X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."DairyingOccupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Micromonosporaceae: A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.PolandPolymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Iraqi Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup distribution is similar to that of Kuwait, Lebanon, Turkey, and Syria. No significant ... Studies have reported that most Irish and Britons have ancestry to Neolithic farmers who left modern day Iraq, Jordan and Syria ... "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations" (2003 ... In another study, scientists analysed DNA from the 8,000-year-old remains of early farmers found at an ancient graveyard in ...
Less than 20% are descended in the female line from Neolithic farmers from the Middle East and from subsequent migrations. The ... Initial studies suggested that this situation is different with the paternal Y-chromosome DNA, varying from 10-100% across the ... November 2009). "Ancient DNA Reveals Lack of Continuity between Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers and Contemporary Scandinavians" (PDF ... A 2017 study showed that British Neolithic farmers had formerly been genetically similar to contemporary populations in the ...
A 2017 study showed that British Neolithic farmers had formerly been genetically similar to contemporary populations in the ... Initial studies suggested that this situation is different with the paternal Y-chromosome DNA, varying from 10-100% across the ... The Neolithic was the period of domestication of plants and animals, but the arrival of a Neolithic package of farming and a ... are descended in the female line from Neolithic farmers from the Middle East and from subsequent migrations. The percentage in ...
2008), "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic" (PDF), Annals of Human Genetics, 72 ( ... 17 June 2016). "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". bioRxiv 059311 . -- Table S6.1 - Y-chromosome haplogroups ... chromosome DNA haplogroup Molecular phylogenetics Paragroup Subclade Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world Y-DNA ... E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is a division of the macro- ...
Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]. Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2] ... Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93 ... Haplogroup O-K18 also known as O-F2320 and (as of 2017) Haplogroup O1b1,[3] is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup ... Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Kashyap, V.K. (2006). "Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome haplogroups reveal asymmetric ...
2005). "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter- ... gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Human biology; an international record of research. 77 (1): 93-114. doi: ... 2009). "Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis". Molecular ... by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. Oceania Languages of Oceania Demographics of Oceania List of ...
... chromosome DNA haplogroup Molecular phylogenetics Paragroup Subclade Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world Y-DNA ... Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93 ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O-M268, also known as O1b, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-M268 is a primary ... Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Kashyap, V.K. (2006). "Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome haplogroups reveal asymmetric ...
September 2003). "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic ... 2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics. ... Y-DNA) Haplogroup G2a3a (Y-DNA) Haplogroup G2a3b1 (Y-DNA) Haplogroup G2b (Y-DNA) Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the ... May 2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in the caucasus". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 3): 205-21. doi: ...
Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders Manfred Kayser et al 2002-2003, Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, ... genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, ... Y-DNA haplogroups by group Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of ... link) Stefano Mona et al 2009, Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA ... The table below provides statistics on the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups most commonly found among ethnolinguistic groups ...
2005). "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter- ... gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93-114. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0030. PMID 16114819. ... Listed here are notable groups and populations from South Asia by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies ... South Asia Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia South Asian ethnic groups Y-DNA haplogroups by population Y-DNA ...
Most modern Irish share more dna with the 3 Bronze Age men from Rathlin than the earlier Ballynahatty neolithic woman. A recent ... 2005). "The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (12 ... "Genetic Discontinuity Between Local Hunter-Gatherers and Central Europes First Farmers". Science. 326: 137-140. doi:10.1126/ ... "Ancient DNA Reveals Lack of Continuity between Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers and Contemporary Scandinavians". Current Biology. 19 ...
"Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities". PLOS Biology. 2010-11-09. Retrieved ... Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. The primary branch H1 (H-M69) and its subclades ... 2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47-58 ... 2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA ...
A 2010 DNA study published in PLOS Biology showed that Neolithic farmers from the Middle East had a significant impact on the Y ... It became possible to use Y chromosome DNA to study male descent. As opposed to large scale sampling within the genome, Y DNA ... DNA of European males, the majority of whom have paternal lineage tracing back to Middle-Eastern farmers during the Neolithic ... Y-DNA). Eshu (Sykes) Haplogroup J (Y-DNA). Re (Sykes) The larger Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) is dominant in Western Europe, not only ...
2014). "Ancient DNA analysis of 8000 BC near eastern farmers supports an early neolithic pioneer maritime colonization of ... "Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan" (PDF). ... 2004). "Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow Across and Around the Gate of Tears". The American Journal of ... Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade has played a pivotal role in the prehistory of the ...
2014). "Ancient DNA analysis of 8000 BC near eastern farmers supports an early neolithic pioneer maritime colonization of ... 2009). "Out of Arabia-the settlement of island Soqotra as revealed by mitochondrial and Y chromosome genetic diversity" (PDF). ... Katherine Borges' The Haplogroup N mtDNA Study at Family Tree DNA General Ian Logan's Mitochondrial DNA Site. ... The mitochondrial DNA variation in isolated "relict" populations in southeast Asia supports the view that there was only a ...
Paleolithic and Neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool, Cavalli-Sforza 1997. Clines of nuclear DNA markers ... P. Bellwood, First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies, Blackwell: Malden, MA (2005). M. Dokládal, J. Brožek, Curr. ... and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events ... That is referred to as the Neolithic demic diffusion model. Craniometric and archaeological studies have also arrived at the ...
"Y-DNA Haplotree".. Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website. ... genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Hum. Biol. 77 (1): 93-114 ... Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]. Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2] ... "Family Tree DNA - Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy".. *^ "Family Tree DNA - My FamilyTree DNA Latvia ...
... the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) or autosomal DNA. MtDNA and NRY DNA share some similar features which ... Jews and Levantine Arabs rather than earlier Neolithic farmers). Iberia also has an admixture level of ancestry originating in ... Whereas Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups represent but a small component of a person's DNA pool, autosomal DNA has the advantage of ... Neolithic" (H58, H71). Recent Mitochondrial DNA studies coincide in that the Iberian Peninsula holds higher levels of typically ...
Looking at Y-DNA studies, it would seem that one of the earliest groups of humans to reach Asia did so approximately 50-60,000 ... Neolithic settlements have been found from Liaoning province in the northeast to the Chengdu region in the southwest; from ... 2008). "Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese ... Higham, C.F.W.; Xie Guangmao; Lin Qiang (June 2011). "The prehistory of a Friction Zone: first farmers and hunters-gatherers in ...
