Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup Y: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Transferrin-Binding Protein B: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Neisseriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay: Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Neisseriaceae: A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.Neisseria cinerea: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in the human NASOPHARYNX.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Pili, Sex: Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Moraxella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Transferrin-Binding Protein A: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cytidine Monophosphate N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Aza CompoundsAntibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.N-Acylneuraminate Cytidylyltransferase: An enzyme that forms CMP-acylneuraminic acids, which donate the N-acylneuraminic acid residues to the terminal sugar residue of a ganglioside or glycoprotein. EC 2.7.7.43.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeisseria mucosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA, found in the human NASOPHARYNX and in the normal flora of the respiratory tissues in DOLPHINS. It is occasionally pathogenic for humans and pathogenic for MICE. (Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1st edition, p295)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.

*George Heist

... whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity ... established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ability to kill Neisseria meningitidis in a capillary tube ... concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. Control blood without bactericidal activity ... Heist's seminal study of the properties of a person's blood serum that protect against this bacterium, he died of meningitis. ...

*Natasha Anwar

... meningitidis. The traditional method to determine activity is through the use of serum blood assay; serum blood assay involves ... bactericidal activity was detected in whole blood assay against the opposite strain, while serum blood assay failed to. This ... Neisseria meningitidis is a parasitic organism which colonizes the upper respiratory tract. It is usually commensal, but will ... but on whole blood instead. Serum blood assay will not be able to detect phagocytic activity, but whole blood assay on the ...

*Cefotaxime

... pyogenes Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis Klebsiella spp. Burkholderia cepacia ... Due to the mechanism of their attack on bacterial cell wall synthesis, β-lactams are considered to be bactericidal. Unlike β- ... It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against numerous gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Given its broad ... In meningitis, cefotaxime crosses the blood-brain barrier better than cefuroxime. As a β-lactam antibiotic in the third- ...

*Brazilian purpuric fever

... isolation of Haemophilus Influenzae Biogroup aegyptius from blood, and negative laboratory tests for Neisseria meningitidis. ... has been suggested that children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to BPF since they lack serum bactericidal activity ... The negative tests for Neisseria meningitidis rules out the possibility of the symptoms being caused by meningitis, since the ... They require preformed growth factors that are present in blood, specifically hemin (X factor) and NAD or NADP (V factor). The ...

*Lipopolysaccharide

Additionally, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as well as Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae, are capable of further ... Normal human blood serum contains anti-LOS antibodies that are bactericidal and patients that have infections caused by ... The toxic activity of LPS was first discovered and termed "endotoxin" by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, who distinguished ... In the case of Neisseria meningitidis, the lipid A portion of the molecule has a symmetrical structure and the inner core is ...

*Gentamicin

... is not used for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis or Legionella pneumophila bacterial infections ( ... Gentamicin A, B, X, and a few others make up the remaining 20% of gentamicin and have lower antibiotic activity than the ... The dose required should be monitored by blood testing. Gentamicin can cause inner ear problems and kidney problems. The inner ... Gentamicin is a bactericidal antibiotic that works by "irreversibly" binding the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, ...

*Colistin

Neisseria gonorrheae and Neisseria meningitidis Proteus Providencia Serratia Some strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ... Hogg GM, Barr JG, Webb CH (1998). "In-vitro activity of the combination of colistin and rifampicin against multidrug-resistant ... It concluded that pan-drug resistant infections, particularly those in the blood stream, have a higher mortality. Multiple ... This effect is bactericidal even in an isosmolar environment.[citation needed] Colistin has been effective in treating ...

*Human microbiota

Neisseria meningitidis, and Staphylococcus aureus.[citation needed] Fungal genera that compose the pulmonary mycobiome include ... In addition, a bactericidal effect is generated by nasal mucus which contains the enzyme lysozyme. The upper and lower ... This acts as a protected blood-rich reservoir with nutrients for anaerobic pathogens. Systemic disease at various sites of the ... In contrast with other antioxidants, IPA was not converted to reactive intermediates with pro-oxidant activity. Yang, Irene; ...

*Meningococcal disease

"Natural serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis isolates from disseminated infections in normal and ... This is due to the release of toxins into the blood that break down the walls of blood vessels. A rash can develop under the ... Persons with functional or anatomic asplenia may not efficiently clear encapsulated Neisseria meningitidis from the bloodstream ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Al'Aldeen AA, Cartwright KA; Cartwright (November 1996). "Neisseria meningitidis ...

