A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder CAMALLANINA. Its organisms possess a poorly developed buccal cavity and a rudimentary esophagus and intestine.
Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.
Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA.
A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms possess two or three pairs of dorsolateral caudal papillae.
Infection with nematodes of the superfamily OXYUROIDEA.
Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.
An order of nematodes consisting of many species which are plant parasites. Female worms lay eggs that hatch either in soil or in the host plant.
Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
A family of New World Monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, comprising two subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE and ATELINAE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.
Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.
Infection with nematodes of the genus Setaria. This condition is usually seen in cattle and equines and is of little pathogenic significance, although migration of the worm to the eye may lead to blindness.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the peritoneal cavity of wild or domestic cattle or equines.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA. Characteristics include a reduced alimentary tract and the presence of a trophosome. Its organisms can be present in the human intestine through ingestion of unwashed or contaminated raw vegetables.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Infections with nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.
A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.
A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.
A phylum of microscopic ecdysozoan invertebrates, closely related to ARTHROPODS. Members exhibit anabiosis and cryptobiosis, dormant states where metabolic activity is reduced or absent, thus making them tolerant to extreme environmental conditions. They are distributed worldwide and most are semi-aquatic.
Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which were formerly considered a part of TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA. It includes the following genera: Heligmosomum, NEMATOSPIROIDES, and NIPPOSTRONGYLUS. The hosts are rodents.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Gelatinous-appearing material in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, consisting chiefly of Golgi type II neurons and some larger nerve cells.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery. (1/990)

We have identified a approximately 140 amino acid domain that is shared by a variety of proteins in budding and fission yeast, nematode, rat, mouse, frog, oat, and man. Typically, this domain is located within 20 residues of the N-terminus of the various proteins. The percent identity among the domains in the 12 proteins ranges from 42 to 93%, with 16 absolutely conserved residues: N-x(11-13)-V-x2-A-T-x(34-36)-R-x(7-8)-W-R-x3-K-x12-G-x-E-x15 -L-x11-12-D-x-G-R-x11-D-x7-R. Even though these proteins share little beyond their segment of homology, data are emerging that several of the proteins are involved in endocytosis and or regulation of cytoskeletal organization. We have named this protein segment the ENTH domain, for Epsin N-terminal Homology domain, and hypothesize that it is a candidate for binding specific ligands and/or enzymatic activity in the cell.  (+info)

Divergence time estimates for the early history of animal phyla and the origin of plants, animals and fungi. (2/990)

In the past, molecular clocks have been used to estimate divergence times among animal phyla, but those time estimates have varied widely (1200-670 million years ago, Ma). In order to obtain time estimates that are more robust, we have analysed a larger number of genes for divergences among three well-represented animal phyla, and among plants, animals and fungi. The time estimate for the chordate-arthropod divergence, using 50 genes, is 993 +/- 46 Ma. Nematodes were found to have diverged from the lineage leading to arthropods and chordates at 1177 +/- 79 Ma. Phylogenetic analyses also show that a basal position of nematodes has strong support (p > 99%) and is not the result of rate biases. The three-way split (relationships unresolved) of plants, animals and fungi was estimated at 1576 +/- 88 Ma. By inference, the basal animal phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora) diverged between about 1200-1500 Ma. This suggests that at least six animal phyla originated deep in the Precambrian, more than 400 million years earlier than their first appearance in the fossil record.  (+info)

Isolation of the LEMMI9 gene and promoter analysis during a compatible plant-nematode interaction. (3/990)

Plant-endoparasitic root-knot nematodes feed on specialized giant cells that they induce in the vascular cylinder of susceptible plants. Although it has been established that a number of plant genes change their expression pattern during giant cell differentiation, virtually no data are available about the mechanisms involved in that change. One possibility is differential promoter recognition by the transcription factor(s) responsible for the expression of specific genes. We have isolated and characterized a genomic clone from tomato containing the promoter region of LEMMI9, one of the few plant genes that have been reported to be highly expressed in galls (predominantly in giant cells). The analysis of transgenic potato plants carrying a LEMMI9 promoter-beta glucuronidase (GUS) fusion has demonstrated that the tomato promoter was activated in Meloidogyne incognita-induced galls in a heterologous system. We have located putative regulatory sequences in the promoter and have found that nuclear proteins from the galls formed specific DNA-protein complexes with the proximal region of the LEMMI9 promoter. The nuclear protein-binding sequence mapped to a region of 111 bp immediately upstream from the TATA box. This region contains a 12-bp repeat possibly involved in the formation of DNA-protein complexes, which might be related to the LEMMI9 transcriptional activation in the giant cells.  (+info)

Polygalacturonase and polygalacturonase inhibitor protein: gene isolation and transcription in Glycine max-Heterodera glycines interactions. (4/990)

The cell wall acts as the first line of defense during pathogen invasion. Polygalacturonases (PGs) are a class of cell-wall-modifying enzymes with precise temporal and organ-specific expression. A 350-bp fragment with high homology to PGs was identified by differential display (DD) analysis of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) race 3 resistant PI 437654 and susceptible cultivar Essex. The fragment was strongly expressed in Essex, 2 days after inoculation (DAI). Complete coding sequences of two PG cDNAs, PG1 and PG2, were isolated by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE PCR). PI 437654 and Essex had identical PG1 and PG2 sequences. A transversion from A to C created a PstI restriction site in the PG2 cDNA that was used to distinguish the two PG cDNAs by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein (PGIP) that is 89% identical to the Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP was isolated from soybean roots by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Steady-state levels of PG and PGIP were investigated by RNA gel blot analysis in roots 1 to 5 DAI and in hypocotyls and leaves. Differences in the constitutive levels of PG mRNAs were observed in roots of different soybean genotypes. Steady-state levels of PG mRNAs were enhanced during compatible interactions with SCN and reduced in incompatible interactions and in mechanically wounded roots. Enhanced PGIP transcription was observed in response to mechanical wounding in both PI 437654 and Essex, but only in compatible interactions with SCN, suggesting uncoupling of PGIP functions in developmental and stress cues. Constitutive expression in incompatible interactions shows PGIP is not a factor in SCN resistance. Thus, the up-regulation of endogenous PG transcription in soybean roots early after SCN infection could facilitate successful parasitism by SCN.  (+info)

The planarian HOM/HOX homeobox genes (Plox) expressed along the anteroposterior axis. (5/990)

In the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica, five cDNAs for HOM/HOX homeobox genes were cloned and sequenced. Together with sequence data on HOM/HOX homeobox genes of platyhelminthes deposited in databases, comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that planarians have at least seven HOM/HOX homeobox genes, Plox1 to Plox7 (planarian HOM/HOX homeobox genes). Whole-mount in situ hybridization and RT-PCR revealed that Plox4 and Plox5 were increasingly expressed along a spatial gradient in the posterior region of intact animals. During regeneration, Plox5 was expressed only in the posterior region of regenerating body pieces, suggesting that the gene is involved in the anteroposterior patterning in planarians. Plox5 was not found to be expressed in a blastema-specific manner, which contradicts a previous report (J. R. Bayascas, E. Castillo, A. M. Munos-Marmol, and E. Salo. Development 124, 141-148, 1997). X-ray irradiation experiments showed that Plox5 was expressed at least in some cells other than neoblasts, but that the induction of Plox5 expression during regeneration might require neoblasts.  (+info)

Apoptosis without caspases: an inefficient molecular guillotine? (6/990)

Since the discovery that the cysteine protease CED-3 was essential for developmental death in the nematode C. elegans, the search has been on to identify homologous proteases governing mammalian apoptosis. Fourteen of these proteases, now called caspases, have been found to date, and studies with natural or chemical inhibitors, and more recently knock-out mice, confirmed the involvement of at least a subset of these proteases in various forms of mammalian apoptosis. However, there has been recent evidence that some apoptotic morphologies, such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and nuclear condensation, are not blocked by caspase inhibitors and that the cells continue to die in a protracted and inefficient manner. This has led to the notion that caspases are not required for all aspects of apoptosis in mammals. Here we review the current knowledge about caspase-independent apoptosis, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reasoning that led to its proposition and provide insights into its possible regulation and physiological significance.  (+info)

Wild rodents as experimental intermediate hosts of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909. (7/990)

A total of 25 specimens of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig), 5 Dasyprocta agouti (agouti), and 22 Calomys callosus (vesper mice) were inoculated with infective eggs of Lagochilascaris minor. The inoculum was prepared with embryonated eggs and orally administered to each individual animal through an esophagus probe. In parallel, 100 specimens of Felis catus domesticus were individually fed with 55-70 nodules containing 3rd-stage larvae encysted in tissues of infected rodents. Animals were examined and necropsied at different time intervals. The migration and encystment of L3 larva was observed in viscera, skeletal muscle, adipose and subcutaneous tissues from all rodents. Adult worms localized at abscesses in the cervical region, rhino, and oropharynx were recovered from domestic cats inoculated with infected rodent tissues. Through this study we can conclude that: (1) wild rodents act as intermediate hosts, characterizing this ascarid heteroxenic cycle; (2) in natural conditions rodents could possibly act as either intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts of Lagochilascaris minor; (3) despite the occurrence of an auto-infecting cycle, in prime-infection of felines (definite hosts) the cycle is only completed when intermediate hosts are provided; and (4) in the wild, rodents could serve as a source of infection for humans as they are frequently used as food in regions with the highest incidence of human lagochilascariasis.  (+info)

Studies on Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) Pereirai annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), with new host records and new morphological data on the larval stages. (8/990)

Larval stages and adults of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 are described from naturally infected Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner) (Sciaenidae) from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The translucent first-stage larvae have a denticulate process at the anterior end, no buccal capsule or esophagus undifferentiated into anterior muscular and posterior glandular parts and an elongate tail; third-stage larvae have a tail with three terminal projections, a buccal capsule divided into an anterior portion with 12-20 ridges running to the left and a posterior smooth portion, and an esophagus with muscular and glandular regions. Fourth-stage larvae exhibit a buccal capsule lacking a distinct basal ring with ridges running to the right and a tail with two terminal processes, as in adults. New host records are reported and their role in its life-cycle are discussed.  (+info)