... élite imposition such as may have happened with the appearance of the first farmers or metalworkers in the Neolithic, Bronze ... Mitochondrial DNA on the other hand follows matrilineal inheritance, meaning it is only passed on from the mother to her ... The language of the Balti corresponds to the mtDNA and not to the Y chromosome and is in effect a salient example of a mother ... élite imposition such as may have happened with the appearance of the first farmers or metalworkers in the Neolithic, Bronze ...
... chromosome DNA haplogroup Molecular phylogenetics Paragroup Subclade Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world Y-DNA ... Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93 ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O-M119 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-M119 is a descendant branch of haplogroup O ... "Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea". The American Journal of ...
... chromosome DNA haplogroup Molecular phylogenetics Paragroup Subclade Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world Y-DNA ... One of various Pre-Pottery Neolithic B fossils that were analysed for ancient DNA was found to carry the paternal haplogroup E( ... 17 June 2016). "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". bioRxiv 059311 . -- Table S6.1 - Y-chromosome haplogroups ... Y-DNA) - Eupedia Haplogroup E-V38 Y-DNA Project at FTDNA E-M243 Y-DNA Project at FTDNA Haplozone::The E-M35 Phylogeny Project ( ...
"Y-DNA Haplotree".. Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website. ... genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Hum. Biol. 77 (1): 93-114 ... "Family Tree DNA - Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy".. *^ "Family Tree DNA - My FamilyTree DNA Latvia ... a b c The Y Chromosome Consortium 2008 *^ a b c d e f g Cristofaro; et al. (2013). "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub- ...
Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup molecular phylogeny Paragroup Subclade Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world Y-DNA ... Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93 ... Haplogroup M, also known as M-P256 and Haplogroup K2b1b (previously K2b1d) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. M-P256 is a ... "Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea". The American Journal of ...
Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA) P.A. Underhill, N.M. Myres, S. Rootsi, C.T. Chow ... Mass migrations of Middle Eastern farmers during Neolithic and Indo-Europeans during Bronze Age greatly decreased frequncy of ... Haplogroup I-M438, also known as I2 (and until 2007 as I1b), is a human DNA Y-chromosome haplogroup, a subclade of Haplogroup I ... 2013), Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny Battaglia, V; Fornarino, S; Al- ...
"Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland ... "Past research found that 50-80 percent of DNA from the Ashkenazi Y chromosome, which is used to trace the male lineage, ... and Y-chromosomal DNA (Y-DNA). Autosomal DNA is a mixture from an individual's entire ancestry, Y-DNA shows a male's lineage ... Like most DNA studies of human migration patterns, the earliest studies on Ashkenazi Jews focused on the Y-DNA and mtDNA ...
I think we can now safely say that G2a may have been the main Neolithic link that ties the farmers that went north across the ... Labels ancient DNA, France, G2, Genomics, haplogroup, I2a, Lactose, mtDNA, Neolithic, Sardinia, Y chromosome ... Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal DNA from Treilles (5,000 years ago, Neolithic France) ... Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route. Marie Lacan et al.. The Neolithic is a key period ...
... the Y-chromosomes of the two male individuals belong to haplogroup G2a2, which has been observed in European Neolithic farmers ... 2011) Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(24):9788-9791. ... suggesting that European Neolithic farmers [namely, Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Starcevo, and Early Hungarian Neolithic farmers] ... The mtDNA haplogroups of all five Neolithic individuals are typical of those found in central European Neolithic farmers and ...
At the site of Els Trocs in the Spanish Pyrenees, rivalling groups of either migrating early farmers or farmers and indigenous ... This clash apparently resulted in a massacre of the Els Trocs farmers. The overkill reaction was possibly triggered by ... Multi-scale ancient DNA analyses confirm the western origin of Michelsberg farmers and document probable practices of human ... Genetic sex was determined based on the ratio of sequence reads mapped to the X and Y chromosomes. Data mentioned in this paper ...
2005). "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter- ... gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Human biology; an international record of research. 77 (1): 93-114. doi: ... 2009). "Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis". Molecular ... by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. Oceania Languages of Oceania Demographics of Oceania List of ...
Did farmers from the Middle East move into the region, or did the locals learn for themselves? And if Neolithic farmers did ... On the basis of 22 different variations, or genetic markers, on the Y chromosome, they reconstructed a family tree and found ... results answer some questions but raise others because they correspond only in part with earlier studies of mitochondrial DNA ... As for signs of Neolithic farmers migrating from the Middle East in more recent times, the analysis found that only 20 percent ...
A 2017 study showed that British Neolithic farmers had formerly been genetically similar to contemporary populations in the ... Initial studies suggested that this situation is different with the paternal Y-chromosome DNA, varying from 10-100% across the ... The Neolithic was the period of domestication of plants and animals, but the arrival of a Neolithic package of farming and a ... are descended in the female line from Neolithic farmers from the Middle East and from subsequent migrations. The percentage in ...
Iraqi Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup distribution is similar to that of Kuwait, Lebanon, Turkey, and Syria. No significant ... Studies have reported that most Irish and Britons have ancestry to Neolithic farmers who left modern day Iraq, Jordan and Syria ... "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations" (2003 ... In another study, scientists analysed DNA from the 8,000-year-old remains of early farmers found at an ancient graveyard in ...
... foremost among them the Neolithic farmers.. Unless, of course, the Neolithic farmers were the Indo-Europeans, following Renfrew ... Because of ancient DNA extraction the historical genetic history of Europe is in flux right now. Uniparental haplogroups which ... A funny article noted that X chromosome typing shows that females tended to settle with or mate with(unknown as for context or ... Unless, of course, the Neolithic farmers were the Indo-Europeans, following Renfrew et al.. i rate the probability of this as ...
2005 Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310, 1016-1018. (doi:10.1126/science ... The discontinuity between hunter-gatherer and farmer ancestry is also visible in our Y chromosome results. Y chromosome study ... 2012 Ancient DNA from an Early Neolithic Iberian population supports a pioneer colonization by first farmers. Mol. Ecol. 21, 45 ... 2010 Ancient DNA from European early Neolithic farmers reveals their Near Eastern affinities. PLoS Biol. 8, e1000536. (doi: ...
2005 Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310, 1016-1018. doi:10.1126/science. ... Several studies on the European Neolithic transition suggest that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome data can exhibit ... 2010 Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic farmers reveals their Near Eastern affinities. PLoS Biol. 8, e1000536. doi: ... 2011 Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 9788-9791. ...
Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]. Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2] ... Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93 ... Haplogroup O-K18 also known as O-F2320 and (as of 2017) Haplogroup O1b1,[3] is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup ... Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Kashyap, V.K. (2006). "Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome haplogroups reveal asymmetric ...
Each invasion in the last 9000 years would have progressively reduced the proportion of the original Neolithic farmers as new ... wait and see: we have yet very few Y- ancient DNA for Great Europe (an for other places) -its better for mt-DNA - the metric ... Whether this is determined by mtDNA, the X-chromosomes and/or other chromosomes is less clear, but womens bodies actively ... And Anthro-inclined, Lebrok is correct on his description of y-DNA (or really any type of DNA) mutations. Its a blind, random ...
DNA and the Y chromosome allowing a more detailed exploration of alternative models for the spread of the Neolithic into Europe ... which population geneticists initially attributed to the demographic impact of Neolithic farmers dispersing from the Near East ... Richards, Martin B. (2003) The Neolithic transition in Europe: archaeological models and genetic evidence. Documenta ...
... insertions and deletions within Y-DNA genes have been selected by evolution and came to define most top-level Y-DNA haplogroups ... Haplogroup G2a (Y-DNA). The main paternal lineage of Neolithic farmers.. Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA). The dominant Arabic paternal ... As the Y chromosome does not recombine with the X chromosome, men inherited exactly the same Y chromosome as their fathers, ... Famous Y-DNA *Y-DNA by country *Y-DNA Maps *Y-DNA Phylogeny ... G2a2b2 was the main haplogroup of European Neolithic farmers, ...
Ancient X chromosomes reveal contrasting sex bias in Neolithic and Bronze Age Eurasian migrations. Proceedings of the National ... Ancient mitochondrial DNA from the northern fringe of the Neolithic farming expansion in Europe sheds light on the dispersion ... Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe. Science 336(6080), 466-9 ... In Fowler, C., Harding, J., and Hofmann, D. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe, 573-604. Oxford: Oxford University ...
... is Recommended by DNA plane lands from evolved GBSSI chromosomes. Fehrer J, Gemeinholzer B, Chrtek J, Brä utigam S( 2007). ... Paul Farmer the download simplexity why simple things become complex and how complex things of Mr. Mountains beyond Mountains. ... auditions Degnan JH, Salter LA( 2005). fermentation democracy trade-unions under the Neolithic pollen. Doyle position, Doyle JL ... Chromosome Res. A tropical time of Pygmy Hippopotamus( Choeropsis penetrance) Karyotype by Cross-Species Chromosome Painting. ...
Europeans are descended from Middle Eastern farmers, who brought their Neolithic cultural toolkit less than 10,000 years ago. ... this indicates that most European Y chromosomes originate in the Neolithic expansion. This reinterpretation makes Europe a ... Anthropologist Meredith Small says DNA testing is a scam * Fighting the mantra, People vary more within the groups than vary ... The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near ...
Bridging the European and Anatolian Neolithic Demography, migration, and lifestyle at the advent of... ... To study these patterns, BEAN researchers in Mainz and Dublin captured and sequenced ancient DNA from Mesolithic and Neolithic ... with a Y-chromosome capture for the re-sequencing of non-repetitive regions of the Y-chromosome of Mesolithic and Neolithic ... Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans. BioRxiv. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/032763) and ...
The peopling of Europe and the cautionary tale of Y chromosome lineage R-M269 (B ... Neolithic farmers.. If Busby et al indeed found that there was no east-to-west variance cline in the whole M269 set, why say ... I notice that, while the total S145 (L21) figure is fairly high (8%), a sizable chunk of that is M222 (1.4% of the y-dna total ... Neolithic farmers.. Because they are talking about two completely different sets, they showed that in their set (A combination ...
To generate the observed gradients, four conditions are necessary, namely: (i) that the Neolithic farmers of the Levant ... DNA variation is conveniently summarized by gene genealogies. Because of their (complete, or nearly so) absence of ... For instance, biallelic Y-chromosome polymorphisms show a gradient from Northeastern Europe into the South (32), which has also ... mostly in Neolithic times, but from other places and in other times as well. Colin Renfrew remarked that the model of Neolithic ...
... of Y-chromosome haplogroup G2a). We model Early Neolithic farmers from central Europe and Iberia as a genetic mixture of ~90% ... 23andMe Admixture Africa African Genetics Afrikaner Amazon Ancestry Ancient DNA Asia Behavior Genetics Bell Beaker Books China ... We suggest that the language spoken by the homogeneous Anatolian-European Neolithic farmers is unlikely to have been the same ... We model early European farmers as mixtures of Neolithic Anatolians and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers, revealing very ...
We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared ... 23andMe Admixture African Genetics Ancient DNA Behavior Genetics Books Burma China China genetics Cognitive Science CRISPR ... in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic ... European man perhaps not a Middle Eastern farmer. Posted on April 30, 2010. November 30, -0001. by Razib Khan ...
This male-specific decline occurred during the mid- to late-Neolithic period. ... 20150316-y-chromosome-bottleneck More in Biology. * An integrated approach to finding new treatments for breast cancer Baylor ... The DNA you inherit from your parents contributes to the physical make-up of your body -- whether you have blue eyes or brown, ... This male-specific decline occurred during the mid- to late-Neolithic period. ...
Reduced Y-chromosome, but not mitochondrial DNA, diversity in human populations from West New Guinea. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72, ... Genomic diversity and admixture differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian foragers and farmers. Science 344, 747-750 (2014). doi: ... sets it apart from other parts of the world that also underwent Neolithic lifestyle transitions. Ancient DNA studies in Europe ... Deep roots for Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes. Curr. Biol. 26, 809-813 (2016). doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.028pmid:26923783 ...
"Y-DNA Haplotree".. Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website. ... genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Hum. Biol. 77 (1): 93-114 ... Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]. Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2] ... "Family Tree DNA - Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy".. *^ "Family Tree DNA - My FamilyTree DNA Latvia ...