*George Siber bibliography

... and Neisseria meningitidis". Infection and Immunity. 45 (1): 248-54. PMC 263308 . PMID 6429048. Schreiber, JR; Barrus, VA; ... Conference of Viral Blood Safety and Screening, Washington DC, 1994. Roback M, Saladino R, Stack A, Schwarz HP, Siber G. Effect ... Comparison of adjuvant activities of aluminum phosphate, calcium phosphate and stearyl tyrosine for tetanus toxoid. Biologicals ... A comparison of recombinant endotoxin neutralizing protein versus a recombinant bactericidal/permeability increasing protein ...
Neisseria Meningitidis Infections-Pipeline Review, H1 2015. Summary. Global Markets Directs, Neisseria Meningitidis Infections-Pipeline Review, H1 2015, provides an overview of the Neisseria Meningitidis Infectionss therapeutic pipeline.. This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Neisseria Meningitidis Infections, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Neisseria Meningitidis Infections and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects.. Global Markets Directs report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over ...
By revealing complete repertoires of genes, genome sequences provide the key to a better and eventually global understanding of the biology of living organisms. It is widely accepted that this will have important consequences on human health and economics by leading to the rational design of novel therapies against pathogens infecting humans, livestock or crops [1]. For example, identifying genes essential for cell viability or pathogenesis would uncover targets for new antibiotics or drugs that selectively interfer with virulence mechanisms of pathogenic species, respectively. The major obstacle to this is the fact that hundreds of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) in every genome remain uncharacterized. Unraveling gene function on such a large scale requires suitable biological resources, which are lacking in most species.. As shown in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the model organism for genomics, the most valuable toolbox for determining gene function on a genome scale is likely to be a ...
MORENO, Jaime et al. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B isolates from Cartagena, Colombia, 2012-2014. Biomédica [online]. 2015, vol.35, n.1, pp.138-143. ISSN 0120-4157. http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v35i1.2414.. Introduction: Neisseria meningitidis is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. In 2013, an increase in invasive disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroup B occurred in Cartagena, Colombia. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize serogroup B isolates recovered from patients with meningococcal meningitis in Cartagena during 2012 and 2014. Materials and methods: Twenty-five isolates were collected through a national, laboratory-based surveillance, and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics were determined by serosubtyping, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). MLST data available were also ...
Fulminant meningococcal sepsis has been termed the prototypical lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated gram-negative septic shock. Systemic inflammation by activated complement and cytokines is important in the pathogenesis of this disease. We investigated the involvement of meningococcal LPS in complement activation, complement-dependent inflammatory effects, and cytokine or chemokine production. Whole blood anticoagulated with lepirudin was stimulated with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis H44/76 (LPS+), LPS-deficient N. meningitidis H44/76lpxA (LPS-), or purified meningococcal LPS (NmLPS) at concentrations that were relevant to meningococcal sepsis. Complement activation products, chemokines, and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and granulocyte CR3 (CD11b/CD18) upregulation and oxidative burst were measured by flow cytometry. The LPS+ and LPS- N. meningitidis strains both activated complement ...
Catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from the substrate CMP-N-acetylneuraminate to the terminal galactose residue of the lacto-N-neotetraose branch of surface lipooligosaccharide (LOS), forming an alpha-2,3-sialyl linkage. Thus, functions in the sialylation of LOS, which plays a role in the evasion of the host immune response by protecting N.meningitidis from complement-mediated serum killing and from phagocytic killing by neutrophils. In vitro, can use a number of different synthetic acceptors with lactose or galactose as the saccharide portion, but shows a strong preference for the N-acetyllactosamine containing acceptor.
Background: Serogroup B meningococcal disease is a life-threatening illness for which asymptomatic carriers are the primary source of transmission. While immunogenicity data suggest serogroup B vaccines (3-dose MenB-FHbp [Trumenba®] and 2-dose MenB-4C [Bexsero®]) protect individuals from disease, few data exist on whether these vaccines reduce meningococcal carriage and promote herd immunity. We assessed carriage following these vaccines use in response to a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak at an Oregon university. Methods: A convenience sample of students recommended for serogroup B vaccination provided oropharyngeal swabs and completed questionnaires assessing carriage risk factors during three carriage surveys conducted during serogroup B vaccination campaigns at the university. Isolates were tested by real-time PCR, slide agglutination, and whole genome sequencing. Vaccination was verified via university records and the state immunization registry. Prevalence ratios (PR) were ...
Assessment of natural and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine induced immunity against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B in an infant rat infection ...
Pyrophosphatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to their monophosphate derivatives, with a high preference for the non-canonical purine nucleotides XTP (xanthosine triphosphate), dITP (deoxyinosine triphosphate) and ITP. Seems to function as a house-cleaning enzyme that removes non-canonical purine nucleotides from the nucleotide pool, thus preventing their incorporation into DNA/RNA and avoiding chromosomal lesions.
Factor H Binding protein (fHbp) is an important meningococcal virulence factor, enabling the meningococcus to evade the complement system, and a main target for vaccination. Recently, the structure of fHBP complexed with factor H (fH) was published. Two fHbp glutamic acids, E(283) and E(304), form salt bridges with fH, influencing interaction between fHbp and fH. Fifteen amino acids were identified forming hydrogen bonds with fH. We sequenced fHbp of 254 meningococcal isolates from adults with meningococcal meningitis included in a prospective clinical cohort to study the effect of fHbp variants on meningococcal disease severity and outcome. All fHbp of subfamily A had E304 substituted with T304. Of the 15 amino acids in fHbp making hydrogen bonds to fH, 3 were conserved, 11 show a similar distribution between the two fHbp subfamilies as the polymorphism at position 304. The proportion of patients infected with meningococci with fHbp of subfamily A with unfavorable outcome was 2.5-fold lower than that
Background Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) outbreaks occur infrequently in the African meningitis belt; the most recent report of an outbreak of this serogroup was in Burkina Faso, 1979. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) has been responding to outbreaks of meningitis in northwest Nigeria since 2007 with no reported cases of serogroup C from 2007-2012. MenAfrivac®, a serogroup A conjugate vaccine, was first used for mass vaccination in northwest Nigeria in late 2012. Reactive vaccination using polysaccharide ACYW135 vaccine was done by MSF in parts of the region in 2008 and 2009; no other vaccination campaigns are known to have occurred in the area during this period. We describe the general characteristics of an outbreak due to a novel strain of NmC in Sokoto State, Nigeria, in 2013, and a smaller outbreak in 2014 in the adjacent state, Kebbi. Methods Information on cases and deaths was collected using a standard line-list during each week of each meningitis outbreak ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differences between sexes in the nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. AU - Melton, L. J.. AU - Edwards, E. A.. AU - Devine, L. F.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - Nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was investigated among male and female students sharing similar occupational and living environments at the U.S. Naval Hospital Corps School, Great Lakes, Illinois, in 1972-1973. When students beginning the study without meningococcal carriage were evaluated, meningococcal acquisition, weekly carrier prevalence, number of different serogroups carried, proportion of serogroup Y carriers, and average duration of group Y carriage were approximately equal for each sex. In this comparable group of men and women, there was no evidence of differences in meningococcal carriage associated solely with the sex of the host.. AB - Nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was ...
Despite the development of new vaccine formulations using new biotechnology resources to combat emerging and re-emerging diseases, serogroup B meningococcal disease is still a worldwide burden, accounting for many deaths and disabilities every year. The successful approach of coupling a polysaccharide (PS) with a carrier protein in order to increase long-lasting immunity could not be exploited against Neisseria meningitidis B because of the limitations of using the capsular PS of serogroup B meningococci. Tailor-made vaccines based on exposed proteins were shown to be a promising approach to overcome these flaws. However, the continuous adaptation of surface meningococcal structures to the external environment has led to genetic shifts of potential vaccine-target epitopes, hampering the quest for a broad-range vaccine that could be used against all serogroups, especially against serogroup B.
Purchase Recombinant Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B Na(+)-translocating NADH-quinone reductase subunit C(nqrC). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price.
The availability of new polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C prompted European National Health authorities to carefully monitor isolate characteristics. In Italy, during 1999-2001, the average incidence was 0.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Serogroup B was predominant and accounted for 75% of the isolates, followed by serogroup C with 24%. Serogroup C was isolated almost twice as frequently in cases of septicemia than in cases of meningitis, and the most common phenotypes were C: 2a:P1.5 and C:2b:P1.5. Among serogroup B meningococci, the trend of predominant phenotypes has changed from year to year, with a recent increase in the frequency of B:15:P1.4. Only a few meningococci had decreased susceptibility to penicillin, and, in the penA gene, all of these strains had exogenous DNA blocks deriving from the DNA of commensal Neisseria flavescens, Neisseria cinerea, and Neisseria ...
A DNA vaccine strategy for effective antibody induction to pathogen-derived antigens -- Antigen identification starting from the genome: A Reverse vaccinology Approach applied to MenB -- Analysis of the immune response to Neisseria meningitidis using a proteomics approach -- Analysis of parameters associated with prevention of cellular apoptosis by pathogenic Neisseriae and purified porins -- The use of the pan-Neisseria microarray and experimental design for transcriptomics studies of Neisseria -- Transcriptome analyses in the interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with mammalian host cells -- Visualising PAMP-PRR interactions using nanoscale imaging -- Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry to investigate ligand-receptor interactions -- Human dendritic cell culture and bacterial infection -- Techniques to measure pilus retraction forces -- A laminar-flow chamber assay for ...
A DNA vaccine strategy for effective antibody induction to pathogen-derived antigens -- Antigen identification starting from the genome: A Reverse vaccinology Approach applied to MenB -- Analysis of the immune response to Neisseria meningitidis using a proteomics approach -- Analysis of parameters associated with prevention of cellular apoptosis by pathogenic Neisseriae and purified porins -- The use of the pan-Neisseria microarray and experimental design for transcriptomics studies of Neisseria -- Transcriptome analyses in the interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with mammalian host cells -- Visualising PAMP-PRR interactions using nanoscale imaging -- Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry to investigate ligand-receptor interactions -- Human dendritic cell culture and bacterial infection -- Techniques to measure pilus retraction forces -- A laminar-flow chamber assay for ...
NoRegrets (2016). Public service announcement on the importance of getting vaccinated against both types of meningococcal disease. Addressing the Challenges of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks on Campuses (May 2014). NFID report examining the public health response to the recent outbreaks and strategies for appropriate and streamlined public health responses to future outbreaks. Addressing the Challenges of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks on College Campuses (11/17/14 Webinar). National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Adolescent Meningococcal Disease. adolescentvaccination.org. Adult Meningococcal Disease adultvaccination.org. Beyond the Science: Putting a Face on Meningococcal Disease. National Meningitis Association. College Students and Meningococcal Disease: Are Students Protected? (8/2/16 Webinar). National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Meningitis. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Meningitis B Action Project. Joint initiative by the ...
In Western Australia, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W clonal complex 11 became the predominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in 2016. We used core-genome analysis to show emergence of a penicillin-resistant clade that had the penA_253 allele. This new penicillin-resistant clade might affect treatment regimens for this disease. ...
Horizontal gene transfer is an important source of genetic variation among Neisseria species and has contributed to the spread of resistance to penicillin and sulfonamide drugs in the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Sulfonamide resistance in Neisseria meningitidis is mediated by altered chromosomal folP genes. At least some folP alleles conferring resistance have been horizontally acquired from other species, presumably from commensal Neisseriae. In this work, the DNA sequence surrounding folP in commensal Neisseria species was determined and compared to corresponding regions in pathogenic Neisseriae, in order to elucidate the potential for inter-species DNA transfer within this region ...