Read Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Figure 4B shows the polarized SFS of clade C on a double-logarithmic scale such that power laws show as straight lines. At frequencies ,20%, the observed SFS is compatible with a 1/k decay as expected in neutrally evolving populations of constant size (Wakeley 2008). At higher frequencies, however, the SFS decreases much more rapidly, before increasing again for alleles close to fixation. Similar U-shaped SFS have been observed in plants (Cao et al. 2011). At intermediate derived allele frequencies between 20% and 40%, the slope of the SFS is compatible with 1/k2, indicated as a dashed line in Figure 4B. The 1/k2 behavior and the nonmonotonicity are expected if the dominant force changing allele frequencies is selection at linked (genetic draft) loci regardless of whether this variation is positively or negatively selected (Braverman et al. 1995; Neher and Shraiman 2011; Neher and Hallatschek 2013).. Compared to the almost 100-fold variation in the SFS between singletons and alleles at ...
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We report the results of a small-scale expressed sequence tag project performed on the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Approximately 1400 genes were sequenced, 70% from a cDNA library generated from dissected basal bulbs (containing the pharyngeal gland cells) and 30% from cDNA libraries generated from whole mixed stage nematodes. A large portion of the bulb library (48%) was composed of proteins with no matches in the database. Further analysis of these genes revealed that a total of 51 contigs were present, half of which encoded novel secreted proteins. By contrast, the whole nematode library contained more housekeeping and nematode-specific genes. Only one of the novel genes from the whole nematode library had a predicted signal peptide at the N-terminus. Genes encoding transthyretin-like proteins were abundant in the bulb library and in situ hybridisation confirmed that one of these is expressed in the basal bulb. Genes encoding a variety of proteases, which were shown using in situ
For the upcoming WS249 release, a set of new papers have been added to the WormBase database. Some papers of interest to the parasite community are shown below.. Winter AD, Weir W, Hunt M, Berriman M, Gilleard JS, Devaney E, Britton C.Diversity in parasitic nematode genomes: the microRNAs of Brugia pahangi and Haemonchus contortus are largely novel. BMC Genomics. 2012 Jan 4;13:4.. miRNA genes are referenced from the WBPaper00040579 entry.. Winter AD, Gillan V, Maitland K, Emes RD, Roberts B, McCormack G, Weir W, Protasio AV, Holroyd N, Berriman M, Britton C, Devaney E. A novel member of the let-7 microRNA family is associated with developmental transitions in filarial nematode parasites. BMC Genomics. 2015 Apr 22;16(1):331.. referenced genes: let-7, Bm6643, Bm5914, Bma-tag-97, Bma-mir-5364. Cinkornpumin JK, Wisidagama DR, Rapoport V, Go JL, Dieterich C, Wang X, Sommer RJ, Hong RL. A host beetle pheromone regulates development and behavior in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus. Elife. 2014 Oct ...
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating and yield limiting pest of soybean in the U.S. including Missouri. A recent three-year study done in the United States estimated that soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) caused annual losses of $1.286 billion (128.6 million bushels).. It is often difficult to identify fields with SCN infestations becauselow numbers of SCN will cause little damage to roots so above ground plant growth and appearance may be normal (Figure 1). Stunting of plant growth, visible changes in leaf color and wilting, and yield loss will increase as the infection of roots by SCN increases.Yields may decrease slowly for a number of years as the population of SCN increases in the soil and infection of roots increases. Suspect fields usually have plants of different heights, but environmental conditions may make stunting less obvious.. When SCN is present and plants are under stress, symptoms such as chlorosis (Figure 2), plant stunting, and (in extreme cases) plant ...
The efficiency with which the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys dasguptae attached to a range of plant parasitic nematodes was studied. Rotylenchus spp. and criconematid species retained many more detachable adhesive knobs than did other plant parasitic nematodes. More adhesive knobs were found on the anterior end of Rotylenchus robustus than on any other part of the body. The knobs attached only to one of the species tested in the genera Longidorus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus. Tests with a range of fluorescent lectins indicated that only a restricted number of carbohydrate moieties were present on the cuticle of R. robustus whereas none were found on Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Saturating fungus and nematodes with these lectins or their specific carbohydrates did not affect the subsequent adhesion of A. dasguptae to the cuticle of R. robustus.
Plant parasitic nematodes are devastating pests on many crops. Juveniles (J2) of cyst nematodes invade the roots to induce a syncytium. This feeding site is their only source of nutrients. Male nematodes leave the roots after the fourth molt to mate with females. The females stay attached to their syncytia throughout their life and produce hundreds of eggs, which are contained in their bodies. When the females die their bodies form the cysts, which protect the eggs. Cysts can survive for many years in the soil until favorable conditions induce hatching of the juveniles. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii is a pathogen of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) but can also complete its life cycle on Arabidopsis roots growing on agar plates under sterile conditions. We present here protocols for a stock culture of H. schachtii and an infection assay on agar plates.
The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii induces a feeding site, called syncytium, in roots of host plants. In Arabidopsis, one of the genes whose expression is strongly induced in these structures is Pdf2.1 which codes for an antimicrobial plant defensin. Arabidopsis has 13 plant defensin genes. Besides Pdf2.1, the Pdf2.2 and Pdf2.3 genes were strongly expressed in syncytia and therefore the expression of all three Pdf genes was studied in detail. The promoter of the Pdf2.1 gene turned out to be an interesting candidate to drive a syncytium-specific expression of foreign genes as RT-PCR showed that apart from the feeding site it was only expressed in siliques (seeds). The Pdf2.2 and Pdf2.3 genes were in addition expressed in seedlings, roots, leaves, stems, and flowers. These results were supported by the analysis of promoter::GUS lines. After infection with H. schachtii all GUS lines showed a strong staining in syncytia at 5 and 15 dpi. This expression pattern was confirmed by in situ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plant ectoparasitic nematodes prefer roots without their microbial enemies. AU - Piśkiewicz, A.M.. AU - de Milliano, M.J.K.. AU - Duyts, H.. AU - Van der Putten, W.H.. N1 - Reporting year: 2009 Metis note: 4464;CTE; MTI ; TE file:///L:/Endnotedatabases/NIOOPUB/pdfs/PDFS2009\Piskiewicz_ea_4464.pdf. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Root-feeding nematodes are major soil-borne pests in agriculture. In natural ecosystems, their abundance can be strongly controlled by natural enemies. In coastal foredune soil, the abundance of the ectoparasitic nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis is controlled by local interactions with soil microorganisms. If not controlled, T. ventralis reduces growth and performance of the host plant Ammophila arenaria. In the present study, we examine if the nematodes may sense the presence of soil microorganisms and, if so, they are able to actively avoid their enemies. First, using Petri dishes with agar medium we examined if T. ventralis can choose between A. ...
1. Bongers, T. 1990. The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species compostion. Oecologia 83:14-19.. 2. Bongers, T., and Bongers, M. 1998. Functional diversity of nematodes. Appl. Soil Ecol. 10:239-251.. 3. Cooke, R. C. 1963. Ecological characteristics of nematode-trapping fungi Hyphomycetes. Ann. Rev. Appl. Biol. 52:431-437.. 4. Doran, J. W., Sarrantonio, M., and Liebig, M. A., eds. 1996. Soil health and sustainability, Adv. Agron. 56:1-54.. 5. Ettema, C. H. 1998. Soil nematode diversity, species coexistence and ecosystem function. J. Nematol. 30:159-169.. 6. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., and deGoede, R. G. M. 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis concept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18:13-29.. 7. Ferris, H., and Matute, M. M. 2003. Structural and functional succession in the nematode fauna of a soil food web. Appl. Soil Ecol. 23:93-110.. 8. Ferris, H., Venette, R. C., and Lau, S. S. 1996. Dynamics of ...
Here is the situation: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the worst pest of soybeans in the U. S. A. including Missouri.Fortunately, this pest can be managed, but farmers must take steps before planting soybean this year to protect against soybean cyst nematode.The first step is to test the soil for SCN.
Here is the situation: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the worst pest of soybeans in the U. S. A. including Missouri.Fortunately, this pest can be managed, but farmers must take steps before planting soybean this year to protect against soybean cyst nematode.The first step is to test the soil for SCN.
Soybean cyst nematode is the most economically significant pest of soybeans in Iowa and has been found in 98 of the 99 Iowa counties. Infested soybean plants often show no symptoms other than reduced yield. The 62-page field guide is designed as a resource for agronomists and farmers to manage soybean cyst nematode. ...
Background: Nematodes are the dominant soil animals in Antarctic Dry Valleys and are capable of surviving desiccation and freezing in an anhydrobiotic state. Genes induced by desiccation stress have been successfully enumerated in nematodes; however we have little knowledge of gene regulation by Antarctic nematodes which can survive multiple environmental stresses. To address this problem we investigated the genetic responses of a nematode species, Plectus murrayi, that is capable of tolerating Antarctic environmental extremes, in particular desiccation and freezing. In this study, we provide the first insight into the desiccation induced transcriptome of an Antarctic nematode through cDNA library construction and suppressive subtractive hybridization. Results: We obtained 2,486 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 2,586 clones derived from the cDNA library of desiccated P. murrayi. The 2,486 ESTs formed 1,387 putative unique transcripts of which 523 (38%) had matches in the model-nematode Caenorhabditis
Iowa crop producers and agronomists are well aware of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the plant-parasitic nematode that is widespread through the Midwest and can seriously reduce soybean yields. And many people are aware of other plant-parasitic nematodes that can cause significant yield reductions on corn. But most crop professionals probably are unaware that there is a corn cyst nematode that has been in the northeastern United States since 1981. And just recently, a new cyst nematode species that reproduces on corn was discovered in Tennessee.
Symbiosis takes place across the domains of life. In the plant-parasitic nematode, Xiphinema americanum species complex, the bacterial endosymbiont, identified as Candidatus Xiphinematobacter americanum, lives in the gut epithelia of mature female nematodes and moves to the ovaries and uterus where it is transmitted to the eggs. This suggests that the symbiont may be vertically transmitted. PCR followed by DNA sequencing was conducted on three loci, using nematode samples from across North America. Two loci were sequenced from the symbiont and the third from the mitochondrial DNA of the nematode. Using these sequences, phylogenetic trees were constructed for the nematode and the symbiont to provide new insights into the taxonomy of the nematode species, and to shed light on the potential for coevolution between the worm and its endosymbiont. A mitochondrial tree was constructed to examine nematode evolution. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis for the nematode built from work that suggested ...