  • G2a was also one of the haplogroups represented in a small sample from Neolithic Central Europe . (blogspot.com)
  • Listed here are notable ethnic groups and native populations from the Oceania (Pacific Islands and Australia) by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • For both mtDNA and Y-DNA variation, the large majority of the haplogroups observed in the Iraqi population (H, J, T, and U for the mtDNA, J-M172 and J-M267 for the Y-DNA) are those considered to have originated in Western Asia and to have later spread mainly in Western Eurasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Eurasian haplogroups R1b and R1a represent the second most frequent component of the Iraqi Y-chromosome gene pool, the latter suggests that the population movements from Central Asia into modern Iran also influenced Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possibility is that the G Y-chromosome produces slightly less male offspring than other haplogroups. (eupedia.com)
  • If a given Neolithic population had 50% of hg G, with a bias of -1% of boys per generation against other haplogroups, it would have taken about 7000 years for the proportion of G to naturally decline to only 5% of the population. (eupedia.com)
  • Taken with evidence on the origins of other haplogroups, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes originate in the Neolithic expansion. (anthropology.net)
  • Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Y-chromosome. (gnxp.com)
  • We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation-defined by short tandem repeats (STRs)-in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. (gnxp.com)
  • The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. (gnxp.com)
  • For one, modern-day populations speaking languages belonging to all other late PIE branches, such as Armenian, Greek, Indo-Iranian and Italic, show signals of the same population expansion from the Pontic-Caspian steppe that gave rise to modern-day Northern Europeans, in the form of Yamnaya-related genome-wide genetic admixture and appreciable frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups R1a-M417 and/or R1b-M269. (blogspot.com)
  • Since Y chromosome lacks recombination, the haplogroups of this series show a greater extent of diverse genome-specific geographical distributions and these haplogroups have been found to play a major role in forensic investigations and population genetics. (springer.com)
  • Due to its uniqueness among the other human chromosomes, Y chromosome haplogroups or haplotypes have been used for the identification of criminals in forensic cases (Jobling et al. (springer.com)
  • Ancient DNA suggests that Bronze Age steppe groups were highly patrilocal, and if so, it's likely that most of the mixture on the steppe at this time was facilitated via female exogamy (i.e. foreign brides), which would explain the lack of typically Caucasian Y-haplogroups, such as J2, in Bronze Age steppe and derived ancient groups sampled to date, such as the Corded Ware people and eastern Bell Beakers. (blogspot.com)
  • An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. (nih.gov)
  • Europe s likely dominant or notable Y-DNA haplogroups around 7000 BC, 2000 BC, 117 AD and 1227 AD. (skadi.net)
  • Human genetic history is complicated, particular in Europe, therefore the territorial lines associated with major Y-DNA haplogroups in these maps should be seen as best guesses based on current knowledge of genetics, archaeology, and history (sources below). (skadi.net)
  • In the intervening period agriculture had developed in the Levant and then spread through southern, central and eastern Europe by Neolithic farmers belonging mainly to Y-haplogroups such as G2a, and J2. (skadi.net)
  • We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ~ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. (blogspot.com)
  • Genetic researchers say they have found compelling evidence that, on average, four out of five (80%) Europeans can trace their Y chromosome to the ancient Near East. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Neolithic transitions that took place at different times and locations around the world led to major cultural and demographic changes that influenced and therefore left their marks on human genetic diversity patterns. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We developed a new individual-based simulation approach to explore the genetic consequences of 45 different scenarios, where we varied the patterns of PMR and admixture between HGs and farmers. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We show that: (i) different PMR systems can lead to different patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation, (ii) asymmetries between mtDNA and Y-chromosome can be owing to different behaviours between males and females, but also to different mutations rates, and (iii) patrilocality in farmers explains the present patterns of genetic diversity better than matrilocality or bilocality. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Moreover, we found that (iv) the genetic diversity of farmers change depending on the HGs PMR rules even though they are assumed to disappear more than 5000 years ago in our simulations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The major pattern in the European gene pool is a southeast-northwest frequency gradient of classic genetic markers such as blood groups, which population geneticists initially attributed to the demographic impact of Neolithic farmers dispersing from the Near East. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The Neolithic period marks the advent of settled farming life in Europe and is a crucial period in the genetic and cultural history of modern Europeans. (europa.eu)
  • Comparisons of levels and patterns of genetic diversity with the predictions of models based on archeological evidence suggest that the spread of early farmers from the Levant was probably the main episode in the European population history, but that both older and more recent processes have left recognizable traces in the current gene pool. (pnas.org)
  • Model-free principal components and model-based admixture analyses confirm a strong genetic relationship between Anatolian and European farmers. (gnxp.com)
  • We model Early Neolithic farmers from central Europe and Iberia as a genetic mixture of ~90% Anatolians and ~10% European hunter-gatherers, suggesting little influence by Mesolithic Europeans prior to the dispersal of European farmers into the interior of the continent. (gnxp.com)
  • Interestingly, despite the R1a vs R1b dichotomy between these post-Middle Neolithic obvious newcomers to the Baltic and North Sea regions, respectively, they were very similar in terms of overall genetic structure, obviously closely related, starkly different from Middle Neolithic Northern Europeans, and in all likelihood mainly derived from the same homeland that was not located in Northern Europe. (blogspot.com)
  • Scientists specifically studied the Y chromosome, which is passed down through the male lineage, and the mitochondria, which is passed to offspring by the genetic mother. (eurekalert.org)
  • After sequencing the auroch's complete genome - or genetic blueprint - researchers compared it with the genomes of 81 domesticated B. taurus and B. indicus animals as well as to DNA belonging to over 1,200 modern cows. (natureworldnews.com)
  • The genetic analysis also revealed that modern cows' neurobiology and muscle development are associated with European ancestors, which suggests that farmers may have bred cattle based on behavioral traits and meat requirements. (natureworldnews.com)
  • The findings challenge previous research showing that the genetic signature of the farmers displaced that of Europe's indigenous hunters. (worldfamilies.net)