The neisserial porins are the major protein components of the outer membrane of the pathogenic Neisseria (N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae). They have been shown to be able to enhance the immune response to poorly immunogenic substances (e.g., polysaccharides, peptides, glycolipids, etc.). To explore the basis of their potent adjuvant activity, the effect of the neisserial porins on T-B cell interactions and T cell costimulation was examined. Neisserial porins increased the surface expression of the costimulatory ligand B7-2 (CD86) but did not affect the expression of B7-1 (CD80). In addition, incubation with the neisserial porins increased the T lymphocyte costimulatory ability of B lymphocytes, which was inhibited by anti-B7-2 but not anti-B7-1 monoclonal antibodies. Upregulation of B7-2 on the surface of B lymphocytes may be the mechanism behind the immunopotentiating ...
Neisseria meningitidis is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis and septicemia in children. Vaccines containing the purified polysaccharide capsule from the organism, a T cell-independent antigen, have been available for decades but do not appear to provide protection in infancy or immunologic memory as measured by antibody responses. By contrast, T cell-dependent serogroup C protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines protect against serogroup C meningococcal disease from infancy onward and prime for immunologic memory. We compared the magnitude and kinetics of plasma cell and memory B-cell responses to a meningococcal plain polysaccharide vaccine and a serogroup C glycoconjugate vaccine in adolescents previously primed with the conjugate vaccine. Plasma cell kinetics were similar for both vaccines, though the magnitude of the response was greater for the glycoconjugate. In contrast to the glycoconjugate vaccine, the plain polysaccharide vaccine did not induce a ...
Ab-dependent bactericidal activity is important for protection against meningococcal infection (49, 50). The AP plays an important role in amplifying C3 deposition on the bacterial surface. C3 activation represents the convergence of the classical, lectin and APs. The subsequent activation of the terminal complement components can lead to C5b-9 insertion into the membrane of Gram-negative pathogens, resulting in complement-dependent killing. Deficiencies of the terminal complements (C5-C9) and AP components, such as factor D and properdin, predispose individuals to invasive meningococcal infections (11, 20, 51). Properdin deficiency is rare, but individuals with properdin deficiency are predisposed to severe invasive meningococcal infections, often with a higher mortality than normal individuals (11, 20, 51). Both N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae have evolved several intricate mechanisms to evade complement. The previously reported ability of N. ...
BACKGROUND: Maternal antibodies give neonates some protection against bacterial infection. We measured antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W135 in mothers and their 2-month-old infants at study enrollment. We also assessed the impact of maternal antibody present at 2 months of age on the immune response to a primary course of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM197) given at 2 and 4 months of age. METHODS: This was a single-center, open-label, randomized study undertaken in Oxford, United Kingdom. Two hundred sixteen healthy infants were enrolled in the study and vaccinated with MenACWY-CRM197 at 2 and 4 months of age. Blood was obtained from all mothers, in a subset of infants at 2 months and all infants at 5 months. Antibody and memory B-cell responses at 5 months were correlated with maternal antibodies. RESULTS: Mothers had low IgG antibodies against serogroups C, W135 and Y polysaccharides, but high ...
Background: Maternal antibodies give neonates some protection against bacterial infection. We measured antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W135 in mothers and their 2-month-old infants at study enrollment. We also assessed the impact of maternal antibody present at 2 months of age on the immune response to a primary course of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM197) given at 2 and 4 months of age. Methods: This was a single-center, open-label, randomized study undertaken in Oxford, United Kingdom. Two hundred sixteen healthy infants were enrolled in the study and vaccinated with MenACWY-CRM197 at 2 and 4 months of age. Blood was obtained from all mothers, in a subset of infants at 2 months and all infants at 5 months. Antibody and memory B-cell responses at 5 months were correlated with maternal antibodies. Results: Mothers had low IgG antibodies against serogroups C, W135 and Y polysaccharides, but high ...
Meningococcal disease is a nationally notifiable disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Rates of the disease have decreased since 2000 and are currently at a historic low (1). The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) and Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) are the two surveillance systems in the United States that track cases of meningococcal disease (2). Whereas NNDSS (a passive surveillance system) covers all of the United States and records both probable and confirmed cases of meningococcal disease, ABCs (an active surveillance system) covers six states and portions of four other states and records only culture-confirmed cases. However, ABCs surveillance data are more detailed than NNDSS and are more widely used in vaccine policy and development. To determine whether ABCs estimates of the number of cases of meningococcal disease were far lower than NNDSS counts and the contribution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to that ...
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is composed of an international group of scientists, clinicians and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal immunology, epidemiology and prevention. The primary goal of the GMI is the promotion of the global prevention of invasive meningococcal disease through education and research. The GMI members reviewed global meningococcal disease epidemiology, immunization strategies, and research needs. Over the past decade, substantial advances in meningococcal vaccine development have occurred and much has been learned about prevention from countries that have incorporated meningococcal vaccines into their immunization programs. The burden of meningococcal disease is unknown for many parts of the world because of inadequate surveillance, which severely hampers evidence-based immunization policy. As the field of meningococcal vaccine development advances, global surveillance for meningococcal disease needs to be strengthened in many regions of ...
Definition: Meningococcal meningitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus). Most cases of meningococcal...
There is now considerable evidence to show that in the Neisseria and Haemophilus species, membrane receptors specific for either transferrin or lactoferrin are involved in the acquisition of iron from these glycoproteins. In Neisseria meningitidis, the transferrin receptor appears to consist of two proteins, one of which (TBP 1) has an M(r) of 95,000 and the other of which (TBP 2) has an M(r) ranging from 68,000 to 85,000, depending on the strain; TBP 2 binds transferrin after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroblotting, but TBP 1 does not do so. The relative contributions of these two proteins to the binding reaction observed with intact cells and to iron uptake are presently unknown. However, they are being considered as potential components of a group B meningococcal vaccine. Analogous higher- and lower-molecular-weight proteins associated with transferrin binding have been found in N. gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ...
The relatively low incidence of meningococcal disease makes the design of phase three clinical protection studies impossible, and regulatory approval of meningococcal vaccines has therefore relied upon the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) levels elicited in subjects. This long-established correlate of protection against invasive meningococcal disease is based on observations made in the 1960s by Goldschneider and colleagues, who recorded the lack of bactericidal activity in the serum of prospective cases during an outbreak of meningococcus serogroup C (MenC) disease among U.S. military recruits (33). Only 5.6% of cases had a protective SBA titer of 4 or greater to the homologous isolate, compared with 82.2% of healthy controls. As in these early studies, human serum is the appropriate complement source to use for bactericidal assays, because the meningococcus has evolved specific mechanisms of serum resistance in its human host, exemplified ...
Understanding predisposing factors for meningococcal carriage may identify targets for public health interventions. Before mass vaccination with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine began in autumn 1999, we took pharyngeal swabs from ≈14,000 UK teenagers and collected information on potential risk factors. Neisseria meningitidis was cultured from 2,319 (16.7%) of 13,919 swabs. In multivariable analysis, attendance at pubs/clubs, intimate kissing, and cigarette smoking were each independently and strongly associated with increased risk for meningococcal carriage (p<0.001). Carriage in those with none of these risk factors was 7.8%, compared to 32.8% in those with all 3. Passive smoking was also linked to higher risk for carriage, but age, sex, social deprivation, home crowding, or school characteristics had little or no effect. Social behavior, rather than age or sex, can explain the higher frequency of meningococcal carriage among teenagers. A ban on smoking in ...
BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease during the teenage years. A cohort of children vaccinated with a single dose of meningococcal C protein-polysaccharide conjugate (MenC) vaccine in early childhood during the U.K. catch up campaign will enter this age group during the coming decade. The duration of protective immunity against invasive meningococcal C disease provided by this single dose regimen is uncertain.A serum bactericidal titer of |1/8 correlates with susceptibility to invasive meningococcal disease. We assessed this correlate of protection in a cohort of children approximately 2 years after a single dose of vaccine. METHODS: Serum bactericidal activity was assessed in 94 children (median age, 4.0 years) at a median time of 1.8 years after vaccination. RESULTS: Of the 94 children, 59 (63%) had a serum bactericidal titer |1/8. CONCLUSION: The data from this study add to previous evidence indicating ...
Physician reviewed meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine patient information - includes meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine description, dosage and directions.
Context In 1993, Oregon s incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease began to rise because of a highly clonal group of strains designated enzyme type 5 ET-5, the first such increase observed in the United States. Objective To evaluate the impact that the ET-5 strain has had on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Oregon. Design and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myopericarditis as an initial presentation of meningococcemia. Unusual manifestation of infection with serotype W135. AU - Brasier, Allan R.. AU - Macklis, Jeffrey D.. AU - Vaughan, Doug. AU - Warner, Laurel. AU - Kirshenbaum, James M.. PY - 1987/3/23. Y1 - 1987/3/23. N2 - Acute meningococcemia is a dramatic clinical syndrome from infection with the gram-negative diplococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although pericarditis may complicate the course of meningococcemia, it is distinctly unusual as a presenting sign. A case of disseminated meningococcemia presenting as acute myopericarditis is reported. The serotype isolated, type W135, was a sporadic cause of N. meningitidis in the Boston area. Although the patient had meningitis, bacteremia, and myopericarditis, his course was uncomplicated with early institution of antibiotic therapy.. AB - Acute meningococcemia is a dramatic clinical syndrome from infection with the gram-negative diplococcus, ...
Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major bacterial agents of meningitis. They each bind the 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LamR) via the surface protein adhesins: meningococcal PilQ and PorA, H. influenzae OmpP2 and pneumococcal CbpA. We have previously reported that a surface-exposed loop of the R2 domain of CbpA mediates LamR-binding. Here we have identified the LamR-binding regions of PorA and OmpP2. Using truncated recombinant proteins we show that binding is dependent on amino acids 171-240 and 91-99 of PorA and OmpP2, respectively, which are predicted to localize to the fourth and second surface-exposed loops, respectively, of these proteins. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the loops bound LamR and could block LamR-binding to bacterial ligands in a dose dependant manner. Meningococci expressing PorA lacking the apex of loop 4 and H. influenzae expressing OmpP2 lacking the apex of loop 2 showed significantly reduced LamR ...
MIRON, Lorena et al. Pericarditis as initial presentation of disseminated meningococcal disease. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2013, vol.111, n.6. ISSN 0325-0075. http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2013.e144.. Pericarditis is a well-recognized but uncommon complication of meningococcal infection. The incidence of pericarditis complicating meningococcal disease in all age groups is reported to be 3-19%. There are few cases reported in the paediatric age group. Disseminated meningococcal disease with pericarditis, defned as purulent pericarditis with clinical evidence of disseminated meningococcemia and meningitis. We report the case of a 4-month-old male infant who presented disseminated meningococcal disease with pericarditis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. The patient was treated with antibiotic with excellent response. It is important to point out that meningococcal disease may present in unusual forms which may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic diffculties.. ...
BACKGROUND: The persistence of protection from meningococcal disease following immunization with serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) glycoconjugate vaccines in infancy is short-lived. The duration of protective immunity afforded by these vaccines in other at-risk age groups (i.e., adolescents and young adults) is not known. We evaluated the persistence of bactericidal antibodies following immunization with a MenC glycoconjugate vaccine (MenCV) in adolescents and the kinetics of immune response to a meningococcal AC plain polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS) challenge or a repeat dose of MenCV. METHODS: We conducted a randomized comparative trial of 274 healthy 13-15-year-olds from whom a total of 4 blood samples were obtained (prior to administration of a dose of MenPS or MenCV, again on 2 further occasions at varying times from days 2-7 after vaccination, and finally on day 28 after vaccination. The correlate of protection was a serum bactericidal assay titer | or = ...