Plants mount defense responses during pathogen attacks, and robust host defense suppression by pathogen effector proteins is essential for infection success. 4E02 is an effector of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing the effector-coding sequence showed altered expression levels of defense response genes, as well as higher susceptibility to both the biotroph H. schachtii and the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, indicating a potential suppression of defenses by 4E02. Yeast two-hybrid analyses showed that 4E02 targets A. thaliana vacuolar papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) Responsive to Dehydration 21A (RD21A), which has been shown to function in the plant defense response. Activity-based protein profiling analyses documented that the in planta presence of 4E02 does not impede enzymatic activity of RD21A. Instead, 4E02 mediates a re-localization of this protease from the vacuole to the nucleus and cytoplasm, which is likely to prevent the ...
Although the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most persistent and destructive pests of soybean in Iowa and the Midwest, the potential to underestimate the nematodes yield-reducing effects is great because damage from SCN is not readily apparent in the field during growing seasons with adequate to excess moisture. The need to take the threat of SCN seriously was recently reviewed in an ICM News article. Fortunately, fields can be checked for the presence of SCN in the spring through soil sampling ...
Barker, K.R., G.A. Pederson, and G.L. Windham. 1998. Plant and Nematode Interactions. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.. Bird, A.F. and J. Bird. 1991. The Structure of Nematodes, Second edition.Academic Press Inc. London.. Blaxter, M.L., P. De Ley, J.R. Garey, L.X. Liu, P. Scheldeman, A. Vierstraete, J.R. Vanfleteren, L.Y. Mackey, M. Dorris, L.M. Frisse, J.T. Vida, K.W. Thomas, K.W. 1998. A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum nematoda. Nature 392:71-75.. Campbell, J.F. and H.K. Kaya. 1999. How and why a parasitic nematode jumps. Nature 397: 485-486.. Chen, Z.X., and D.W. Dickson. 2004. Nematology: Advances and Perspectives Vol. 1: Nematode Morphology, Physiology and Ecology. CABI:Walllingford.. Chen, Z.X., S.Y. Chen, and D.W. Dickson. 2004. Nematology: Advances and Perspectives Vol. II: Nematode Management and Utilization. CABI:Wallingford.. Fisher, J.M. and D.J. Raski. 1967. Feeding of Xiphinema index and X. diversicaudatum. Proceeding of the Helminthological Society of Washington ...
Join us April 10, 2018, at 3:00 p.m. Eastern for an interactive webinar dedicated to updates on soybean cyst nematode.During this free 60-minute sessi...
Preparing for the annual battle against soybean cyst nematode? Extension experts weigh in on your strategy options and offer tips on how to start winning the war.
Soybean cyst nematodes, first spotted in Ontario in 1988, have long had a stronghold in Southern Ontario, but now are spreading North into Huron and Bruce…
In 1992 a Concerted Action Programme (CAP) was initiated by Peter Sijmons with the purpose of intensifying collaborations between 16 European laboratories working on plant-parasitic nematodes. The fou
Heterodera schachtii (Beet cyst eelworm, Sugarbeet nematode) is a plant pathogenic nematode. It infects more than 200 different plants including economically important crops such as sugar beets, cabbage, broccoli, and radish. H. schachtii is found worldwide. Affected plants are marked by stunted growth, wilting, yellowing, decreased yields, and death. While there are many methods of control, crop rotation with non-susceptible plants is preferred. In the early 1800s, beet fatigue was used to describe the decreased sugar beet yields which occurred after repeated planting on the same field. At first, this decrease was believed to be the result of nutrient depletion, but in 1859 the botanist H. Schacht discovered nematode cysts on the roots of affected plants and hypothesized that they were responsible for the disease. It wasnt until 1871 that another researcher, Schmidt, created the genus Heterodera, and named the nematode H. schachtii in honor of its discoverer. Chemicals released from a ...
From: http://www.sasa.gov.uk/seed-ware-potatoes/nematology/potato-cyst-nematodes-pcn. To understand the importance of Potato Cyst Nematodes in potato cultivation it is helpful to know a little of the life history of these pests.. The nematodes (or eelworms) survive as cysts in the soil. Each cyst, about the size of a pinhead, will contain up to 400 juvenile nematodes each enclosed within a thin egg shell. When a potato crop is planted in infested soil, substances released from the growing roots stimulate a high percentage of juvenile nematodes to hatch. After hatching these juveniles swim through the moisture surrounding the soil particles and cut their way into the potato roots to feed. The damage they cause produces a stunted root system and the plant responds by producing many additional lateral roots. Severe root damage may result in patches of poor top growth but such damage is unlikely in seed crops.. The young nematodes develop in the roots, feeding on the growing plant. Males remain ...
My background experience is in cytology, physiology and ultrastructure of plants and nematodes; cytochemical and immunocytochemical analysis of both ROS (H2O2, O2-) and enzymes (peroxidases, lipoxygenases) involved in the resistant response in plant-nematode interaction.. Of particular interest is elucidation of the role played by nematode oesophageal secretions in modifying and regulating the function, metabolism, and phenotype cells to form sophisticated feeding sites in their hosts; cytochemical and immunocytochemical studies of reorganization of cytoskeleton elements (actin, tubulin) during compatible response in plant-nematode interaction ...
The corn cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera zeae is a plant parasitic nematode that feeds on corn Zea mays. The CCN has a limited economic impact worldwide due to its high soil temperature requirements. CCN was first described from a population in India in 1970. It was later reported in Egypt and Pakistan. In India the CCN is considered to be one of the four economically important cyst nematodes. The first report of the species in the Western hemisphere came in 1981 from four colonies in Maryland, Harford, Cecil, Kent, and Queen Annes counties. These four counties were placed under quarantine. The nematode was later identified from Cumberland Co., VA, over 170 miles from the nearest known infested field in Maryland. In Virginia the nematode was restricted to a 3 by 2.5 mile strip of land along the Appomattox River. The cysts of CCN are light brown in color and lemon shaped. The cysts also have a zig-zag pattern on the cyst wall with four prominent finger-like bullae below the underbridge. The ...
Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN) are considered to be quarantine pests because, if not managed, they can reduce yields of potatoes and other host crops such as tomatoes and eggplants by up to 80 per cent.
PCN is a microscopic, worm-like organism which feeds on the roots of potatoes, tomatoes and related solanaceous crops.. Its found in Victoria. If you think you have seen plants with symptoms of potato cyst nematode, call 1800 084 881.. ...
Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are quarantine soilborne pests that damage potatoes around the world, stunting plants and reducing yields.
Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a microscopic, worm-like organism which feeds on the roots of potatoes, tomatoes and other plants of the Solanaceae family.
AbeBooks.com: Potato Cyst Nematodes: Biology, Distribution and Control (9780851992747) by R J Marks; Bill B Brodie and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
The TALEN approach works in C. briggsae Lo et al. 2013,Wood et al. 2011, Wei et al. 2013. The CRISPR/Cas9 method is now implemented in C. briggsae and other species. Using the same plasmids as in C. elegans is possible, at least in C. briggsae: see Culp et al. in biorxiv. Using Cas9 protein and synthetic guide RNA may overcome problems of germ line silencing and of inadequate promoters or 3UTR in other species. See Witte et al. 2015 in Pristionchus pacificus. This method has been successfully used in several Caenorhabditis species (Marie Delattre). ...
Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) place a heavy burden on agriculture throughout the world. This burden is accentuated by a lack of effective and safe methods for the control of these crop pests, with many nematicides having been banned due to unacceptable non-target toxicity. Few alternatives have emerged to fill this gap. Fluensulfone is a newly registered nematicide that has a favourable toxicity profile relative to previously used nematicides. Fluensulfone has proven efficacy in the field against a range of nematode species. The mode of action of fluensulfone is however currently unknown. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fluensulfone on nematodes and to gain insight into its mechanism of action. Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism with well characterised genetics, neurophysiology and behaviour. C. elegans has proven useful in previous mechanism of action studies on anthelmintics. Fluensulfone was found to have nematicidal activity against C. elegans but at ...
Interpretive Summary: Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are agriculturally-important pests causing significant yield losses on many crop plants. Recent studies revealed that cyst nematodes secret CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like proteins that are required for successful nematode infection. However, the host receptors that interact with nematode-secreted CLE peptides have not been identified. In this study, we used the model plant Arabidopsis, a host for the sugarbeet cyst nematode, to investigate a role for CLV2 and CORYNE (CRN) in nematode CLE signaling. Our results revealed for the first time that CLV2 and CRN are required for perceiving nematode CLE signals to promote successful nematode parasitism. This study provides new knowledge in nematode CLE-mediated parasitism, suggesting new targets that may be useful for generating transgenic crops with novel resistance to cyst nematodes. Technical Abstract: Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins ...
All variety descriptions have been prepared in accordance to the best of our knowledge, considering trial results and observations. A guarantee or a liability in individual cases is not possible, because the growth conditions are subject to substantial fluctuations ...
Despite right open reading frame kinases (RIOKs) being essential for life, their functions, substrates and cellular pathways remain enigmatic. In the present study, gene structures were characterised for 26 RIOKs from draft genomes of parasitic and free-living nematodes. RNA-seq transcription profiles of riok genes were investigated for selected parasitic nematodes and showed that these kinases are transcribed in developmental stages that infect their mammalian host. Three-dimensional structural models of Caenorhabditis elegans RIOKs were predicted, and elucidated functional domains and conserved regions in nematode homologs. These findings provide prospects for functional studies of riok genes in C. elegans, and an opportunity for the design and validation of nematode-specific inhibitors of these enzymes in socioeconomic parasitic worms ...
Here at ISU, we have two management recommendation for SCN-infested fields. The recommendation given is based on the SCN egg population density (egg count) of the sample submitted.. Recommendation #1 - for fields with egg densities up to 5,000 eggs per 100 cc soil. We recommend that growers follow a six-year crop rotation scheme as illustrated below: ...
Mint nematodes (Longidorus elongatus) are also referred to as needle nematodes because of their long, slender stylet. The mint nematode was originally identified in 1956 as L. sylphus, but was later described as a new species, L. menthasolanus, (Konicek and Jensen, 1961), and then finally determined to be L. elongatus. In contrast to pin nematodes, mint nematodes are the largest (5 mm = 0.2 inch) plant-pathogenic nematodes found on any plant (Fig. 1). They are among the few nematodes which can be detected with the naked eye and can sometimes be seen coiled around rudimentary rhizomes or roots of mint when clods are broken open during July and August (Konicek, 1961, Pinkerton and Jensen, 1983). Mint nematodes belong to a different taxonomic class than other nematodes parasitizing mint and do not possess a muscular median bulb in their esophagus. Mint nematodes were the first nematodes associated with decline in mint when nearly 10% of peppermint acreage was estimated to be infested in 1958 ...
