A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same or related species.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).
Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.
Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.
A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.

Effect of a staphylococcin on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1/2711)

Phage group 2 staphylococcal strain UT0002 contains a large 56S virulence plasmid with genes that code for both exfoliative toxin and a specific staphylococcin termed Bac R(1). Four penicillinase-producing strains and three penicillin-susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were killed by Bac R(1). After 30 min of growth of the penicillin-resistant TR1 strain in 62.5 arbitrary units of Bac R(1) per ml, loss of viability was approximately 90%, and, after 5 h, an approximately 99.99% loss of viability was observed. Lysis did not accompany cell death, and 84% of the Bac R(1) added to the growth medium was adsorbed to the gonococcal cells. The extracellular supernatant fluid from a substrain of staphylococcal strain UT0002 cured of the plasmid for Bac R(1) production had no lethal effect on the gonococcal strains. Bac R(1) was also shown to have bactericidal activity against an L-form of N. meningitidis, indicating that the outer envelope of a neisserial cell is not needed for bacteriocin activity. Ten different normal human sera were unable to neutralize Bac R(1) activity. The bacteriocin lacks adsorption specificity. It binds to but does not kill Escherichia coli cells, indicating that the cell envelope of gram-negative organisms can provide protection against the staphylococcin.  (+info)

Invasion of human mucosal epithelial cells by Neisseria gonorrhoeae upregulates expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). (2/2711)

Infection of the mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells. Little is known, however, about the expression by mucosal epithelial cells of molecules that mediate cellular interactions between epithelial cells and neutrophils at the site of gonococcal infection. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) by epithelial cells during the process of gonococcal invasion. The highly invasive strain FA1090 and the poorly invasive strain MS11 were incubated with human endometrial adenocarcinoma (HEC-1-B) or human cervical carcinoma (ME-180) epithelial cells, after which ICAM-1 expression was measured by flow cytometry. After 15 h of infection with FA1090, expression of ICAM-1 increased 4.7- and 2.1-fold for HEC-1-B and ME-180 cells, respectively, whereas 15 h of infection of HEC-1-B cells with MS11 increased ICAM-1 expression only 1.6-fold. ICAM-1 expression was restricted to the cell surface, since no soluble ICAM-1 was detected. The distribution of staining was heterogeneous and mimicked that seen after treatment of HEC-1-B cells with the ICAM-1 agonist tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the absence of bacteria. PCR and dot blot analyses of ICAM-1 mRNA showed no change in levels over time in response to infection. Although TNF-alpha was produced by HEC-1-B cells after infection, the extent of ICAM-1 upregulation was not affected by neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antiserum. Dual-fluorescence flow cytometry showed that the cells with the highest levels of ICAM-1 expression were cells with associated gonococci. We conclude that epithelial cells upregulate the expression of ICAM-1 in response to infection with invasive gonococci. On the mucosa, upregulation of ICAM-1 by infected epithelial cells may function to maintain neutrophils at the site of infection, thereby reducing further invasion of the mucosa by gonococci.  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (3/2711)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Natural competence for DNA transformation by Legionella pneumophila and its association with expression of type IV pili. (4/2711)

We have recently described the expression of two pili of different lengths on the surface of Legionella pneumophila (B. J. Stone and Y. Abu Kwaik, Infect. Immun. 66:1768-1775, 1998). Production of long pili requires a functional pilEL locus, encoding a type IV pilin protein. Since type IV pili in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are associated with competence for DNA transformation, we examined the competence of L. pneumophila for DNA transformation under conditions that allowed the expression of type IV pili. We show that L. pneumophila is naturally competent for DNA transformation by isogenic chromosomal DNA and by plasmid DNA containing L. pneumophila DNA. Many different L. pneumophila loci are able to transform L. pneumophila after addition of plasmid DNA, including gspA, ppa, asd, and pilEL. The transformation frequency is reduced when competing DNA containing either L. pneumophila DNA or vector sequences is added to the bacteria, suggesting that uptake-specific sequences may not be involved in DNA uptake. Competence for DNA transformation correlates with expression of the type IV pili, and a pilEL mutant defective in expression of type IV pili is not competent for DNA transformation. Complementation of the mutant for competence is restored by the reintroduction of a cosmid that restores production of type IV pili. Minimal competence is restored to the mutant by introduction of pilEL alone. We conclude that competence for DNA transformation in L. pneumophila is associated with expression of the type IV pilus and results in recombination of L. pneumophila DNA into the chromosome. Since expression of type IV pili also facilitates attachment of L. pneumophila to mammalian cells and protozoa, we designated the type IV pili CAP (for competence- and adherence-associated pili).  (+info)

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test. (5/2711)

Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates.  (+info)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors. (6/2711)

We reported recently that the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse pathogenicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans, at least five also exhibited reduced virulence in mice. Three of the TnphoA mutants corresponded to the known virulence-related genes lasR, gacA, and lemA. Three of the mutants corresponded to known genes (aefA from Escherichia coli, pstP from Azotobacter vinelandii, and mtrR from Neisseria gonorrhoeae) that had not been shown previously to play a role in pathogenesis, and two of the mutants contained TnphoA inserted into novel sequences. These data indicate that the killing of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa can be exploited to identify novel P. aeruginosa virulence factors important for mammalian pathogenesis.  (+info)

Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. (7/2711)

Commercial sex workers (CSWs) serve as the most important reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including gonorrhea. Periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-risk population provides essential clues regarding the rapidly changing pattern of antimicrobial susceptibilities. A study concerning the prevalence of gonococcal infection among CSWs was conducted in Bangladesh. The isolates were examined with regards to their antimicrobial susceptibility to, and the MICs of, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The total plasmid profile of the isolates was also analyzed. Of the 224 CSWs, 94 (42%) were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae. There was a good correlation between the results of the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Some 66% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 34% were moderately susceptible to penicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 23.4% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG). 60.6% of the isolates were resistant and 38.3% were moderately susceptible to tetracycline, 17.5% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, 11.7% were resistant and 26.6% had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 2.1% were resistant and 11.7% had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime, and 1% were resistant to ceftriaxone. All PPNG isolates contained a 3.2-MDa African type of plasmid, and a 24.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was present in 34.1% of the isolates. Since quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are recommended as the first line of therapy for gonorrhea, the emergence of significant resistance to ciprofloxacin will limit the usefulness of this drug for treatment of gonorrhea in Bangladesh.  (+info)

Characterization of the recD gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11 and the effect of recD inactivation on pilin variation and DNA transformation. (8/2711)

Pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae may result following intrachromosomal recombination between homologous pil genes. Despite extensive study, recA is the only previously characterized gene known to be involved in this process. In this study, the gonococcal recD gene, encoding one subunit of the putative RecBCD holoenzyme, was characterized and its role in pilin variation assessed. The complete recD gene of N. gonorrhoeae MS11 was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. The gonococcal recD gene complemented a defined Escherichia coli recD mutant, based on plaque formation of bacteriophage lambda and the restoration of ATP-dependent nuclease activity. Inactivation of the gonococcal recD gene had no measurable effect on cell viability or survival following UV exposure, but did decrease the frequency of DNA transformation approximately threefold. The frequency at which non-parental pilin phenotypes were spawned was 12-fold greater in MS11 recD mutants compared with the parental MS11 rec+ strain. Similar results were obtained using recD mutants that were not competent for DNA transformation. Complementation of the MS11 recD mutant with a wild-type recD gene copy restored the frequency of pilin phenotypic variation to approximately wild-type levels. The nucleotide changes at pilE in the recD mutants were confined to the variable regions of the gene and were similar to changes previously attributed to gene conversion.  (+info)

A physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 has been constructed. Digestion of strain FA1090 DNA with NheI, SpeI, BglII, or PacI resulted in a limited number of fragments that were resolved by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. The estimated genome size was 2,219 kb. To construct the map, probes corresponding to single-copy chromosomal sequences were used in Southern blots of digested DNA separated on pulsed-field gels, to determine how the fragments from different digests overlapped. Some of the probes represented identified gonococcal genes, whereas others were anonymous cloned fragments of strain FA1090 DNA. By using this approach, a macrorestriction map of the strain FA1090 chromosome was assembled, and the locations of various genetic markers on the map were determined. Once the map was completed, the repeated gene families encoding Opa and pilin proteins were mapped. The 11 opa loci of strain FA1090 were distributed over approximately 60% of ...
