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate sampling techniques for peritoneal cytology in patients with gastric cancer, to assess the prognostic significance of free peritoneal malignant cells and to discover the effect of the operative procedure on dissemination of malignant cells. The study is based on 85 consecutive patients undergoing surgical treatment of gastric cancer and followed up for 2 years or until death. Peritoneal cytology samples were collected at laparoscopy, and at operation prior to resection by intraperitoneal lavage and serosal brushings. After resection, samples were taken by peritoneal lavage, imprint cytology of the resected specimen and post-operatively by peritoneal irrigation via a percutaneous catheter. Malignant cells were diagnosed by two independent microscopists. Preoperative peritoneal lavage yielded malignant cells in 16 out of 85 cases (19%). The yield of free malignant cells was increased by using serosal brushings (by four cases) and imprint cytology (by two cases); all of the cases had evidence of serosal penetration. One serosa-negative case exhibited positive cytology in the post-resection peritoneal specimen in which the preresection cytology specimen was negative. Survival was worse in the cytology-positive group (chi2 = 25.1; P< 0.0001). Among serosa-positive patients, survival was significantly reduced if cytology was positive, if cases yielded by brushings and imprint cytology were included (log-rank test = 8.44; 1 df, P = 0.004). In conclusion, free peritoneal malignant cells can be identified in patients with gastric cancer who have a poor prognosis; the yield can be increased with brushings and imprint cytology in addition to conventional peritoneal lavage. Evaluation of peritoneal cytology by these methods may have a role in the selection of patients with the poorest prognosis who may benefit most from adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase mRNA plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with oesophageal cancer. (7/13013)

To clarify the significance of the expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNPase) mRNA as a predictive factor for the prognosis of patients with oesophageal carcinoma, the PyNPase mRNA in the tumours and normal tissues from 55 resected cases of oesophageal carcinoma was examined by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the tumour/normal (T/N) ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR and that of the enzyme activity of PyNPase based on the findings of an enzyme linked immunosolvent assay (r = 0.594, P = 0.009). The T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was significantly higher in the cases with lymph vessel invasion (P = 0.013), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0016), and an advanced stage of the disease (P = 0.021) than those without these factors. The patients with a higher T/N ratio of PyNPase mRNA showed significantly worse prognosis than those with a lower T/N ratio (P = 0.023 with log-rank tests). A multivariate analysis for the cumulative survival rates revealed that a high T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was independently related to a poor prognosis. These findings suggested that the determination of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR thus appears to be a new useful parameter for identifying both a poor prognosis and a highly malignant potential of oesophageal carcinoma.  (+info)

Phase I study of escalating doses of edatrexate in combination with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (8/13013)

Motivated by the observation of preclinical synergy, a Phase I dose escalation study of edatrexate in combination with a 3-h paclitaxel infusion was performed in patients with advanced breast cancer to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of edatrexate and the toxicities associated with this combination and to report preliminary observations of efficacy with this novel combination. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this Phase I trial. Thirty-five eligible patients were treated every 21 days in cohorts of at least three patients and were assessable for toxicity. One patient was ineligible due to hyperbilirubinemia. Stepwise dose escalations of edatrexate were administered until grade >3 nonhematological dose-limiting toxicities were reported. The initial dose level of edatrexate was 180 mg/m2; subsequent cohorts were treated with escalating doses of edatrexate (210, 240, 270, 300, 350, and 400 mg/m2). Edatrexate was administered by i.v. infusion over 1 h. Paclitaxel was administered 24 h later at a fixed dose of 175 mg/m2 as a 3-h infusion with standard dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and cimetidine premedication. The MTD of edatrexate was reached at the 350 mg/m2 level in this study. Grade 3 diarrhea was seen in one patient at the 300 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels, requiring dose reductions. Two patients experienced grade 4 stomatitis at the 400 mg/m2 dose level and also required dose reduction, establishing the MTD as 350 mg/m2. Grade 3 nausea and vomiting were noted in two of three patients at the highest dose level. Of 35 patients, 4 patients reported grade 3 myalgias and 1 patient reported grade 3 neurosensory complaints, which were seen mostly at the 350 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels; however, 1 patient reported grade 3 myalgias at 180 mg/m2. No cumulative neurotoxicity was observed, and no patient experienced an allergic reaction to paclitaxel. In 23 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, there were four complete (17%) and seven partial responses, with an overall response rate of 48% (95% confidence interval, 27-69%). All of the responses were seen in patients who had not received prior chemotherapy for stage IV disease. The median duration of response was not assessable because many responding patients went on to receive high-dose chemotherapy treatment with stem cell support. The combination of edatrexate and paclitaxel for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is a feasible and safe regimen. The MTD of edatrexate was 350 mg/m2 when combined with a 3-h infusion of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) given 24 h later. Activity was noted even among patients who had relapsed shortly after receiving methotrexate- and/or doxorubicin-containing adjuvant regimens. Additional studies evaluating the sequences and dosing schema for this combination are warranted to improve the response proportion and define the duration of the response.  (+info)

Metastasis is a complicated multistage process that requires the coordination of multiple genes, including both metastasis stimulating genes and metastasis suppressor genes (22) . Genomic instability is one of the driving forces for tumor progression and metastasis development. Among all genetic alterations, inactivation of metastasis suppressor genes is one important factor contributing to the formation of tumor metastasis. Chromosome 11, in particular 11p, is one of the most common regions undergoing genetic alterations in human breast cancer (3, 4, 5) . A previous study demonstrated that a breast cancer metastasis gene or genes exists on chromosome 11 by the fact that the introduction of a normal copy of chromosome 11 into malignant breast cancer cells significantly suppressed their metastatic ability (6) .. The KAI1 gene, located on human chromosome 11p11.2, was initially identified as a metastasis suppressor gene for human prostate cancer (7) . Down-regulation of the KAI1 protein was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion Characteristics of Murine Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Tumor Cells in Vitro. AU - Murray, J. Clifford. AU - Liotta, Lance. AU - Rennard, Stephen I.. AU - Martin, George R.. PY - 1980/2/1. Y1 - 1980/2/1. N2 - We have studied the attachment of mouse fibroblasts, transformed nonmetastatic fibroblasts, and metastatic fibrosarcoma cells to various substrates. The metastatic cells attach preferentially to type IV (basement membrane) collagen in the absence of serum, compared to type I collagen and plastic. In the presence of fibronectin, these cells attach well to both type I and type IV collagens. The normal and transformed fibroblasts attach to all these substrates, although the transformed fibroblasts attach more slowly. The ability to attach to type I collagen and plastic is correlated with the levels of fibronectin and collagen produced by these cells. The data indicate that the transformed and metastatic cells differ from normal cells in their attachment properties and ...
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether hematogenous clonal pulmonary melanoma metastases originate from the expansion of a single cell and if so, by extrapolation, metastasis can be considered a cloning process. Three different cell lines of murine K-1735 melanoma with different metastatic properties and unique karyotypes were injected i.v. into syngeneic C3H/HeN mice as multicell aggregates of individual cell lines or combinations of cell lines. Resultant solitary lung metastases were isolated in culture as individual lines and then karyotyped. Even when heterogeneous clumps of tumor cells were injected, the individual metastases exhibited a karyotype unique to one metastatic cell type. Furthermore, when cellular aggregates were composed of metastatic cells admixed with cells that were tumorigenic but nonmetastatic, the resultant metastases exhibited only the karyotype of the metastatic cells. This finding suggests that the presence of metastatic cells did not change the ...
A new study with mice shows that the fight or flight response to stress can promote breast cancer metastasis to the bone.. Researchers at the Vanderbilt University Center for Bone Biology demonstrated in mice that activation of the sympathetic nervous system - the fight-or-flight response to stress - primes the bone environment for breast cancer cell metastasis. The researchers were able to prevent breast cancer cell lesions in bone using propranolol, a cardiovascular medicine that inhibits sympathetic nervous system signals.. Metastasis - the spread of cancer cells to organs and bone - is more likely to kill patients than a primary breast tumor, said Florent Elefteriou, Ph.D., director of the Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology.. Preventing metastasis is really the goal we want to achieve, he said.. Elefteriou and his colleagues learned in previous studies that the sympathetic nervous system stimulated bone remodeling, and that it used some of the same signaling molecules that have been ...
We have developed a robust approach for imaging of BCSC growth and dissemination, which permits both macroscopic and microscopic analysis of cancer progression. In our studies, the imaging assays facilitated development of visible human-in-mouse xenograft tumor models with spontaneous metastases to lungs or local/distant lymph nodes. Our patient-tumor derived xenograft models will be able to overcome some limitations of previous metastatic models with human cancer cell lines or mouse tumor models. Spontaneous metastases present representative features of patient tumors that can be used in predictive models of metastasis and therapeutic response, but cannot be recapitulated by lung/bone colonization models via tail-vein or intracardiac injections. This point is driven home by the observation that these xenografts metastasize to the lungs but not the bones when grown in the mammary fat pads. This likely reflects that triple-negative ER− breast cancers tend to metastasize to the lungs rather ...
Cancer cell metastasis is one of the most critical steps in tumor development and is responsible for more than 80 of cancer related deaths. Among the molecules involved in promoting cancer metastasis, the role of the cell adhesion molecules, CD44 and CD146 are well known in promoting cancer cell motility and metastasis. Despite this knowledge, the molecular mechanism through which CD44 promotes tumor development and cell metastasis is still nascent. CD146 (MUC 18) was, first identified in highly metastatic melanomas. The absence of CD146 in normal melanocytes and its high expression in melanomas suggests its tumor promoting actions. Despite the association between CD146 expression and development of melanoma, its expression patterns and role in normal and metastatic breast tissues still remains controversial. This study aims to elucidate some of these discrepancies by presenting CD146 as a downstream target for CD44, in a way such that CD146 expression is related to CD44 and regulates the tumor ...
Tumor cell metastasis and proliferation are crucial for tumor development and result in loss of life of tumor individuals. TLR4 signaling pathway. It offers fresh insights for the systems of tumor advancement and metastasis, and suggests targeting TLR4 and OPN as an intervention in the ovarian cancer treatment. proliferation activity of tumor cells. Without LPS stimulation, the proliferation activity of tumor cells increased during 12 h. The cell proliferation significantly changed by LPS stimulation, and the maximum absorbance value at 429 nm was present after 6 h, with a proliferation rate of approximately 137.1% compared to cells without stimulation (Figure 2AC2B). To investigate the effect of TLR4 signal block on cell proliferation, the TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242 was used. The LPS-stimulated increase in the proliferation of tumor cells was significantly reduced with TAK-242 pretreatment, whereas no significant change was observed in cells treated with TAK-242 alone (Figure ?(Figure2C).2C). These ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Homeoprotein Six2 promotes breast cancer metastasis via transcriptional and epigenetic control of E-cadherin expression. AU - Wang, Chu An. AU - Drasin, David. AU - Pham, Catherine. AU - Jedlicka, Paul. AU - Zaberezhnyy, Vadym. AU - Guney, Michelle. AU - Li, Howard. AU - Nemenoff, Raphael. AU - Costello, James C.. AU - Tan, Aik Choon. AU - Ford, Heide L.. PY - 2014/12/15. Y1 - 2014/12/15. N2 - Misexpression of developmental transcription factors occurs often in human cancers, where embryonic programs may be reinstated in a context that promotes or sustains malignant development. In this study, we report the involvement of the kidney development transcription factor Six2 in the metastatic progression of human breast cancer. We found that Six2 promoted breast cancer metastasis by a novel mechanism involving both transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin by Six2 was necessary for its ability to increase soft agar growth and in vivo ...
Most cancer deaths are due to spreading of the primary tumor to one or several secondary sites, in a process called metastasis. These metastases are often more difficult to treat than the primary tumor and their presence marks severe progression of the disease. Tumor cell metastasis involves cell migration through heterogenous microenvironments in tissues, along anatomical features such as blood vessels and nerves, and into and out of vasculature. Mounting evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that metastatic tumor cells can migrate via several modes or mechanisms of migration, and can switch between these modes depending on the specific features of the microenvironment. Our research in this area is focused on understanding how distinct physical and biochemical cues from the tumor cells microenvironment affect the phenotype, biological signaling, mechanical properties, and interactions with other cells during metastasis. We are interested in metastasis to the brain, which is especially ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biopsy of breast cancer metastases. T2 - BMC Cancer. AU - Shachar,Shlomit Strulov. AU - Mashiach,Tanya. AU - Fried,Georgeta. AU - Drumea,Karen. AU - Shafran,Noa. AU - Muss,Hyman B.. AU - Bar-Sela,Gil. PY - 2017/1/4. Y1 - 2017/1/4. N2 - Background: Discordance in hormone receptors (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary tumors and metastatic sites for breast cancer is well established. However, it is uncertain which patient-related factors lead to biopsy when metastases are suspected and whether having a biopsy impacts survival. Methods: The medical charts of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients diagnosed January 2000-August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A biopsy was defined as a procedure where tissue was obtained and assessed for both HR and HER2. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess patient characteristics related to biopsy and whether having a biopsy was associated with improved survival. Results: Of ...