Platy-helminthes and Nematoda. Common Name. Platy-helminthes. Nematoda. Roundworm. Flatworm. Tapeworm. pinworm. P lanaria. Fluke. Symmetry. Platy-helminthes. Nematoda. Bilateral. Bilateral. Platy-helminthes and Nematoda. Slideshow 1924244 by yale
Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt) from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface), central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and observed, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, and DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3
Unravelling of soil nematode biodiversity is an essential task in order to increase the knowledge about ecological phenomenon from the evolutionary, biogeographical and physical processes in soil ecosystems. In a phytopathological context, deciphering the diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) infesting soils from an agricultural ecosystem is an essential task in order to design useful management practices for controlling potential nematode diseases. Overall, most of PPN have a broad range of host plants, natural plants or crops including annual, biannual or perennial plants. Similarity to their wide host range as generalist nematodes, there are plants that can host a wide range of PPN, as is the case for olive trees. In fact, olives, both in wild and cultivated forms, serve as hosts to a wide diversity of PPN, including endoparasitic, semiendoparasitc and ectoparasitic species. Approximately 50% of the total surface area of Andalusia region is covered with natural and forest vegetation, ...
Cyst nematodes have four distinct phases during their life cycle and at each stage they are subject to predation or parasitism by several soil organisms (Table 1). Although a number of predators have...
www.diark.org. Arthrobotrys oligospora (syn. Didymozoophaga oligospora) is a predacious fungus from the family Orbiliaceae. An adaptable fungus, strains have been found in a diverse range of soils where they can act as saprophytes, fungal pathogens and colonise plant roots to obtain nutrients. In the presence of nematodes they can also form complex three-dimensional network traps making them a biocontrol candidate for parasitic plant and animal nematodes, and in 2011 it was the first nematode-trapping fungi to have its genome sequenced.. The sequenced genome of A. oligospora is 40 Mb and contains 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analyses revealed that it shares more genes with pathogenic fungi than non-pathogenic fungi. A combination of genomic, proteomic and qPCR data led to a hypothesis of trap formation involving the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways by the presence of the nematodes which regulate downstream genes involved in energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell ...
Nematode-trapping fungi have fascinated scientists for decades, and many earlier workers have observed the way in which the presence of nematodes alters the morphology and metabolism of trap-forming species. Although earlier studies detected attractant and nematocidal metabolites by their activities, the compounds were never chemically identified (21-27, 30). Therefore, we hypothesized that these signaling molecules might be volatile in nature. In our analyses, we used GC-MS and were able to separate and chemically characterize the metabolites, as well as elucidate their biological activities in attracting nematodes, in inducing trap formation, or in killing nematodes.. Under direct physical contact with nematodes, fungi grown on CMA produced more 3D traps than those grown on PDA and did so at a higher rate. Similar results were obtained in the non-direct-contact bioassay; however, instead of 3D trap formation, fungal hyphal fusions were observed in the nondirect assay. The fungi grown on CMA ...
All major crops are thought to be infected by at least one species of plant-parasitic nematode, which causes damage valued at over $80 billion each year [1]. The majority of these economic losses are attributable to the sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and the genera Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes). These sedentary endoparasites have complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that include induction of specific feeding sites and long residence times within or on their host(s).. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are economically important pathogens of potato, with two major species: the white PCN Globodera pallida and the yellow PCN G. rostochiensis. These nematodes originate in South America [2, 3] and have subsequently been introduced into all major potato-growing regions of the world. Europe has acted as a secondary distribution hub for PCN; worldwide populations outside South America reflect subsequent introductions from Europe [4, 5]. ...
Parasitic nematodes produce at least two structurally novel classes of small helix-rich retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins that have no counterparts in their plant or animal hosts and thus represent potential targets for new nematicides. Here we describe a protein (Gp-FAR-1) from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera pallida, which is a member of the nematode-specific fatty-acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) family of proteins but localizes to the surface of this species, placing it in a strategic position for interaction with the host. Recombinant Gp-FAR-1 was found to bind retinol, cis-parinaric acid and the fluorophore-tagged lipids 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid and dansyl-D,L-alpha-amino-octanoic acid. The fluorescence emission characteristics of the dansylated analogues indicated that the entire ligand enters the binding cavity. Fluorescence competition experiments showed that Gp-FAR-1 binds fatty acids in the range C(11) to C(24), with optimal binding at C(15). Intrinsic fluorescence ...
Cyst and root-knot nematodes show high levels of gross morphological similarity. This presents difficulties for the study of their ecology in natural ecosystems. In this study, cyst and root-knot nematode species, as well as some ectoparasitic nematode species, were identified using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence variation detected by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). The ITS2 region was sufficiently variable within the taxa investigated to allow species to be separated on the basis of minor sequence variation. The PCR primers used in this study were effective for 12 species with three genera within the Heteroderinae (Globodera pallida, G. rostochiensis, Heterodera arenaria/avenae, H. ciceri, H. daverti, H. hordecalis, PI. mani, PI. schachtii, H. trifolii, Meloidogyne ardenensis, M. duytsi and M. maritima). However, pathotypes of Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis could not be distinguished. The method was tested at two ...
Persson, Y.; Friman, E., 1993: Intracellular proteolytic activity in mycelia of Arthrobotrys oligospora bearing mycoparasitic or nematode trapping structures
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN Heterodera glycines) obligate parasite plants damaging pathogen causing $469 $818 million yield losses annually United Stat
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive
In a PCR with degenerate primers encoding highly conserved amino acids within ornithine decarboxylases (ODCs) of several organisms, a fragment of the ODC gene of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus was isolated. Northern blot analysis revealed a single 1.7 kb transcript in a mixed-stage population of animals. From this RNA source, a cDNA library was constructed and screened with the PCR fragment. Several cDNA clones were isolated, one of which encodes the complete 435-amino-acid ODC enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 47.1 kDa. The P. redivivus ODC possesses 126 of the 136 highly conserved amino acids in the enzymes from fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates. Functional amino acids are conserved, suggesting that the two active sites of the P. redivivus ODC are formed at the interface of a homodimer, as described for mammalian ODCs. ...
Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a host for the study of bacteria that cause disease in mammals. However, a significant limitation of the model is that C elegans is not viable at 37 degrees C. We report that the gonochoristic nematode Panagrellus redivivus survives at 37 degrees C and maintains its life cycle at temperatures up to and including 31.5 degrees C. The C elegans pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, but not Yersinia pseudo tuberculosis, reduced P. redivivus lifespan. Of four strains of Burkholderia multivorans tested, one reduced P. redivivus lifespan at both temperatures, one was avirulent at both temperatures and two strains reduced P. redivivus lifespan only at 37 degrees C. The mechanism by which one of these strains killed P. redivivus at 37 degrees C, but not at 25 degrees C, was investigated further. Killing required viable bacteria, did not involve bacterial invasion of tissues, is unlikely to be due to a diffusible, bacterial ...
Root-knot nematodes transform vascular host cells into permanent feeding structures to withdraw nutrients from the host plant. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana can display large quantitative variation in susceptibility to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, which is thought to be independent of dominant major resistance genes. However, in an earlier genome-wide association study of the interaction between Arabidopsis and M. incognita we identified a quantitative trait locus harboring homologs of dominant resistance genes but with minor effect on susceptibility to the M. incognita population tested. Here, we report on the characterization of two of these genes encoding the TIR-NB-LRR immune receptor DSC1 (DOMINANT SUPPRESSOR OF Camta 3 NUMBER 1) and the TIR-NB-LRR-WRKY-MAPx protein WRKY19 in nematode-infected Arabidopsis roots. Nematode infection studies and whole transcriptome analyses using the Arabidopsis mutants showed that DSC1 and WRKY19 co-regulate susceptibility of Arabidopsis to M.
Xenorhabdus nematophilus OpnP protein: an OmpF-like porin from Xenorhabdus nematophilus; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L40919
In hyperspecialized parasites, the ability to grow on a particular host relies on specific virulence factors called effectors. These excreted proteins are involved in the molecular mechanisms of parasitism and distinguish virulent pathogens from non-virulent related species. The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are major plant-parasitic nematodes developing on numerous solanaceous species including potato. Their close relatives, G. tabacum and G. mexicana are stimulated by potato root diffusate but unable to establish a feeding site on this plant host. RNA sequencing was used to characterize transcriptomic differences among these four Globodera species and to identify genes associated with host specificity. We identified seven transcripts that were unique to PCN species, including a protein involved in ubiquitination. We also found 545 genes that were differentially expressed between PCN and non-PCN species, including 78 genes coding for effector proteins, which
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe is responsible for substantial economic losses in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) production throughout the U.S. Results from past efforts to quantify the severity of crop damage resulting from SCN are often subject to variable experimental conditions resulting from differences in weather, soil type, and cultivar. Because of the difficulty in accounting for these variables, a process-oriented crop growth simulation model was chosen as a platform for studying the dynamics of SCN damage and for transferring knowledge between crop production scenarios. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate hypotheses for coupling SCN damage to the process-oriented crop growth model CROPGRO-Soybean. A monomolecular function was used to relate daily SCN damage to initial population density of SCN eggs. The equation was incorporated into the crop model in order to test two hypotheses of how SCN damage occurs. The first hypothesis was that SCN reduce