BELDA JUNIOR, Walter; VELHO, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; ARNONE, Marcelo and FAGUNDES, Luis Jorge. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in São Paulo, Brazil. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2007, vol.38, n.2, pp.293-295. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822007000200020.. Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential in order for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) treatment to be effective. Gonococci isolates from 65 patients in São Paulo were submitted to susceptibility testing, and a decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 8.7% of these patients, indicating that Neisseria gonorrhoeae fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in Brazil.. Keywords : anti-bacterial agents; ciprofloxacin; drug resistance; Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ...
To increase the utility of the previously constructed physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090, 28 additional genetic markers were localized on the map. Cloned gonococcal genes were used to probe Southern blots of restriction enzyme-digested DNA separated on pulsed-field gels, thus identifying the fragment in each of several digests to which the probe hybridized and the map location of each gene. The addition of the new markers brings the total number of mapped loci for this strain to 68; the locations of all of those markers on the updated map are shown. ...
OBJECTIVE: To study the predominant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain types in Pakistan and to evaluate their correlation with fluoroquinolone resistance. METHOD: A total of 314 strains were collected from 2007-2009. Of these 112 strains were randomly selected for serotyping via the coagglutination technique. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility was checked through the E-test method. Chi square was performed to assess the correlation between the strain type and fluoroquinolone resistance pattern. RESULTS: N. gonorrhoeae isolates were typed in two serogroups and 28 serovars. Serogroup WI comprised 40% (n = 45) whereas WII/WIII was 60% (n = 67). Most commonly isolated serovar belonged to serogroup WI namely Aorst (10%). The other predominant circulating serovars of the serogroup WI were Aost (9%) and Ast (8%) and Bsy (8%), Bopyt (5%) and Bprt (4.5%) in the serogroup WII/III. Fluoroquinolone resistance was 98%, with an MIC of 2 microg/mL in 47%, 4 microg/mL in 36% and | 32 microg/mL in 12% of the isolates. On
ABSTRACT Restriction-Modification systems (RMS) are one of the main mechanisms of defence against foreign DNA invasion and can have an important role in the regulation of gene expression. The obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae carries one of the highest loads of RMS in its genome; between 13 to 15 of the three main types. Previous work has described their organization in the reference genome FA1090 and has experimentally inferred the associated methylated motifs. Here, we studied the structure of RMS and target methylated motifs in 25 gonococcal strains sequenced with Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) technology, which provides data on DNA modification. The results showed a variable picture of active RMS in different strains, with phase variation switching the activity of Type III RMS, and both the activity and specificity of a Type I RMS. Interestingly, the Dam methylase was found in place of the NgoAXI endonuclease in two of the strains, despite being previously thought to be absent ...
To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant trends of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Guangzhou, from 1996 to 2001. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to four antimicrobials, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. The resistance of all strains to four antibiotics was interpreted according to criteria used in the project of surveillance of gonococcal antibiotic susceptibility in the WHO Western Pacific Region. Penicillinase producing N gonorrhoeae (PPNG) was analysed by the paper acidometric method. 793 consecutive N gonorrhoeae isolates collected in Guangzhou were studied from 1996 to 2001. A total of 55 strains of PPNG were identified and the prevalence rapidly spread from 2% to 21.8%. Of the four antibiotics examined, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin appeared to be the most effective agents although two spectinomycin resistant strains were isolated in 1996. Their MIC(50), MIC(90), ...
OBJECTIVES--To employ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the rapid differentiation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae protein IB (PIB) isolates and to compare its usefulness with the widely accepted auxotype/serovar classification scheme. METHODS--The outer membrane protein IB genes of 47 gonococcal isolates belonging to 10 different serovars were amplified by PCR. The approximately 1 kb DNA products were then digested separately with restriction enzymes CfoI and MspA1I, and electrophoresed on agarose gels. RESULTS--Cleavage of PIB genes by MspA1I and CfoI differentiated all the N gonorrhoeae strains into five and six PCR-RFLP profiles, respectively. PCR-RFLP was more discriminatory than auxotyping, which classifies the strains into only two auxotypes. Some strains belonging to common serovars could be further differentiated. A combination of PCR-RFLP analysis, auxotyping and serotyping further increased the discrimination of the strains into ...
The obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has evolved mechanisms to manipulate the apoptotic machinery in human epithelial cells in favor of host niche adaptation. In the present research, I investigated the apoptotic effect of N. gonorrhoeae on transduced human urethral epithelial cells (THUEC) and the underlying mechanism of apoptosis modulation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that gonococcal infection conferred an anti-apoptotic effect in early infection, but induced apoptosis during prolonged infection periods in THUEC. Intracellular gonococci were required to provide the anti-apoptotic effect. Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways mapped the apoptosis resistance to a signaling cascade involving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and Bim/Bad, in which the inhibition of ERK activation by N. gonorrhoeae contributed to the anti-apoptotic effect on THUEC. A N. gonorrhoeae minD ...
Objectives To improve the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by designing a multiplex PCR assay using two N gonorrhoeae-specific genes as targets, thereby providing detection and confirmation of a positive result simultaneously.. Methods PCR primers were designed to detect two N gonorrhoeae genes, namely porA and pgi1. Primers for an internal control targeting the ompW gene of Vibrio cholerae were also designed and incorporated in the assay. The DNA of 45 clinical isolates including 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates, seven non-gonococcal Neisseria species, and five non-Neisseria species was tested using the multiplex PCR assay.. Results All 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates were successfully detected by the assay and none of the non-gonococcal isolates was detected. The assay showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and a limit of detection of 1.25 ng of DNA.. Conclusion This multiplex PCR assay offers a sensitive and specific assay suitable for the detection of N gonorrhoeae, and offers real potential for ...