Liver is the organ responsible for hematopoiesis during fetal life, which is also a target organ of metastasis for several cancers. In order to recognize the hepatic metastatic changes, obtain a...
Quantitative multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple-gene expression levels of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples. Candidate genes were selected from previous microarray data relevant to breast cancer markers that had the potential to serve as predictive markers for metastatic risk. This multiplex gene set included 11 candidate and 3 housekeeping genes, and the aim was to predict breast cancer progression based on lymph node involvement status.
We report a comprehensive analysis of breast cancer metastases by analyzing the full spectrum of metastatic lesions derived from 10 patients who died of metastatic breast cancer and underwent rapid autopsy. By comparing the primary neoplasms from these patients with their metastases and by comparing metastases from one site to another, we identified marked heterogeneity among breast cancer metastases, as well as markers which remained consistent among these lesions. Our results expand the existing body of knowledge regarding breast cancer metastases and have both biological and therapeutic implications.. With regard to distribution of metastases, we confirm the liver, bone, and lung as the most frequent sites of hematogenous dissemination. We also confirm the striking tendency of lobular carcinoma to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract, as illustrated by cases MBC1 and MBC5. Case MBC5 is particularly instructive, as the invasive ductal carcinoma primary lost E-cadherin expression in most ...
We have investigated the antitumor effects of synthetic MMP inhibitor MMI270 against postoperative lung metastasis from colon cancer in nude rat. The KM12SM human colon cancer cells were injected into the cecal wall, and at 5 weeks after the injection, the cecum was removed including the tumor. Then, 30 mg/kg of MMI270 was administered perorally twice per day for 2 or 4 weeks, either immediately after removal or after week 2 after the removal. At week 7 after the removal, lung metastasis was significantly inhibited by the early administration of MMI270 immediately after the tumor removal but not by the late administration. The survival rates were significantly higher in the rats treated by early administration of MMI270 compared to the survival rate in untreated rats. Moreover, no lung metastasis was detected in some rats with 24-weeks survival treated by early administration. Lower microvessel density, lower PCNA Index and higher Apoptotic Index in the lung metastases of the rats treated with MMI270
UNLABELLED: Metastatic spread of cancer cells to the brain is associated with high mortality, primarily because current diagnostic tools identify only well-advanced metastases. Brain metastases have been shown to induce a robust glial response, including both astrocyte and microglial activation. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that this stromal response may provide a sensitive biomarker of tumor burden, in particular through the use of SPECT/PET imaging agents targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) that is upregulated on activated glia. Our goals, therefore, were first to determine the spatial and temporal profile of glial activation during early metastasis growth in vivo and second to assess the potential of the radiolabeled TSPO ligand (123)I-DPA-713 for early detection of brain metastases. METHODS: Metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1-green fluorescent protein cells were injected either intracerebrally or intracardially into female BALB/c mice to induce brain metastases.
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
The number of clinicians whose eyes glaze over as metastasis researchers dutifully recite the many steps of the metastatic process, and go on to examine tumor cell invasion in minute detail, signals either that we give boring lectures or that we have evoked the so what? response. Those who would favor the latter response might state that, even for the greater than 90% of patients without detectable distant metastases at surgery, it remains possible that tumor cells have already invaded out of the primary tumor and are sitting contentedly in distant sites undetected. Only growth and angiogenesis remain. Why study metastasis when it may be virtually complete by the time the patient walks into the clinic? Has the barn door been left open? Should we all drop our experiments and switch to antiangiogenesis projects?. Two reviews in this series have addressed this critical question, and arrived at similar answers. Investigators from Dr Ann Chambers laboratory have watched it all happen. She and ...
Cancer is a disease of cell growth, but most tumors only become lethal once they metastasize or spread from their first location to sites throughout the body. For the first time, researchers at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia report a single molecule that appears to be the central regulator driving metastasis in prostate cancer. The study, published online July 13th in Cancer Cell, offers a target for the development of a drug that could prevent metastasis in prostate cancer, and possibly other cancers as well.. Finding a way to halt or prevent cancer metastasis has proven elusive. We discovered that a molecule called DNA-PKcs could give us a means of knocking out major pathways that control metastasis before it begins, says Karen Knudsen, Ph.D., Director of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University, the Hilary Koprowski Professor and Chair of Cancer Biology, Professor of Urology, Radiation Oncology, and Medical Oncology at Jefferson.. Metastasis is thought of ...
Breast cancer (BCa) remains as the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. The majority of the deaths are due to its progression to metastatic BCa. Although Grb2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1) has been implicated in tumor proliferation and metastasis in multiple tumors including colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian cancer, whether and how it regulates BCa metastasis are still poorly understood. Western blot assay and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed to assess expression of Gab1 in primary and metastatic BCa clinical samples. Biological function assay studies in vitro and in vivo were employed to investigate the functions of Gab1 during BCa metastasis. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assessment, western blot assay and immunofluorescence (IF) staining were carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism for the function of Gab1 on BCa metastasis. In this study, we found that expression level of Gab1 was increased significantly in BCa
SENP3 promotes gastric cancer cell metastasis in vivo(A) The efficiency of SENP3 overexpression in SGC7901-SENP3 cells used for tumorigenesis in nude mice. (B)
Background Metastasis is the most frequent cause of treatment failure and death in colorectal cancer. Early detection of tumors and metastases is crucial for improving treatment strategies and patient outcome. Development of reliable biomarkers and simple tests routinely applicable in the clinic for detection, prognostication, and therapy monitoring is of special interest. We recently identified the novel gene Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer 1 (MACC1), a key regulator of the HGF/Met-pathway. MACC1 is a strong prognostic biomarker for colon cancer metastasis and allows identification of high-risk subjects in early stages, when determined in patients primary tumors. To overcome the limitation of a restricted number of molecular analyses in tumor tissue, the establishment of a non-invasive blood test for early identification of high-risk cancer patients, for monitoring disease course and therapy response is strongly needed. Methodology/Principal Findings For the first time, we describe a non
Previously, we showed that a chemokine CCL2 recruits IMs to metastatic sites where they differentiate to MAMs (Qian et al., 2011). In this study, we revealed a novel role for CCL2 as a trigger of a prometastatic chemokine cascade involving CCL3 signaling via CCR1 that is required for efficient metastasis. These data illustrate a signaling relay that amplifies the pathology already in the system by promoting retention of recruited monocytes that stimulate tumor cell establishment at the metastatic site.. Our in vivo and in vitro results indicate that CCL2 can increase CCL3 expression in MAMs at the metastasis site. The CCL2-induced CCL3 expression is likely to be specific to the prometastatic macrophage lineage, as neutralization of CCL2 by antibodies significantly reduced Ccl3 expression in IMs and MAMs, but not in resident monocytes or macrophages. Consistent with this interpretation, expression of Ccl3 was highest in MAMs compared with other leukocytes in the tumor-bearing lung. Importantly, a ...
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Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common reasons of cancer-related death with few biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 protein SLC2A1, also known as glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), has been associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in many human solid tumors. However, little is reported about its clinical significance and biological functions in GC. Here we observed a strong up-regulation of SLC2A1 in patients with GC and found that SLC2A1 was significantly correlated with depth of invasion and clinical stage. Additionally, over-expression of SLC2A1 in GC cells promotes cellular proliferation and metastasis in vitro and enhances tumor growth in vivo as well as enhancement of glucose utilization. Meanwhile, elevated SLC2A1 also contributes to tumor metastasis in vitro. Our results indicate SLC2A1 exhibits a pivotal role in tumor growth, metastasis and glucose metabolism, and also suggest SLC2A1 as a
Metastatic disease is the leading cause of death among cancer patients and involves a complex and inefficient process. Every step of the metastatic process can be rate limiting and is influenced by non-malignant host cells interacting with the tumor cell. Over a century ago, experiments first indicated a link between the immune system and metastasis. This phenomenon, called concomitant immunity, indicates that the primary tumor induces an immune response, which may not be sufficient to destroy the primary tumor, but prevents the growth of a secondary tumor or metastases. Since that time, many different immune cells have been shown to play a role in both inhibiting and promoting metastatic disease. Here we review classic and new observations, describing the links between the immune system and metastasis that inform the development of cancer therapies.
A role for bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in promoting metastatic tumor growth is emerging, with important implications for therapeutic strategies to decrease tumor metastases. While previous work has shown accumulation of CD11b+ BMDCs in the lungs of mice bearing metastatic breast tumors, questions remain about the precise identity of these cells, the factors that regulate CD11b+ cell accumulation, and the potential long-term influence of CD11b+ cells on metastatic growth. We used transplantable (4T1, 4TO7, 67NR) and spontaneous (polyomavirus middle-T; PyVmT) mammary tumor models to study the identity, induction, longevity, and function of CD11b+ BMDCs in tissues. Using flow cytometry and ex vivo immune suppression assays, we established that metastatic mammary tumors induce splenic expansion and pulmonary accumulation of functional CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages (Mϕs). MDSCs suppress T cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells and ...
Next, they found that the Skp2 overexpression also results in more RhoA, and that both Skp2 and Myc were required for the metastasis-producing RhoA to be overexpressed. This cancer-promoting pathway is the second way Skp2 fuels cancer growth, Lin said. Skp2 has been shown to work through a separate E3 ligase pathway to destroy tumor-suppressing proteins, causing heightened cellular proliferation and the transition from normal cell to tumor.. Skp2s E3 ligase activity is required for tumorigenesis, but not involved at all in metastasis, Lin said. Lin and colleagues also previously found that Skp2 blocks cellular senescence - a halt in cell division - in cancer cells.. The research team then found that Skp2 recruits two other proteins, p300 and Miz1, to join Myc and form the complex that transcribes RhoA. Experiments in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to the lung showed that deficiency of either Myc, Skp2 or Miz1 restricted metastasis, while overexpression of each of the three proteins ...
Read about how researchers discovered that a densely packed tumor environment triggers cancer spread by switching on metastasis genes.
Free Online Library: New candidate drug stops cancer metastasis and regenerates nerve cells. by Asian News International; News, opinion and commentary General interest Cancer Care and treatment Drug therapy Cancer metastasis Cancer treatment G proteins Metastasis Neurons
I had no idea this is a thing, but it is! Before I was diagnosed with Stage IV Metastatic Breast Cancer, I honestly looked at breast cancer as one illness. Now, I understand that it is so much more complicated than that and the more I learn, the more I am amazed at how much…
Many cancer cell types, as well as their metastases, express high levels of CD44. Whereas some tumors, such as gliomas, exclusively display CD44s, other neoplasms, including brain metastases, gastrointestinal cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, bladder cancer, uterine cervical cancer, breast cancer and non-Hodgkins lymphomas, additionally and sometimes preferentially express CD44 variants. Hence, CD44, particularly its variants, may be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of at least some human malignant diseases. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in animal models that upon transfection with CD44s, or CD44v cDNA, nonmetastatic tumor cells acquire metastatic potential. In addition, injection of reagents interfering with CD44-ligand interaction (e.g. CD44s- or CD44v-specific mAb) inhibit local tumor growth and metastatic spread in murine species. In this context, CD44 may confer a growth advantage on some neoplastic cells, and consequently could be used as a target for cancer therapy. The ...
A chip developed by mechanical engineers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) can trap and identify metastatic cancer cells in a small amount of blood drawn from a cancer patient. The breakthrough technology uses a simple ...
Côté and his team have recently demonstrated that there is a protein - AXL, that influences metastasis in HER2-positive cancer. Cells that have high levels of AXL have more chances to detach from the tumor and cause metastases.. The study was conducted on mice with samples of tumor cells from patients with cancer. But even with no study on mice, statistics show that women with less AXL present have a better chance of survival.. Based on this discovery, a treatment targeting AXL could reduce the risk of metastasis, explains Côté.. There is a drug therapy that inhibits AXL, and the IRCM researchers have administered it to mice used in their study. They discovered that metastases were less likely to develop. At the moment, the drug is tested in different therapies, and if future tests are successful, this drug could treat patients with breast cancer, complementing the treatments that focus on the tumor.. Côté added that he and his team are still working in the lab:. At the moment, we are ...