Infection by plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) reduces global agricultural output by 10-15%. For rice alone this loss represents a commercial value of $35bn. All crops are affected to some degree, and the impact on subsistence farmers can be especially dire. The most pernicious PPN are highly adapted for life within plant roots. Some, such as the cyst (Globodera and Heterodera spp.) and root-knot nematodes (RKN: Meloidogyne spp.) establish a permanent feeding site by usurping host developmental circuitry. Others, including the lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.) function essentially as migratory herbivores. Understanding the molecular basis underpinning these distinct plant-nematode interactions is a key objective of the PPN research community.. The development of genetic tools for helminths has proven a challenge, largely because of the obligate, parasitic life stages within the host. For ethical and technical reasons, such barriers are much lower for PPN. Thus, we exploited M. haplas small ...
Soybean Cyst Nematodes are a recurring parasite that can drastically afflict yield. Further understanding of the interaction between the pest and its soybean host is essential to working towards increased plant resistance. Utilizing current molecular biology techniques, the plant response to parasitical exposure was analyzed, focusing on the effect on gene expression due to the presence and damage caused by the nematode, homozygous screening and western blot was also used to determine the genetic change in the samples. Through observing the stages of growth of the plant in conjunction with exposure to nematodes, affected phenotype of the plant samples was also observed in progressive stages.
Bell, C.A., Lilley, C.J., McCarthy, J., Atkinson, H.J. & Urwin, P.E. (2019) Plant-parasitic nematodes respond to root exudate signals with host-specific gene expression patterns. PLoS Pathogens 15(2): e1007503. Bozbuga, R., Lilley, C.J., Knox, J.P & Urwin, P.E. (2018) Host-specific signatures of the cell wall changes induced by the plant parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Scientific Reports 8: 17302. Hoysted, G.A., Bell, C.A., Lilley, C.J. & Urwin, P.E. (2018) Aphid colonization affects potato root exudate composition and the hatching of a soil borne pathogen. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:1278. Jones, L.M., Eves-van den Akker, S., van Oosten-Hawle, P., Atkinson, H.J. & Urwin, P.E. (2018) Duplication of hsp-110 is implicated in differential success of Globodera species under climate change. Molecular Biology and Evolution Doheny-Adams, T., Lilley, C.J., Barker, A., Ellis, S., Wade, R., Atkinson, H.J., Urwin, P.E., Redeker, K. & Hartley, S.E. (2018) Constant isothiocyanate-release ...
Scanning electron microscopy (Magnification=560x) of nematode-trapping loops of fungi imperfecti (Arthrobotrys oligospora), nematophagous fungi. Close-up of hyphae with adhesive matrix. - Stock Image C009/4104
Marine nematodes were extracted from samples using the elutriation/decantation LUDOX TM (colloidal silica polymer) method at a specific gravity of 1.15, quantifying only organisms that pass through a 500 um and are then retained by a 63 um mesh. Samples were evaporated to anhydrous glycerol and permanent slides made (Somerfield & Warwick 1996). The classification followed for the systematic position of the meiofauna taxa was Hulings and Gray (1988 ...
Appearance: Root-knot nematodes are about one-tenth the size of a pinhead and are typically embedded inside roots. They are impossible to see with the naked eye. Juvenile root-knot nematodes (both males and females), as well as adult males, are vermiform (i.e., worm-shaped) and live in the soil. Adult females are spherical in shape and live inside roots. Both males and females possess a thin, tube-like structure called a stylet that they use for penetrating root tissue.. Symptoms and Effects: When root-knot nematodes enter roots, they release chemicals that cause nearby root cells to enlarge. This leads to the formation of swollen, distorted areas in roots known as galls or knots. The number and size of galls varies depending on plant species and cultivar, and the number of root-knot nematodes in the soil. On some hosts (e.g., grasses) root swelling can be very difficult to detect. Nematode feeding interferes with proper root function (e.g., water and nutrient movement). Thus infected plants may ...
Nodulation is an ecologically and economically important plant phenomenon, in which the symbiosis between plants from the family Fabaceae and the bacterial genera rhizobia results in the development of nitrogen fixing nodules on host plant roots. The rhizobia-plant interaction is initiated by Nod factors, which are produced by species-specific rhizobia; Nod factor alone is necessary and sufficient to produce many of the initial responses including ionic fluxes, root hair deformation, changes in gene expression, cortical cell differentiation and generation of a pseudo nodule. Giant cell formation by plant pathogenic root knot nematodes (RKN) invokes host genes necessary for nitrogen-nodule formation. Specific transcription regulators, cytokinin response pathways and early nodulation genes are induced in the nematode feeding site and rhizobia induced nodules. This suggests that nodulation by rhizobia and RKN infection may share host signal transduction and/or developmental pathways. The presence ...
Damage to soybeans from the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was less than expected for a drought year. But reproduction of SCN on susceptible and resistant soybean varieties was surprisingly high in 2012. This article discusses the situation and its implications for 2013 and beyond.
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...AMES Iowa -- There are numerous plant-parasitic nematodes in the worl...Now Iowa State University researchers have contributed to the release...Sequencing the genome is a critical step toward comprehensively unders... This is considered to be one of if not the most important plant-para...,ISU,researchers,help,map,first,plant-parasitic,nematode,genome,sequence,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Francesca De Luca is a researcher at the UOS of Bari of Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection (IPSP-CNR), and she is involved in the following research areas: 1) functional characterization of effector genes involved in plant-nematode interaction (hsp90, endoglucanases, retinoland fatty acid -binding protein or FAR-1, major sperm protein-1 and collagen), localization of transcripts by in situ hybridization and gene silencing in order to identify the function of each transcript during parasitism; 2) molecular identification of plant parasitic and entomopathogenic nematodes (Xiphinema, Longidorus, Pratylenchus, Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) from all over the world by using as molecular markers regions of ribosomal DNA (18S and 28S rDNA and ITS), the gene for the mitochondrial COI and nuclear gene for hsp90; 3) biodiversity of plant parasitic and entomopathogenic nematodes through evolution and phylogenetic analyses; 4) diversity of nematofauna as bioindicator of soils with different health ...
Resistance to root-knot nematodes [ Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood] is needed for cultivation of peanut in major peanut-growing areas, but significant resistance is lacking in the cultivated spe
Field resistance to cyst nematode (SCN) race 3 (Heterodera glycines I.) in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cv Forrest is conditioned by two QTLs: the underlying genes are presumed to include Rhg1 on linkage group G and Rhg4 on linkage group A2. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and two populations of near-isogenic lines (NILs) derived from a cross of Forrest × Essex were used to map the loci affecting resistance to SCN. Bulked segregant analysis, with 512 AFLP primer combinations and microsatellite markers, produced a high-density genetic map for the intervals carrying Rhg1 and Rhg4. The two QTLs involved in resistance to SCN were strongly associated with the AFLP marker EATGMCGA87 (P = 0.0001, R2 = 24.5%) on linkage group G, and the AFLP marker ECCGMAAC405 (P = 0.0001, R2 = 26.2%) on linkage group A2. Two-way analysis of variance showed epistasic interaction (P = 0.0001, R2 =16%) between the two loci controlling SCN resistance in Essex × Forrest recombinant inbred lines. Considering
Anderson et al. [51,52] reported that the presence of localized bacterial food source (Escherichia coli) acting as a chemo-attractant caused the movements of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on a homogeneous layer of nutrient agar in a Petri dish to become straighter and more directed. These movements approximate to a straight line, which is, of course, the shortest possible route to the source of the chemo-attractant. The results of our numerical simulations build upon the study of Anderson et al. [51,52] and provide a provocative answer to the question of how plant-parasitic nematodes locate distant sources of chemo-attractant. They indicate that chemotaxis can take a nematode to the source of a pure chemo-attractant by the shortest, most direct route through the labyrinth of air-filled or water-filled channels within a soil through which the attractant diffuses. Previously, this remarkable consequence of chemotaxis had gone unnoticed. Searching strategies and maze-solving algorithms are ...
The researches on the biological control of nematodes with nematophagous fungi has been intensified in recent years. The knowledge of the ecological conditions for the growth and sporulation of these fungi is a prerequisite for attainment of pure cultures needed to attend the demand for formulation of these organisms. With the objective to evaluate the micelial growth and sporulation of Arthrobotrys musiformis and A. oligospora in two environments (B.O.D at 25 +/- 1 degrees C and the environment of the Laboratory), 20 cultures media prepared with common materials found in the communities and industrialized media such as mycological agar, PDA and CMA were evaluated. The media were tested in Petri dishes, being the micelial growth of the fungi evaluated daily, during six days. The measured sporulation at the end of the experiment was done by estimation of the number of conidia/Petri dish. The experiment was carried out in a random design following a factorial arrangement of 20 x 2 x 2, ...
Citation: Mengistu, A., Kilen, T., Donald, P.A. 2006. Notice of release of d99-2065 soybean germplasm line resistant to phytophthora rot and soybean cyst nematode races 3 and 4.. Germplasm Release. Crop Sci 2006 46:2325-2326. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Soybean germplasm line D99-2065 was released in October 2003. The objective was to provide private and public soybean breeders with a parent to develop high yielding, multiple pest resistant cultivars. Phytophthora rot (PR) and soybean cyst nematode (SCN) continue to be serious yield-limiting diseases of soybean. D99-2065 is a product of a backcrossing program to transfer the Rps1-b gene into a Bedford background. This line has value as a parent because of its resistance to PR and races 3 and 14 of the soybean cyst nematode. It also has value to the research community because it will expand the set of previous releases of PR-resistant lines which are near-isogenic to the cultivar Bedford. The reaction of 12 F3 plants was used to ...
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a pest that needs to be controlled with chemicals in the maize monoculture. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of insecticides on nematode communities in a maize field. Four soil treatments were used in this experiment: variant 1 - a granular application with tefluthrin (199.5 g a.i./ha); variant 2 - a granular application with clothianidin (110 g a.i./ha); variant 3 - a seed treatment with clothianidin (1.25 μg a.i/seed); and control - a maize field without insecticides.. During the investigated period, a total of 19 117 soil nematode individuals were captured and 9 orders, 33 genera and 37 species were identified. Acrobeloides nanus, Cephalobus persegnis, Eucephalobus striatus and Basiria gracilis were the dominant species, accounting for 48 % of the total number of individuals. The mean abundance and species diversity index were significantly lower for variant 2. Bacterial feeders were the dominant trophic group for ...
Effect of Sorghum-Sudangrass and Velvetbean Cover Crops on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Potato Production in Florida
This module is particularly useful for those who are interested in morphological species identification of major plant-parasitic nematodes.