The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5 end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific ...
Opsonic activity in sera from 27 military recruits vaccinated with the Norwegian meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle vaccine was measured as respiratory burst with polymorphonuclear leukocytes as the effector cells and meningococci of the epidemic strain as the target. The results were compared with antimeningococcal IgG antibodies against an outer membrane vesicle coat in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with serum bactericidal activity. The vaccinees were immunized twice, with a 6-week interval between the two. The serum samples studied were collected at day zero, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks. Both serum bactericidal activity and respiratory burst were measured by adding external serum as the complement source. The results revealed a significant increase in specific IgG response, serum bactericidal activity, and respiratory burst after vaccination. We found a ...
In Victoria, Australia, invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W increased from 4% of all cases in 2013 to 30% in 2015. This increase resulted largely from strains similar to those in the serogroup W sequence type 11 clonal complex, previously described in the United Kingdom and South America ...
In January 2011, the Food and Drug Administration lowered the approval age range for use of MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, to include persons aged 2 through 55 years. One other quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-D(Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur), is licensed in the United States for prevention of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 among persons aged 2 through 55 years; MenACWY-D also is licensed as a 2-dose series for children aged 9 through 23 months (1,2). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that persons aged 2 through 55 years at increased risk for meningococcal disease and all adolescents aged 11 through 18 years be immunized with meningococcal conjugate vaccine. ACIP further recommended, in January 2011, that all adolescents receive a booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine at age 16 years (3). This report summarizes data ...
We reviewed confirmed cases of pediatric invasive meningococcal disease in Tijuana, Mexico, and San Diego County, California, USA, during 2005-2008. The overall incidence and fatality rate observed in Tijuana were similar to those found in the US, and serogroup distribution suggests that most cases in Tijuana are vaccine preventable.
Meningococcal disease is a contagious bacterial disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis that can kill children and young adults very quickly. Meningococci are divided into distinct sergroups based on their polysaccharide outer capsule, which is the usual target antigen for vaccines. Serogroup A is the main cause of epidemics in Africa and in the United States, sergroups B, C and Y predominate. In the United States, no vaccine is yet available to offer protection against serogroup B which currently accounts for 32% of all meningococcal disease in the United States.. This study serves as a proof of concept for our new NOMV Group B single strain monovalent vaccine model which is obtained from a genetically modified parent. If successful we plan to develop a multivalent Group B vaccine for routine use for military recruits at the beginning of basic training, for college students, particularly those who live in dormitories, and for use by travelers to countries recognized as ...
What is meningitis? Meningitis is an inflammation of the tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord. Bacteria, viruses, or fungi may cause meningitis. Viral meningitis is the most common form of meningitis and is caused by an infection with one of several types of viruses. Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis, and causes a more severe disease that requires prompt treatment of the patient with antibiotics. There are other types of bacterial meningitis, so it is also important to confirm which type of bacteria is causing the meningitis to determine if antibiotics are needed to prevent possible illness in exposed people. What are the symptoms of meningitis? Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, rash, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. These symptoms are often difficult to identify in infants, who, when suffering from viral meningitis may become irritable, lethargic, inconsolable, or refuse to eat. Since viral and ...
Laboratory testing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has now confirmed that the student tested positive for a form of meningitis known as serogroup B meningococcal disease. Most cases of serogroup B meningococcal disease occur sporadically, and a single case does not mean there is an outbreak on campus.. Connecticut state law requires that students in residential settings be vaccinated against meningococcal disease, but the vaccine that most of our students receive does not protect against serogroup B meningococcal disease. There is, however, a newer form of vaccine that does cover serogroup B. With a single case on campus, federal, state, and local health officials do not recommend mass vaccinations, but we are prepared to offer the new vaccine to anyone in the Yale community who wishes to be vaccinated.. The new vaccine requires two inoculations, with the second occurring at least one month after the first. Anyone can get the vaccine at Yale Health, and it will be a ...
The PBAC did not recommend the inclusion of the 4CMenB vaccine on the National Immunisation Program Schedule for the prevention of meningococcal B disease in infants and adolescents. The PBAC considered the burden of meningococcal disease, the public concern about rapidly developing and often fatal infection, and that the development of the proposed vaccine may represent a technical advance in the field of vaccinology. The PBAC concluded that, over the first 5 years of the requested NIP listing as proposed by the sponsor: over 4 million children and adolescents would be vaccinated costing the government over $400 million, estimated to prevent 224 cases of invasive meningococcal disease, 9 deaths due to meningococcal B disease, and 93 patients with sequelae. However, the PBAC considered that there was a limited demonstration of and multiple uncertainties in relation to the clinical effectiveness of the vaccine against the disease when delivered in a vaccination program. In addition, the PBAC ...
This compares to seven cases at the same time last year and 30 for all of 2015.. Adelaide Now reports: Of the 11 cases this year, 10 have been the meningococcal serogroup B strain, which is not covered on the national vaccine register, prompting calls for it to be added to the list. Health Minister Jack Snelling said the federal government should give "careful consideration" to adding the serogroup B strain vaccine. "In the meantime, probably the most important thing is for parents to speak to their local GP about whether it is advised to have that particular vaccination for meningococcal B," he said.. Health officials note the infections have affected patients from age one to age 94.. Meningococcal disease is a severe infection caused by the meningococcus which may result in: meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord), septicemia (infection of the blood), joint infection, eye infection, pneumonia (lung infection or inflammation) and a rash.. Septicemia from ...
Disclosed are novel bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein products wherein cysteine residue number 132 or 135 is replaced by another amino acid residue, preferably an alanine or serine residue and/or wherein the leucine residue at position 193 is the carboxy terminal residue. Also disclosed are DNA sequences encoding methods for the production of the same in appropriate host cells, and stable homogeneous pharmaceutical compositions containing the analogs suitable for use treatment of gram negative bacterial infection and its sequelae.
Invasive Meningococcal Disase (IMD) is an important cause of death and disability for which teenagers and young adults are at particular risk. IMD mortality is approximately 10%. Of IMD survivors 10-20% have long term sequelae including hearing loss, neurologic disabilities and digit or limb amputations . In Canada, IMD is caused by the two most prominent strains - B and C strains. Other vaccine preventable strains are A, W and Y strains. Meningococcal ACWY (Menactra/Menveo) is given to Ontario teenagers at no cost in grade 7. We also encourage a booster of Meningococcal ACWY in grade 12. Meningococcal B vaccine (Bexsero) Is recomenneded to prevent IMD caused by B strain which is the most common strain leading to IMD in Canada. We encourage immunization against Meningococcal B strain to all teenagers age 15 and older. It is not currently paid for by OHIP and is available for private purchase in our office. Please call our office to book an appointment to recieve Meningococcal B vaccine. -return ...
We conducted a large-scale cohort study in a real-world setting to evaluate the safety of 1 of the currently available quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines in the United States, MenACWY-CRM. The population includes individuals receiving the vaccine, as a first dose or a booster dose, at the recommended age of 11 to 18 years old, as well as young adults through 21 years old who are at an increased risk of invasive meningococcal infection. We were able to confirm the diagnosis, determine the onset date, and identify alternative causes of the events using EHRs. The within-person comparison inherent to the SCCS design allowed for control of potential confounders. We observed a temporal association between occurrence of Bells palsy and receipt of MenACWY-CRM concomitantly with other vaccines. Three of the 8 Bells palsy patients in the risk window had comorbidities and infections that could be a prelude to the condition. All 8 cases resolved completely.. The etiology and pathogenesis of ...
The European licensure of 4CMenB, the first vaccine licensed to prevent non-epidemic meningococcal B (MenB) disease, marked an important milestone in the fight against meningococcal disease. However, the potential introduction of 4CMenB into the routine infant schedule is complicated by a number of factors. The recent decline in the number of cases of invasive MenB disease in the UK has important implications for cost effectiveness, though the unpredictable nature of meningococcal disease epidemiology (as evidenced by a recent outbreak in MenB disease at Princeton University) means that it is not clear whether this decline will be sustained. The variable waning of antibody levels against each of the four key vaccine components also complicates the assessment of the likely duration and breadth of protection. After considering these factors, the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) released an interim statement in July 2013 indicating that the introduction of 4CMenB to the routine
Forty strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections were tested for their susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis by 65% pooled human serum (PHS). Based upon the results of this assay, two major populations could be defined. The first group (n = 20) consisted of serogroup 0:11 strains, all of which possessed a paracrystalline surface layer (S layer); all of these strains were refractory to the bactericidal activity of 65% PHS with the exception of A. hydrophila strain AH-121, which was composed of mixed subpopulations of serum-susceptible and serum-resistant clones. A second collection of isolates (n = 20), all of which were S-layer-negative, contained a subgroup of strains (n = 7) that were highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis, showing a greater than 100-fold reduction of viable progeny within 30 min of exposure to 65% PHS. Serum-resistant strains from both groups could not be lysed by exposure of ...
The maintenance of adequate serum Ab levels following immunization has been identified as the most important mechanism for individual long-term protection against rapidly invading encapsulated bacteria. The mechanisms for maintaining adequate serum Ab levels and the relationship between Ag-specific memory B cells and Ab at steady state are poorly understood. We measured the frequency of circulating serogroup C meningococcal (MenC)-specific memory B cells in 250 healthy 6- to 12-y-old children 6 y following MenC conjugate vaccine priming, before a booster of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-MenC conjugate vaccine and then 1 wk, 1 mo, and 1 y after the booster. We investigated the relationship between circulating MenC-specific memory B cell frequencies and Ab at baseline and following the booster vaccine. We found very low frequencies of circulating MenC-specific memory B cells at steady state in primary school-aged children and little association with MenC IgG Ab levels. Following ...
Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Neisseria have a siderophore-independent iron-uptake system reliant on a direct interaction between the bacterial cell and human transferrin (hTf), a serum protein. In the meningococcus, this uptake system is dependent on two surface-exposed, transferrin-binding proteins (Tbps), TbpA and TbpB. TbpA is highly conserved among meningococcal strains, and is thought to be a porin-like integral protein that functions as a gated channel for the passage of iron into the periplasm. TbpB is more variable in size, lipidated and fully surface-exposed. Given its location on the cell surface, its role in pathogenicity and interstrain sequence conservation, TbpA is currently being regarded for inclusion in a meningococcal vaccine effective against all serogroups. This requires gaining knowledge of the ligand-receptor interactions. In the present study we have optimized a procedure for obtaining purified, functionally active recombinant TbpA at a level and stability ...
Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreak and Carriage Evaluation at a College -- Rhode Island, 2015. Soeters, Heidi M.; McNamara, Lucy A.; Whaley, Melissa; Xin Wang; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Kanadanian, Koren V.; Kelleher, Catherine M.; MacNeil, Jessica; Martin, Stacey W.; Raines, Nathan; Sears, Steven; Vanner, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Bandy, Utpala; Sicard, Kenneth; Patel, Manisha // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;6/12/2015, Vol. 64 Issue 22, p606 The article discusses how Rhode Island Department of Health responded to an outbreak of meningococcal disease by providing ciprofloxacin chemoprophylaxis to 71 persons potentially exposed to oral secretion from two students at Providence College with reported meningococcal disease. Topics cited... ...