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease of rapidly dividing cells with multiple mechanisms of survival. In one such survival mechanism, cancerous cells metastasize to a location distal from the original tumor. The complex process of metastasis often requires a cell to undergo multiple transformative events. First, a cancerous cell must break down the extracellular matrix and break contacts with adjacent cells to migrate from the original tumor through a blood or lymphatic vessel wall. The cancerous cell then circulates through the bloodstream, adheres to the vessel wall at a distal location, and migrates through the blood vessel again. Ultimately, the metastatic cell establishes a new site for growth, forming a secondary tumor. Tumor metastases are typically found first in the lymph nodes near the primary tumor, and only later at other distal locations. Metastatic tumors often prove difficult to treat because they may continually metastasize to multiple locations. New metastatic mechanisms are ...
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease of rapidly dividing cells with multiple mechanisms of survival. In one such survival mechanism, cancerous cells metastasize to a location distal from the original tumor. The complex process of metastasis often requires a cell to undergo multiple transformative events. First, a cancerous cell must break down the extracellular matrix and break contacts with adjacent cells to migrate from the original tumor through a blood or lymphatic vessel wall. The cancerous cell then circulates through the bloodstream, adheres to the vessel wall at a distal location, and migrates through the blood vessel again. Ultimately, the metastatic cell establishes a new site for growth, forming a secondary tumor. Tumor metastases are typically found first in the lymph nodes near the primary tumor, and only later at other distal locations. Metastatic tumors often prove difficult to treat because they may continually metastasize to multiple locations. New metastatic mechanisms are ...
This increased metastatic cell line was derived using an in vivo selection process of highly metastatic cells from a population of poorly metastatic tumor cells, A375  (ATCC CRL-1619). The A375-M1 (ATCC CRL-3222) cell line was derived by i.v. injection of A375 cells into nude mice. Lung metastases were harvested and amplified in vitro as cell lines. The A375-M1 cell line was reinjected into mice for a second round of selection, lung metastases harvested and amplified in vitro as A375-M2 (ATCC CRL-3223) cells. The A375-M1 and A375-M2 cell lines were  transfected with a plasmid containing the ecotropic receptor for murine retrovirus and selected for neomycin resistance. This is useful for RNAse protection assays.
Bone metastases from breast cancer are common, causing significant morbidity. Preclinical data of dasatinib, an oral small molecule inhibitor of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases, suggested...
Metastasis causes the death of patients with solid cancers. The core molecular mechanism of metastasis remains largely unknown. The research of Dr. Zhang John Weihuas laboratory focuses on understanding the following metastasis-related molecular mechanisms:. 1. The tyrosine kinase independent function of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR.. 2. The impact of organ microenvironment on the energy metabolism of cancer metastasis.. 3. The role of intracellular ATP levels of cancer cells in the development of cancer metastasis.. ...
Metastases, or secondary tumours, cause around 90 per cent of all deaths from cancer. The ability to gain knowledge as soon as possible about the cancer cells tendency to spread and form metastases could save many lives.. The Cellrace research is based on studies of a biopsy on a specially designed nanosurface.. It is not possible to study the cells movements and behaviour on a microscope slide, as that is not their natural environment. On our nanosurface, we have imitated critical properties from the environment in which they usually operate, i.e. in the body. There we can study them in real time, says Michael Andäng.. At present there is a prototype and the researchers have been able to show statistically significant differences between metastasising cells and non-metastasising cells.. Now we are refining the product and preparing to collaborate with clinics. For example, we want to repeat the tests with recently obtained biopsies. ...
The second major focus of our research is the spread of cancer from its initial site of growth to other locations in the body (metastasis), which is a major factor influencing the likelihood of successful treatment. The formation of metastasis by tumour cells is thought to be dependent on the expression of specific phenotypes by individual tumour cells. Our research is examining metastatic phenotypes that are expressed only transiently and that may be induced by exposure of tumour cells to conditions, such as hypoxia, which occur in the tumour microenvironment. Recent clinical results have suggested that tumours that contain substantial hypoxic regions may be more likely to form metastases. We have found in animal model systems that exposure to hypoxia, both in vitro and in vivo, can cause transient increases in the metastatic potential of tumour cells and that exposure to transient hypoxic episodes may be particularly important for this increased metastatic potential. We are examining the ...
Colon cancer is one of the most frequent malignant diseases worldwide. About 50% of the patients develop distant metastasis. These patients have only few therapy options and very poor survival rates. Therefore cancer research focuses on the identification of novel molecular markers to provide a better prognosis of the metastatic risk. Identified high-risk patients would get access to an early, individualized therapy. MACC1 (metastasis associated in colon cancer 1) is a newly identified gene that is overexpressed in colon carcinomas and their distant metastases. The MACC1 domain structure is characteristic for proteins of the receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. Aim of this study was the analysis of the cellular function of MACC1, its role in tumor progression and its evaluation as a molecular, prognostic marker for metastasis. MACC1 overexpressing tumor cells revealed higher migratory, invasive, and proliferative potential in in vitro assays. The impact of MACC1 on the metastatic ...
Endpoints:. - Response Rate, Disease control rate, The duration of overall response, Overall survival, PFS, Time to treatment failure, Quality of Life, Incidence of AEs, Frequency and nature of serious adverse reactions (SADRs), Premature withdrawals. Statistical methods:. Assuming a randomization ratio of 1:1, 282 deaths are required in order to achieve a power of 80% of detecting a hazard ratio of 0.72 in favour of one of the two sequences, translating in an increase of median survival time from 10 to 14 months, with a type I error of 5%, two-sided, using the Mantel-Cox version of the log-rank test. With a uniform accrual period of 3 years and a follow-up of 18 months, about 350 patients will be needed to reach the target number of events.. All statistical analyses will be based on an intention-to-treat approach. CONSORT rules will be applied to describe study flow and protocol deviations.. All OS and PFS curves will be drawn with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results will be presented as Hazard ...
Oligometastatic prostate cancer has been considered an intermediate state between localized disease and widespread metastases, but there is no
The most widely used staging system for colorectal cancer is the AJCC tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) classification system, which classifies patients into prognostic groups according to the depth of the primary tumor, presence of regional LN metastases, and evidence of distant metastases. Recently, the AJCC TNM stage was updated and the T and N stages were further specified to improve prognostic capacity. More emphasis has been made to the number of retrieved malignant LNs. Accordingly, pN1 (metastasis in 1 to 3 regional LNs) has been subdivided into pN1a (metastasis in 1 regional LN) and pN1b (metastasis in 2 to 3 regional LNs), and pN2 (metastasis in 4 or more regional LNs) has been subdivided into pN2a (metastasis in 4 to 6 regional LNs) and pN2b (metastasis in 7 or more regional LNs).11. However, the number of malignant LNs in rectal cancer depends on the number of retrieved LNs, which varies with treatment, patient, and tumor characteristics. There is, in practice, wide variation in the ...
BARCELONA - It is clinically feasible to measure breast tumor cells in a patients circulation, according to the findings of an observational study.. The next step is to determine whether the presence of these cells is truly predictive of impending recurrence or metastasis.. Breast cancer kills only if it metastasizes, so it is important to identify the earliest signs of metastasis. Measuring circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be a key step in this direction, said Dr. Julia Jueckstock of the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, where the technique is being pioneered.. Earlier findings showing that CTCs can be measured in bone marrow samples suggest that the presence of tumor cells outside the primary tumor site are indeed predictive of metastasis and poor prognosis. But the difficulty of obtaining bone marrow makes this approach impractical for routine clinical use. Analysis of peripheral blood is potentially much more useful.. Dr. Jueckstock and her ...
SCC-S2/GG2-1/NDED (approved gene symbol TNFAIP8) is a transcription factor NF-kappaB-inducible, antiapoptotic, and oncogenic molecule. In this study, we examined the role of SCC-S2 in invasion and experimental metastasis. We demonstrate that expression of SCC-S2 cDNA in MDA-MB 435 human breast cance …
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine whether every-12-week therapy with zoledronic acid is not inferior to every-4-week therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, or multiple myeloma involving bone, as measured by the proportion who experience at least one skeletal related event within 24 months after randomization.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To compare pain scores (Brief Pain Inventory) of patients with metastatic breast cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, or myeloma involving bone receiving every 12 week dosing of zoledronic acid to those receiving every 4 week dosing.. II. To compare the functional status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] performance status) of patients with metastatic breast cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, or myeloma involving bone receiving every 12 week dosing of zoledronic acid to those receiving every 4 week dosing.. III. To compare the incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with metastatic breast cancer, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models. AU - Yano, Shuuya. AU - Takehara, Kiyoto. AU - Tazawa, Hiroshi. AU - Kishimoto, Hiroyuki. AU - Kagawa, Shunsuke. AU - Bouvet, Michael. AU - Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi. AU - Hoffman, Robert M.. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the ...
Metastatic breast cancer, also referred to as metastases, advanced breast cancer, secondary tumours, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer, is a stage of breast cancer where the disease has spread to distant sites beyond the axillary lymph nodes. There is no cure for metastatic breast cancer. There is no stage after IV. It usually occurs several years after the primary breast cancer, although it is sometimes diagnosed at the same time as the primary breast cancer or, rarely, before the primary breast cancer has been diagnosed. Metastatic breast cancer cells frequently differ from the preceding primary breast cancer in properties such as receptor status. The cells have often developed resistance to several lines of previous treatment and have acquired special properties that permit them to metastasize to distant sites. Metastatic breast cancer can be treated, sometimes for many years, but it cannot be cured. Distant metastases are the cause of about 90% of deaths due to breast cancer. Breast ...
Purpose Reports have suggested that metastatic site is an important predictor of overall survival (OS) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but these were based on a limited number of patients. We investigate the impact of site of metastases on OS of a substantial sample of men with mCRPC who received docetaxel chemotherapy in nine phase III trials. Patients and Methods Individual patient data from 8,820 men with mCRPC enrolled onto nine phase III trials were combined. Site of metastases was categorized as lymph node (LN) only, bone with or without LN (with no visceral metastases), any lung metastases (but no liver), and any liver metastases. Results Most patients had bone with or without LN metastases (72.8%), followed by visceral disease (20.8%) and LN-only disease (6.4%). Men with liver metastases had the worst median OS (13.5 months). Although men with lung metastases had better median OS (19.4 months) compared with menwith liver metastases, they had ...
In this article, we report the derivation of highly metastatic human melanoma cell lines from poorly metastatic parental lines using an animal metastasis model. We subsequently identified a metastasis aggressiveness gene signature by comparing the gene expression patterns of tumor samples from the highly metastatic derivatives with those from their parental lines. By comparisons with gene expression data from human clinical samples, we found that expression of this metastasis gene signature in human melanoma metastases correlates with poor survival of the corresponding patients. The signature is able to segregate melanoma-bearing patients into three groups, one of which has a significantly lower survival probability. This suggests that the signature provides an indication of aggressiveness of the melanoma metastases rather than of metastasis per se, similar to the lung metastasis signature reported by Minn et al. (10). This result has been confirmed by alternative methods such as GSEA and ...
Apart from the breast tumor cells, the resident stromal cells also contribute to tumor survival. Links to carefully selected news and features about metastatic breast cancer research. Metastatic breast cancer occurs when the cancer spreads from the breast to another part of the body. Taking breaks in treatment when the disease is under control and you are feeling good can make a big difference in your quality of life. [23] In women with metastatic breast cancer who do not have triple negative disease, there is little or no survival benefit and excess toxicity from platinum-based regimens. You dont have to go through metastatic breast cancer alone. Integrin-mediated tumor cell adhesion to ECM proteins can trigger signal transduction and cause upregulation of gene expression, increased tyrosine phosphorylytion of the focal adhesion kinase, and activation and nuclear translocation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Sometimes when people are diagnosed with metastatic cancer, doctors Its
Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene-expression data sets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes, including TNC. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutic targeting of RBP2 is a potential strategy for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis. ...
Accumulated evidence shows that many cancers including prostate cancer disseminate to metastatic sites early in the natural history of disease and can remain undetected and quiescent for extended periods of time.3, 4, 10 In one recent report, disseminated prostate cancer cells (DTCs) can be detected in the bone marrow of 57% men who are without evidence of disease after prostatectomy. With a median follow-up of 42 months, 52% of those with DTCs have not recurred, including patients who still have DTCs 12 years after surgery.5 Thus, in the context of prostate cancer recurrence, metastatic colonization, or the progressive outgrowth of disseminated cancer cells within a secondary site into clinically manifested metastases, is a particularly critical aspect to the multistep metastatic process.7, 35 The molecular factors that control the survival and eventual growth of these disseminated cells are largely unknown.. Experimental modulation of metastasis suppressor genes preclinically affords the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of early hematogenous dissemination of human breast cancer cells to bone marrow by retinoic acid-induced 2. AU - Werner, Stefan. AU - Brors, Benedikt. AU - Eick, Julia. AU - Marques, Elsa. AU - Pogenberg, Vivian. AU - Parret, Annabel. AU - Kemming, Dirk. AU - Wood, Antony W.. AU - Edgren, Henrik. AU - Neubauer, Hans. AU - Streichert, Thomas. AU - Riethdorf, Sabine. AU - Bedi, Upasana. AU - Baccelli, Irene. AU - Jucker, Manfred. AU - Eils, Roland. AU - Fehm, Tanja. AU - Trumpp, Andreas. AU - Johnsen, Steven. AU - Klefstrom, Juha. AU - Wilmanns, Matthias. AU - Muller, Volkmar. AU - Pantel, Klaus. AU - Wikman, Harriet. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Regulatory pathways that drive early hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells are insufficiently defined. Here, we used the presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow to define patients with early disseminated breast cancer and identified low retinoic acid-induced 2 (RAI2) expression to be ...