Above: A nematode seen under a microscope. UF/IFAS photo by Tyler Jones.. A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside of another organism, weakening its host but usually not killing it. This feature distinguishes it from a parasitoid, which typically does kill its host.. Words related to parasite include parasitic (adjective), parasitism (noun) and parasitize (verb). Obligate parasitism occurs when an organism can only survive by its parasitic relationships with another organism.. Plant-parasitic nematodes are one example of a parasitic bug. These nematodes are very small and may only be visible with a microscope. Like other nematodes, plant-parasitic nematodes live in the soil, where they feed on plants.. Many of these parasitic nematodes attack plants from the outside with a spear-like body part called a stylet. Because of this behavior we call them ectoparasites, parasites that live on the outside of their host.. Other nematodes live inside a plant, making them endoparasites. Root-knot ...
In Brazil, as the soybean crop expands the losses caused by nematodes as well as its incidence in producing areas have increased. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a non-genetically modified soybean which combines desirable traits as the root-knot nematode resistance, early-maturity, high seed yielding, and high oil and protein contents. Consequently, seeds (F2) derived from the double-crossing between (Guarani x Sambaiba) x (M Soy 6101 x Conquista) were bulked to grow the F3 generation. Following generations were advanced by the SSD method of breeding until F6. Thus, plants showing superior characteristics were planted separately to perform progeny tests and then advanced breeding lines were thoroughly tested and compared to standards in representative environments across several locations in the Midwestern region in Brazil. As a result, we developed an early-soybean with cycle-length of 107 days; usually cycles range from 90 to 160 days. It presents desirable traits as high yield (3677 kg ...
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious soybean pathogen in North Carolina. Since its discovery in North Carolina (and the United States) in 1954, it has spread to all counties in the Coastal Plain, Tidewater, and some Piedmont counties with large soybean acreages. Severe yield loss caused by this pest is especially common in sandy coastal plain soils. SCN, however, is not restricted to any soil type and often causes significant soybean yield losses which may go unnoticed. Races of Soybean Cyst Nematode Field populations of SCN are characterized as races (numbered 1 through 16). A race designation of cyst nematode is an indication of a field populations ability to reproduce on each of several soybean varieties or lines. Knowing the race of cyst nematode in a given field can assist the grower in making decisions about which resistant varieties should be used. For example, if a field has race 1 or 3, then selection of a variety resistant to these races would be the appropriate choice. ...
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Nematode models in evolution and development.. Ralf J. Sommer, Max-Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany. [email protected] Nematodes are the largest animal phylum that is best characterized by species richness, numerical abundance and ecological omnipresence. Comprising of free-living as well as parasitic species, several nematodes became important model systems in modern biology. Most importantly, Caenorhabditis elegans has been at the forefront of research in modern developmental biology, genetics, neurobiology and genomics. After reviewing the state of the art research platforms in C. elegans I will expand to the possibility to develop other nematode species as comparative models for development and evolution. We have developed the distantly related Pristionchus pacificus as a model system in development, but also ecology and evolutionary biology. Among other topics, comparative evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) can indicate the conservation ...
Rice is the second most important food crop in the world after corn based on the total production. In 2016, rice was cultivated in 161.1 million ha area, and the global production was 482 million metric tons (World Rice Statistics, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philipines, http://ricestat.irri.org:8080/wrsv3/entrypoint.htm). The rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, has emerged as a devastating pest of rice in South-East Asia (Dutta et al., 2012; Mantelin et al., 2016), where it is highly damaging under upland, rainfed lowland (Prot et al., 1994) and irrigated (Netscher and Erlan, 1993) cultivation conditions. Severe M. graminicola infection is known to cause 100% damage to the rice nursery. Here, we report the sequencing and assembly of the genome of M. graminicola IARI strain. This resource would help researchers investigate and understand the unique biology of this nematode and discover new strategies for its management.. Considering the ~30 Mb genome size of M. ...
Aleshin, V. V., O. S. Kedrova, I. A. Milyutina, N. S. Vladychenskaya, and N. B. Petrov. 1998. Relationships among nematodes based on the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences: molecular evidence for monophyly of chromadorian and secernentian nematodes. Russian Journal of Nematology 6:175-184.. Aleshin, V. V., O. S. Kedrova, I. A. Milyutina, N. S. Vladychenskaya, and N. B. Petrov. 1998. Secondary structure of some elements of 18S rRNA suggests that strongylid and a part of rhabditid nematodes are monophyletic. FEBS-Letters 429:4-8.. Bird, A. F. and J. Bird. 1991. The Structure of Nematodes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 316.. Blaxter, M. L., P. De Ley, J. R. Garey, L. X. Liu, P. Scheldeman, A. Vierstraete, J. R. Vanfleteren, L. Y. Mackey, M. Dorris, L. M. Frisse, J. T. Vida, and W. K. Thomas. 1998. A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda. Nature 392:71-75.. Blaxter, M. L., M. Dorris and P. De Ley. 2000. Patterns and processes in the evolution of animal parasitic nematodes. ...
Supplementary MaterialsTable S1: Gene Ontology mappings for clusters. expansin proteins. Introduction Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have proven to be one of the most rapid routes to gene discovery of any organism for which a cDNA library is available [1]. In addition, large-scale EST analysis can be used to estimate gene expression levels in specific life stages or tissues and are useful tools for annotation of genome sequences [1], [2]. EST analysis has been widely applied to study the biology of nematodes. Over 1.5 million ESTs from more than 63 species, including free-living nematodes, animal-parasitic and plant-parasitic species are available in dbEST (GenBank, 1 October 2012). To date, over 125,000 EST sequences from twenty different plant-parasitic nematodes are in dbEST. This information is of great significance for studying nematode biology, especially for the identification of effectors. Plant-parasitic nematode effectors, defined Maraviroc distributor here as proteins secreted by the ...
Nematoda[edit]. Further information: nematoda. The nervous system of one very small worm, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans ...
New Nematoda species of family Leptosomatidae (Nematoda, Enoplida) from Mediterranean Sea. ISSN 1812-9250 Invertebrate zoology ... in Russian with English abstract] PDF De Ley, P.; Blaxter, M. L. (2004). A new system for Nematoda: combining morphological ... Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera: 2. Nematoda. Handbook of Zoology (2010) Walter De Gruyter: Berlin. 759 pp., ...
Nematoda. Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, London. pp. 112-113. Rajagopalan PK, Sreenivasan MA, Anderson CR (1978). "Ixodid ticks ... Nematoda IV". Journal of Helminthology. 23 (1-2): 39-56. doi:10.1017/S0022149X00032363. Pugh GJF (1966). "Fungi on birds in ...
World Species Index: Nematoda. 2012. Liu GH, Shao R, Li JY, Zhou DH, Li H, Zhu XQ (2013). "The complete mitochondrial genomes ... "Nematoda". Tree of Life Web Project. Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Retrieved 2 November 2008. Holterman M, van der Wurff A, ... "ITIS report: Nematoda". Itis.gov. Retrieved 12 June 2012. "Bilateria". Tree of Life Web Project. Tree of Life Web Project. 2002 ... A complete checklist of the world's nematode species can be found in the World Species Index: Nematoda. An analysis of the ...
n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from the Rice Rat, Oryzomys palustris, in Florida, with a Key to the Species of ... Nematoda: Capillariinae) from the mouflon Ovis musimon in the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen archipelago, with comments on the ... Nematoda: Acuarioidea) from the rice rat Oryzomys palustris in Florida". Systematic Parasitology. 28: 1-4. doi:10.1007/ ... Nematoda". American Midland Naturalist. 53 (1): 162-175. doi:10.2307/2422306. JSTOR 2422306. Durden, Lance A. (1988). "The ...
n. (Nematoda)". Trudy Zoologichesogo Instituta Akademia Nauk SSR (Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy ...
Protostrongylidae, Nematoda)". Rangifer. 13 (1): 53-55. doi:10.7557/2.13.1.1074. http://www.marcosalemi.com/malacolimax- ...
Protostrongylidae, Nematoda). Rangifer 13(1): 53-55. Morand S. & Hommay G. (1990). "Redescription de Agfa flexilis (Nematoda: ...
Phylum Nematoda. Nematode Classification. Department of Nematology. University of California, Riverside. Bik, H. M., et al. ( ... 2010). Moving towards a complete molecular framework of the Nematoda: a focus on the Enoplida and early-branching clades. BMC ...
Phylum Nematoda. Nematode Classification. Department of Nematology. University of California, Riverside. Lee 2010. Bik, H. M.; ... 2010). "Moving towards a complete molecular framework of the Nematoda: a focus on the Enoplida and early-branching clades". BMC ... De Ley, P & Blaxter, M 2004, 'A new system for Nematoda: combining morphological characters with molecular trees, and ... "A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda". Nature. 392 (6671): 71-75. doi:10.1038/32160. PMID 9510248. S2CID ...
Protostrongylidae, Nematoda)". Rangifer 13(1): 53-55. PDF. "Fact Sheet Succineidae". Terrestrial Mollusc Tool. Retrieved 2 July ...
Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) (2002): Nematoda. Version of January 1, 2002. Retrieved November 2, 2008. Phylum Nematoda. ... Enoplea (enopleans) is a class, which with the classes Secernentea and Chromadorea make up the phylum Nematoda in current ... Phylogenetic analysis of phylum Nematoda suggests three distinct basal clades, the dorylaims, enoplids and chromadorids. These ... 2012). "Armless mitochondrial tRNAs in Enoplea (Nematoda)". RNA Biology. 9 (9): 1161-66. doi:10.4161/rna.21630. PMC 3579883. ...
trichuridae: Nematoda)". Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B. 40 (3): 69-88. "Whipworms". ... Nematoda:Trichuridae)". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 12 (2012): 1635-1641. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.08.005. PMID ...
nov.(Nematoda: Axonolaimidae). PG Moore, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the …, 1977 Araeolaimus at WoRMS v t e ...
Nematoda: Diplogastridae); a hermaphroditic diplogastrid with an egg shell formed by zygote and uterine components". Nematology ... Nematoda)". ZooKeys. 30 (442): 17-30. doi:10.3897/zookeys.442.7459. Yeates, G.W. (1969). "Predation by Mononchoides potohikus ( ...
Protostrongylidae, Nematoda)". Rangifer 13(1): 53-55. PDF. Vitrina pellucida at Animalbase taxonomy,short description, ...
Nematoda: Diplogastridae); a hermaphroditic diplogastrid with an egg shell formed by zygote and uterine components". Nematology ... Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an androdioecious species from the south-eastern USA". Nematology. 16 (6): 695-709. doi:10.1163/ ... Nematoda: Diplogastridae): viviparous new species with precocious gonad development". Nematology. 15 (8): 1001-1020. doi: ... Ragsdale EJ, Kanzaki N, Röseler W, Herrmann M, Sommer RJ (2013). "Three new species of Pristionchus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) ...
Nematoda, Criconematidae). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 59(5): 207-216. Taylor, A.L. 1936. The Genera and Species of ... the Criconematinae, a Sub-Family of the Anguillulinidae (Nematoda). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 55(4): ...
Hodda, M. (2007). "Phylum Nematoda". Zootaxa. 1668: 265-293. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1668.1.14. ven Megen, H.; et al. (2009). "A ... Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) (2002): Nematoda. Version of 2002-JAN-01. Retrieved 2008-NOV-02. v t e. ...
Protostrongylidae, Nematoda)". Rangifer 13(1): 53-55. PDF. Skorping A. (1985). "Lymnea stagnalis as experimental intermediate ...