Since publication of CDCs 1993 guidelines (CDC. Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-12]:1--39), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been introduced as critical new tools to diagnose and treat C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. NAATs for C. trachomatis are substantially more sensitive than previous tests. When using a NAAT, any sacrifice in performance when urine is substituted for a traditional swab specimen is limited, thus reducing dependence on invasive procedures and expanding the venues where specimens can be obtained. NAATs can also detect both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae organisms in the same specimen. However, NAATs are usually more expensive than previous tests, making test performance from an economic perspective a key consideration. This report updates the 1993 guidelines for selecting laboratory tests for C. trachomatis with an emphasis on screening men and women in the ...
Global Markets Directs, Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections pipeline landscape.
Via Eurosurveillance: Gonorrhoea treatment failure caused by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with combined ceftriaxone and high-level azithromycin resistance, England, February 2018. The abstract: We describe a gonorrhoea case with combined high-level azithromycin resistance and ceftriaxone resistance. In February 2018, a...
Gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the world. A naturally occurring variation of the terminal carbohydrates on the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule correlates with altered disease states. Here, we investigated t
We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infections in school-based adolescents in Northern Italy. Systematic screening for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae genital infection was performed in 13th grade students in the province of Brescia, an industrialized area in Northern Italy. Student filled in a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided a urine sample for microbiological testing. A total of 2,718 students (mean age: 18.4 years; 59.1 % females) provided complete data (62.2 % of those eligible). Overall 2,059 students (75.8 %) were sexually active (i.e. had had at least one partner), and the mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (SD: 1.4). Only 27.5 % of the sexually active students reported regular condom use during the previous 6 months, with higher frequency in males than in females (33.8 % vs 24.2 %). No case of N. gonorrhoeae infection was detected, while C. trachomatis was found in 36 adolescents, with a prevalence of 1
The obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is responsible for the widespread sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea, which in rare cases also leads to the development of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). DGI is mediated by PorBIA-expressing bacteria that invade host cells under low phosphate condition by interaction with the scavenger receptor-1 (SREC-I) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. The interaction of PorBIA and SREC-I was analysed using different in vitro approaches, including surface plasmon resonance experiments that revealed a direct phosphate-independent high affinity interaction of SREC-I to PorBIA. However, the same binding affinity was also found for the other allele PorBIB, which indicates unspecific binding and suggests that the applied methods were unsuitable for this interaction analysis. Since N. gonorrhoeae was recently classified as a super-bug due to a rising number of antibiotic-resistant strains, this study aimed to discover inhibitors against ...
Rising azithromycin nonsusceptibility among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates threatens current treatment recommendations, but the cause of this rise is not well understood. We performed an ecological study of seasonal patterns in macrolide use and azithromycin resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, finding that population-wide macrolide use is associated with increased azithromycin nonsusceptibility. These results, indicative of bystander selection, have implications for antibiotic prescribing guidelines ...
To the Editor: Spread of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern. Effective antimicrobial therapy is a key element in gonorrhea control. However, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial drugs, including β-lactams, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones (1-3). Even an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin-resistant, cefixime-resistant N. gonorrhoeae has emerged, and cefixime has now been withdrawn from use in Japan. Best practice treatment is limited to injectable extended-spectrum cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone and spectinomycin. The emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae threatens effective disease control.. We identified a novel ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a 31-year-old female commercial sex worker; MIC of ceftriaxone for this isolate was high (2 µg/mL). The woman visited a clinic in Kyoto for a routine examination for sexually transmitted infections in January 2009. Although she had no ...
In 2016, we identified a ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in China. The strain genotype was identical to the resistant clone FC428 that originated in Japan. Enhanced international collaborative surveillance programs are crucial to track the transmission of the ceftriaxone-resistant clones ...
Studies were performed on local isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to assess their aetiological role in different clinical populations, to determine the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and characterisation of quinolone resistance. In the study performed on women presenting for termination of pregnancy (TOP) the prevalence of common sexually transmitted pathogens (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis) was much higher than reported from other studies in TOP populations. The commonest organism isolated was C. trachomatis. There were no significant differences in infection rates in women with or without signs and symptoms of vaginal discharge. Therefore all women presenting for TOP need to be screened and treated for sexually transmitted pathogens. In the study to determine the co-infection rates in men presenting with urethritis (discharge and/or burning on micturition (BOM)), the overall infection rate was 65% with co-infections (more than one pathogen ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae MntC protein: a periplasmic-binding protein that be a component of an ABC transporter that imports manganese ion to combat oxidative stress; isolated from Neisseria gonorrhoeae; GenBank AE004969
Background: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and their bla(TEM-135) gene variant in 2007 and 2012 in Nanjing, China. In addition, molecular epidemiological typing of all isolates was performed to elucidate the genetic relationships of the PPNG strains. Methods: A total of 199 and 77 N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected at the National Center for STD Control in 2007 and 2012, respectively. Nitrocefin tests were performed to identify PPNG. Mismatch amplification mutation assay was used to identify bla(TEM-135). All isolates were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and additionally, porB-based phylogenetic analysis was performed for the PPNG isolates. Results: The total prevalence of PPNG isolates was 41% (114/276) and 58% (66/114) of these PPNG isolates possessed bla(TEM-135). In 2007, 45% (90/199) produced beta-lactamase, and of those PPNG, 58% (52/90) possessed bla(TEM-135). In 2012, 31% ...
Pilated Neisseria gonorrhoeae of colony type 1 (T1) and non-pilated bacteria of colony type 4 (T4) were observed by transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No pili were observed on T4 gonogocci, but two types of pili--straight, type a, and bent, type b--were seen on T1 by TEM. When incubated with human sperum and examined by either TEM or SEM, T1 gonococci were seen to attach by individual pili, by several pili wound together as a rope, or by direct contact. Gonococci from T4 colonies attached only by direct contact. Treatment with typsin (1 mg/ml) damaged or removed pili from gonococci. After incubation with trypsin, attachment of pilated gonococci to sperm was decreased significantly, but such treatment did not affect attachment of non-pilated gonococci. Incubation of gonococci from either colony type in 0.1 mmol/l ferric nitrate, followed by incubation with sperm, significantly increased attachment of only T4 bacteria. No pili were seen on T4 gonococci treated with ferric ...
A Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with a reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.5 microg/mL) was isolated among 398 clinical isolates obtained from 2000-2001 in Fukuoka City, Japan. The N. gonorrhoeae strain was negative for penicillinase production but it sho …
Chlamydia trachomatis & Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
The majority of in vitro-grown Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains were unable to use hemoglobin as the sole source of iron for growth (Hgb-), but a minor population was able to do so (Hgb+). The ability of Hgb+ gonococci to utilize hemoglobin as the iron source was associated with the expression of an iron-repressible 89-kDa hemoglobin-binding protein in the outer membrane. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein revealed amino acids, from positions 2 to 16, identical to those of HpuB, an 85 kDa iron-regulated hemoglobin-haptoglobin utilization outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis. Isogenic mutants constructed by allelic replacement with a meningococcal hpu::mini-Tn3erm construct no longer expressed the 89-kDa protein. Mutants could not utilize hemoglobin to support growth but still grew on heme. Thus, the gonococcal HpuB homolog is a functional hemoglobin receptor and is essential for growth with hemoglobin. ...