  • The people buried in the Ansarve tomb are remarkably different on a genetic level compared to the contemporaneous individuals excavated from hunter-gather-contexts, showing that the burial tradition in this megalithic tomb, which lasted for over 700 years, was performed by distinct groups with roots in the European Neolithic expansion," says archaeogeneticist Magdalena Fraser of Uppsala University and co-first author. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Whether present-day European genetic variation and its distribution patterns can be attributed primarily to the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans during the Paleolithic, or to latter Near Eastern Neolithic input is still the subject of debate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We find high genetic continuity (~80-90%) between the hunter-gatherers and early farmers of Anatolia and detect two distinct incoming ancestries: an early Iranian/Caucasus related one and a later one linked to the ancient Levant. (nature.com)
  • Further topic is the genetic investigation of the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition and the origin of the southeastern European Starčevo farmers. (blogspot.com)
  • and whose genetic material we extracted by focusing on the DNA-rich petrous bone. (blogspot.ca)
  • A recent DNA study of the Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans led by Iosif Lazaridis and published in Nature magazine in 2017 shed some needed light on the origins of ancient Greek civilizations. (allinnet.info)
  • Genetic evidence of Caucasian admixture in ancient DNA is absent on the steppe until the Eneolithic (i.e. the Copper Age). (blogspot.com)
  • The genomes of the woman farmer did not show these - highlighting that the genetic make-up of Irish people had changed dramatically in just 1,000 years. (independent.ie)
  • All of these samples are z93+, none have Iran Neolithic or ASI ancestry, and all demonstrate whole or partial genetic continuity with the prior samples. (wordpress.com)
  • Y-DNA also presents just a small part of our overall genetic picture. (skadi.net)
  • The first steps ever by genetic science into the Harappan space, both studies are based on DNA samples taken from those same burials at Rakhigarhi. (outlookindia.com)
  • The other paper, authored by Niraj Rai, head of the Ancient DNA lab at Lucknow's Birbal Sahni Institute for Palaeosciences, and co-authored by Harvard geneticist Vagheesh Narasimhan et al, maps the genetic ancestry of the Harappans for the first time ever. (outlookindia.com)
  • You can either search "how to download raw genetic data from" and the name of your testing company or go directly to the tutorials from Ancestry DNA , 23 and Me , or Family Tree DNA . (nebula.org)
  • Also this: https://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/07/16/there-was-very-little-genetic-flow-between-europe-and-north-africa/ 'High-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome variation shows a sharp discontinuity and limited gene flow between northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula' Bosch E, Calafell F, Comas D, Oefner PJ, Underhill PA, Bertranpetit J. (blogspot.com)
  • The genetic evidence we discuss consists mainly of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ( Figure 1 ) and non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) data ( Figure 2 ), because the relevant autosomal DNA data for addressing Asian population history are still relatively scarce. (daum.net)
  • Many genetic genealogists have tried since Ancestry began doing autosomal DNA (atDNA) tests in 2012 to have them provide a chromosome feature. (blogspot.com)
  • The 538G right arrow A SNP is the first example of DNA polymorphism determining a visible genetic trait. (blogspot.hk)
  • A change in selection pressure may therefore explain, at least in part, the genetic divide between late hunter-gatherers and early farmers in Europe. (blogspot.com)
  • For one thing, wherever we have a fairly continuous time series of ancient DNA, the genetic divide no longer appears between the latest hunter-gatherers and the earliest farmers. (blogspot.com)
  • Conclusion This is the first description of Y chromosome haplotyping of the population of eastern Croatia, which may serve as a basis for genetic epidemiology and forensic studies. (ebscohost.com)
  • Further studies are needed for characterization of the genetic structure of the Y-chromosome in the modern Croatian population. (ebscohost.com)
  • Croatian genetic heritage: Y-chromosome story. (ebscohost.com)
  • All has changed in recent years, for not only have several concrete traces of the passing of the shadowy peoples of the mesolithic been uncovered, their genetic legacy has been revealed using modern DNA analysis techniques. (livingmountain.net)
  • Community Indo-Europeists animatedly discussing just appeared as a preprint work of David Raika and his colleagues discovered by studying the genomes of people Neolithic and Bronze Age that a decisive influence on the genetic landscape of Europe has had a migration of people pit culture to the north and west in the middle of the III millennium. (blogspot.no)
  • We study 1.2 million genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms on a sample of 26 Neolithic individuals (~6,300 years BCE) from northwestern Anatolia. (gnxp.com)
  • Then, Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms were subsequently analyzed from the samples detected as male. (blogspot.no)
  • This male-specific decline occurred during the mid- to late-Neolithic period. (eurekalert.org)
  • Interestingly, it argues that migrations from the steppe resulted in a ~50% population turnover across northern Europe from the late Neolithic onwards, which is very much in agreement with recent discussions on the topic at Eurogenes (for instance, see here ). (blogspot.be)
  • Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ~4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ~3/4 of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. (blogspot.be)
  • This period of time is categorized as the Late Neolithic, notable for such inventions as the wheel, the rise of agriculture, mathematics and astronomy. (treehugger.com)
  • G2a was found also in 20 out of 22 samples of ancient Y-DNA from Treilles , the type-site of a Late Neolithic group of farmers in the South of France , dated to about 5000 years ago. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Finally, it was during the Late Neolithic period in which a reduction in the number of large villages across the Middle East began. (bartleby.com)
  • It was also during this period in which a decline in the role of hunting for subsistence became apparant, as well as Late Neolithic societies reliance on plants that were domesticated during the Early Neolithic periods. (bartleby.com)
  • Three samples from the Remedello culture in Late Neolithic northern Italy (3483-1773 BCE) scored an average of 35.2%, considerably more than modern Italians, even Sardinians. (eupedia.com)
  • Studies have reported that most Irish and Britons have ancestry to Neolithic farmers who left modern day Iraq, Jordan and Syria 10,000 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that the language spoken by the homogeneous Anatolian-European Neolithic farmers is unlikely to have been the same as that spoken by the Yamnaya steppe pastoralists whose ancestry was derived from eastern Europe and a different population from the Caucasus/Near East [Haak et al. (gnxp.com)
  • If you're interested in human population genetics, check out this article about a Y chromosome study of British males which suggests most of them can trace their ancestry back to Neolithic farmers who began migrating in successive waves from the Middle East to Europe about 10,000 years ago (8,000 years BCE), finally arriving in the British Isles around 4,000 years BCE. (wordpress.com)
  • She had some hunter-gatherer ancestry but belonged to a population of large effective size, suggesting a substantial influx of early farmers to the island. (blogspot.com)