Protostrongylidae, Nematoda)". Rangifer 13(1): 53-55. PDF. Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment. "Brainworm ...
Phylum Nematoda. Nematode Classification. Department of Nematology. University of California, Riverside. Bik, H. M.; et al. ( ... 2010). "Moving towards a complete molecular framework of the Nematoda: a focus on the Enoplida and early-branching clades". BMC ... "A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda". Nature. 392 (6671): 71-75. doi:10.1038/32160. PMID 9510248. S2CID ...
"Phylum Nematoda". THE "NEMATODE-PLANT EXPERT INFORMATION SYSTEM" A Virtual Encyclopedia on Soil and Plant Nematodes. November ... A part of the Nematoda phylum, one of the nine main phyla. Along with other certain species of roundworms. Most frequently ... The Chromadorea are a class of the roundworm phylum, Nematoda. They contain a single subclass (Chromadoria) and several orders ... Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) (2002): Nematoda. Version of 2002-JAN-01. Retrieved 2008-NOV-02. v t e. ...
n. (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea). Atas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro 19(1):59-61 (in Portuguese). Magalhaes ... Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae) nearctiques. Annales Parasit. hum. comp. 49(4):435-450. Durette-Desset, M.-C. and ... Two new species of Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina: Heligmonellidae) from the grey leaf-eared mouse Graomys ... Systematic position of some Nearctic Heligmosomoidea (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) from the U.S. National Parasite Collection ...
Nematoda: Ascaris, Caenorhabditis ; Mollusca: Bivalvia); Polyplacophora; Arthropoda/Crustacea: Artemia; Arthropoda/Insecta: ...
n. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), parasitising an aphid (Hemiptera: Burmitaphididae) in Myanmar amber: a 100 million year association ... Poinar, G. O.; Buckley, R. (2006). "Nematode (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and hairworm (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) parasites in ... "Nematoda and Nematomorpha". In Thorp, J.H.; Covich, A.P. (eds.). Ecology and classification of North American freshwater ...
Hallmann (2013). Tierische Schädlinge - Nematoda. In: Poehling, M, Verreet J.-A. (Hrsg.) Lehrbuch Phytomedizin. Ulmer Verlag, ...
Poinar GO Jr (1991). "Nematoda and Nematomorpha". In Thorp JH, Covich AP (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American ... Poinar George; Ron Buckley (September 2006). "Nematode (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and hairworm (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) ...
n. (Nematoda: Palaeonematidae fam. N.), a Devonian nematode associated with early land plants". Nematology. 10 (1): 9-14. doi: ...
Nematoda, Anisakidae), with the description of E. dentiduplicata n. sp. and new records of two other anisakid nematodes from ... C (Nematoda: Anisakidae)". The Journal of Parasitology. 100 (2): 199-214. doi:10.1645/12-120.1. PMID 24224764. Pozio E (2015 ...
... Roundworms. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Nematoda. Pages 111-195 in: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol. 4. F. W. Harrison and E. E. Ruppert, eds. Wiley-Liss, ... Phylum Nematoda. Pages 265-293 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. ... Page: Tree of Life Nematoda. Roundworms. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial ...
Nematoda (az); Nematoda (io); Nematoda (gsw); Nematoda (fi); Nematoda (frr); Nematoda (eo); Nematoda (cs); Nematoda (da); ... Nematoda (lfn); Nematoda (nl); Nematoda (vi); Nematoda (ms); Nematoda (lv); Nematoda (af); Nematoda (nv); Nematoda (sl); ... Nematoda (sco); Nematoda (ceb); Nematoda (pl); Nematoda, Rundormer (nb); Nematoda (su); Nematoda (lt); Nematoda (nds); Nematoda ... Nematoda (ca); Nematoda (qu); Nematoda (de); Krimbat Cilindrike (sq); Nematoda (bg); Nematoda (fy); Nematoda (ro); Nematoda (sv ...
Other Nematoda biologists and enthusiasts. * Hugo Hugo CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida Yucatan Mexico (Nematoda) ... University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA (Nematoda) ToL Media Contributors for Nematoda. * Brandon Matheny Clark ... Nematoda) * Alex Small (Agraulis vanillae, Anisonema, Archaea, Arthropoda, Astasia, Atraktomonas laevis, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, ... ToL Scientific Contributors for Nematoda. * William Kelley Thomas Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, University of New ...
A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda. Nature 392: 71-75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... An outline classification of the phylum Nematoda. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 243-255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Evolution in Hoplolaimus (Nematoda, Tylenchida). Nematologica 36: 199-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Description of Gastromermis metae sp.n. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) with an assessment of some diagnostic characters and species In ...
Definition: motion characterized by wave-like movement patterns that act to propel an animal forward. eg: crawling in snakes, or swimming in the lamprey. Typically utilized by limbless ...
The phylum Nematoda, commonly known as the roundworms, included 24,793 described species as of 2011. Described species, however ...
... identification and distribution of Nematoda - Roundworms, Nemata, Nematodes -- Discover Life ... Nematoda includes common roundworms, which infect many humans worldwide, hookworms, trichina worms, which are responsible for ... Animal Diversity Web -- Information on Nematoda including pictures and classification. *Nematode Parasites of Animals -- ...
Nematoda atau cacing gilig merupakan filum Nematoda.[2][3] Mereka adalah filum hewan yang beragam yang menghuni rentang ... Satu kelompok jamur karnivora, jamur nematophagous, adalah predator nematoda tanah. Mereka mengatur rayuan untuk nematoda dalam ... "Harus ada cacing nematoda, karena cacing nematoda hidup di mana-mana." Jawaban yang benar, secara umum, adalah "ekstremofili."[ ... Spesies nematoda bisa sulit untuk dibedakan, dan meskipun lebih dari 25.000 telah dijelaskan,[4][5] lebih dari setengahnya ...
Annelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire - Download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. ... Annelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire. Uploaded by. Harimohan Thakuriya Jaipur. test paper made by aadhar institute for true ...
Nematoda: Strongylidae) were collected from donkeys from Henan Province, China. Five samples of each species were selected for ... Cyathostominae (Nematoda) parasites of Equus caballus in some Brazilian states. Veterinary Parasitology, 86, 15-21. DOI: ... Seven species of Cylicocyclus Ihle, 1922 (Nematoda: Strongylidae) were collected from donkeys from Henan Province, China. Five ... Zum Strongylus tetracanthus-Problem und zur Systematik der Cyathostominea (Nematoda: Strongyloidea). Mitteilungen aus dem ...
Roundworms: Phylum Nematoda. Species in the phylum Nematoda (from the Greek root word nema meaning thread) are better known as ... Worms: Phyla Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, and Annelida NGSS Performance Expectations:. * MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by ... Roundworms (phylum Nematoda) have a slightly more complex body plan. Segmented worms (phylum Annelida) are the most complex ...
The gene expression and the activity of enzyme synthesis of trehalose during development ofAscaris suum(Nematoda) eggs ... 7] Dubinský, P., Ryboš, M., Turčeková, L. (1980): Distribution of glycogen in Ascaris suum and Parascaris equorum (Nematoda) ... 6] Dmitryjuk, M., Żółtowska, K. (2004): Trehalose catabolism enzymes in tissues of Ascaris suum (Nematoda). Helminthologia, 41 ... Trehalose metabolism genes render rice white tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) resistant to an ...
A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California ... A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California ... A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California ...
Steinernematidae: Nematoda). Journal of Nematology 22: 187-199.. Parkman JP, Frank JH, Nguyen KB, Smart GC Jr. 1994. ... Mole Cricket Nematode, Steinernema scapterisci Nguyen & Smart (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Steinernematidae)1. K. B. Nguyen 2 ...
Strongyloides (Nematoda, Strongyloididae) has more than 60 species, which mostly parasitize the small intestine, especially the ... Nematoda: Trychostrongyloidea) from Thylamys venustus and (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) in the Northwest Argentina. Lutreolina ...
New method for simultaneous species-specific identification of equine strongyles (nematoda, strongylida) by reverse line blot ... New Method for Simultaneous Species-Specific Identification of Equine Strongyles (Nematoda, Strongylida) by Reverse Line Blot ...
Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestines of Phymaturus punae and Phymaturus williamsi (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from ... Description of a new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from Mexico with a list of current species and key ... First record of Aplectana hylambatis (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) in amphibians on the province of San Juan. Cuadernos de ... Parapharyngodon riojensis n. sp.(Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the lizard Phymaturus punae (Squamata: Iguania:Liolaemidae) ...
Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a new root-knot nematode associated with Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) in ... Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from Pakistan. * F. Shahina , K.A. Tabassum , J. Salma , G. ... Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing grasses. pp. 263-265 in Jepson, SB (Ed.) Identification of root- ... Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Atacama Desert, Chile. * S. Edgington , A.G. Buddie , D ...
Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) using purified 31-kDa antigen - Volume 88 Issue 4 - P. Eamsobhana, X.X. Gan, A. Ma, Y. Wang, D. ... Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) using purified 31-kDa antigen. * P. Eamsobhana (a1), X.X. Gan (a2), A. Ma (a2), Y. Wang (a2), D. ... Eamsobhana, P. (1994) Immunological studies on the rat lung-worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae). PhD ...
Nematoda, Acuariidae) in the Kyiv Zoological Park in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to ... Finding of Two Species from the Tribe Synhimantea (Nematoda, Acuariidae) in the Kyiv Zoological Park. Vestnik Zoologii. 2015;49 ... Finding of Two Species from the Tribe Synhimantea (Nematoda, Acuariidae) in the Kyiv Zoological Park. Syrota, Ya. Yu., ...
n. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) e uma descrição do macho de Camallanus tridentatus (Drasche, 1884), parasitas de peixes da Amazônia ... VINCENT, A.G.; FONT, W.F. Host specificity and population structure of two exotic helminth, Camallanus cotti (Nematoda) and ... Nematoda: Camallanidae) in Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida), a microcrustacean commonly found in ponds, but with ... Role of Leptodora kindti (Cladocera: Leptodoridae) in the life cycle of Raphidascaris biwakoensis (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a ...
Cobb, 1914 (Nematoda: Secernentea: Tylenchida: Tylenchina: Dolichodoridae: Dolichodorinae)1. W. T. Crow and A. S. Brammer2 ... Nematoda: Tylenchida) with a key to species. Journal of Nematology 17:29-37. ...
Juliana Notarnicola, F. Agustín Jiménez, and Scott L. Gardner "A New Species of Molinema (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in Bolivian ... A New Species of Molinema (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in Bolivian Rodents and Emended Description of Litomosoides esslingeri Bain ... Juliana Notarnicola, F. Agustín Jiménez, Scott L. Gardner "A New Species of Molinema (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in Bolivian ...
n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a nematode species used in comparative biology for C. elegans PLoS One. 2014 Nov 6;9(11):e110957. ...
Ávila R W (2014). A new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: ... A new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from ... Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa ...