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Abstract Increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistance to ceftriaxone, the last antibiotic recommended for empiric gonorrhea treatment, poses an urgent public health threat. However, the genetic basis of reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone is not completely understood: while most ceftriaxone resistance in clinical isolates is caused by target site mutations in penA , others lack these mutations. Here, we show that penA -independent ceftriaxone resistance has evolved multiple times through distinct mutations in rpoB and rpoD . We identify five mutations in these genes that each increase resistance to ceftriaxone, including one mutation that arose independently in two lineages, and show that clinical isolates from multiple lineages are a single nucleotide change from ceftriaxone resistance. These RNA polymerase mutations result in large-scale transcriptional changes without altering susceptibility to other antibiotics, reducing growth rate, or deranging cell morphology. These results underscore the
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global health concern. Strains from two internationally circulating sequence types, ST-7363 and ST-1901, have acquired resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, mainly due to mosaic penA alleles. These two STs were first detected in Japan; however, the timeline, mechanism, and process of emergence and spread of these mosaic penA alleles to other countries remain unknown. METHODS: We studied the evolution of penA alleles by obtaining the complete genomes from three Japanese ST-1901 clinical isolates harboring mosaic penA allele 34 (penA-34) dating from 2005 and generating a phylogenetic representation of 1075 strains sampled from 35 countries. We also sequenced the genomes of 103 Japanese ST-7363 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 1996 to 2005 and reconstructed a phylogeny including 88 previously sequenced genomes. RESULTS: Based on an estimate of the time-of-emergence of ST-1901 (harboring mosaic penA-34) and ST-7363 (harboring mosaic
Increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistance to ceftriaxone, the last antibiotic recommended for empiric gonorrhea treatment, poses an urgent public health threat. However, the genetic basis of reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone is not completely understood: while most ceftriaxone resistance in clinical isolates is caused by target site mutations in penA, some isolates lack these mutations. We show that penA-independent ceftriaxone resistance has evolved multiple times through distinct mutations in rpoB and rpoD. We identify five mutations in these genes that each increase resistance to ceftriaxone, including one mutation that arose independently in two lineages, and show that clinical isolates from multiple lineages are a single nucleotide change from ceftriaxone resistance. These RNA polymerase mutations cause large-scale transcriptional changes without altering susceptibility to other antibiotics, reducing growth rate, or deranging cell morphology. These results underscore the unexpected diversity
At all stages of the disease process, bacteria must acquire nutrients from the surrounding microenvironment to sustain growth and replication. Recent findings from genetic screening methods to identify factors required for bacterial pathogenesis in vivo have served to emphasize the essential role of microbial physiology during pathogenesis (25, 35).. N. gonorrhoeae has stringent nutrient requirements for growth. Only a limited repertoire of carbon energy sources, including glucose and lactate, are effectively utilized by this bacterium (2). Both are available in the genital tract, the normal habitat of N. gonorrhoeae. While biochemical evidence has demonstrated the effect of additional lactate on gonococcal metabolism and resistance against complement, this is the first description of a strain of N. gonorrhoeae that is specifically unable to utilize this carbon source. This was achieved by taking advantage of the recent identification of the gene encoding the lactate permease in the related ...
The present study describes the detailed phenotypic and genetic confirmation and characterization, including elucidation of the resistance mechanisms, of the first identified N. gonorrhoeae strain (H041) displaying high-level resistance to ceftriaxone worldwide. H041 was isolated from a female commercial sex worker in Japan (23), and the ceftriaxone MIC of H041 was 4- to 8-fold higher than any previously observed. Ceftriaxone is also the last remaining option for empirical first-line treatment of gonorrhea. Accordingly, N. gonorrhoeae has now shown its ability to develop resistance to ceftriaxone also and, although the biological fitness of ceftriaxone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae remains unknown, the gonococcus may become a true superbug that initiates a future era of untreatable gonorrhea.. Although a posttreatment isolate was unavailable (only one specimen positive with SDA [ProbeTec ET; Becton-Dickinson], sampled 2 weeks after treatment) to definitively verify treatment failure using 1 g ...
In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the MerR family transcription factor NmlR activates 3 operons in response to disulfide stress. In the present study, we show that trxB, a monocistronic operon under the control of NmlR, encodes a functional thioredoxin reductase. It is shown that neisserial TrxB has biochemical properties similar to those of its homologue from Escherichia coli. Analysis of a trxB mutant of N. gonorrhoeae showed that it was more sensitive to disulfide stress and to stress induced by organic hydroperoxides, superoxide, and nitric oxide than wild-type gonococcus. TrxB was found to be essential for the microaerobic induction of aniA and norB, the genes encoding nitrite reductase and nitric oxide reductase, respectively. The importance of TrxB during natural infection was demonstrated by the fact that the survival of gonococci within human cervical epithelial cells, as well as biofilm formation on these cells, was greatly reduced for a trxB mutant compared with a wild-type strain ...
The Neisseria gonorrhoeae population structure is not clonal [1-5], its panmictic structure being the result of horizontal genetic exchange [6]. The pathogenic Neisseria spp. are naturally transformable [7] and chromosomal changes are largely mediated by homologous recombination. Natural competence for transformation and homologous recombination allow the generation of mosaic genes, such as the divergent opa genes [8, 9], antigenic variation through recombination with silent cassettes, such as in the pilE/pilS system [10, 11], and the horizontal exchange of whole genes or groups of genes in Minimal Mobile Elements (MMEs) [12]. A Minimal Mobile Element (MME) is defined as a region between two conserved genes within which different genes are found in different strains. These elements are described as minimal reflecting the fact that they do not have features suggesting mobilization by associated transposases, nor do they currently appear to have features by which remotely encoded systems would ...
Uncomplicated gonorrhea is most commonly an acute urogenital infection involving the urethra in men and the endocervix in women of reproductive age. Upon entering the urogenital tract, Neisseria gonorrhoeae adheres to columnar epithelial cells, a step that presumably enables the gonococcus to withstand the flushing force of urine and the constant shedding of cervical mucus. Transcriptional regulation of genes in response to environmental stimuli in the mucus layer may coordinate adaptation of this pathogen to nutritionally different microenvironments and to physiological stress induced by nonspecific host defenses. The major pilin subunit, PilE, is encoded by one or two expression loci (pilE) on the chromosome. This chapter focuses on the survival mechanisms utilized by the gonococcus specifically in the context of the urogenital mucosa. The isolation of a gonococcal fur mutant by Thomas and Sparling facilitated the identification of numerous fur-dependent iron-induced (Fip) and iron-repressed (Frp)
Major outer membrane proteins (MOMP) from a mixture of detergent-treated Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains: SB587, SB2262, SB2265 & SB2275 ...