Background Recently the incidence of meningococcal serogroup Y (MenY) and in particular serogroup W (MenW) invasive disease has risen in several European countries, including the Netherlands. Adolescents are a target group for primary prevention through vaccination to protect against disease and reduce carriage and induce herd protection in the population. ... read more The present study assessed MenA, MenW and MenY antibody levels in adolescents up to one year following primary vaccination with quadrivalent MenACWY-PS conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT). Methods In this phase IV, open-label study, healthy 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds received the MenACWY-TT vaccine. Blood samples were collected before, 1 month and 1 year after the vaccination. Functional antibody levels against MenA, MenW and MenY were measured with serum bactericidal assay using baby rabbit complement (rSBA). MenA-, MenW-, and MenY-PS specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels were measured using ...
Definition of intracellular killing assay in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is intracellular killing assay? Meaning of intracellular killing assay as a finance term. What does intracellular killing assay mean in finance?
Like the findings from Africa (6, 8), our results indicate the widespread occurrence of complement-dependent, antibody-mediated bactericidal activity against S. Typhimurium in sera from healthy adults in the Boston area, as well as an age-dependent increase in this activity during maturation from child to adult. However, in contrast to the results from Africa, the bactericidal antibodies in our study appear to be directed against S. Typhimurium LPS rather than outer membrane proteins. Our data also indicate that the bactericidal antibodies discriminate between LPS from S. Typhimurium and E. coli, suggesting that the antibodies recognize a determinant in the outer polysaccharide of LPS (22, 23). The bactericidal activities of 2 of our samples appeared to be affected by acetylation of the abequose residue in the LPS outer polysaccharide, suggesting fine differences in antigen specificity within our collection. ...
Between December 1991 and March 1992 we allocated 158 volunteers by block permuted randomisation to receive 0.5 ml typhoid polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi, Merieux) intramuscularly (group A); 0.5 ml meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Mengivac (A+C), Merieux) intramuscularly (group B); or a mixture of both vaccines, the liquid typhoid vaccine being used to reconstitute the lyophilised meningococcal vaccine (group C). Group A comprised 54 subjects (27 men and women, median age 23 (range 18-56)), group B 50 (21 men, 29 women, median age 21 (18-62)), and group C 54 (24 men, 30 women, median age 22 (18-54)). Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, compromised immune system, fever, receiving any vaccine or immunoglobulin in the preceding three months, typhoid vaccination within the previous three years, previous meningococcal vaccination, and a history of typhoid or meningococcal disease. Volunteers kept a diary for five days recording pain in their arm (0=no pain, 1=pain on pressure, 2=pain on ...
Looking for online definition of Neisseria ovis in the Medical Dictionary? Neisseria ovis explanation free. What is Neisseria ovis? Meaning of Neisseria ovis medical term. What does Neisseria ovis mean?
Novartis announced today that Bexsero® (Meningococcal Group B Vaccine [rDNA, component, adsorbed]) has received a Breakthrough Therapy designation from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Bexsero is already approved in Europe, Canada and Australia to help protect against invasive meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B (meningitis B). Novartis plans to file for US licensure of Bexsero as early as Q2 2014; exact timing will depend on guidance from the FDA. This is the fourth Breakthrough Therapy designation for Novartis, underscoring leadership in developing innovative therapies and vaccines.. This announcement comes on the heels of a landmark decision from regulators in the UK, where the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) recommended the inclusion of Bexsero in the countrys National Immunisation Programme (NIP) for routine use in infants from two months of age.. In the last four months, Novartis has provided nearly 30,000 doses of Bexsero to students ...
Third, some gonococci are able to engage in "conjugation," which is essentially bacteria sex! During conjugation, one bacterium uses an appendage called a sex pilus to attach to another bacterium and deliver a circular piece of DNA from the donor to the recipient. The recipient is now in possession of any traits its new DNA encodes.. You know how we humans are officially Homo sapiens? The scientific name for gonococci is Neisseria gonorrhoeae. And, just as we had genetic "cousins" in the form of Homo neanderthalensis (aka the Neanderthals), so too do Neisseria gonorrhoeae have cousins in the Neisseria genus. Most human-associated Neisseria species dont cause disease, and live peacefully in our upper respiratory tracts. These species include Neisseria flavescens, Neisseria flava, Neisseria perflava, Neisseria mucosa, Neisseria sicca, ...
According to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, the majority of invasive meningococcal disease in Australia is caused by group B ( 84% in 2011-12 ). The highest incidence of group B disease occurs in children aged under five years, particularly infants aged under 12 months. A lower, secondary peak in incidence has been observed in late adolescence and early adulthood ...
A Cerebral Spinal Meningitis outbreak has killed more than 156 people throughout Nigeria. Jigwa, Kano, Bauchi, Yobe, and Katsina states are currently among the worst hit. A graver report from UNICEF states that the death toll is much steeper with 9,086 cases and 562 deaths. Out of four West African countries in the midst of meningitis outbreaks (Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, and Mali), Nigeria is currently reported to be the most affected. Due to Nigerias location, in sub-Saharan Africas "Meningitis Belt", seasonal epidemics expectedly occur in a cyclic pattern. Dry weather, dusty winds, cold nights, and large populations living in overcrowded conditions leave people vulnerable to respiratory infections and are among some of the reasons behind the Meningitis Belts high burden of meningococcal disease.. Cerebral Spinal Meningitis (CSM) is most often caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitides. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the thin covering of the brain and spinal ...
Most people recover with no after effects and not all after effects are permanent. The likelihood of getting after effects from meningitis or septicaemia depends on several factors including the type and severity of the illness. People who have been desperately ill may have spent a long time in intensive care. Research has shown that intensive care can be a distressing experience both for the person who has the illness and for their family.. Currently the majority of cases of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia are caused by meningococcal infection. This produces severely disabling after effects in about one in twelve survivors, although patients who have severe meningococcal septicaemia tend to have a worse outcome. After meningococcal disease, pneumococcal meningitis is the main type and it is more likely to produce serious damage. Neonatal meningitis occurring in the first month of life also carries a higher risk of after effects than most other forms.. A person recovering from viral ...
Eculizumab, a humanized anti-complement C5 monoclonal antibody for treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, blocks the terminal complement pathway required for serum bactericidal activity (SBA). Because treated patients are at ,1000-fold increased risk of meningococcal disease, vaccination is recommended, but whether vaccination can protect by opsonophagocytic activity in the absence of SBA is not known. Meningococci were added to anticoagulated blood from 12 healthy adults vaccinated with meningococcal serogroup B and serogroup A,C,W,Y vaccines. Bacterial survival was measured after 3 hours incubation in the presence of eculizumab or, a control complement factor D inhibitor, ACH-4471, that blocks the alternative complement pathway (AP) and is in phase 2 development for treatment of PNH. In the absence of inhibitors, CFU/ml in blood from all 12 immunized subjects ...
In this study demographic, clinical, paraclinical, microbiological, and therapeutic features of patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis admitted to a referral center for infectious diseases in Iran, have been evaluated. Medical records of adult (| 18 years) individuals with confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis during a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. All required data were obtained from patients medical charts. Available findings about antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from CSF and/or blood were also collected. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Details of medical management including antibiotic regimen, duration, patients outcome, and possible sequelae of meningitis were recorded. The most commonly isolated microorganism from CSF or blood of patients was Streptococcus pneumonia (33.33%) followed by Neisseria ...
Year. Nester-Anderson-Roberts: I IV. Infectious Diseases I 26. Nervous System I I © The McGraw-Hill. Microbiology, A Human Infections Companies, 2003. Perspective, Fourth Edition. Table 26.1 Meningococcal Meningitis. 26.2 Bacterial Nervous System Infections 669. © Neisseria meningitidis inhaled, infects upper airways.. @ Bacteria enter the bloodstream and are circulated throughout the body.. © The bacteria lodge in the skin and cause petechiae.. @ Bacteria on the meninges causes meningitis.. © Lysing bacteria in the circulation release endotoxin, producing shock.. © Inflammatory response in meninges can damage nerves of hearing causing deafness and obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid causing increased pressure inside the brain.. @ Bacteria exit with respiratory secretions.. Symptoms. Incubation period Causative agent. Pathogenesis. Epidemiology. Prevention and treatment. Mild cold followed by headache, fever, pain, stiff neck and back, vomiting, ...
We have been interested in developing a complement dependent opsonophagocytic assay for Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C. Our problem is that when we add a complement source (baby rabbit) we get (as expected) bactericidal killing. We have tried to remove one of the terminal complement components but without much success (can remove component(s) but the removal process reduces the lytic complement activity when we reconstitute with the purified complement component). We have had success using a serum from a C7 defficient patient, however, this complement source is in limited supply. QUESTIONS: 1. is anyone else working on this? have you had success? 2. is there a method to remove terminal components in human sera that does not reduce complement activity when the component is added back? can this method be used for large vols. (600 ml)? 3. did I miss something in the literature? 4. any ideas or suggestions? P#: ...
There is wide variation of infections associated with complement deficiency depending on which complement protein and activation pathway is affected(Skattum et al 2011). Some complement deficiencies caries risk of infection, other mainly associated with autoimmune diseases. Some genetic and molecular defects has been identified to be associated complement deficiencies. The deficiencies in alternative pathway and terminal pathway is commonly presented with markedly increased susceptibility to Neisserial infections. Properdin deficiency (PD) has been reported in cases of severe meningococcal infections (Fijen et al 1999), recurrent otitis media and pneumonia (Schejbel et al 2009). PD has been identified as X-linked inheritance. Around 500 published cases of PD with Neisserial infections world wide. Neisserial meningitidis meningitis and Streptococcal Pneumonie also has been reported in complete Factor D deficiency. The TP components ...
Our findings demonstrate an integral role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in interleukin 6-mediated cardiac contractile dysfunction and inotrope insensitivity. Dysregulation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in meningococcal septicemia suggests that this pathway may be an important target for novel therapies to reverse myocardial dysfunction in patients with meningococcal septic shock who are not responsive to inotropic support.. ...
Alongside the hidden after-effects, the devastating physical impact of meningitis was also reported, with sufferers being five times more likely to have a significant hearing impairment, with 2.4% of survivors having bilateral hearing loss requiring a cochlear implant. In addition, significant amputation with disability was witnessed.. Lead researcher, Professor Russell Viner at the UCL Institute of Child Health, said: "MOSAIC is the first comprehensive study of the outcomes of serogroup B meningococcal disease published anywhere in the world. It is also the largest study of the outcomes of meningococcal disease ever published. The high quality and importance of the data have been recognised by acceptance for fast-track publication in the prestigious international journal, The Lancet Neurology. As governments all around the world begin the process of deciding whether to introduce new MenB vaccines, the MOSAIC data will play a central role in informing these decisions.". The findings also ...
see also: Meningitis-B information). What is meningitis? Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. It can be caused by a number of infectious agents including viruses and bacteria. The type of meningitis and its cause can only be determined by a physician using laboratory test results. Meningitis is serious; if you suspect meningitis, you must seek medical care immediately.. Bacterial meningitis is often more severe than aseptic meningitis, particularly in infants and the elderly. Before antibiotics were widely used, 70 percent or more of bacterial meningitis cases were fatal; with antibiotic treatment, the fatality rate has dropped to 15 percent or less. Bacterial meningitis is most common in the winter and spring.. Three bacteria cause the majority of cases: Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae.. Viral meningitis (also called aseptic meningitis) is the most common type of meningitis and is ...