Dissemination of breast cancers to the brain is associated with poor patient outcome and limited therapeutic options. In this study we sought to identify novel regulators of brain metastasis by profiling mouse mammary carcinoma cells spontaneously metastasising from the primary tumour in an immunocompetent syngeneic host. 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma sublines derived from primary tumours and spontaneous brain and lung metastases in BALB/c mice were subject to genome-wide expression profiling. Two differentially expressed genes, Id2 and Aldh3a1, were validated in in-vivo models using mouse and human cancer cell lines. Clinical relevance was investigated in datasets of breast cancer patients with regards to distant metastasis-free survival and brain metastasis relapse-free survival. The role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)7 in regulating Id2 expression and promoting cell survival was investigated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional in-vitro assays. In the spontaneous metastasis model, expression
To understand colon cancer metastasis, we earlier analyzed a mouse model that developed liver metastasis of cancer cells disseminated from the spleen. We suggested that CCR1(+) bone marrow (BM)-derived cells are recruited to the microenvironment of disseminated colon cancer cells, and produce metall …
A systematic comparison of metastatic breast cancer cells to healthy breast cells revealed dramatic differences between the two cell lines in their mechanics, migration, oxygen response, protein production, and ability to stick to surfaces.. The new study details how cells make the transition from nonmalignant to metastatic, a process that is not well understood.. By bringing together different types of experimental expertise to systematically compare metastatic and nonmetastatic cells, we have advanced our knowledge of how metastasis occurs, says Robert Austin, professor of physics at Princeton University.. The study also found that metastatic cells recover more rapidly from the stress of a low-oxygen environment than nonmetastatic cells, which is consistent with previous studies. Although the low-oxygen environment did kill many of the metastatic cells, the survivors rebounded vigorously, underscoring the likely role of individual cells in the spread of ...
Breast cancer metastatic mouse models are experimental approaches in which mice are genetically manipulated to develop a mammary tumor leading to distant focal lesions of mammary epithelium . Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. This means models can be generated based upon molecular lesions consistent with the human disease. Metastasis is a process of migration of tumour cells from the primary cancer site to a distant location where the cancer cells form secondary tumors. Metastatic breast cancer represents the most devastating attribute of cancer and it is considered an advanced-stage event. Human breast cancer metastasizes to multiple distant organs such as the brain, lungs, bones and liver. The classical theory developed in the early 70s anticipated that metastasis is due to genetically determined subpopulations in primary tumours. The ...
Due to the effi cient screening and early detection most breast cancer cases are recognized today in early stage. Approximately 5% of newly detected cases have distant metastasis. In Hungary the situation is worse. Early stage disease will relapse in about 30%, mainly with distant metastasis. Metastatic breast cancer is incurable disease, except some rare, special cases. As systemic therapeutic options are developing rapidly, most breast cancer subtypes can be treated successfully and long term survival is not rare. Primary objective of the treatment is increasing overall survival and quality of life, by decreasing disease related symptoms. In this review we summarize the systemic therapeutic options of metastatic breast cancer according to the subtypes. It is recommended to use an individual treatment plan for every patient.. ...
Most ovarian cancer patients present with disseminated disease at the time of their diagnosis, which is one of the main reasons for their poor prognosis. Metastasis is a multi-step process and a clear understanding of the mechanism of regulation of these steps remains elusive. Productive reciprocal interactions between the metastasizing ovarian cancer cells and the microenvironment of the metastatic site or the tumor microenvironment play an important role in the successful establishment of metastasis. Much progress has been made in the recent past in our understanding of such interactions and the role of the cellular and acellular components of the microenvironment in establishing the metastatic tumors. This review will outline the role of the microenvironmental components of the ovarian cancer metastatic niche and their role in helping establish the metastatic tumors. Special emphasis will be given to the mesothelial cells, which are the first cells encountered by the cancer cells at the site of
Jill Cohen, on living with stage IV breast cancer for 13 years. Learn more about metastatic breast cancer and support the Beyond the Breast Campaign.In August I celebrated 13 years of living with metastatic breast cancer. Yes, I celebrated - wouldnt you? I called it my
Metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure in cancer patients and of cancer-related deaths. This editorial discusses how cancer metastasis may be better perceived and controlled. Based on big-data analyses, a collection of 150 important pro-metastatic genes was studied. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets to re-analyze the effect of some previously reported metastatic genes-e.g., JAM2, PPARGC1A, SIK2, and TRAF6-on overall survival of patients with renal and liver cancers, we found that these genes are actually protective factors for patients with cancer. The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in single-cell metastasis has been well-documented. However, in metastasis caused by cancer cell clusters, EMT may not be necessary. A novel role of epithelial marker E-cadherin, as a sensitizer for chemoresistant prostate cancer cells by inhibiting Notch signaling, has been found. This editorial also discusses the obstacles for developing anti-metastatic drugs, including the lack of high
Establishment of skeletal metastasis involves bidirectional interactions between the tumor cell and the cellular elements in the bone microenvironment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastasis will be critical in developing the means to prevent bone metastasis or inhibit its progression. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis in skeletal metastasis. A number of candidate factors, including the Wnt (wingless int) proteins, endothelin-1, and bone morphogenetic proteins, have been implicated in the establishment of osteoblastic metastasis. The complex nature of tumor-bone microenvironment interactions and the presence of multiple pathways that lead to bone metastasis suggests that simultaneous targeting of these pathways in the metastatic cascade are required for effective treatment. This review discusses current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the establishment of
Sunitinib is a potent and clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can suppress tumour growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. However, conflicting data exist regarding the effects of this drug on the growth of metastases in preclinical models. Here we use 4T1 and RENCA tumour cells, which both form lung metastases in Balb/c mice, to re-address the effects of sunitinib on the progression of metastatic disease in mice. We show that treatment of mice with sunitinib prior to intravenous injection of tumour cells can promote the seeding and growth of 4T1 lung metastases, but not RENCA lung metastases, showing that this effect is cell line dependent. However, increased metastasis occurred only upon administration of a very high sunitinib dose, but not when lower, clinically relevant doses were used. Mechanistically, high dose sunitinib led to a pericyte depletion effect in the lung vasculature that correlated with increased seeding of metastasis. By administering sunitinib to mice after intravenous
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-human CD73 monoclonal antibody inhibits metastasis formation in human breast cancer by inducing clustering and internalization of CD73 expressed on the surface of cancer cells. AU - Terp, Mikkel G. AU - Olesen, Kristina A. AU - Christensen, Eva Arnspang. AU - Lund, Rikke R. AU - Lagerholm, B Christoffer. AU - Ditzel, Henrik J. AU - Leth-Larsen, Rikke. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Recent studies have shown that Abs that target the cell-surface enzyme CD73 (ecto-5-nucleotidase) reduce growth of primary tumors and metastasis in syngenic mice by inhibiting the catalytic activity of CD73, and thus increasing the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this article, we report another anticancer mechanism of anti-CD73 Abs and show that an anti-CD73 mAb (AD2) inhibits metastasis formation by a mechanism independent of CD73 catalytic activity and inhibition of primary tumor growth. This mechanism involves clustering and internalization of CD73, but does not require cross-linking of ...
Cancer cells can break away from where they first formed and travel through the blood or lymph system to form new tumors (metastases) in other parts of the body. Metastases of the lung are tumors in the lung that originated from a primary tumor located in a different part of the body.. Metastatic cancer has the same name as the primary cancer. For example, breast cancer that spreads to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. It is treated as a stage IV breast cancer rather than a primary lung cancer. Limited metastases to the lung can be treated with resection or ablation.. ...
On September 28, 2017, the FDA approved abemaciclib (Verzenio; Eli Lilly), a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4/CDK6 inhibitor, in combination with fulvestrant, for the treatment of women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer that progressed after endocrine therapy, and as monotherapy for HR-positive, HER2--negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer that progressed after endocrine therapy and previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting.
Data presented above show that the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 is able to inhibit the growth of experimental metastases. These results suggest that this inhibition is due to the antiangiogenic activity of circulating TSP-1 that is released by the tumor cells in vivo, circulates at effective levels, and makes the tumor-bearing animals unable to mount an angiogenic response. The data also demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of soluble TSP-1, showing it can be used as a drug to prevent the growth of experimental metastases.. HT1080 produced concomitant tumor resistance directly by secreting active TSP-1, unlike previously studied rodent tumors that create an antiangiogenic state when the tumor cells, or associated stromal elements (29), secrete enzymes or activators of enzymes (30) that generate inhibitors from other molecules. We saw no significant evidence for in vivo breakdown of tumor-derived TSP-1 to fragments smaller than the 140 kDa monomer, a molecule that is as effective an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correction. T2 - De-acetylation and degradation of HSPA5 is critical for E1A metastasis suppression in breast cancer cells [Oncotarget. 5, 21, (2014) (10558-70)] doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.2510.. AU - Chang, Yi Wen. AU - Chen, Hsin An. AU - Tseng, Chi Feng. AU - Hong, Chih Chen. AU - Ma, Jui Ti. AU - Hung, Mien Chie. AU - Wu, Chih Hsiung. AU - Huang, Ming Te. AU - Su, Jen Liang. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Present: Due to an error made during the assembly of Figure 1A. The data of migration and invasion ability of HS578T groups and HBL100 groups are exist in the same excel file and we misplaced the histogram of HS578T groups as the HBL100 groups histogram, caused the inadvertently duplication during the preparation and assembly of Figure 1A. We apologize for our careless mislabelling and this error has been corrected now. The experimental results and conclusions of this article are not affected by this modification. We deeply regret this error and apologize to the scientific ...
Despite decades of effort, little progress has been made to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer metastases. In particular, because of the heterogeneity of cancer and its ability to develop resistance to current treatments that target biochemical markers, new targeting strategies are urgently needed. Inspired by the tight correlation between increases in tissue stiffness and breast cancer metastatic niches found in recent studies (13, 15, 17, 18, 45) and the fact that MSCs differentiate to specific lineages depending on the stiffness of the microenvironment (28), we have developed a class of cancer therapeutics that directly target the mechanoenvironmental cues of cancer metastases. The MRCS is an attempt to directly interrogate the mechano-niche in vivo and apply it for localized delivery of agents including imaging reporters and therapeutics.. Mechano-niches play vital roles in development, homeostasis, and disease progression, including many types of cancer, and therefore serve as an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computational modeling of pancreatic cancer reveals kinetics of metastasis suggesting optimum treatment strategies. AU - Haeno, Hiroshi. AU - Gonen, Mithat. AU - Davis, Meghan B.. AU - Herman, Joseph M.. AU - Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.. AU - Michor, Franziska. PY - 2012/1/20. Y1 - 2012/1/20. N2 - Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, largely due to metastatic dissemination. We investigated pancreatic cancer progression by utilizing a mathematical framework of metastasis formation together with comprehensive data of 228 patients, 101 of whom had autopsies. We found that pancreatic cancer growth is initially exponential. After estimating the rates of pancreatic cancer growth and dissemination, we determined that patients likely harbor metastases at diagnosis and predicted the number and size distribution of metastases as well as patient survival. These findings were validated in an independent database. Finally, we analyzed the effects of different ...
The term metastatic breast cancer means that cancer has spread to organs outside the breast or surrounding lymph nodes, such as the liver, lung, and brain. Metastatic breast cancer is not a curable condition. However, treatment can prolong life, dela
Keywords: LncRNA, FOXF1-AS1, EMT, metastasis, lung cancers Launch As one of the most common causes of cancers related loss of life of the global globe, lung cancers provides become a serious open public wellness issue [1]. Two primary subtypes of lung cancers are called as non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and little cell lung cancers, which accounts for around 80-85% and 15-20% respectively [2]. Although developments in the molecular carcinogenesis and brand-new targeted therapies for NSCLC created significantly in the previous few years [3C5], the general success of sufferers with this disease continues to be low [6 still, 7]. The high fatality is related to early metastasis [8] most likely; nevertheless, the mechanism underlying metastasis is unknown however still. Metastasis of NSCLC is certainly a complicated procedure and modulated by many guidelines [9]. NSCLC cells get away from the principal tumor to a brand-new tissues or body organ when metastasis starts. The primary vital ...
MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) has been observed as a potent tumour suppressor in multiple cancer types including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate th...
Living with metastatic breast cancer can be stressful. Here is a collection of resources and support for individuals living with metastatic breast cancer.
Objectives: Breast cancer has been the second most prevalent and fatal malignancy due to its frequent metastasis to other organs. We aim to study the effects of a key miRNA-mRNA signaling in breast cancer.Results: CNN1 was identified as the key gene in breast cancer by the bioinformatics analysis, and the downregulation of CNN1 in breast cancer tissues and cell lines was observed. Upregulating CNN1 inhibited cell survival, migration, invasion, and adhesion, but enhanced cell apoptosis. miR-106b-5p not only bound to CNN1 mRNA 3’UTR, but also promoted lung metastasis in vivo. Besides, the miR-106b-5p mimic enhanced breast cancer canceration by targeting CNN1 and activating Rho/ROCK1 signaling pathway.Conclusion: Overall, our results proved that miR-106b-5p promoted the metastasis of breast cancer by suppressing CNN1 and activating Rho/ROCK1 pathway.Methods: Bioinformatics analysis was performed to select the key gene in breast cancer. The overexpression and knockdown of Calponin 1 (CNN1) in
Tumor cell migration is a key step in the formation of cancer metastasis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed serinethreonine kinase, has been intensely studied for over a decade as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Recent data have shown that mTOR also plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor cell motility and cancer metastasis. Here, we briefly review recent advances regarding mTOR signaling in tumor cell motility. We also discuss recent findings about the mechanism by which rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo.. ...
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Bone metastasis is a common event in advanced cancers such as prostate, breast, lung, and renal cancers. Radiation therapy has been widely used for bone metastasis. However, it remains a challenging therapy because no radiation therapeutic guidelines, including radiation dose, radiation field, and fractionation, for patients with bone metastasis have been established. Many randomized controlled trials for bone metastasis have been carried out. They showed no significant difference in pain relief with a short course of radiation therapy such as 8 Gy/1 Fr and 20 Gy/5 Fr or with a long course of radiation therapy such as 30 Gy/10 Fr, 37.5 Gy/15 Fr, and 40 Gy/20 Fr. Toxicity rates with short and long courses were also the same. Recurrence rate at 2 years, however, was significantly higher in patients irradiated with a short course than in patients irradiated with a long course. Those trials also showed that response rate is affected by patients age, performance state, tumor type, pathological state, number
article: A rare case of metastatic deposits of cervical carcinoma in the heart - Gazzetta Medica Italiana - Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 2019 March;178(3):154-6 - Minerva Medica - Riviste
The establishment of distant metastases depends on the capacity of small numbers of cancer cells to regenerate a tumor after entering a target tissue. The mechanisms that confer this capacity remain to be defined. Here we identify a role for the transcriptional inhibitors of differentiation Id1 and Id3 as selective mediators of lung metastatic colonization in the triple negative [TN, i.e., lacking expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and lacking Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) amplification] subgroup of human breast cancer. Although broad expression of Id1 has recently been documented in tumors of the rare metaplastic subtype, here we report that rare Id1-expressing cells are also present in the more common TN subset of human breast tumors but not in other subtypes. We also provide evidence that Id1 expression is enriched in clinically obtained hormone receptor negative lung metastases. Functional studies demonstrate that Id1 and its closely related family ...
Study of MK-1454 Alone or in Combination With Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in Participants With Advanced / Metastatic Solid Tumors or Lymphomas (MK-1454-001) - NCT03010176
Of the nine patients in the UCLA study who underwent biopsy, four had tumors identified as high-risk for aggressive metastasis, and five were identified as low-risk. When physicians know upfront which patient has a poor prognosis, they will monitor the person more closely to detect metastasis earlier and consider more aggressive treatments to increase their chance of survival, Young emphasized. Knowledge of metastatic risk will also help patients and their physicians decide whether to pursue clinical trials of experimental therapies that target metastasis.. Patients understand that no good treatment exists after their cancer spreads -- everyone wants to know what their metastasis risk is, she added. If the risk is low, its a giant relief and emotional burden off their shoulders. If the risk is high, it enables them to plan arrangements for their family and finances, and make the most of their remaining time alive. Pioneered by UCLA ophthalmic pathologist Dr. Ben Glasgow, the technique of ...
Results Three new genes from the colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis signature, BOP1, CKS2 and NFIL3, were identified as direct transcription targets of β-catenin/TCF4. Overexpression and knocking down of these genes in CRC cells promoted and inhibited, respectively, experimental metastasis in mice, EMT and cell motility in culture. Cell migration was repressed by interfering with distinct signalling systems through inhibitors of PI3K, JNK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and/or mTOR. Gene expression profiling identified a series of migration-promoting genes, which were induced by BOP1, CKS2 and NFIL3, and could be repressed by inhibitors that are specific to these pathways. ...
The invasive phenotype of breast tumors, determined by characteristics such as tumor cell motility and membrane perturbations, is clearly linked to cytoskeletal function. For example, recent studies have shown that certain metastasis-specific molecules (e.g., CD44v3,8-10 isoform [Bourguignon et al. 1998b, Bourguignon et al. 1999] and its associated matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-9 [Bourguignon et al., 1998b; Yu and Stamenkovic 1999], as well as Rho kinase [Bourguignon et al. 1999]) are closely associated with the cytoskeleton during tumor cell function. To further examine the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cytoskeleton-mediated oncogenic signaling leading to tumor cell invasion and migration, we have focused on GEFs (the Dbl or DH family), such as Tiam1, which are known to display oncogenic capability and function as upstream activators of Rho-like GTPases (e.g., Rac1 or Cdc42; Woods et al., 1991; Habets et al. 1994; Michiels et al. 1995; Nobes and Hall 1995; Van Leeuwen et al. 1995). In ...
"Choroidal Metastasis - The Eye Cancer Network". Archived from the original on 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2010-03-10. "Choroidal ... Eye neoplasms can affect all parts of the eye, and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer). Eye cancers can be ... Choroidal hemangioma Choroidal melanoma Choroidal metastasis Choroidal nevus Choroidal osteoma Ciliary body melanoma The nevus ...
Thyroid metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma (a, b). Some metastatic tumor cells (right) are positive for thyroglobulin due to ... Thyroid neoplasm is a neoplasm or tumor of the thyroid. It can be a benign tumor such as thyroid adenoma, or it can be a ... Thyroid neoplasm might be classified as benign or malignant.[citation needed] Thyroid adenoma is a benign neoplasm of the ... The first step in diagnosing a thyroid neoplasm is a physical exam of the neck area. If any abnormalities exist, a doctor needs ...
Neoplasm Metastasis Cancer Brain tumor Tse V (10 November 2009). "Brain Metastasis". Medscape. Retrieved 13 January 2010. " ... The metastasis typically shares a cancer cell type with the original site of the cancer. Metastasis is the most common cause of ... Brain metastases can occur in patients months or even years after their original cancer is treated. Brain metastases have a ... The diagnosis of brain metastases typically follows a diagnosis of a systemic cancer. Occasionally, brain metastases will be ...
This mass can be detected and removed before transformation and metastasis. The tumor is often detected by imaging such as ... Hürthle cell neoplasm is a rare tumor of the thyroid, typically seen in women between the ages of 70 and 80 years old. When ... Ayana Suzuki, C.T., Andrey Bychkov, M.D., Ph.D. "Hürthle cell neoplasm". Pathology Outlines.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple ... References for findings: - Ayana Suzuki, C.T., Andrey Bychkov, M.D., Ph.D. "Hürthle cell neoplasm". Pathology Outlines.{{cite ...
The most common malignant neoplasms (cancers) of the liver are metastases; those arising from colorectal cancer are among the ... Most hepatectomies are performed for the treatment of hepatic neoplasms, both benign or malign. Benign neoplasms include ... Prior to surgery, cytotoxic agents such as oxaliplatin given systemically for colorectal metastasis, or chemoembolization for ... repeat resections for reincident colorectal cancer metastases).[citation needed] Liver surgery is safe when performed by ...
breast cancer metastasis neoplasm chemotherapy Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis Phyllodes tumour John's Hopkins. " ... Brain metastases. Brain metastases occur in up to 10-15% of breast-cancer patients, and often (but not always) occur late in ... Bone metastases. The bones are a very common site of metastatic disease from breast cancer, and bone metastases can cause ... In breast cancer, spinal-cord compression occurs when a bone metastasis or spinal metastasis begins to push on the spinal cord ...
... of people already have metastases. Small-cell carcinoma is an undifferentiated neoplasm composed of primitive-appearing cells. ... after metastasis. Symptomatic metastasis of SCCP to the brain is rare, and carries a poor prognosis. TP53 is mutated in 70 to ... pain from liver or bone metastases, or for treatment of brain metastases, which, in small-cell lung carcinoma, typically have a ... Of note, temozolomide yielded a response rate of 38% for brain metastases due to SCLC. In a clinical trial of 50 patients, ...
In its malignant form, metastasis to the lungs, liver, brain, and extremities may occur. It most commonly manifests itself in ... Hemangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm, or abnormal growth, that may either be benign or malignant. ...
Of further relevance is that this tumour is more commonly calcified than any other kidney neoplasm. Surgery is curative and no ... There is so far no evidence of metastases or local recurrence. Metanephric adenoma is diagnosed histologically. The tumours can ... the frequent gain of chromosomes 7 and 17 and losses of the Y chromosome that are typical of papillary renal cell neoplasms, ...
Occasionally, a bone metastasis of a GCCL could potentially be mistaken for a primary giant-cell tumor of bone - the latter ... Spivach A, Borea B, Bertoli G, Daris G (July 1976). "[Primary lung neoplasm of rare incidence: giant cell carcinoma]". Minerva ... Within the small bowel, the jejunum seems to be a preferred site for metastasis of GCCL. GCCL also often metastasizes to bone, ... Hagihara N, Abe T, Wakamiya T, Sugita Y, Watanabe M, Tabuchi K (2010). "A case of brain metastasis from pulmonary giant cell ...
"A case of ovarian metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma simulating primary ovarian neoplasm: diagnostic pitfalls and review of ...
... also confirms the genetic heterogeneity between the primary neoplasm of breast cancer patients and their respective metastases ... Metastasis is a process of migration of tumour cells from the primary cancer site to a distant location where the cancer cells ... When looking at metastasis, it is difficult to determine the precise location as well as its frequency. Another issue revolves ... MMTV-PyMT is the model of breast cancer metastasis, in which MMTV-LTR is used to drive the expression of mammary gland specific ...
Calcifications are commonly present, as may be seen with slow-growing neoplasms. Although ASPS displays a relatively indolent ... course, the ultimate prognosis is poor and is often characterized by late metastases. ASPS is an extremely rare cancer. While ...
... parotid gland neoplasms or metastases. Sometimes, the facial nerve cannot be preserved during resection of these tumours.[ ...
v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Sarcoma, All stub articles, Neoplasm ... "Left atrial myxosarcoma with previously detected intestinal metastasis". Tex Heart Inst J. 34 (1): 122-5. PMC 1847916. PMID ...
Exceptions include local or metastasis-directed therapy with radiation may be used for advanced tumors with limited metastasis ... "Male Genitals - Prostate Neoplasms". Pathology study images. University of Virginia School of Medicine. Archived from the ... The route of metastasis to bone is thought to be venous, as the prostatic venous plexus draining the prostate connects with the ... Sclerosis of the bones of the thoracic spine due to prostate cancer metastases (CT image) Sclerosis of the bones of the ...
... neoplasms can be separated into Hürthle cell adenomas and carcinomas, which are respectively benign and malignant ... On few occasions, patients with Hürthle cell carcinoma have distant metastases in the lungs or surrounding bones. Hürthle cell ... Some scientists have identified these mutations as deletions in the mitochondrial DNA of Hürthle cells found in neoplasms and ... References for findings: - Ayana Suzuki, C.T., Andrey Bychkov, M.D., Ph.D. "Hürthle cell neoplasm". Pathology Outlines.{{cite ...
... more commonly a metastasis; or very rarely a primary neoplasm. The most common type is a sarcoma followed by lymphoma, ... Retroperitoneal fibrosis Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection It is also possible to have a neoplasm in this area, ...
... or metastases of other tumours. Often, since facial neoplasms have such an intimate relationship with the facial nerve, ... While this will inevitably lead to facial paralysis, safe removal of a malignant neoplasm is vital for patient survival. After ... Common culprits are facial neuromas, congenital cholesteatomas, hemangiomas, acoustic neuromas, parotid gland neoplasms, ...
... benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Malignant neoplasms ... Tumors in the vagina may also be metastases (malignant tissue that has spread to the vagina from other parts of the body). ... A neoplasm is an abnormal growth of tissue that usually forms a tissue mass. Vaginal neoplasms may be solid, cystic or of mixed ... p. Neoplasm. ISBN 978-0781733908. "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - Neoplasm". National Cancer Institute. 2011-02-02. Retrieved ...