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics. Seeing as there is no gonococcal vaccine, control of the disease relies entirely on prevention, diagnosis, and, especially, antibiotic treatment. Different health organizations worldwide have established treatment guidelines against gonorrhea, mostly consisting of dual therapy with a single oral or intramuscular dose. However, gonococci continue to develop resistances to all antibiotics introduced for treatment. In fact, the first strain of super-resistant N.gonorrhoeae
The World Health Organization (WHO) Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) conducts surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) and the South East Asian Region (SEAR) to optimise antibiotic treatment and control of gonococcal disease. This report details the results of this surveillance during 2010.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the WHO Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics. Seeing as there is no gonococcal vaccine, control of the disease relies entirely on prevention, diagnosis and, especially, antibiotic treatment. Different health organizations worldwide have established treatment guidelines against gonorrhea, mostly consisting in dual therapy with a single oral or intramuscular dose. However, gonococci continue to develop resistances to all antibiotics introduced for treatment. In fact, the first strain of super-resistant N. gonorrhoeae was recently detected in the
Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) heptose (Hep) glycan substitutions influence gonococcal serum resistance. Several gonococcal strains bind the classical complement pathway inhibitor, C4b-binding protein (C4BP), via their porin (Por) molecule to escape complement-dependent killing by normal human serum (NHS). We show that the proximal glucose (Glc) on HepI is required for C4BP binding to Por1B-bearing gonococcal strains MS11 and 1291 but not to FA19 (Por1A). The presence of only the proximal Glc on HepI (lgtE mutant) permitted maximal C4BP binding to MS11 but not to 1291. Replacing 1291 lgtE Por with MS11 Por increased C4BP binding to levels that paralleled MS11 lgtE, suggesting that replacement of the Por1B molecule dictated the effects of HepI glycans on C4BP binding. The remainder of the strain background did not affect C4BP binding; replacing the Por of strain F62 with MS11 Por (F62 PorMS11) and truncating HepI mirrored the findings in the MS11 background. C4BP binding correlated with resistance to killing
Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. We evaluated trends of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over years 1992-2009 in Pakistan. Resistance rates were compared between years (2007-2009) and (1992-2006). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria using the disk diffusion methodology against penicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and ofloxacin. Additional antibiotics tested in 100 strains isolated during 2007-2009, included cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefipime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. Chi-square for trend analysis was conducted to assess resistance trend over the study period. During study period significant increase in combined resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ofloxacin was observed (P value
This test was performed using the APTIMA® COMBO2 Assay (GEN-PROBE).. Clinical Significance. C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.. Alternative Name(s) CT/NG APTIMA®, CT/GC APTIMA®, Hologic, CT/GC TMA, CT/NG TMA. ...
FITC偶联Neisseria gonorrhoeae抗体(ab20815)经ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证,实验条件参看说明书。Abcam对所有产品均提供质保服务和专属技术支持,中国75%以上现货。
Intragenic recombination between the single complete pilin gene (expression locus) and multiple, distinct, partial pilin gene copies (silent, storage loci) is thought to account for the generation of pilus antigenic diversity and piliation phase (on-off) changes exhibited by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The mechanisms operating in the genomic rearrangements associated with these forms of pilus variation were investigated through the study of isogenic strains of gonococci bearing either wild-type or altered recA alleles. Examination of the rates of pilus phase variation and the genetic basis for changes in piliation status displayed by these strains show that recA mediated homologous recombination is required for these high frequency events and confirm that the nonpiliated state results from mutations in the expressed pilin gene. In a strain that is deficient in recA mediated homologous recombination, pilus phase variation occurs at a 100-1000-fold reduced rate and results predominantly from one class ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differing Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterial loads in the pharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men. T2 - Implications for gonococcal detection, transmission, and control. AU - Bissessor, M. AU - Tabrizi, S N. AU - Fairley, C. K.. AU - Danielewski, Jennifer A. AU - Whitton, B.. AU - Bird, S.. AU - Garland, S.. AU - Chen, M. Y.. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - The bacterial loads for gonococcal infections of the pharynx and rectum were determined among men with male sexual partners. The median bacterial load for rectal infections (18,960 copies/swab) was significantly higher than the load for pharyngeal infections (2,100 copies/swab; P = 0.001). Bacterial loads among men with symptomatic proctitis were strikingly high (median, 278,000 copies/swab).. AB - The bacterial loads for gonococcal infections of the pharynx and rectum were determined among men with male sexual partners. The median bacterial load for rectal infections (18,960 copies/swab) was significantly higher than ...
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Sixty four penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and 24 non-penicillinase-producing (non-PPNG) strains isolated from six different south east Asian localities were tested by the agar dilution method against 15 antibiotics. All isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (19:1 ratio). A large proportion of both PPNG and non-PPNG strains showed, however, a decreased susceptibility to tetracycline, kanamycin, and erythromycin: 49% with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, 34% with MICs of kanamycin greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml, and 80% with MICs of erythromycin greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. These MIC cut-off values were chosen since they are close to the highest concentrations of these antibiotics attainable in serum after drug administration. Resistance to these antibiotics was not related to penicillinase production and does not appear to be confined to gonococci ...
Background: Knowledge on antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan is sorely lacking. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan, and Bhutan in 2007-2011. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility and beta-lactamase production were tested for 65 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India (n=40), Pakistan (n=18) and Bhutan (n=7) using Etest methodology (eight antimicrobials) and nitrocefin solution, respectively. Resistance determinants, i.e. penA, mtrR, porB1b, gyrA, and parC, were sequenced. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. Results: The highest resistance level was observed for ciprofloxacin (94%), followed by penicillin G (68%), erythromycin (62%), tetracycline (55%), and azithromycin (7.7%). All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ...
The vaginal microbiota can impact the susceptibility of women to bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). BV is characterized by depletion of Lactobacillus spp., an overgrowth of anaerobes (often dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis) and a pH | 4.5. BV is associated with an increased risk of acquiring STIs such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. While these associations have been identified, the molecular mechanism(s) driving the risk of infections are unknown. An ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosal model (PVM) was developed to explore the mechanistic role of Lactobacillus spp. in affecting colonization by G. vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The data presented here demonstrate that all organisms tested can colonize and grow on PVM to clinically relevant densities. Additionally, G. vaginalis and N. gonorrhoeae form biofilms on PVM. It was observed that lactic acid, acetic acid, and hydrochloric acid inhibit the growth of G. vaginalis on PVM in a pH-dependent manner. N. gonorrhoeae
Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, are obligate human pathogens that cause distinctly different disease syndromes. They are both Gram negative diplococci, non-sporing, oxidase positive and difficult to differentiate on morphological and cultural characteristics. However, they can be differentiated on the following grounds: S.N. Character Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis 1. Commonly Called Gonococcus Meningococcus 2. …. Read more32 Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Opacity-associated protein A contributes to the binding of Haemophilus influenzae to chang epithelial cells. AU - Prasadarao, Nemani V.. AU - Lysenko, Elena. AU - Wass, Carol A.. AU - Kim, Kwang Sik. AU - Weiser, Jeffrey N.. PY - 1999/8. Y1 - 1999/8. N2 - Opacity-associated protein A (OapA), which is responsible for the transparent-colony phenotype of Haemophilus influenzae, has been implicated in the colonization of the nasopharynx in an infant rat model of carriage. In this report, we show that OapA mediates attachment to Chang epithelial cells examined by using genetically defined type b and nontypeable H. influenzae strains with or without OapA. We also showed that OapA was conserved among H. influenzae strains by comparing deduced amino acid sequences. Both recombinant OapA and polyclonal anti-OapA antiserum blocked the binding of H. influenzae to Chang epithelial cells, suggesting that the interaction of H. influenzae is specific to OapA. Moreover, the binding of ...