South Australia has the highest rate of the potentially life threatening meningococcal disease in the country. Of all meningococcal cases, the majority of infections in South Australia are caused by the B strain. Children under five years of age and young adults aged 15-24 years are most at risk. In Australia, 5-10 per cent of cases of meningococcal disease result in fatality. Currently the only way to be protected from meningococcal B disease is to pay for the immunisation through your General Practitioner.. In 2017 all South Australian schools were invited to be involved in a landmark study called "B Part of It." The University of Adelaide is leading the B Part of it study, in partnership with SA Health. The B Part of It study is an important piece of global immunisation research. This research aims to find out whether there are herd immunity benefits as a result of giving the meningococcal B vaccination to students in the South Australian school community. Herd immunity occurs when a ...
DEERFIELD, Ill., 2016-Aug-03 - /EPR Retail News/ - Walgreens is now offering vaccinations that provide protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (bacterial meningitis) at all of its pharmacies, including Duane Reade pharmacies in New York, and Healthcare Clinics nationwide. Vaccinations are available daily without an appointment and may be covered by insurance.. Walgreens pharmacists and Healthcare Clinic nurse practitioners can administer the new meningitis B vaccines (Bexsero® or Trumenba®) in most states to individuals ages 10 through 25.* The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) specifically recommends that meningitis B vaccines may be given to provide short term protection to anyone 16 to 23 years of age.. Meningitis spreads through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions and primarily affects adolescents and young adults. Teens and adults whose immunity has faded or live in close quarters, such as college dormitories, may also be at ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y meningococcal (MenACWY) conjugate vaccines are recommended for routine adolescent immunisation in the United States and Canada. We evaluated the persistence of bactericidal antibodies through early childhood, following infant immunisation with varying schedules of MenACWY-CRM(197) vaccine. METHODS: UK and Canadian infants were immunised with 2-3 doses of MenACWY-CRM(197) or 2 doses of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine, and either MenACWY-CRM(197), 1/5 dose of MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine or no booster at 12 months. Control groups recruited at 60 months had received country-specific infant doses of MenC conjugate vaccine. hSBA titres were measured in participants at 40 and 60 months of age. RESULTS: 382 children were enrolled in 12 groups (22-40 per group). By age 60 months, 3-11% of children primed and boosted with MenACWY-CRM(197) had hSBA titres|/=1:8 against serogroup A, 14-45% against serogroup C, 57-85% against ...
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a cationic protein isolated from human neutrophils, binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), kills gram-negative bacteria, and neutralizes many of the effects of LPS in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that a recombinant 23-kDa NH2-terminal fragment of BPI (BPI23) would reduce acute lung injury in endotoxemic pigs. At -18 h, pigs received an intravenous priming dose of LPS (20 micrograms/kg). Anesthetized ventilated swine were randomized to receive 1) no further treatment (n = 4); 2) LPS (250 micrograms/kg over 50 min) and BPI23 (3-mg/kg bolus and 3 mg/kg over 60 min) (n = 6); or 3) LPS and thaumatin, a cationic protein devoid of LPS neutralizing activity that has a molecular mass and isoelectric point that are similar to that of BPI23 (n = 7). BPI23 treatment significantly ameliorated LPS-induced hypoxemia, functional upregulation of opsonin receptors on circulating phagocytes, and alveolitis but had no effect on the elaboration ...
Meningitis is characterized by the inflammation of the protective lining (meninges) present around the brain and the spinal cord. On the basis of its underlying cause, meningitis can be classified into infectious and non-infectious meningitis. In terms of the type of organism, infectious meningitis can be sub-divided into bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, fungal meningitis, and parasitic meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is the life-threatening form of infectious meningitis, which can occur due to infection by different bacterial species such as Hemophilus influenza, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitides, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Bacterial infection can spread to the blood stream, leading to septicemia. An infection by Neisseria meningitides can lead to meningococcal disease, which is associated with the simultaneous occurrence of meningitis and septicemia. Meningococcal disease can occur at any age; however, it is more prevalent in infants ...
BREVARD COUNTY, Florida -- The Florida Department of Health in Brevard County is working with health care providers, parents and administrators following the death of a child due to suspected meningococcal disease at the Brevard Juvenile Detention Center. Meningococcal disease is a very serious infection of the blood or membranes around the brain (meningitis). The disease is contagious and most common in infants, adolescents and young adults. ...
Abdelhameed, Ali Saber and Morris, Gordon A. and Almutairi, Fahad and Adams, Gary G. and Duvivier, Pierre and Conrath, Karel and Harding, Stephen E. (2016) Solution conformation and flexibility of capsular polysaccharides from Neisseria meningitidis and glycoconjugates with the tetanus toxoid protein. Scientific Reports, 6 (1). 35588/1-35588/11. ISSN 2045-2322 Abdelhameed, Ali Saber and Adams, Gary G. and Morris, Gordon A. and Almutairi, Fahad M. and Duvivier, Pierre and Conrath, Karel and Harding, Stephen E. (2016) A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate. Scientific Reports, 6 (1). 22208/1-22208/11. ISSN 2045-2322 Morris, Gordon A. and Adams, Gary G. and Harding, Stephen E. (2014) On hydrodynamic methods for the analysis of the sizes and shapes of polysaccharides in dilute solution: a short review. Food Hydrocolloids, 42 . pp. 318-334. ISSN 0268-005X ...
Throughout the modern era of bacteriology, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has been identified as 1 of the 3 most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adolescents. The other 2 are Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Mikrobiologisk virkningsspektrum. Virker baktericidt på grampositive kokker (Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumokokker), Streptococcus pyogenes (β-hæmolytiske streptokokker, gruppe A), Streptococcus agalactiae (β-hæmolytiske streptokokker, gruppe B), Enterococcus faecalis og de fleste α-hæmolytiske streptokokker samt på de Staphylococcus aureus, som ikke danner penicillinase), grampositive stave (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium spp., Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium spp. og Actinomyces spp.), gramnegative diplokokker (Neisseria meningitidis og nogle stammer af Neisseria gonorrhoeae), visse gramnegative stave som Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Pasteurella spp. og Capnocytophaga spp. og endelig over for Treponema pallidum og Borrelia burgdorferi. ...
This is a rare presentation of a pituitary tumour. Macroprolactinomas more commonly present with clinical features of hyperprolactinaemia, such as loss of libido and impotency in males or galactorrhoea and menstrual dysfunction in females. They can also present as space-occupying lesions with headaches, vomiting and visual disturbances, although our patient did not have any of these symptoms. In the literature, only 52 isolated cases were found with CSF leaking due to invading macroprolactinoma (14 patients) or medically induced CSF leakage (38 patients) and only seven of these went on to develop meningitis (1). The commonest pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This case is particularly interesting, as there was no CSF leakage apparent, which would theoretically increase the susceptibility to develop meningitis. Indeed, there have been only two cases reported with prolactinoma and meningitis but no rhinorrhoea as a sign ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
When an antibody-sensitized Escherichia coli B (parent strain) is treated with complement in the absence of lysozyme, free fatty acids (FFA) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) are liberated into the lipid fraction of the surrounding medium in addition to a little amount of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). However, when a phospholipase A-deficient mutant isolated from the parent strain is similarly treated, PE appears in the lipid fraction, but only traces of its degradation products are found. Therefore, most of the degradation of bacterial PE to FFA and LPE observed in the usual immune bactericidal reaction must be the result of the action of bacterial phospholipase A.. When liposomes which were made from a mixture of lipid fractions of sheep erythrocytes and of 14C-labeled E. coli are treated with complement, 14C-phospholipids are also liberated into the surrounding medium, but the degradation products (FFA and LPE) are not observed. Some of the liberated lipids seem to bind with some ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The Journal of Immunology.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
9 a.m. to 3 p.m.. Immunizations Offered: Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR), Varicella (Chickenpox), Hepatitis, Tetanus Diphtheria Pertussis (Tdap), Meningococcal (MCV4) and Meningococcal B.. Additionally, OSU Student Health Services (SHS) and the Student Health Pharmacy continue to provide students meningococcal B vaccines in Plageman Hall, 108 S.W. Memorial Place. Many other health care providers in the community have the meningococcal B vaccine available on request.. SHS staff will be available to at the clinics to answer questions about individual vaccine needs as well as insurance coverage.. Important Insurance Information. Before attending the vaccination clinics, students (or their family members) are encouraged to contact their private insurance provider to verify insurance coverage for the vaccine. When speaking with an insurance representative, it is important to mention that OSU Corvallis campus has been designated an "outbreak" status by federal, state and county public health ...
Menactra lasts eight to ten years, long enough to take even 11 year olds through the high-risk early college years. (The incidence of meningococcal meningitis drops by about half, to about 1 case in 200,000, in adults, so the CDC does not recommend the vaccine for them as well.) It protects against four of the five strains of meningococcal meningitis, which account for 70% of cases in the U.S. Its not made with live virus, so there is no danger of getting the disease from the shot, nor does it contain the preservative thimerosal. The injection costs $80 to $100, but is covered by most insurers. Side effects are minimal. Some people have pain and swelling at the injection site, and a handful have come down with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a neurological disorder, after receiving Menactra. People who have been diagnosed with GBS are advised not to get Menactra. ...
There is an increased risk of transmissibility if at least four hours of close contact has occurred during the week before illness onset," Dietrich said.. Close contact would include situations involving interaction among housemates, partners, day-care contacts, cellmates, or exposure to nasopharyngeal (nose and throat) secretions from kissing, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, or intubation.. Symptoms of meningitis include fever, a stiff neck or severe neck pain, suspicious rash, headache and vomiting. Those who suffer these symptoms should promptly seek emergency room care, Dietrich said.. The Centers for Disease Control recommends meningococcal meningitis vaccine for high-risk individuals, such as those with select immune-system deficiencies, those who have had their spleen removed, certain research and lab personnel and travelers to the African meningitis belt and other high-risk areas.. For information, call University Health Services at 642-1814. The Tang Center also has an online handout ...
List of Drugs with Haemophilus Influenzae conjugate Vaccine (Meningococcal Protein conjugate)- generic salt/ molecule/chemical/health-medicine ...
College students getting ready for school this fall may want to add something new to the checklist - getting vaccinated against meningococcal disease, more commonly known as bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal disease is a deadly bacterial infection that can result in death, blindness, deafness, brain damage or the loss of limbs. Within a couple of hours, you can literally be on deaths door, said Donald Murphey, infectious disease specialist at Cook Childrens in Fort Worth and an advocate for the Texas Medical Associations Be Wise - Immunize program. Leo Zuniga, a spokesman for the Alamo Colleges, said the community college district is awaiting direction from the state before coordinating a response. Officials there are unsure whether dual-credit high school students and community members who participate in short workshops and continuing education classes will need the immunization.
College is supposed to be the best four years of your life. I dont think that applies to me. Im going to my 21st year class reunion (Black Jack!), and yet I still have dreams of going to back to college.. Most folks dream they really havent graduated because they didnt finished a class. In my dreams, (which fortunately arent like the ones on the NBC show Medium), I already have my degrees, but Im back for a 5th year... just for fun!. So as Im looking for my Denison dorm room, I realize, "I have to share a room with three other guys? This stinks!" Can living with other young people in close quarters be deadly? UVA is on high alert after a case of a fourth-year male student, admitted to the University hospital with bacterial meningitis, was announced March 26.. Meningococcal meningitis is the #1 cause of bacterial meningitis in the USA. It strikes mostly in children and young adults. Fortunately, it is not very common, about 3,000 cases a year. Unfortunately, because it is rare, it is often ...
BioAssay record AID 367413 submitted by ChEMBL: Bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli NIHJ JC-2 preincubated for 1 min before addition of growth medium measured after 40 to 48 hrs.
Overview of antimicrobial proteins called lysozymes Lysozymes, also known as muramidase, are the most important bactericidal proteins of the mucosal immunity. T
Inspired by nature, CiMaas will bring two arms of the immune system together to enhance the killing capacity of the system as a whole.
Normal兔Serum (Sterile)试剂datasheet (ab7487).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Do you know that smoking is killing you both mentally and physically? Here are the reasons why you should quit smoking as early possible.

Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8-August 2018 ...Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8-August 2018 ...

Effect of eculizumab on serum bactericidal activity and killing of Neisseria meningitidis by anticoagulated human blood. A) ... Effect of eculizumab on serum bactericidal activity and killing of Neisseria meningitidis by anticoagulated human blood. A) ... Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of ... Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab On This Page ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/8/18-0228

Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8-August 2018 ...Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8-August 2018 ...

Effect of eculizumab on serum bactericidal activity and killing of Neisseria meningitidis by anticoagulated human blood. A) ... Effect of eculizumab on serum bactericidal activity and killing of Neisseria meningitidis by anticoagulated human blood. A) ... Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of ... Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab On This Page ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/8/18-0228_article

Persistence of bactericidal antibodies to 5 years of age after immunization with serogroup B meningococcal vaccines at 6, 8, 12...Persistence of bactericidal antibodies to 5 years of age after immunization with serogroup B meningococcal vaccines at 6, 8, 12...

Forty-nine control children were also recruited and blood obtained before and after 2 doses of 4CMenB at 60 and 62 months of ... However, data are limited on persistence of serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), which is necessary to inform cost- ... Blood Bactericidal Activity, Female, Humans, Infant, Male, Meningococcal Vaccines, Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B, Time ... Persistence of bactericidal antibodies to 5 years of age after immunization with serogroup B meningococcal vaccines at 6, 8, 12 ...
more infohttps://www.ovg.ox.ac.uk/publications/462117

Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8-August 2018 ...Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8-August 2018 ...

Effect of eculizumab on serum bactericidal activity and killing of Neisseria meningitidis by anticoagulated human blood. A) ... Effect of eculizumab on serum bactericidal activity and killing of Neisseria meningitidis by anticoagulated human blood. A) ... Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of ... Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab On This Page ...
more infohttps://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/8/18-0228

Figure 2 - Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8...Figure 2 - Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab - Volume 24, Number 8...

Effect of eculizumab on serum bactericidal activity and killing of Neisseria meningitidis by anticoagulated human blood. A) ... which blocked serum bactericidal activity (data not shown), did not inhibit whole blood killing. Similar results were obtained ... Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab Deirdre Nolfi-Donegan. , Monica ... Fatal Nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis Disease in Vaccinated Patient Receiving Eculizumab. ...
more infohttps://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/8/18-0228-f2

The (α2→8)-Linked Polysialic Acid Capsule and Lipooligosaccharide Structure Both Contribute to the Ability of Serogroup B...The (α2→8)-Linked Polysialic Acid Capsule and Lipooligosaccharide Structure Both Contribute to the Ability of Serogroup B...

1979) Host defense against Neisseria meningitidis requires a complement-dependent bactericidal activity. Science 205:298-299. ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis have components that are immunochemically similar to precursors of human blood ... The molecular basis for the resistance of serogroup BNeisseria meningitidis to the bactericidal activity of normal human sera ( ... 1997) Sialylation of Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide inhibits serum bactericidal activity by masking lacto- N - ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/66/12/5939

George Heist - WikipediaGeorge Heist - Wikipedia

... whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity ... established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ability to kill Neisseria meningitidis in a capillary tube ... concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. Control blood without bactericidal activity ... Heists seminal study of the properties of a persons blood serum that protect against this bacterium, he died of meningitis. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Heist

The contrasting mechanisms of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and group B Neisseria meningitidis.  - PubMed - NCBIThe contrasting mechanisms of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and group B Neisseria meningitidis. - PubMed - NCBI

Blood Bactericidal Activity/immunology*. *Complement System Proteins/metabolism. *Humans. *In Vitro Techniques ... The contrasting mechanisms of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and group B Neisseria meningitidis.. Ram S1, Mackinnon ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis have evolved intricate mechanisms to evade complement-mediated killing. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10698346?dopt=Abstract

Assessment of immune response to meningococcal disease: comparison of a whole-blood assay and the serum bactericidal assay. -...Assessment of immune response to meningococcal disease: comparison of a whole-blood assay and the serum bactericidal assay. -...

... which assesses the complete bactericidal activity of blood, was compared with the serum bactericidal assay (SBA), which ... Bactericidal activity to the reference serogroup B and C strain was detected by WBA in 70 and 75% of children, respectively, ... Levels of bactericidal activity were detectable in fewer control children. Children convalescing from meningococcal disease ... However, the WBA appears to be a more sensitive measure of bactericidal activity to heterologous strains than the SBA. ...
more infohttps://www.paediatrics.ox.ac.uk/publications/122275

Selection of an immunogenic peptide mimic of the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A using a peptide...Selection of an immunogenic peptide mimic of the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A using a peptide...

Blood Bactericidal Activity/immunology. *Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. *Humans. *Immunization, Secondary. *Meningococcal ... Neisseria meningitidis - Genetic Alliance. Molecular Biology Databases. *Related Immune Epitope Information - Immune Epitope ... Selection of an immunogenic peptide mimic of the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A using a peptide ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10649627?dopt=Abstract

DiVA - SøkeresultatDiVA - Søkeresultat

... with bactericidal action against Neisseria meningitidis. Both peptides were active in human whole blood at micromolar ... Apart from its bactericidal activity, TP10 suppressed inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages infected with N. ... Identification of Cell-Penetrating Peptides That Are Bactericidal to Neisseria meningitidis and Prevent Inflammatory Responses ... are prone to lethal sepsis upon infection with Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis). However, the underlying mechanisms are ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22personId%22%3A%22hwan%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=no&query=

DiVA - Search resultDiVA - Search result

... with bactericidal action against Neisseria meningitidis. Both peptides were active in human whole blood at micromolar ... Apart from its bactericidal activity, TP10 suppressed inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages infected with N. ... Identification of Cell-Penetrating Peptides That Are Bactericidal to Neisseria meningitidis and Prevent Inflammatory Responses ... Significative correlations were found between the transcriptional activity of caspase-3 and the activity of some other genes ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?p=101&fs=false&language=en&searchType=ORGANISATION&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22632%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Lack of serum bactericidal activity in preschool children two years after a single dose of serogroup C meningococcal...Lack of serum bactericidal activity in preschool children two years after a single dose of serogroup C meningococcal...