... which may be benign neoplasms) or else a malignant neoplasm (cancer). These neoplasms are also indicated, in the diagram below ... Cancer stem cell hypothesis might explain such phenomena as metastasis and remission. The monoclonal model of cancer and the ... Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal ... In this way, a population of mutant cells, called a clone, can expand in the neoplasm. Clonal expansion is the signature of ...
A pattern of multiple small nodular metastases has been described as miliary carcinosis which has a radiographic appearance ... Young, Robert H. (2004). "Pseudomyxoma peritonei and selected other aspects of the spread of appendiceal neoplasms". Seminars ... Currall, Verity A.; Dixon, John H. (2008). "Synovial Metastasis". The Journal of Arthroplasty. 23 (4): 631-636. doi:10.1016/j. ... Carcinosis, or carcinomatosis, is disseminated cancer, forms of metastasis, whether used generally or in specific patterns of ...
... neoplasms is limited to lesions with no risk of nodal metastasis. Either polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is ... The resected size and shape can be controlled, en bloc resection is possible even in a large neoplasm, and neoplasms with ... So this technique can be applied to the resection of complex neoplasms such as large neoplasms, ulcerative non-lifting ... especially for large or ulcerative neoplasms. Recently, the ESD technique is applied to esophageal or colorectal neoplasms in ...
If metastases are present, signs and symptoms associated with the metastatic disease and more severe symptoms may be present. ... size or metastases of tumor and prior chemotherapy. Each risk factors are rated at levels 0-4 scores. The numbers are then ...
... but an infiltrating neoplasm makes it difficult to say where the tumor ends and the healthy tissue starts. metastasis (spread ... Neoplasms will often show as differently colored masses (also referred to as processes) in CT or MRI results.[citation needed] ... More generally a neoplasm may cause release of metabolic end products (e.g., free radicals, altered electrolytes, ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ...
Tumors that express keratin include carcinomas, thymomas, sarcomas and trophoblastic neoplasms. Furthermore, the precise ... while metastases of colorectal carcinomas express CK20, but not CK7. List of cutaneous conditions caused by mutations in ... expression-pattern of keratin subtypes allows prediction of the origin of the primary tumor when assessing metastases. For ...
"Adrenal Metastasis". Cancer, Adrenal Metastasis. StatPearls at National Center for Biotechnology Information. PMID 28722909. ... An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ... Metastasis to one or both adrenal glands is the most common form of malignant adrenal lesion, and the second most common ... Pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm composed of cells similar to the chromaffin cells of the mature adrenal medulla. ...
It must be distinguished from Metastasis from the prior tumor or a relapse from it since a secondary malignant neoplasm is a ... Secondary malignant neoplasm is a malignant tumor whose cause is the treatment (usually radiation or chemotherapy) which was ...
... parotid gland neoplasms, or metastases of other tumors. Other causes like viral, bacterial or fungal infections like chicken ...
... of cases have had local recurrence whereas some demonstrate regional lymph node or osseous metastasis. The rare neoplasms ... MCS is reported to have a high and continual risk of recurrence of metastasis, some patients experiencing metastasis nearly ... rate of metastasis and mortality in the order of 25%" (Ka, Gnangnon, and Diouf, 2016) with the highest recordings of metastases ... nodal metastasis, and distant metastasis, [respectively]" (Watarai, Amoh, Aki, Takasu, Katsuoka, 2011). In terms of prognosis ...
In advanced disease, metastases may be present in the abdomen, lungs, or elsewhere. Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may ... Myung SK, Ju W, Kim SC, Kim H (October 2011). "Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a ...
... lymph node metastases occurred in 5 cases, and distant tissue metastasis occurred in 9 cases; the metastases occurred only in ... The World Health Organization (2019) classified papillary neoplasms (i.e. benign or cancerous tumors) of the breast into 5 ... 5 cm.) and axillary lymph node metastases (44.2% with no, 4.3% with, and 51.5% with unknown metastases) were treated with ... had no information on metastases) and 5) no cases had metastases to distant tissues. A study of 8 men aged 49 to 88 years ...
On imaging, multiple hamartomas may look similar to metastases or microabscesses.[citation needed] Observation as there is ... Neoplasm stubs). ...
For example, neoplasms characterized by high-grade features, invasive glands and or signet ring cells, are termed ... December 2001). "Surgical debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for established peritoneal metastases from colon and ... Young RH (May 2004). "Pseudomyxoma peritonei and selected other aspects of the spread of appendiceal neoplasms". Seminars in ... ISBN 978-0-323-35909-2. Sugarbaker PH (January 2006). "New standard of care for appendiceal epithelial neoplasms and ...
Regression of cancer occurs mainly in soft tissue and osseous metastases. [...] Both of these progestational compounds possess ... "Pharmacology and Clinical Utility of Hormones in Hormone Related Neoplasms". In Alan C. Sartorelli; David G. Johns (eds.). ...
However, p16 can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. More than a third of urinary bladder SCCs ... Sinha P, Thorstad WT, Nussenbaum B, Haughey BH, Adkins DR, Kallogjeri D, Lewis JS (January 2014). "Distant metastasis in p16- ... infection and neoplasms of cervical origin. The majority of SCCs of uterine cervix express p16. ...
Renal epithelial neoplasms have characteristic cytogenetic aberrations that can aid in classification. See also Atlas of ... of chromosome 3 detected with single nucleotide polymorphisms is superior to monosomy 3 for predicting metastasis in uveal ... "Gain-of-function of mutated C-CBL tumour suppressor in myeloid neoplasms." Nature 13 Aug 2009; 460, 904-909. Gondek LP, Tiu R, ... Malignant rhabdoid tumors are rare, highly aggressive neoplasms found most commonly in infants and young children. Due to their ...
... had metastases to the local lymph nodes, and 8.3% had distant metastases. (In the study 103 individuals, the distant metastasis ... Baranov E, Hornick JL (March 2020). "Soft Tissue Special Issue: Fibroblastic and Myofibroblastic Neoplasms of the Head and Neck ... of cases but no patients had lymph node metastasis and only 1 case had distant metastases (the presence of lymph node and ... Oylumlu M, Yildiz A, Ercan S, Oylumlu M, Davutoglu V (2014). "Cardiac metastasis of a low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma". ...
They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... For painful bone metastasis, it has been found to be effective in about 70% of patients. Surgery is the primary method of ...
Summy JM, Gallick GE (December 2003). "Src family kinases in tumor progression and metastasis". Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. ... Mitchell RS, Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N (2007). "Chapter 20 - Neoplasms of the Thyroid". Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). ... Yokota J (March 2000). "Tumor progression and metastasis". Carcinogenesis. 21 (3): 497-503. doi:10.1093/carcin/21.3.497. PMID ...
Ureteral neoplasm, a type of tumor that can be primary, or associated with a metastasis from another site Urethral cancer, ...
Abdominal CT or MRI scans as well as chest imaging are done to detect for metastasis. The analysis of tumor markers also helps ... It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered ... Low back pain may occur after metastasis to the retroperitoneum. Some cases of seminoma can present as a primary tumour outside ... Stage 3 seminoma is characterized by the presence of metastasis outside the retroperitoneum-the lungs in "good risk" cases or ...
Artigas C, Otte FX, Lemort M, van Velthoven R, Flamen P (May 2017). "Vertebral Hemangioma Mimicking Bone Metastasis in 68Ga- ... The consideration of VHs as a neoplasm is disputed, due to limited aggressive histopathological features. As such, some authors ... They are formed from benign vasoformative neoplasms of endothelial cells that present as thin-walled vessels infiltrating the ... bone metastasis, Ewing Sarcoma, and spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. Treatment for VHs normally only takes place if a ...
Malignant CCS tumors are diagnosed based on the individuals personal and family history of CCS, the presence of metastases, and ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, and cysts, Conditions ... Trichofolliculoma Spiradenoma spiradenocarcinoma List of cutaneous conditions List of cutaneous neoplasms associated with ... "Morphologic diversity of malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma based on ...
This is a concern during treatment of brain tumors and brain metastases, especially where there is pre-existing raised ... Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar neoplasms, extrasellar brain tumours, head ... A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ... Many low-dose palliative treatments (for example, radiation therapy to bony metastases) cause minimal or no side effects, ...
Gynoroentgenologic imaging can detect and diagnose primary neoplasms, metastasis, therapy-related lesions, congenital lesions, ...
... neoplasms, and cysts are skin lesions that develop from the epidermal layer of the skin. Aberrant basal cell carcinoma ... Wildervanck syndrome Xanthelasmoidal mastocytosis Zosteriform metastasis Dermatitis is a general term for "inflammation of the ... an overview with emphasis on the myeloid neoplasms". Chem. Biol. Interact. 184 (1-2): 16-20. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2009.10.009. ... neoplasms invading or aberrantly present in the dermis. Acquired progressive lymphangioma (benign lymphangioendothelioma) Acral ...
Hensiek AE, Kellerman AJ, Hill JT (August 2000). "Spontaneous regression of a solitary cerebral metastases in renal carcinoma ... ISBN 978-0-323-32195-2. Meningeal Neoplasms-Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ScholarlyEditions ...
... in cancers is characterized by anaplasia, invasiveness, and metastasis. Malignant tumors are also characterized by ... Uses of "malignant" in oncology include: Malignancy, malignant neoplasm and malignant tumor are synonymous with cancer ...
MeSH website, tree at: "Pancreatic Neoplasms [C04.588.322.475]",[dead link] accessed 16 October 2014 "Insulinomas". The ... metastases) range from 5 to 30%. Over 99% of insulinomas originate in the pancreas, with rare cases from ectopic pancreatic ...
This is a very rare neoplasm accounting for approximately 0.0003% of all tumors and about 2.5% of all external ear neoplasms. ... The local reoccurrence rate is 49% and the distant metastasis rate is 13%. With local reoccurrence being at 49%, follow-up is ... Ceruminous adenocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm derived from ceruminous glands of the external auditory canal. This tumor is ... Benign and malignant glandular neoplasms". Archives of Otolaryngology. 106 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1001/archotol.1980.00790250015004 ...
Specifically, metastasis occurs most frequently in the lungs followed by bone and the brain, exhibiting a wide range of ... Table 3 from: Weiss, Lawrence M.; Gelb, Arnold B.; Jeffrey Medeiros, L. (1995). "Adult Renal Epithelial Neoplasms". American ... of all kidney neoplasms. Based on its morphological features, PRCC can be classified into two main subtypes, which are type 1 ( ... and metastasis. Type 2 PRCC is associated with irregularity of several signaling pathways, which includes CDKN2A silencing, ...
Metastasis occurs in approximately 50% of cases with the most frequent occurrence in the lungs, which is common site of ... EMC shows the smallest morphological variation between the tumors among all myxoid soft tissue neoplasms. The myxoid matrix has ... There have been rare cases of spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastases without any treatment. As with all these subgroups ... Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare low-grade malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of the soft tissues, that differs ...
Common sites for metastasis include lymph nodes, the liver, spleen, lung, skeletal muscle, blood vessels and parotid salivary ... Sarcoids are the most common type of skin neoplasm and are the most common type of cancer overall in horses. Squamous-cell ... Before treatment of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) is initiated, evidence of metastasis must be determined either by palpation ... metastasis) and location of the tumor. Not all cancers metastasize and some can be cured or mitigated by surgical removal of ...
Distant metastasis (pM) "M0: No distant metastasis" "M1: Distant metastasis" Since many, if not most, anal cancers derive from ... Chemotherapy commonly used is similar to other squamous cell epithelial neoplasms, such as platinum analogues, anthracyclines ... Median survival rates for people with distant metastases range from 8 to 34 months. Surgical resection with permanent ... " "N1: Metastasis in inguinal, mesorectal, internal iliac or external iliac nodes" "N1a: Metastasis in inguinal, mesorectal or ...
A ureteral neoplasm is a type of tumor that can be primary, or associated with a metastasis from another site. Treatment may ... September 2000). "Gastric cancer recognized by metastasis to the ureter". Gastric Cancer. 3 (2): 102-105. doi:10.1007/ ...
Neoplasm Metastasis , Liver Metastases , secondary cancer , metastases , Prostate Disorders , Prostatic disorder , Malignant ... neoplasm of prostate , PSMA-PET , Bone Metastases , prostate tumors , Metastasis , metastatic tumor , prostate tumor , Prostate ... Metastasis, secondaries, Bone Metastases, Prostate Disorders, Malignant neoplasm of prostate, Liver Metastases, Prostatic ... Brain Metastases, prostate tumors, metastases, Prostate Cancer, Early, Recurrent, secondary cancer, ...