Methods for identifying Neisseria spp. include conventional and modified carbohydrate degradation procedures, chromogenic enzyme substrate tests, and immunologic coagglutination tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In this study, we evaluated the abilities of the RIM-N carbohydrate degradation system (American MicroScan, Campbell, Calif.), the Gonochek II enzymatic identification system (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.), and the Phadebact Gonococcus coagglutination test (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Piscataway, N.J.) to identify pathogenic Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis. Both stock strains and clinical isolates, including 176 N. gonorrhoeae, 173 Neisseria meningitidis, 48 Neisseria lactamica, and 12 B. catarrhalis strains, were tested. The RIM-N identified 98% of the gonococci, 99% of the meningococci, 94% of the N. lactamica strains, and 100% of the B. catarrhalis strains within 1 h. The Gonochek II system identified 99% of the gonococci, 97% of the meningococci, 100% of the N. lactamica ...
Defenses against oxidative stress are crucial for the survival of the pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. An Mn(II) uptake system is involved in manganese (Mn)-dependent resistance to superoxide radicals in N. gonorrhoeae. Here, we show that accumulation of Mn also confers re …
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
A single 2 g dose of azithromycin effectively treats genitourinary infections caused by susceptible Neisseria gonorrhoeae and has been used to treat uncomplicated gonorrhea in persons with cephalosporin allergy. However, azithromycin is not recommended as monotherapy because of concern over the emergence of resistance. Instead, a 1 g dose of azithromycin is recommended as a component of dual therapy for gonorrhea, in conjunction with a cephalosporin (i.e., 250 mg of ceftriaxone or 400 mg of cefixime, if ceftriaxone is not an option). During January 1992--July 2009, of 87,566 N. gonorrhoeae isolates tested for azithromycin susceptibility by CDCs national Gonoccoccal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), only 39 (0.04%) had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≥8 µg/mL (including 25 with 8 µg/mL and 14 with 16 µg/mL), indicating reduced susceptibility; none of the isolates were collected in San Diego County, California (CDC, unpublished data, 2011). During August--October 2009, five of 55 ...
Third, some gonococci are able to engage in conjugation, which is essentially bacteria sex! During conjugation, one bacterium uses an appendage called a sex pilus to attach to another bacterium and deliver a circular piece of DNA from the donor to the recipient. The recipient is now in possession of any traits its new DNA encodes.. You know how we humans are officially Homo sapiens? The scientific name for gonococci is Neisseria gonorrhoeae. And, just as we had genetic cousins in the form of Homo neanderthalensis (aka the Neanderthals), so too do Neisseria gonorrhoeae have cousins in the Neisseria genus. Most human-associated Neisseria species dont cause disease, and live peacefully in our upper respiratory tracts. These species include Neisseria flavescens, Neisseria flava, Neisseria perflava, Neisseria mucosa, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria polysaccharea, and more.. When gonococci meet their cousins at a family reunion, they dont swap recipes for potato salad - they swap genetic material. ...
To the Editor: We report a case of male gonococcal urethritis that persisted despite ciprofloxacin therapy. The isolate was found to be highly resistant (MIC 32 µg/mL).. A 30-year-old man visited his family physician with a 2-day history of urethral discharge and dysuria. The symptoms began 7 days after a single, unprotected orogenital contact with a female hitchhiker. The patient denied exchange of money for the act and reported no other recent sex partners or travel outside Israel. After a urethral swab was obtained for culture, the patient received a single dose of ciprofloxacin (500 mg orally). Growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was subsequently reported. However, symptoms persisted, and a regimen of doxycycline (100 mg orally twice daily for 10 days) was initiated. After temporary clinical improvement, the patient returned with worsening symptoms: bloody urethral discharge, severe dysuria, edema of the penis, and painful erection. N. gonorrhoeae was reisolated from a repeat urethral swab. ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been shown to form biofilms during cervical infection. Thus, biofilm formation may play an important role in the infection of women. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to form membrane blebs is crucial to biofilm formation. Blebs contain DNA and outer membrane structures, which have been shown to be major constituents of the biofilm matrix. The organism expresses a DNA thermonuclease that is involved in remodeling of the biofilm matrix. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of gonococcal biofilms and planktonic runoff indicate that genes involved in anaerobic metabolism and oxidative stress tolerance are more highly expressed in biofilm. The expression of aniA, ccp, and norB, which encode nitrite reductase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and nitric oxide reductase respectively, is required for mature biofilm formation over glass and human cervical cells. In addition, anaerobic respiration occurs in the substratum of gonococcal biofilms and disruption of the norB gene required ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Strong Positive Selection and Recombination Drive the Antigenic Variation of the PilE Protein of the Human Pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. AU - Andrews, T. Daniel. AU - Gojobori, Takashi. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - The PilE protein is the major component of the Neisseria meningitidis pilus, which is encoded by the pilE/pilS locus that includes an expressed gene and eight homologous silent fragments. The silent gene fragments have been shown to recombine through gene conversion with the expressed gene and thereby provide a means by which novel antigenic variants of the PilE protein can be generated. We have analyzed the evolutionary rate of the pilE gene using the nucleotide sequence of two complete pilE/pilS loci. The very high rate of evolution displayed by the PilE protein appears driven by both recombination and positive selection. Within the semivariable region of the pilE and pilS genes, recombination appears to occur within multiple small sequence blocks that lie ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic Resistance Determinants for Cefixime and Molecular Analysis of Gonococci Isolated in Italy. AU - Carannante, Anna. AU - Vacca, Paola. AU - Ghisetti, Valeria. AU - Latino, Maria Agnese. AU - Cusini, Marco. AU - Matteelli, Alberto. AU - Vocale, Caterina. AU - Prignano, Grazia. AU - Leli, Christian. AU - Ober, Patrizia. AU - Antonetti, Raffaele. AU - Poletti, Federica. AU - Stefanelli, Paola. PY - 2017/3. Y1 - 2017/3. N2 - A strictly defined subset of gonococci (n = 65) isolated in Italy from 2011 to 2014 was characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility for cefixime (CFM) and ceftriaxone (CRO) and by sequencing of resistance determinant genes (penA, mtrR, porB1b, ponA) for extended-spectrum cephalosporins and Neisseria gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). The penA mosaic alleles XXXIV and XXXV were found in all resistant (R) and decreased susceptibility (DS) gonococci to CFM, except for one. They were associated with an adenine deletion in the mtrR promoter ...