METHODS: Serum bactericidal activity was assessed in 94 children (median age, 4.0 years) at a median time of 1.8 years after ... RESULTS: Of the 94 children, 59 (63%) had a serum bactericidal titer ,1/8. CONCLUSION: The data from this study add to previous ... immunity against invasive meningococcal C disease provided by this single dose regimen is uncertain.A serum bactericidal titer ... Blood Bactericidal Activity, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Male, Meningococcal Vaccines, Neisseria meningitidis, ...
more infohttps://www.paediatrics.ox.ac.uk/publications/119312

Vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis Using Three Variants of the Lipoprotein GNA1870 | JEMVaccination against Neisseria meningitidis Using Three Variants of the Lipoprotein GNA1870 | JEM

Complement-mediated Bactericidal Activity.. Serum bactericidal activity against N. meningitidis strains was evaluated as ... From the blood stream the bacterium may cross the blood-brain barrier and cause meningitis. Both diseases are devastating and ... Transport of lipoproteins to the cell surface in Neisseria meningitidis. Thirteenth International Pathogenic Neisseria ... a new surface-exposed lipoprotein of Neisseria meningitidis that induces high levels of bactericidal antibodies. The antigen is ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/197/6/789?ijkey=18d8092ac8ad94cc8f0ea82413d701b8b999b58c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Petter Brandtzæg
       - Institute of Clinical MedicinePetter Brandtzæg - Institute of Clinical Medicine

... tissue factor activity is reduced by inhibition of the complement protein 5 in Neisseria meningitidis-exposed whole blood. ... Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of ... Neisseria meningitidis was isolated either from cultures of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid.The patients were classified as ... Whole blood anticoagulated with lepirudin was stimulated with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis H44/76 (LPS+), LPS-deficient N. ...
more infohttps://www.med.uio.no/klinmed/english/people/aca/petterbr/index.html

Patente US6025326 - Compositions and methods for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis - Google PatentesPatente US6025326 - Compositions and methods for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis - Google Patentes

Bactericidal Activity of OM-3 Against Natural Flora in Human Saliva. This Example demonstrates the ability of preferred peptide ... 12 0.2 0.8 Neisseria meningitidis 1 8 Mueller Hinton Candida albicans 1 8 Broth ... Masera et al., 1996, "Corticostatins/defensins inhibit in vitro NK activity and cytokine production by human peripheral blood ... In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of PG-1 (SEQ ID NO:1). The antimicrobial activity of PG-1 (as well as other protegrins) is ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US6025326?hl=es&dq=flatulence

Immunogenicity of 2 Serogroup B Outer-Membrane Protein Meningococcal Vaccines: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Chile - PubMedImmunogenicity of 2 Serogroup B Outer-Membrane Protein Meningococcal Vaccines: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Chile - PubMed

Blood Bactericidal Activity Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Immunogenicity Profiling of Protein Antigens From Capsular Group B Neisseria Meningitidis AM Awanye et al. Sci Rep 9 (1), 6843 ... Properties and Clinical Performance of Vaccines Containing Outer Membrane Vesicles From Neisseria Meningitidis J Holst et al. ... Cross-reactivity With Brazilian Strains of Neisseria meningitidis B After Immunization With Outer Membrane Vesicles G ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10227322/

Natasha Anwar - WikipediaNatasha Anwar - Wikipedia

... meningitidis. The traditional method to determine activity is through the use of serum blood assay; serum blood assay involves ... bactericidal activity was detected in whole blood assay against the opposite strain, while serum blood assay failed to. This ... Neisseria meningitidis is a parasitic organism which colonizes the upper respiratory tract. It is usually commensal, but will ... but on whole blood instead. Serum blood assay will not be able to detect phagocytic activity, but whole blood assay on the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natasha_Anwar

Persistence of the immune response at 5 years of age following infant immunisation with investigational quadrivalent MenACWY...Persistence of the immune response at 5 years of age following infant immunisation with investigational quadrivalent MenACWY...

CONCLUSIONS: Serogroup-specific bactericidal antibody wane following infant immunisation with MenACWY-CRM(197), most markedly ... We evaluated the persistence of bactericidal antibodies through early childhood, following infant immunisation with varying ... Adolescent Antibodies, Bacterial/blood Blood Bactericidal Activity Canada Child, Preschool Female Great Britain Humans * ... immunology Microbial Viability Neisseria meningitidis/immunology/physiology Time Factors Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & ...
more infohttps://www.phctrials.ox.ac.uk/publications/316350

Clinical Trials About Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Immune Response Following Vaccination With Immunose™ FLU in...Clinical Trials About 'Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Immune Response Following Vaccination With Immunose™ FLU in...

Evaluation of Immune Response Against the Strain of Neisseria Meningitidis B: 14, P1-7, 16 Patients Have to be Vaccinated ... with a serum bactericidal activity against B:14,P1-7,16 clone related to a protection (>= 4), before the first vaccination (T0 ... Adults will receive influenza vaccination and then have peripheral blood drawn at pre-defined intervals in order to study the ... Previous studies in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) patients showed no increase in disease activity after immunisation with ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trials/?keyword=Study+to+Assess+the+Safety%2C+Tolerability+and+Immune+Response+Following+Vaccination+With+Immunose%26trade%3B+FLU+in+Older+Adults&orderfield=score&orderval=desc

Development and Use of a Serum Bactericidal Assay Using Pooled Human Complement To Assess Responses to a Meningococcal Group A...Development and Use of a Serum Bactericidal Assay Using Pooled Human Complement To Assess Responses to a Meningococcal Group A...

Correlation between serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y measured using ... Sera with active complement from 100 unvaccinated blood donors were tested for intrinsic bactericidal activity, SBA titer using ... Standardization and a multilaboratory comparison of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C serum bactericidal assays. The ... Human complement source preparation and qualification.Whole blood (30 ml) from healthy adult blood donors who had routine blood ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/21/5/755

ASMscience | Functions of AntibodiesASMscience | Functions of Antibodies

Bactericidal and opsonic activity of IgG1 and IgG2 anticapsular antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b. J Infect Dis 162: ... The role of Fcgamma receptor polymorphisms and C3 in the immune defence against Neisseria meningitidis in complement-deficient ... Differences between the activities of human monoclonal IgG1 and IgG3 anti-D antibodies of the Rh blood group system in their ... Opsonic activity of human immune serum on in vitro phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells by monocytes ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0019-2014

OPUS Würzburg | SearchOPUS Würzburg | Search

... without interference with the complement bactericidal activity reduced the inflammatory response also in human whole blood. ... Sepsis caused by Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is a rapidly progressing, life-threatening disease. Because its initial ... Here, we consider the potential of separating the bactericidal activities of the complement cascade from its immune activating ... 1-5% of human blood T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells whose T cell receptor (TCR) contain a TRGV9/TRGJP rearrangement and a TRDV2 ...
more infohttps://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/solrsearch/index/search/searchtype/latest/rows/20

Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines Derived from Mutant Strains Engineered To Express Factor H Binding Proteins from...Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines Derived from Mutant Strains Engineered To Express Factor H Binding Proteins from...

... and synergistic bactericidal activity of antibodies directed against minor outer membrane proteins of Neisseria meningitidis. ... Blood was collected 3 weeks after the third injection. The experiments complied with the relevant guidelines of Italy and the ... 2B) and high serum bactericidal antibody activity against genetically diverse N. meningitidis strains with fHbp in each of the ... Protective activity of monoclonal antibodies to genome-derived neisserial antigen 1870, a Neisseria meningitidis candidate ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/16/2/156?ijkey=cecb8e08899f4c7b98174befac4f8856df1820aa&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Deficient expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in immunocompromised hosts: translational potential of...Deficient expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in immunocompromised hosts: translational potential of...

B) Replenishing of BPI, either as rBPI21 to increase blood plasma BPI activity or by the addition of LX congeners to increase ... BPI increases delivery and internalization of blebs from Neisseria meningitidis to human monocyte-derived dendritic cells [11 ... B) Replenishing of BPI, either as rBPI21 to increase blood plasma BPI activity or by the addition of LX congeners to increase ... 5,9]. Of note, the bactericidal activity of BPI against these bacteria is manifest at nanomolar concentrations in biological ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/biochemsoctrans/article/39/4/994/65141/Deficient-expression-of-bactericidal-permeability
  • We describe a fully vaccinated patient with PNH who received 2 doses of eculizumab and died shortly thereafter from overwhelming Neisseria meningitidis disease caused by nongroupable meningococci, which rarely cause disease in human hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • Forty-nine control children were also recruited and blood obtained before and after 2 doses of 4CMenB at 60 and 62 months of age. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) is a 55 kDa anti-infective molecule expressed in neutrophil and eosinophil granules and on some epithelial cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Among the APPs of human neutrophils is the BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein). (portlandpress.com)
  • Structure-function analysis of BPI indicates that its antibacterial and LPS-neutralizing activities are localized to the N-terminal half of the protein [ 6 ], whereas the C-terminal half enhances the opsonic activity of the molecule [ 7 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • B) Bactericidal activity of pool tested in (panel A) measured against the nongroupable (NG) case isolate from a 16-year-old girl with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria who died of meningococcal disease after treatment with eculizumab (data from 5 replicate assays). (cdc.gov)
  • These assays are performed with limited dilution of the serum, usually 1:4, and require serum collection and storage methods that preserve complement activity. (asm.org)
  • After extensive work-up, she received a diagnosis of PNH on the basis of peripheral blood flow cytometry. (cdc.gov)
  • GlaxoSmithKline, Bellaria Rosia, Sovicille, Italy) with the last dose 14 months earlier (C), the other unvaccinated (D). The addition of 50 μg/mL of eculizumab to the blood from both donors blocked killing of the bacteria by the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Binding of CD46 or CD46-derived synthetic peptides blocked the urease activity and ability of bacteria to survive in acidic environments. (diva-portal.org)
  • Anwar's research on N. meningitidis involved determining effects that modifying the organism's outer components had on its susceptibility to attack by the host's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the ability of mannose binding lectin, a component of the immune system involved in the lectin pathway of opsonization, to bind onto N. meningitidis when it's LOS outer core and/or capsule had been removed was determined by utilizing flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that when the outer core was removed, strong binding of MBL to N. meningitidis was detected, even when physiologically low levels of MBL had been used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood samples were obtained at baseline, prior to dose 3, and at 4 to 6 weeks after dose 3. (nih.gov)
  • Similar results were obtained with blood from a third adult who had been vaccinated with MenB-4C 9 months earlier (data not shown). (cdc.gov)
  • Between 1998-2001, she published a paper on the effects of N. meningitidis and how such association are affected through immunogenicity, the immune response, and also the serotypes through the Pakistani population. (wikipedia.org)