Neoplasm Metastasis. Get access to cutting edge treatment via RBS2418. View duration, location, compensation, and staffing ... Patient Self-Reporting Of Symptomsfor Neoplasm Metastasis. Phase-Based Progress Estimates. ... ARRY-380 Twice Daily Dosagefor Neoplasm Metastasis. Phase-Based Progress Estimates. ...
Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplastic Processes. Neoplasms. Pathologic Processes. Neoplasms by ... Symptomatic brain metastases or any leptomeningeal metastases that are symptomatic and/or requires treatment. Patients with ... brain metastases are eligible if these have been treated (surgery, radiotherapy). *Penetrating tumour infiltration of major ...
Metastasis. Series: Ciba Foundation symposium ; 141Material type: Text; Format: print Publication details: Chichester : Wiley, ...
Prognostic significance of hyperammonemia in neuroendocrine neoplasm patients with liver metastases. Julie Refardt*, Caroline M ... N2 - Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare, usually slow-growing tumors, often presenting with extensive liver metastases. ... AB - Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare, usually slow-growing tumors, often presenting with extensive liver metastases. ... Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare, usually slow-growing tumors, often presenting with extensive liver metastases. ...
Metastases in the Breast from Nonmammary Malignant Neoplasms Syed A. Hoda The preoperative clinical workup of an apparently ... healthy patient with a breast mass can be cursory and is unlikely to exclude a metastasis from a clinically inapparent (that is ... Metastases from NMMN are rare and account for less than 1% of all mammary malignant neoplasms in clinical series, and up to 5% ... Hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms involving the breast are sometimes listed under the rubric of breast "metastases," but ...
... Ragni, Alberto. ;Nervo, Alice;Papotti, ... Purpose Pituitary metastases (PM) are uncommon findings and are mainly derived from breast and lung cancers. No extensive ... Purpose Pituitary metastases (PM) are uncommon findings and are mainly derived from breast and lung cancers. No extensive ... Conclusions PM from NENs have clinical features similar to metastases derived from other solid tumours, albeit the involvement ...
Lymphadenopathy (reactive, neoplastic, lymphoma, metastasis) * Vascular neoplasms and malformations * Capillary hemangioma * ...
The metastasis rate is low in cases of a tumor diameter < 1 cm or depth of invasion lower than the submucosa; therefore, the ... Metachronous liver metastases may occur after long interval following endoscopic resection; thus, long-term follow-up is ... Here, we report three cases of metachronous liver metastasis after long-term follow-up of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) ... All three cases showed metachronous multiple liver metastases after 9-13 years of follow-up for EMR, despite achieving complete ...
A malignant neoplasm (abnormal growth) located on the ovaries. ... A malignant neoplasm (abnormal growth) located on the ovaries. ...
... and therefore presumably suppress the early phases of metastasis. Here, we determined that exposure of human colorectal cancer ... Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics* * Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism* * Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology * Disease Models, ... and metastasis of CRC cell lines and was associated with nodal and distant metastasis in CRC patient samples. p53 activation in ... IL-6R/STAT3/miR-34a feedback loop promotes EMT-mediated colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis J Clin Invest. 2014 Apr;124(4 ...
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the ovary with metastases to the omentum and regional lymph nodes. Indian Journal of ... Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the ovary with metastases to the omentum and regional lymph nodes. ... We report an unusual case of SPN of right ovary with extraovarian spread and metastases to lymph nodes. To the best of our ... It is considered to be a malignant neoplasm with low‑grade biology. Ovarian SPNs are uncommon, have benign morphology, usually ...
Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Liver Neoplasms. Neoplastic Processes. Neoplasms. Pathologic Processes. ... Digestive System Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Digestive System Diseases. Liver Diseases. Gemcitabine. Oxaliplatin. Mitomycins ... Intrahepatic Chemotherapy to Patients With Non-resectable Liver Metastases From Solid Tumor. The safety and scientific validity ... Intrahepatic and Systemic Chemotherapy Together With Antibody to Patients With Non-resectable Liver Metastases From Solid ...
Malignancies such as bronchogenic carcinoma, metastasis, lymphoma. *Benign neoplasms such as hamartoma and adenoma ... Benign neoplasms such as hamartoma or adenoma. *Vascular lesion such as a arteriovenous malformation, pulmonary infarction or ...
View mouse Tiam1 Chr16:89583999-89940657 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
This Malignant Neoplasm and Metastatic Osteosarcoma study at UC Cancer is now recruiting people ages up to 50 years. ... Thoracotomy Versus Thoracoscopic Management of Pulmonary Metastases in Patients With Osteosarcoma a study on Malignant Neoplasm ... Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Lung, Metastatic Osteosarcoma, Osteosarcoma, Neoplasms, Thoracoscopy, Thoracotomy ... Patients must have =, 4 nodules per lung consistent with or suspicious for metastases, with at least one of which being ,= 3 mm ...
Care guide for Bone Metastasis (Discharge Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and ... Learn more about Bone Metastasis. Treatment options. *Medications for Neoplasm of Bone ... Manage a bone metastasis:. *Prevent falls. Wear shoes that fit well and have soles that grip. Wear shoes both inside and ... Bone metastasis often happens in the spine, upper arm or leg bone, ribs, hips, or skull. Cancer that spreads to a bone can ...
Neoplasm Metastasis. *Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent. *Ovarian Neoplasms. *Pelvic Neoplasms. *Uterine Neoplasms. *Endometrial ...
Categories: Neoplasm Metastasis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Detection of distant metastases to the mediastinum, liver, lung, bone, and brain is also possible via CT scanning or MRI. ... Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms--a clinicopathologic study of 13 new cases emphasizing the importance of their recognition. ... Obtain serum calcium levels to rule out medullary thyroid carcinoma or parathyroid neoplasms. Imaging studies are used to ... Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) can visualize primary tumors, lymph node metastases, ...
... the pathogenesis of breast cancer metastasis, and breast stromal neoplasms. ... Benign and Low-Grade Fibroepithelial Neoplasms of the Breast have Low Recurrence Rate after Positive Surgical Margins. Mod ... Breast tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy; pathogenesis of breast cancer metastasis; breast stromal and spindle cell ... Cimino-Mathewss ongoing research interests include breast cancer immunotherapy, the pathogenesis of breast cancer metastasis, ...
primary with liver metastasis. 2. Between 18-75 years old. 3. Patients who will receive TAI using cisplatin or oxaliplatin. 4. ... Neoplasm Metastasis. *Vomiting. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px;} Name. Location. ...
Neoplasm Metastasis. 1. 2020. 5161. 0.350. Why? Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1. 2. 2021. 73. 0.270. Why? ...
associated with Neoplasm Metastasis; protein:increased expression:lung, lymph node (human). DNA:CNV, amplification:exon (human) ...
Pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) staging for papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas: a retrospective analysis of ... Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Jun. 21(3):379-85. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... iodine-avid persistent locoregional or nodal disease and also for identified or assumed iodine-avid distant metastases. ...
... colorectal neoplasms; humans; leukemia; lungs; lysine; meta-analysis; metastasis; neoplasm cells; rapamycin; securinine; shrubs ... esophageal neoplasms; glutamine; human health; liver neoplasms; neoplasm cells; pH; pancreatic neoplasms; pollution; research; ... antineoplastic activity; antineoplastic agents; biosynthesis; breast neoplasms; colorectal neoplasms; humans; lung neoplasms; ... metastasis; pancreatic neoplasms; research. Abstract:. ... Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a promising target for cancer ...
Neoplasms -- genetics. *Drosophila, cancer, invasion, metastasis, screen, RNAi, lgl, tumour suppressor, invasion suppressor ... Metastasis is the leading cause of death for cancer patients. Consequently it is imperative that we improve our understanding ... R Medicine::RC Internal medicine::RC 254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer) ...
Neoplasm Metastasis. dc.subject. Estrogen Antagonists. dc.subject. Estrogen Receptor alpha. dc.subject. Antineoplastic Agents, ...
Dive into the research topics of Expression of the C-C chemokine receptor 7 mediates metastasis of breast cancer to the Lymph ... Expression of the C-C chemokine receptor 7 mediates metastasis of breast cancer to the Lymph nodes in mice. ...
  • Members of the miR-34 family are induced by the tumor suppressor p53 and are known to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and therefore presumably suppress the early phases of metastasis. (
  • Dr. Cimino-Mathews's research focuses on the breast cancer tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy, the pathogenesis of breast cancer metastasis, and breast stromal neoplasms. (
  • Moreover, we have examined the efficacy of D2O-based pharmacological intervention in murine models of human melanoma tumor growth and metastasis. (
  • KDR and flt1 mRNA were limited to tumor endothelial cells and were more strongly expressed in the hepatic metastases than in the sinusoidal endothelium of the surrounding liver parenchyma. (
  • VEGF monoclonal antibody administration in tumor-bearing athymic mice led to a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of subcutaneous xenografts and to a marked reduction in the number and size of experimental liver metastases. (
  • Primary carcinoid tumor of the skin (PCTS) is an uncommon indolent neoplasm, with 10 cases described in the literature. (
  • Choroid plexus neoplasms can produce hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure by a number of mechanisms, including obstruction of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, overproduction of CSF by the tumor itself, local expansion of the ventricles, or spontaneous hemorrhage. (
  • Secondary neoplasm refers to any of a class of cancerous tumor that is either a metastatic offshoot of a primary tumor, or an apparently unrelated tumor that increases in frequency following certain cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy . (
  • In modern English, tumor is used as a synonym for neoplasm (a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears enlarged in size. (
  • [12] [13] Some neoplasms do not form a tumor - these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ . (
  • Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare, usually slow-growing tumors, often presenting with extensive liver metastases. (
  • Usually, there have already been metastases at other sites, or the tumors are detected at various sites synchronously ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Metastasis from the contralateral breast is a diagnostic consideration when there is bilateral involvement (or history thereof), the histologic appearances of the tumors in the breasts are similar, and there is no evidence of in situ carcinoma in the contralateral breast. (
  • Extrapancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) are rare tumors, which bear morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features similar to those of pancreatic counterparts. (
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) can visualize primary tumors, lymph node metastases, lung metastases, and other distant metastases. (
  • Abundant message for VEGF was found in all tumors, localized to the malignant cells within each neoplasm. (
  • Macrophage influx is associated with negative outcomes for women with breast cancer and has been demonstrated to be required for metastasis of mammary tumors in mouse models. (
  • PCTS typically follows a benign clinical course and therefore has to be distinguished from cutaneous metastases of visceral carcinoid tumors, which herald dissemination of malignancy and poor prognosis. (
  • Choroid plexus neoplasms are rare, intraventricular, primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors derived from choroid plexus epithelium that are seen predominantly in children. (
  • [ 2 , 3 ] In adults, they account for less than 1% of primary intracranial neoplasms, whereas choroid plexus tumors represent up to 5% of pediatric brain tumors, and up to 20% of those arising in children aged 1 year and younger. (
  • Subsequent radiotherapy in case of incompletely resected tumors can be an important option to avoid recurrence or metastasis even though this occurs rarely. (
  • Methods: The American Society for Radiation Oncology convened a task force to address 4 key questions focused on the radiotherapeutic management of intact and resected brain metastases from nonhematologic solid tumors. (
  • it represents 4% of malignant skin tumors and is responsible for 80% of deaths from this type of neoplasm. (
  • It represents 4% of treatment with Temozolomide in patients with all malignant skin tumors, responsible for 80% of deaths metastatic MM using the RECIST criteria, in addition to from this type of neoplasm. (
  • Calcific deposits are uncommon in metastases from NMMN but may occur in metastatic mullerian (tubal, ovarian, or peritoneal) carcinomas ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Nonetheless, primary melanocytic lesions of the breast are exceedingly less common than metastatic melanocytic neoplasms. (
  • Rarely there can be a metastatic neoplasm with no known site of the primary cancer and this is classed as a cancer of unknown primary origin . (
  • However, if these superior lymph nodes are clogged by a metastatic carcinoma, flow of lymph into the paratracheal lymph nodes may take place in the form of the so-called paradoxical metastasis [1,2]. (
  • The incidence of metastatic involvement of the PTNs in patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma, as well as the clinicopathological factors associated with their metastases are not adequately documented. (
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm glioblastoma and a decade for the treatment of that affects the meninges, mucous membranes, and (4) metastatic melanoma , at doses of 200 mg/m2 per day, (5) eyes. (
  • If hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms are excluded, the most common NMMNs that secondarily involve the breast include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, stomach, kidney, and cutaneous melanoma. (
  • Deuterium oxide (D2O) induces early stress response gene expression and impairs growth and metastasis of experimental malignant melanoma. (
  • Feasibility of D2O-based chemotherapeutic intervention (drinking water (30% w/w)) was demonstrated in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse melanoma metastasis model using luciferase-expressing A375-Luc2 cells. (
  • These data demonstrate for the first time that systemic D2O administration impairs growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma through the pharmacological induction of deuterium (2H)-stress. (
  • Correct identification of this uncommon AFX variant is essential in order to avoid its misdiagnosis as an aggressive neoplasm such as melanoma. (