9) About 10 to 20 percent of young children with severe meningococcal meningitis develop a syndrome called Waterhouse Friedrichsen syndrome, which one of these is not the symptomatic characteristic of this syndrome ...
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of the glutamine synthetase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was able to tolerate urea concentrations of ≤1.8 M, compared with a PCR assay that was functional at concentrations of ,100 mM. The LAMP assay was as sensitive as the PCR assay while being faster and simpler to perform.. ...
The increasing prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae strains exhibiting decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and the recent isolation of two distinct strains with high-level resistance to cefixime or ceftriaxone heralds the possible demise of β-lactam antibiotics as effective treatments for gonorrhea. To identify new compounds that inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are proven targets for β-lactam antibiotics, we developed a high-throughput assay that uses fluorescence polarization (FP) to distinguish the fluorescent penicillin, Bocillin-FL, in free or PBP-bound form. This assay was used to screen a 50,000 compound library for potential inhibitors of N. gonorrhoeae PBP 2, and 32 compounds were identified that exhibited |50% inhibition of Bocillin-FL binding to PBP 2. These included a cephalosporin that provided validation of the assay. After elimination of compounds that failed to exhibit concentration-dependent inhibition, the antimicrobial activity of the remaining 24
Neisseria meningitidis is more classically known as the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningococcal meningitis. However its role as a cause of urethritis/cervicitis has been the subject of ongoing speculation over the years, and several studies have backed such a link up. For example, check this study out, and this one.. A recent study has added more weight to this hypothesis, backing the assertion up with DNA studies of the N. meningitidis isolates showing adaptation to a genital environment. (loss of outer capsules, and acquisition of enzymes facilitating survival in a low oxygen environment). So what does this all mean for clinical microbiology laboratories?. I guess it shows the inherent weakness of molecular diagnosis. There could be a widespread outbreak of urethritis due to Neisseria meningitidis in your local area, but the laboratory would be completely naïve to it, if it only performs molecular testing for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Particularly in the Sexual Health Clinic ...
For Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) infections, the rate of clinical treatment failure with cefixime is 6.77%, and is associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≥0.12µg/mL.
FIG. 3. Effects of deletion of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump or reversion of penB to the wild-type sequence in strains FA6140, FA6140 penA35, and 35/02 on the MICs of penicillin G, ceftriaxone, and cefixime. To investigate the individual contributions of mtrR and penB to Cephi, FA6140, FA6140 penA35, and 35/02 were transformed with plasmids harboring mtrD insertionally inactivated with a kanamycin resistance cassette or porB1b with a downstream erythromycin resistance cassette, and the MICs of the resulting transformants were determined as described in Materials and Methods. The MICs represent the averages ± standard deviations for at least two transformants in a minimum of three independent experiments. ...
Additionally, the most effective point with regards to a personal clinic is that it is preparing to make sure the confidentiality of an affected person, plus check outcomes are speedily decided. The strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are fast becoming resisted to Ceftriaxone and cefixime, which are very effective treatments for gonorrhea, but you are proofing being ineffective on these strains. Such people might opt for a medication for example Doxycycline, thats required to be taken for a long period. He also added that so far there are actually no reported treatment failures here inside U. Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, (that are cocci), and Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Clostridium, Actinobacteria, and Listeria (which can be rods). Currently the treatment for gonorrhea is either ceftriaxone (single dose injection) or cefixime (single dose oral). Due to their capacity to penetrate the central nervous sxstem, third-generation ...
A study by light microscopy, using Leishman's stain alone or Leishman's stain followed by nigrosin, showed the presence of capsules on gonococci of two strains subcultured from subcutaneous chambers in guinea pigs. With the Alcian blue method of preparation for electron microscopy, gonococci of both strains recently grown in vivo showed densely stained capsules on some cells, while others in the same preparation showed only irregular masses of dense material on their surfaces with strands connecting adjacent bacteria. Treatment with antiserum, complement and conglutinin revealed irregular masses and strands of extracellular material with fixatives that did not contain Alcian blue.
Objectives Currently, ceftriaxone is the last remaining drug recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone have been isolated worldwide in countries such as Japan, France, Spain, Slovenia, Australia and Sweden. These have led to treatment failures and the emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Various mutations in penA (mosaic and nonmosaic), which encodes the penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), have been reported to be the primary reason for reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility, but it can be reduced further by mutations in mtrR, porBIB and ponA. In this study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of New Zealand isolates of N. gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone and to characterise the penA, mtrR, porBIB and ponA in the isolates. Methods A total of 28 N. gonorrhoeae isolates with elevated ceftriaxone MIC (0.03 to 0.12 mg/L), collected from 2012 to 2015 and obtained from the ...
In this study we analysed the time to clearance of anogenital C. trachomatis after treatment in patients coinfected with N. gonorrhoeae, using modern RNA- and DNA-based NAATs and daily collected samples. The median time to clearance was 7 days for RNA and 6 days for DNA. Ninety-five per cent of patients had cleared C. trachomatis RNA and DNA after 13 and 14 days, respectively.. Several previous studies reported on in vivo clearance of C. trachomatis after treatment, but used different molecular testing methods, and a sampling frequency of no more than twice a week. Some studies observed clearance of DNA within 3 weeks using ligase chain reaction or in-house PCR methods [13, 14], while other studies reported 5-25 % DNA persistence after 3-4 weeks [9, 15, 16, 25]. The exact time to clearance of RNA, when tested by NAAT, was also previously unknown. Sena et al. reported 12 % RNA persistence after 4 weeks in men, while Dukers et al. reported 42 % intermittent positive results up to 51 days [9, 19]. ...
August 10, 2012 - The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) no longer recommends oral cephalosporin treatment for gonococcal infections, according to theirreported in the August 10 issue of theMorbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The new recommendations update the CDCs 2010 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. Infection with [Neisseria] gonorrhoeae is a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and can facilitate HIV transmission, write Carlos del Rio, MD, from the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and colleagues. In the United States, gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable infection, with ,300,000 cases reported during 2011. Gonorrhea treatment has been complicated by the ability ofN. gonorrhoeae to develop resistance to antimicrobials used for treatment. Urethral isolates of N gonorrhoeae collected in the United States during 2006 through 2011 have shown declining ...