  • The process that led to the Yamnaya genotype eventually led to its extinction by the Late Bronze Age, due to the large scale spread of Middle Neolithic European farmer ancestry across the entire Pontic-Caspian steppe, probably from its western half, resulting in the formation of the Steppe_MLBA genotype, exemplified by the Sintashta and Srubnaya people. (blogspot.com)
  • The female farmer had an ancestry originating in the Middle East, where agriculture was invented. (independent.ie)
  • Poltavka outlier is a mix of Yamnaya ancestry and Early European Farmer ancestry, resembling the Corded Ware samples, which occur just before it temporally and beside it geographically. (wordpress.com)
  • However, because the majority of the Y-chromosome is transmitted from father to son, with small mutations in pretty much every generation, it offers a good degree of resolution on population history and movement through male-line ancestry. (skadi.net)
  • The Rakhigarhi samples have a significant amount of 'Iranian farmer' ancestry. (outlookindia.com)
  • There are also other DNA tools that let you explore your ancestry. (nebula.org)
  • That's what this tutorial is for: We'll walk you through how to sign up for free, upload your raw DNA data from other DNA testing sites, how to look at your ancestry, and explore your family relationships. (nebula.org)
  • Are you interested in decoding 100% of your DNA for more accurate ancestry results and more DNA matches with relatives? (nebula.org)
  • Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry. (blogspot.com)
  • As Ancestry has about 500,000 sutosomal DNA (atDNA) testers at this time and their threshold (until now) was 5.0 cMs (centimorgans) with Family Tree DNA's test called Family Finder has a threshold of 7.7 cMs and 23andMe's threshold is 7.0. (blogspot.com)
  • Attendees of this meeting reported the same comment by Ancestry that we heard from the beginning which is basically that Ancestry does not believe the common genealogist can understand how to use the chromosome browser. (blogspot.com)
  • Recommended by Eupedia - best Ancestry DNA test in 2017! (eupedia.com)
  • and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. (weebly.com)
  • We tested the null hypothesis that Spanish-Americans of northern New Mexico carry essentially the same profile of paternally inherited DNA variation as the peoples of Iberia, and the relevant alternative hypothesis that the sampled Spanish-Americans possess inherited DNA variation that reflects Jewish ancestry significantly greater than that in present-day Iberia. (blogspot.cz)
  • BEAN focused on demographic questions surrounding the spread of the cultural, technological, and biological components of the Neolithic from western Anatolia and the Balkans to the rest of Europe. (europa.eu)
  • Our partners have developed computer programs which can incorporate diverse data streams into spatially-explicit models of the diffusion of Neolithic culture westward from Anatolia. (europa.eu)
  • Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic. (anthropology.net)
  • Nature, we achieved unprecedented success in obtaining genome-wide data on more than 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphism targets from 34 Neolithic individuals from Northwestern Anatolia (~6,300 years BCE), including 18 at greater than 1× coverage. (gnxp.com)
  • A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. (gnxp.com)
  • From the Neolithic period (expansion of farmers from Anatolia to Greece to southern Italy) up to the classical period (Etruscan and Greek colonizations) the Mediterranean was often more of a highway than a barrier. (skadi.net)
  • A debate persists concerning whether these farmers originated in neighboring Anatolia and the role of maritime colonization. (nih.gov)
  • And if Neolithic farmers did move west from the Fertile Crescent, did they replace the Paleolithic locals? (scientificamerican.com)
  • In all, the descendents of these Paleolithic markers accounted for 80 percent of the Y-chromosome variants in modern European men. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Southeastern Europe has been a crossroads for several cultures since Paleolithic times and the Balkans, specifically, would have been part of the route used by Neolithic farmers to enter Europe. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The most striking possibility, which this find supports, but doesn't come close to proving, is that R1b may be something that appeared only in the Chalcolithic (i.e. copper age) in Western Europe, at least on a widespread basis, rather than the early Neolithic (i.e. the advent of farming and herding), or in the repopulation of Europe during the Upper Paleolithic from refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum had retreated. (discovermagazine.com)
  • This scenario, with fairly late population replacement/displacement would be a major blow to notions of Paleolithic continuity, while also not embracing a "First Farmers" view of the defining period for modern-like European population genetics. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Our results therefore provide an overwhelming support to the migration of Near Eastern/Anatolian farmers into southeast and Central Europe around 7,000-6,500 BCE [Ammerman & Cavalli Sforza, 1984, Pinhasi et al. (gnxp.com)
  • The parallel analyses of the mtDNA and the Y-chromosome raise the question, whether men and women had different migration patterns or Neolithisation histories. (blogspot.com)
  • See, e.g ., here (migration from the Steppe paper) and here (earlier Eurogenes post analyzing ancient DNA samples). (blogspot.com)
  • The working title of my thesis is "The migration history of African farmers and herders: Inferences from ancient and modern-day DNA. (i-am-an-african.net)
  • Nevertheless the fast evolving markers did uncover a higher within population diversity in Brazil than Portugal, which could be explained by the input of diverse European Y chromosomes carried by several migration waves to Brazil. (blogspot.cz)
  • Wilson Sayres said the next step is to continue the research by gathering a greater number of DNA samples, increasing the diversity of the samples, and working with anthropologists and sociologists to gain a broader perspective on the findings. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies of Y-chromosomal diversity in Asia and the Middle-East also support a model of demic diffusion, of farmers from South-West Iran and nomads from western and central Asia, into India (12). (le.ac.uk)
  • The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (isogg.org)
  • I would call particular attention to this ancient DNA study from 2008 ( https://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/09/11/mitochondrial-diversity-in-the-taforalt-population-12000-bp/ ): 'Diversité mitochondriale de la population de Taforalt (12.000 ans bp - maroc): une approche génétique a l'étude du peuplement de l'afrique du nord. (blogspot.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. (hud.ac.uk)
  • However, in contrast to data provided from other regions of the genome, Y-chromosome gene diversity in Taiwan mountain tribes significantly increases from North to South. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results support the theory of a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe, and show the power of genome-wide ancient DNA studies to document human migrations. (blogspot.be)
  • The Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions were profound cultural shifts catalyzed in parts of Europe by migrations, first of early farmers from the Near East and then Bronze Age herders from the Pontic Steppe. (blogspot.com)
  • The unambiguous West Asian origin of this lineage should put to rest any ideas about Neolithic farmers in the Western Mediterranean being descended from indigenous Mesolithic foragers. (blogspot.com)