The buccal capsule of nematodes functions in the initial uptake of food into the alimentary tract. As such it shows many modifications in form dependent on the nature of food and feeding mechanism. Hence, buccal structures have been used extensively in taxonomic and phylogenetic considerations. The buccal capsule of rhabditoid nematodes has received considerable attention and a complex terminology, initially attributable to Steiner (1933), has developed to describe its form in various subgroups of the order Rhabditida. Most commonly the buccal capsule has been considered to include regions named the cheilostom, prostom, mesostom, metastom, and telostom. Attempts have also been made to extend this terminology (by implication, through homology) to other major nematode groups (e.g. De Coninck 1965; Coomans 1963; Ritter 1965), although pitfalls have been recognised (Coomans et al. 1978).. Recent anatomical studies using electron microscopy have noted marked differences between cuticle of the body ...
ALBERTSON, D. G., and J. N. THOMSON. 1976. The pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 275: 299-325.. ANDERSON, R. V., and J. R. BYERS. 1975. Ultrastructure of the esophageal procorpus in the plant parasite nematode, Tylenchorhynchus dubius, and functional aspects in relation to feeding. Can. J. Zool. 53: 1581-1595. BALDWIN, J. G., H. HIRSCHMANN, and A. C. TRIANTAPHYL-LOU. 1977. Comparative fine structure of the esophagus of males of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita. Nematologica, 23: 239-252. COOMANS, A. 1963. Stoma structure in members of the dorylaimina. Nematologica, 9: 587-601. COOMANS, A., L. DE CONINCK, and C. HEIP. 1978. Round table discussions: first workshop on systematics of marine free-living nematodes. Ann. Soc. Zool. Belg. 108:109-113. DE CONINCK, L. 1965. Structures cephalique and Appareil digestif, cavite buccale. In Traite de zoologie. Edited ...
Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and ... Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and ... Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and ... From the nematode evolutionary timeline there is no conflict; the line that led to the Nematoda split off from the branch to ...
D.L. Price, M.H. Ellisman, M. Martone, G.A. Johnson, E. Masliah (2014) CIL:46967, Mus musculus, CNS neuron (sensu Nematoda and ...
glial cell (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia) Cellular Component. desmosome cell-cell junction ... Don W. Fawcett (2011) CIL:11214, Aphrodita aculeata, glial cell (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org ...
  • Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. (frontiersin.org)
  • Free-living nematodes of Hungary II (Nematoda errantia). (brill.com)
  • Alekseev, V.M., Aquatic nematodes of the genus Tripyla from Primorye and the issues of phylogeny of Tripylidae (Nematoda, Enoplida), in Fauna, biologiya i sistematika svobodnozhivushchikh nizshikh chervei (Fauna, Biology, and Taxonomy of Free-Living Lower Worms), Rybinsk: Inst. (springer.com)
  • Free-Living Nematodes (Nemathelmintes: Nematoda). (springer.com)
  • Nematodes, or roundworms are considered to be part of the phylum Nematoda, also known as Nemathelminthes. (weebly.com)
  • 1998. A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda. (tolweb.org)
  • Phylum Nematoda. (tolweb.org)
  • The phylum Nematoda, commonly known as the roundworms, included 24,793 described species as of 2011. (eol.org)
  • Phylum Nematoda Cobb, 1932. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roundworms (phylum Nematoda) have a slightly more complex body plan. (hawaii.edu)
  • The nervous systems of organisms of Phylum Nematoda are quite basic yet hold great importance. (weebly.com)
  • This is because it contains two of the most diverse animal groups: phylum Nematoda (the roundworms) and Phylum Arthropoda (the arthropods). (oercommons.org)
  • Phylum Nematoda includes more than 28,000 species with an estimated 16,000 being parasitic in nature. (oercommons.org)
  • Phylum Platyhelminthes Phylum Nematoda Phylum Mollusca. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Trichinella is the genus of parasitic roundworms of the phylum Nematoda that cause trichinosis (also known as trichinellosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dezfuli BS, Pironi F, Shinn A, Manera M & Giari L (2007) Histopathology and ultrastructure of Platichthys flesus naturally infected with Anisakis simplex s.l. larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae). (stir.ac.uk)
  • Genetic characterization of members of the genus Contracaecum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fish-eating birds from west-central Florida, USA, with evidence of new species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Egretta alba (Aves: Ardeidae) and comments on other species of this genus in Argentina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nematoda: Mermithidae) with an assessment of some diagnostic characters and species In Gastromermis . (springer.com)
  • Seven species of Cylicocyclus Ihle, 1922 (Nematoda: Strongylidae) were collected from donkeys from Henan Province, China. (springer.com)
  • Molecular evidence for cryptic species within Cylicostephanus minutus (Nematoda: Strongylidae). (springer.com)
  • A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California, Mexico," Journal of Parasitology 105(4), 524-532, (12 July 2019). (bioone.org)
  • New method for simultaneous species-specific identification of equine strongyles (nematoda, strongylida) by reverse line blot hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Phymaturus spp. (degruyter.com)
  • Description of a new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from Mexico with a list of current species and key to species from the Panamanian Region. (degruyter.com)
  • Nematoda: Tylenchida) with a key to species. (ufl.edu)
  • Juliana Notarnicola , F. Agustín Jiménez , and Scott L. Gardner "A New Species of Molinema (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in Bolivian Rodents and Emended Description of Litomosoides esslingeri Bain, Petit, and Diagne, 1989," Journal of Parasitology 98(6), 1200-1208, (1 December 2012). (bioone.org)
  • Archidona-Yuste A, Navas-Cortés JA, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Palomares-Rius JE, Castillo P (2016) Cryptic diversity and species delimitation in the Xiphinema americanum -group complex (Nematoda: Longidoridae) as inferred from morphometrics and molecular markers. (springer.com)
  • Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from grizzly and black bears: new species or phenotypic plasticity? (ab-conservation.com)
  • Phylogenetic relationships among species of contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912 and Phocascaris Høst, 1932 (Nematoda:Ascaridoidea) based on nuclear rDNA sequence data. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 16 Introduction to the Nematoda The Roundworms -Approximately 12,000 species of Nematoda have been named. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=2200 on 2020-03-09 Gagarin, V.G. 2009: New Nematoda species of family Leptosomatidae (Nematoda, Enoplida) from Mediterranean Sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nematode Fossils [Nematoda]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of spiral nematode (Nematoda: Rotylenchinae) collected from Taiwan and Kinmen. (brill.com)
  • Tydens die opnames is nuwe sist nematode spesies gevind en die verspreiding van Globodera rostochiensis in Suid-Afrika is vasgestel. (sun.ac.za)
  • The name Nematoda is derived from the Greek word "Nemos," which means "thread" and includes roundworms. (oercommons.org)
  • and a conspectus of the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Tylenchida: Nematoda). (brill.com)
  • AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Molekulêre, morfologiese en biologiese karakterisering van die genus Globodera (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) in Suid-Afrika word aangebied. (sun.ac.za)
  • Die doelwitte van die studieprojek was om die verspreiding van die genus in Suid-Afrika vas te stel, om die sistematiek van die groep te bestudeer en om 'n meer volledige begrip van die biologie van die groep te bekom. (sun.ac.za)
  • A new system for Nematoda: combining morphological characters with molecular trees, and translating clades into ranks and taxa. (springer.com)
  • Our results indicate that convergent morphological evolution may be extensive and that present higher-level classification of the Nematoda will need revision. (unh.edu)
  • 2007. An improved molecular phylogeny of the Nematoda with special emphasis on marine taxa. (tolweb.org)
  • 2006. Phylogeny of Cephalobina (Nematoda): Molecular evidence for recurrent evolution of probolae and incongruence with traditional classifications. (tolweb.org)
  • Molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchina and evolution of the female gonoduct (Nematoda: Rhabditida). (brill.com)
  • CIL:46967, Mus musculus, CNS neuron (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • CIL:11214, Aphrodita aculeata, glial cell (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Don W. Fawcett (2011) CIL:11214, Aphrodita aculeata, glial cell (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • El-Desouky Ammar, Saskia A. Hogenhout, L. R. Nault (2011) CIL:25366, Maize mosaic virus, Peregrinus maidis, hemocyte (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Enoplids, with descriptions of Brevitobrilus fesehai n sp and B-tsalolikhini n sp (Enoplida: Nematoda). (ugent.be)
  • [6] Berbeda dengan filum Cnidaria dan Platyhelminthes (cacing pipih), nematoda memiliki sistem pencernaan tubular dengan bukaan di kedua ujungnya. (wikipedia.org)
  • The content and activities in this topic will work towards building an understanding of the worms in the phyla Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, and Annelida. (hawaii.edu)
  • The Nematoda, like most other animal phyla, are triploblastic and possess an embryonic mesoderm that is sandwiched between the ectoderm and endoderm. (oercommons.org)
  • Explain the wuchereria of nematoda which belongs to non chordate phyla? (thebigger.com)
  • The main aim of this review is to summarized the toxic effects of chemical extracts from Artemisia on Nematoda worms. (pharmapdf.com)
  • The figure shows the results of analyses of automatically selected taxon subsets from the Nematoda dataset using various criteria for a three-gene supermatrix. (nih.gov)
  • Nematoda) in the pallial system of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 from Vila Dois Rios and Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. (bvsalud.org)
  • Un gusano anisákido identificado como larva del cuarto estadio de Pseudoterranova decipiens fue aislado mediante gastroendoscopio en el estómago de una persona de 45 años, residente en el sur de Chile. (scielosp.org)
  • Eamsobhana , P. ( 1994 ) Immunological studies on the rat lung-worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae). (cambridge.org)
  • First record of Aplectana hylambatis (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) in amphibians on the province of San Juan. (degruyter.com)
  • Nematoda: Capillariidae) is described from the intestine of the freshwater cobbler, Tandanus bostocki (Plotosidae) from the Blackwood River in the southwest of Australia. (edu.au)
  • 2000. Inferring a classification of the Adenophorea (Nematoda) from nucleotide sequences of the D3 expansion segment (26/28S rDNA). (tolweb.org)
  • Stage-specific antigens of Nematospiroides dubius Baylis, 1926 (Nematoda: Heligmosomides). (edu.au)
  • Adams J.H., East I.J., Monroy F., Washington E.A. and Dobson C. (1987) Stage-specific antigens of Nematospiroides dubius Baylis, 1926 (Nematoda: Heligmosomides). (edu.au)
  • Nematoda atau cacing gilig merupakan filum Nematoda . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cacing nematoda ( C. elegans ), fokus dari sebuah proyek penelitian yang sedang berlangsung pada misi pesawat ulang-alik Columbia STS-107 , selamat dari meledaknya pesawat ulang-alik Columbia ketika memasuki atmosfer bumi. (wikipedia.org)
  • dia menjawab, "Harus ada cacing nematoda, karena cacing nematoda hidup di mana-mana. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyses of slices from the Nematoda dataset. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnostiese tegnieke, aan die hand van spesies-spesifieke inleiers en restriksie-ensieme, is geevalueer vir hul vermoë om Globodera spesies van mekaar te onderskei. (sun.ac.za)
  • Artemisinin is the new molecular platform for the development of a complete molecular library with potential applications also in the treatment of Nematoda helminths. (pharmapdf.com)
  • 6] Dmitryjuk, M., Żółtowska, K. (2004): Trehalose catabolism enzymes in tissues of Ascaris suum (Nematoda). (degruyter.com)