  • To compare patterns of recurrence (ipsilateral and/or contralateral) in patients who undergo open or thoracoscopic resection for unilateral or bilateral pulmonary metastases . (
  • Cowan M, Argani P, Cimino-Mathews A . Benign and Low-Grade Fibroepithelial Neoplasms of the Breast have Low Recurrence Rate after Positive Surgical Margins. (
  • Metastases from NMMN are rare and account for less than 1% of all mammary malignant neoplasms in clinical series, and up to 5% of autopsies of patients who die as a result of NMMN ( 1 ). (
  • benign neoplasms , in situ neoplasms , malignant neoplasms , and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. (
  • [7] Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology . (
  • Potentially-malignant neoplasms include carcinoma in situ . (
  • Malignant neoplasms are commonly called cancer. (
  • Background/purpose: Laparoscopic liver surgery is attracting wider interest for the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms. (
  • To investigate the relationship between angiogenesis and hepatic tumorigenesis, we examined the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 8 human colon carcinoma cell lines and in 30 human colorectal cancer liver metastases. (
  • These data indicate that VEGF is a commonly expressed angiogenic factor in human colorectal cancer metastases, that VEGF receptors are up-regulated as a concomitant of hepatic tumorigenesis, and that modulation of VEGF gene expression or activity may represent a potentially effective antineoplastic therapy in colorectal cancer. (
  • The spine is the most frequent area of bone metastasis in patients with systemic neoplastic disease. (
  • Used with neoplasms to indicate the secondary location to which the neoplastic process has metastasized. (
  • All patients had liver metastases with 30% (n = 13) showing signs of portal hypertension. (
  • In conclusion, hyperammonemia comprises a relevant and potentially underdiagnosed complication of NEN liver metastases and is associated with worse outcomes. (
  • The purpose of this study is to see if treatment with intrahepatic chemotherapy is a good options in patients with liver metastases. (
  • Detection of distant metastases to the mediastinum, liver, lung, bone, and brain is also possible via CT scanning or MRI. (
  • The liver tumour was found to be a very large metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma with unharmed resection margins. (
  • Fabbri N, Reale D, Ferrocci G, Ghisellini E, Pansini G. A late solitary liver metastasis from pleomorphic salivary adenoma. (
  • Regulation by vascular endothelial growth factor of human colon cancer tumorigenesis in a mouse model of experimental liver metastasis. (
  • Even if at initial stages a tumour does not seem aggressive, its central location in proximity with several other organs makes it very dangerous: the most common metastases are in the lymph nodes and in the lungs (55%), liver and bones (33%), followed by the other kidney, the brain, the spleen, the colon and the skin. (
  • The first patient was a 61-year-old woman with colorectal carcinoma and liver metastasis, who underwent chemotherapy consisting of 6 cycles of oxaliplatin (the FOLFOX scheme, a chemotherapy regimen consisting of fluorouracil [5 FU], folinic acid, and oxaliplatin). (
  • In September 2003, a left colectomy, resection of metastasis in the left side of the liver, and a ligation of the right portal vein were performed. (
  • As with all types aims to regroup all the available information on GC of cancer, GC presents at specific metastasis sites, with in this region, discuss the clinicopathological and liver, peritoneal surface and distant lymph nodes being epidemiological factors and compare them with data the most frequent ( 2,5 ). (
  • Efficacy of 68Ga PSMA PET / CT in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer: a single center prospective randomized controlled trial. (
  • The mean overall survival time was 63.2 +/- 7.7 months and survival time was shorter for younger patients with palliative resection, lymph node metastasis and peritoneal nodules. (
  • Bone metastasis is cancer that starts in one area and then spreads to a bone. (
  • Dr. Cimino-Mathews's ongoing research interests include breast cancer immunotherapy, the pathogenesis of breast cancer metastasis, and breast stromal neoplasms. (
  • Compare the survival and progression-free survival of patients with hormone-refractory stage IV prostate cancer and bone metastases treated with docetaxel and prednisone combined with either atrasentan vs placebo. (
  • Metastasis is the leading cause of death for cancer patients. (
  • BACKGROUND: In Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA) trial, radium-223 versus placebo prolonged overall survival with favorable safety in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with symptomatic bone metastases. (
  • Hacking C, Pelvic metastases from breast cancer. (
  • Background: Breast cancer bone metastasis is a complication that significantly compromises patient survival due, in part, to the lack of disease-specific biomarkers that allow early and accurate diagnosis. (
  • Methods: Using mass spectrometry protein profiling, plasma samples were screened from three independent breast cancer patient cohorts with and without clinical evidence of bone metastasis. (
  • Conclusions: These data show that PTHrP(12-48) circulates in plasma of patient with breast cancer and is a novel and predictive biomarker of breast cancer bone metastasis. (
  • Importantly, the clinical measurement of PTHrP(12-48) in combination with NTx improves the detection of breast cancer bone metastasis. (
  • Impact: In summary, we present the first validated, plasma biomarker signature for diagnosis of breast cancer bone metastasis that may improve the early diagnosis of high-risk individuals. (
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases is commonly delivered without regard to primary cancer histology. (
  • A neoplasm can be benign , potentially malignant, or malignant ( cancer ). (
  • Peritoneal metastasis is the most common pathway for the spread of ovarian cancer and one of the major causes of cancer death. (
  • This provides us a novel strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer peritoneal metastasis and may help improve the overall survival of ovarian cancer patients. (
  • Results: There were 161 eligible breast cancer patients who were treated with PRT secondary to painful bone metastases between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2009. (
  • A favorable Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk score and absent symptoms related to metastasis are associated with longer survival in these patients. (
  • EUS has an integral role in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer given its high sensitivity for detecting pancreatic neoplasms and the access it affords to perform fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the suspected lesions. (
  • Similar results were seen in another trial by Tian and co-workers, in which they found that helical CT had the highest accuracy in detecting vascular invasion of pancreatic cancer, and EUS had the highest accuracy of assessing lymph node metastases. (
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key enzymes involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. (
  • Local therapies, such as radiation therapy for breast cancer, do not increase the incidence of brain metastases. (
  • terms "stomach neoplasm" and keywords "gastric" and The epidemiological features of GC have been "cancer" were used in combination with MeSH terms and widely studied in Western countries, making them well keywords related to the Arab World: "Lebanon", "Tunisia", understood ( 12,13 ). (
  • Adjunctive chemotherapy with bisphosphonates has been reported to delay bone metastasis and improve overall survival in breast cancer. (
  • Purpose Pituitary metastases (PM) are uncommon findings and are mainly derived from breast and lung cancers. (
  • This phase III trial compares the effect of open thoracic surgery (thoracotomy) to thoracoscopic surgery (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS) in treating patients with osteosarcoma that has spread to the lung (pulmonary metastases). (
  • Chest radiography may be used to determine the presence of lung metastases. (
  • Shunt-related metastases have been reported at abdominal sites, with extracranial metastases to the lung and bone reported in rare cases. (
  • An active IL-6R/STAT3/miR-34a loop was necessary for EMT, invasion, and metastasis of CRC cell lines and was associated with nodal and distant metastasis in CRC patient samples. (
  • Som [4] emphasized the importance of removing these nodes when attempting radical resection of pharyngo-oesophageal neoplasms and advocated dissection of the lymph nodes lying above the innominate vein in the superior mediastinum. (
  • Imaging studies are used to assess local spread and distant metastasis. (
  • Occasionally, distant metastasis can be seen by EUS and, in this case, the lesion is an M1 lesion, which is also inoperable. (
  • The preoperative clinical workup of an apparently healthy patient with a breast mass can be cursory and is unlikely to exclude a metastasis from a clinically inapparent (that is, "occult") nonmammary malignant neoplasm (NMMN). (
  • Thus, when faced with a mammary neoplasm that has unusual clinical, radiologic, or histologic features, it is important to consider metastasis in the differential diagnosis. (
  • Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. (
  • Conclusions: The task force has proposed recommendations to inform best clinical practices on the use of radiation therapy for brain metastases with strong emphasis on multidisciplinary care. (
  • Clinical features were reviewed for metastases, disease status, treatment, and any other pre-existing conditions. (
  • In stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) of 27-30 Gy in three fractions for patients with one to five brain metastases with less than 3.0 cm diameter, daily irradiation is used in the standard arm while irradiation at two- to three-day intervals is performed in the experimental arm. (
  • Pleomorphic adenoma (also known as mixed tumour) is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands. (
  • Unfortunately, one of the consequences of longer survival is the increased risk for the development of brain metastases . (
  • The neoplasm is highly chemosensitive and radiosensitive, and 5-year survival rates greater than 75% are not uncommon. (
  • For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia , clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their immunoglobulin gene (for B cell lesions) or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions). (
  • The overall annual incidence of choroid plexus neoplasms for all ages is 0.3 cases per million. (
  • There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of positive paratracheal lymph nodes with thyroid gland invasion, vocal cord invasion, metastasis to the internal jugular chain of the deep cervical nodes and extracapsular and perineural spread. (
  • Interestingly, the incidence of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms increased over the same time periods by 106% in men and 125% in women. (
  • OBJECTIVE The internal high-dose volume varies widely for a given prescribed dose during stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat brain metastases (BMs). (
  • Purpose: This guideline provides updated evidence-based recommendations addressing recent developments in the management of patients with brain metastases, including advanced radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and hippocampal avoidance whole brain radiation therapy and the emergence of systemic therapies with central nervous system activity. (
  • In this study, we examined the MGMT and GLUT2 status in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN). (
  • Hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms involving the breast are sometimes listed under the rubric of breast "metastases," but they are best regarded as either primary breast neoplasms or as a manifestation of a systemic condition, depending upon the extent of organ involvement. (
  • For patients with asymptomatic brain metastases eligible for central nervous system-active systemic therapy, multidisciplinary and patient-centered decision-making to determine whether local therapy may be safely deferred is conditionally recommended. (
  • Medical evaluation confirmed the absence of systemic disorders or distant metastases. (
  • Metastases have been described in the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes in a substantial proportion of patients with metastases in the breast ( 2 ). (
  • Patients are stratified according to disease progression (measurable or non-measurable disease progression vs prostate-specific antigen progression only), use of bisphosphonates at study entry (yes vs no), worst pain, measured by the Brief Pain Inventory "pain" scale ( vs ≥ grade 4), and extraskeletal metastases (yes vs no). (
  • A total of 83 patients with 200 brain metastases were examined retrospectively for predictors of infield failure. (
  • Diabetes mellitus and the risk of progression or malignancy of pancreatic cystic neoplasms in patients undergoing surveillance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • Results: Strong recommendations are made for SRS for patients with limited brain metastases and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 2. (
  • For patients with symptomatic brain metastases, upfront local therapy is strongly recommended. (
  • For patients with resected brain metastases, SRS is strongly recommended to improve local control. (
  • For patients with favorable prognosis and brain metastases receiving whole brain radiation therapy, hippocampal avoidance and memantine are strongly recommended. (
  • Temozolomide as monotherapy is a treatment that presents low rates of complete response and partial response, showing better results in patients with lymph node metastases. (
  • The terms 'neoplasm' and 'tumour' are used interchangeably. (
  • Generally, within an individual patient the primary and metastases appeared to share a DNA fingerprint pattern with minor variations occurring in different sites suggesting that different populations have derived from a common stem line. (
  • the induction of benign neoplasms may in some circumstances (see Section 9) contribute to the judgement that the exposure is carcinogenic. (
  • 15, 228S and 216S to investigate the nature of somatic changes and frequency with which clonal changes could be demonstrated during metastasis and progression. (
  • Results A 59-year old female patient, previously submitted to duodeno-cephalo-pancreasectomy for a well-differentiated pancreatic NEN, with known hepatic metastases, underwent a (68) Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT that revealed an uptake in the pituitary gland. (
  • In hepatic metastases of VEGF antibody-treated mice, neither blood vessels nor expression of the mouse KDR homologue flk-1 could be demonstrated. (
  • This study sought to determine if the primary site of origin for brain metastases affected the propensity for local failure. (
  • The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site. (
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of primary hypopharyngeal carcinoma and neck secondaries, which are associated with PTN metastases. (
  • In approximately one-third of the cases, the metastasis in the breast is the first presentation of the NMMN. (
  • Radiologic techniques such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and FDG-PET/CT (fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography) have also detected metastases in the breast from carcinoma of the thyroid ( 7 ), ovary ( 8 ), and soft tissue liposarcoma ( 9 ). (
  • Chronological improvement of pancreatectomy for resectable but advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. (