  • The absence of J2 is equally mysterious, as this is another putative Neolithic lineage which has failed to appear so far in a Neolithic context, while its J1 sister clade did make an appearance in much later aboriginals from the Canary Islands . (blogspot.com)
  • This complements maternal lineage studies using mitochondrial DNA and studies using biparentally inherited markers in the rest of the genome. (le.ac.uk)
  • The typing of slow evolving polymorphisms on the Y chromosome also revealed no differences between Brazilians and Portuguese, the bulk of European immigrants to Brazil, and even among Brazilians from distinct regions of Brazil, the latter being in sharp contrast with mtDNA data. (blogspot.cz)
  • I think we can now safely say that G2a may have been the main Neolithic link that ties the farmers that went north across the Balkans to Central Europe, and those that followed the western, maritime route to the Western Mediterranean. (blogspot.com)
  • Archaeological evidence demonstrates that ancient Britons were involved in extensive maritime trade and cultural links with the rest of Europe from the Neolithic onwards, especially by exporting tin that was in abundant supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDM proposes that agriculture and related technologies arrived in Europe without a significant movement of farmers. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here we present 9 Y chromosomal and 84 mitochondrial DNA profiles from Mesolithic, Neolithic Starčevo and LBK sites (seventh/sixth millennia BC) from the Carpathian Basin and southeastern Europe. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Molecular genetics has enriched this picture, with analyses of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome allowing a more detailed exploration of alternative models for the spread of the Neolithic into Europe. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Depuis qu'une étude d'ADN a indiqué un flux génétique marqué venu de l'est en Europe centrale au 3ème millénaire av. (cambridge.org)
  • Nous argumentons qu'une classification polythétique du matériel archéologique en Europe centrale au 3ème millénaire révèle la présence d'un nouveau complexe de rituels d'inhumations individuelles qui transcendent les traditionnelles étiquettes de cultures. (cambridge.org)
  • Ancient DNA in Europe strongly indicates massive replacement . (gnxp.com)
  • Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. (gnxp.com)
  • It's highly unlikely that languages ancestral to these present-day languages were spoken by Middle Neolithic farmers, nor introduced into Northern Europe after it was colonized by the migrants from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. (blogspot.com)
  • Researchers studied DNA samples taken from the saliva or blood of 456 males living in seven regions of five continents including Africa, the Andes, South-Asia, near East and Central Asia, Europe and Oceania. (eurekalert.org)
  • The individuals in the megaliths were closely related to Neolithic farmers in northern and western Europe, and also to some groups in Iberia, but less related to farmer groups in central Europe. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • We addressed this issue here by analysing the G2a4-defining L91 SNP in 7,797 chromosomes from 30 regions across Europe. (blogspot.ca)
  • While we detect Late Palaeolithic-Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum . (blogspot.com)
  • Early LBK farmers from Central Europe resemble later Oetzi, Swedish farmers , and probably Iberian farmers too. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • The earliest Neolithic sites of Europe are located in Crete and mainland Greece. (nih.gov)
  • This seems to parallel quite well with my hypothesis of a secondary expansion into Europe of the component I've labeled "West Asian", after the early Neolithic. (blogspot.nl)
  • It has long been recognised that the Neolithic spread across Europe via two separate routes, one along the Mediterranean coasts, the other following the axis of the major rivers. (blogspot.nl)
  • This study of barley DNA shows that the domesticated barley grown in Neolithic Europe falls into three separate types (groups A, B and C), each of which may have had a separate centre of origin in south-west Asia. (blogspot.nl)
  • Barley was relatively rarely cultivated by the early Linearbandkeramik farmers of Central and Northern Europe, but became more common during the fifth and fourth millennia BC. (blogspot.nl)
  • It also suggests that the barley grown in south-eastern Europe at the very beginning of the Neolithic may have arrived there by different routes from two separate centres of domestication in south-west Asia. (blogspot.nl)
  • However, early European farmers, whose ancestors almost certainly migrated to Europe from the Near East during the Neolithic, probably had somewhat different pigmentation traits. (blogspot.hk)
  • 2014). It is supposed to reflect the percentage of similarity with Neolithic farmers who colonised Europe from the Near East. (eupedia.com)
  • We have previously shown that the Y chromosomes of 'white' Brazilians have their immediate geographical origin in Europe, with low frequency of sub-Saharan African chromosomes and virtual absence of Amerindian contribution. (blogspot.cz)
  • Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture . (freerepublic.com)
  • The evolution of the human Y chromosome can be traced using SNPs accumulated from generation to generation. (eupedia.com)
  • These accumulated mutations, or SNPs, make it possible to classify all human Y chromosome in a grand evolutionary tree. (eupedia.com)
  • The development of DNA expertise has supplemented diverse areas, utilization of DNA evidence through Y-SNPs, Y chromosome-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), bringing in immense possibilities in assisting the criminal justice system. (springer.com)
  • Defining a New Rate Constant for Y-Chromosome SNPs based on Full Sequencing Data. (isogg.org)
  • Using 180 height-associated SNPs 27 (restricted to 169 where we successfully targeted at least two chromosomes in each population), we detect a significant signal of directional selection on height (p=0.002). (blogspot.ca)
  • They also recommend against uploading imputed data where a computer has tried to guess what your DNA might have been in between the SNPs that were actually tested. (nebula.org)
  • The first evidence of food production (farming and animal breeding-i.e., the so-called Neolithic revolution) dates at around 10,000 years B.P. in the Levant ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • A new study deals a blow to the idea that most European men are descended from farmers who migrated from the Near East 5,000-10,000 years ago. (worldfamilies.net)
  • Cultivated einkorn continued to be a popular food crop during the Neolithic and early Bronze Ages (10,000-4,000 BCE) until finally giving way to emmer wheat in the mid Bronze Age. (westonaprice.org)
  • His team of researchers will sequence DNA from ancient Eurasian bones and teeth, dating back 10,000 years. (cigibuilding.it)
  • Or the Neolithic farmers who began to spread out of the Middle East some 10,000 years ago? (blogspot.com)
  • If we combine both the positive bias of R1b (and possibly others like R1a, some subclades of J2 or E1b1b) and the negative bias of G2a (and possibly many subclades of F, I, J1xJ1c3, and T), it would in fact take much less than a 1% bias in each direction for frequencies for shift dramatically since the Neolithic or Bronze Age. (eupedia.com)
  • They also carried out DNA analysis of three men on Rathlin Island from 4,000 years ago in the Bronze Age after metalworking began. (independent.ie)
  • The nearby satellite site of Bhirrana, part of this Bronze Age metropolitan network, is even older: it offers the classic arc of evolution, beginning from early Neolithic farming around 7500 BC. (outlookindia.com)
  • Previous ancient DNA studies published genome-scale data for thirteen individuals from four Bronze Age sites in typology, and radiocarbon dating, and vast exposures of remains, including significant monuments. (cigibuilding.it)
  • The mutations in non-functional regions of the y chromosome are "silent" - they don't do anything. (hauridna.com)
  • DNA evidence has turned into an influential tool in forensic sciences for resolving cases in relating a suspect to a scene of crime, determining issues regarding biological relationships, and recognizing victims of mass disasters. (springer.com)
  • Toward resolution of the debate regarding purported crypto-Jews in a Spanish-American population: Evidence from the Y chromosome. (blogspot.cz)
  • 2005 ), nowadays, in the field of forensic genetics, short tandem repeats (STRs)-centered DNA testing (Edwards et al. (springer.com)
  • These unique properties of the Y have important consequences for its mutation processes, its genes, and its population genetics: Y chromosomes pass down from father to son largely unchanged, except by the gradual accumulation of mutations. (le.ac.uk)
  • Newsweek has an article titled "DNA Testing: In Our Blood", which offers layman's introduction to the world of population genetics and geneaological testing. (blogspot.hk)
  • Aim To investigate the population genetics of 17 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in the population of eastern Croatia. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Y-chromosome is an extreme outlier compared to modern groups, probably because of its heavy G2a domination, whereas the mtDNA from Treilles appears just like a normal and unexceptional Mediterranean-type population. (blogspot.com)
  • As for signs of Neolithic farmers migrating from the Middle East in more recent times, the analysis found that only 20 percent of the current male population bore such markers. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Mitochondrial, nuclear, and Y-chromosome data were used to infer past population movements and selection pressures, and to orient important demographic events and processes in time and space. (europa.eu)
  • Our interests lie in developing powerful new polymorphic marker systems, and applying these to questions of population structure and history, genealogy, forensics, and the investigation of selective influences on the Y chromosome. (le.ac.uk)
  • It appears as these Neolithic societies were tightly knit with very close kin relations across burial sites," says population-geneticist Federico Sanchez-Quinto of Uppsala University and co-first author. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we examine, for the first time, the Y-chromosome constitution of the general Serbian population. (blogspot.ca)
  • You won't find this DNA in the north Indian population today, but only in south Indians," says Niraj Rai. (outlookindia.com)
  • Our results were compared with the pattern of Y-chromosome variability in publicly available population samples based on a minimal European haplotype set of 9 STRs and the greatest resemblance was found with samples from the Croatian capital of Zagreb, from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and from Serbia. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Y chromosome represents 2% of the human genome in men and its role is generally recognised as being limited mostly to the development of male characterstics, be them physical or behavioural. (eupedia.com)
  • Although the study of the human genome is still in its infancy, variations in Y-chromosomal DNA have been reported to influence male behaviour, health risk and immunity. (eupedia.com)
  • In 2010, Jennifer F. Hughes and her colleagues disclosed in Nature that the chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes were remarkably divergent in structure and gene content. (eupedia.com)
  • With a 30% difference between them, the Y chromosome appears to be one of the fastest-evolving parts of the human genome. (eupedia.com)
  • The term 'Neolithic' describes a novel human lifeway centred on crop and animal domestication and the construction of permanent settlements with special-use buildings. (europa.eu)
  • The human Y chromosome determines maleness by causing the development of the testis. (le.ac.uk)
  • It is an unusual segment of the human genome since, apart from two small regions in which pairing and exchange take place with the X chromosome, it is male-specific and haploid, and escapes from recombination. (le.ac.uk)
  • Studies of matrilineal lines traced through mitochondrial DNA, as well as patrilineal y chromosome studies like the one noted above, are literally re-writing human prehistory. (wordpress.com)
  • De Knijff P (2000) Messages through bottlenecks: on the combined use of slow and fast evolving polymorphic markers on the human Y chromosome. (springer.com)
  • DNA methylation: insights into human evolution Hernando-Herraez et al. (sexchrlab.org)
  • High density methylation QTL analysis in human blood via next-generation sequencing of the methylated genomic DNA fraction McClay et al. (sexchrlab.org)
  • This prolonged coexistence of hunter-gatherers and farmers in Scandinavia has been a focal point of debate within archaeology since 1909, when PWC human remains were used to argue for an early eastern influence on Neolithic Scandinavia, thus favoring relations to modern Saami people . (freerepublic.com)
  • Compared to a monotonous STR-centered DNA profiling, SNP markers provide a valuable and progressively additional important information. (springer.com)
  • 1998 ). SNP profiling as a tool for DNA detection presents some benefits over and above the usage of STR markers (Sinha et al. (springer.com)
  • A total of 103 individuals were sampled and their DNA analyzed for 104 Y-chromosome bi-allelic markers and 17 associated STR loci. (blogspot.ca)
  • In order to test if the lack of differentiation is a sex-biased and not a marker-biased phenomenon, we decided to study faster evolving Y chromosome markers in samples from Brazil and Portugal previously studied. (blogspot.cz)
  • These individuals emerged from the same group of people as other Early European farmers, and they mixed with local huntergatherers on their way to Iberia. (scribd.com)
  • What now emerges from high-resolution studies of the nuclear genome is a more nuanced picture of crossbreeding and gene flow between domestic cattle and wild aurochs as early European farmers moved into new habitats such as Britain during the Neolithic," MacHugh added. (natureworldnews.com)
  • The haplotype frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 and analysis of molecular variance calculated with the Y-chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool. (ebscohost.com)
  • Non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) data were also interpreted in favour of the CDM by some authors [ 19 ], but other studies have generated opposite conclusions [ 10 , 20 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The sex-determining region of the Y chromosome lies in the SRY gene, Y, which triggers testis development. (eupedia.com)
  • Intriguingly, the PWC first appears in the archaeological record of Scandinavia after the arrival of the TRB (some 5,300 years BP) and existed in parallel with farmers for more than a millennium before vanishing about 4,000 years BP (Figure 1). (freerepublic.com)
  • One thing to point out is that Bell Beaker is nearly contemporary with the earliest phase of Vučedol on the opposite end of the continent and the miscegenation that Gimbutas thought to occur between Steppe herders and Vučedol farmer/metallurgists over several hundred years to create Bell Beakers (based on typology) is in fact conclusively wrong as demonstrated by radio dates. (blogspot.com)
  • it is absent from earliest Neolithic Greece. (nih.gov)
  • It appears between the earliest farmers and somewhat later farmers. (blogspot.com)