Looking for online definition of Thayer-Martin agar in the Medical Dictionary? Thayer-Martin agar explanation free. What is Thayer-Martin agar? Meaning of Thayer-Martin agar medical term. What does Thayer-Martin agar mean?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female cervical swab and male urethral swab specimens. This kit is intended for use as an aid in the diagnosis of Gonorrhea. Principle:Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonorrhea is one of the most common infectious bacterial diseases and is most frequently transmitted during sexual intercourse,…
Author Summary Many bacteria are able to secrete toxins targeted against neighboring cells. In order to protect themselves against their own toxin, they also express an
In January 2006, CDC learned that Pfizer, Inc. (New York, New York) had discontinued U.S. distribution of spectinomycin (Trobicin®) in November 2005; remaining inventory will expire in May 2006. No other pharmaceutical company manufactures or sells spectinomycin in the United States. Pfizer is continuing to distribute spectinomycin outside the United States for the international market. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration are working with Pfizer to make spectinomycin available again in the United States and will update this information as soon as possible. Historically, spectinomycin has been used to treat persons infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae who cannot receive one of the two first-line treatments (i.e., fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins) currently recommended for treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infection (1). Relatively few indications exist for which spectinomycin is the preferred treatment option for N. gonorrhoeae; these include 1) pregnant women with ...
The genus Neisseria contains many species. Most of them are part of the normal flora of humans and animals; only two are human pathogens: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes a sexually transmitted disease of the same name, and Neisseria meningitidis, which causes meningitis. These pathogens often behave like their related commensal cousins in that they establish asymptomatic infection at high frequency. This commensal-like trait was likely inherited by the pathogens as they evolved from commensal species. Supporting this idea is the observation that many N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningiditis genes that mediate pathogen interactions with their hosts are also in the commensals. A major goal of our lab is to determine how commensal and pathogenic Neisseria differentially regulate these host interaction genes, and how these regulatory events might affect their lifecycle in the host.. Another goal of our lab is to use our new mouse model for Neisseria colonization, persistence, and asymptomatic ...
To evaluate the agreement between NAAT results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection obtained with self-obtained vaginal swabs (SOVS), collected in a non-clinical setting vs. NAAT results using SOVS collected in a clinical setting. This is a new use of this specimen type as SOVS are FDA cleared only for use in clinics. The NAAT (Gen-Probe APTIMA Combo 2® Assay (AC2)) result with the home-collected SOVS specimen will be compared to the result obtained with an SOVS collected in the clinic on multiple platforms (Direct Tube Sampling (DTS) / Panther / Tigris). The term home-collected is used to refer to any specimen that is not collected in a clinic, since there is no certainty that a specimen is collected at home or in a restroom in an office setting, etc. To compare the SOVS results to an FDA cleared predicate test with the collection of two clinician collected vaginal swabs ...
In 1998, Jones et al. determined that a new quinolone antibiotic, trovafloxacin, is highly active in vitro against uncomplicated gonorrhea, even against strains that showed mild resistance to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. It is also active against Chlamydia trachomatis, since many individuals with gonorrhea concurrently are infected with chlamydia, along with numerous other Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Jones et al. determined that these resistance phenotypes included ones that were pencillin-susceptible; chromosomally mediated resistance to pencillin and tetracycline; penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae and those strains with plasmid-mediated resistance because of the TetM determinant; and plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline. As of 1999, no clinically significant resistance to the broad-spectrum cephalosporins have been identified, and fluoroquinolone-resistant gonococcal strains are now prevalent in Australia and much of the Far East (Fox and Knapp, 1999). Due to the ...
Journal of Tropical Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on all aspects of tropical diseases. Articles on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases, parasites and their hosts, epidemiology, and public health issues will be considered. Journal of Tropical Medicine aims to facilitate the communication of advances addressing global health and mortality relating to tropical diseases.
Specimens submitted with the white cleaning swab or with two swabs. Transport tubes without swabs. Swabs in gel, wooden swabs, dry swabs other than BD Dry Swab system. Swabs in bacterial transport medium (e.g., culturettes). Urine specimens where the liquid level in the urine transport tube does not fall between the two black indicator lines. Urine specimens in sterile containers that have exceeded the 24 hour stability. Specimens collected in liquid cytology containers or media will not be tested.. Specimens collected in Universal Transport Medium (UTM). ...
We describe the results of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 Neisseria gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme that included an N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis porA gene which causes false-negative results in molecular diagnostic assays targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Enhanced awareness of the international transmission of such gonococcal strains is needed to avoid false-negative results in both in-house and commercial molecular diagnostic assays used in laboratories worldwide, but particularly in Europe.
Method of Use: Bring media to room temperature before use. Inoculate media by swabbing the surface from side to side while rolling in a large z pattern to sufficiently transfer the specimen. Remove the CO 2 generating tablet from the foil wrapper and immediately place the tablet into the circular well of the petri plate. The tablet will be activated by the moisture in the medium. Do not place a drop of water on the tablet. There is adequate moisture generated in the bag to slowly release the CO 2 . Place the plate in the ziplock bag and seal. The completeness of the seal is essential to maintain CO 2 environment for growth. Invert plates and incubate at 35ºC. for 24-48 hours. Some strains may require up to 72 hours to appear. If the plate is to be sent to a laboratory after inoculation, incubate them under appropriate conditions before shipment. Specimens should be submitted directly to the laboratory without delay and protected from excessive heat and cold. Specimens must be transported at ...
I am Sagar Aryal, a passionate Microbiologist and the Scientific Blogger. I did my Masters Degree in Medical Microbiology and currently working as a Lecturer at Department of Microbiology, St. Xaviers College, Kathmandu, Nepal. I am particularly interested in research related to Medical Microbiology and Virology.. ...
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Anorectal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae may follow appropriate sexual contact or secondary contamination. It is associated with proctitis,
The purpose of this chapter is (i) to review the pathophysiology of gonorrhea during pregnancy, (ii) to summarize epidemiologic data regarding gonorrhea among pregnant women, and (iii) to discuss the manifestations of maternal and infant infections, with special emphasis on principles of prevention and management. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a sexually transmitted bacterium which infects columnar and transitional epithelium of the genitourinary tract, including the urethra, endocervix, and anal canal, and the conjunctivae and pharynx. The majority of pregnant women with gonorrhea are asymptomatic; the proportion of symptomatic patients among pregnant women with gonorrhea has been reported to be as low as 1.2%. Pregnant women who are diagnosed with uncomplicated gonococcal infections or who are the sexual partners of men with gonorrhea should be treated with ceftriaxone (125 mg intramuscularly) in a single dose or with cefixime (400 mg orally) in a single dose. Due to the higher risk of pharyngeal gonorrhea
Infection with Neisseria (N.) gonorrhoeae carries a significant public health burden in the United States (U.S.). Gonococcal infection can result in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and increases the risk of transmission and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). With over 350,000 cases of gonorrhea reported each year, gonorrhea is the second most common notifiable condition. Furthermore, it is estimated that case reports account for only half of the incident cases of gonorrhea in the U.S. each year. Given that gonorrhea is a bacterial infection which causes symptoms in approximately 90 percent of infected men and 50 percent of infected women, the most critical aspect of reducing the public health burden of gonorrhea for affected populations is provision of effective antimicrobial therapy. In order to identify treatment options for patients with suspect or confirmed cephalosporin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae infection and patients ...
Fujibio Gonorrhea Rapid Test Kit is a direct binding test for the visual detection of gonorrhea antigen , in the secretory specimen and urine from urogenital system, as an aid in the diagnosis of gonococcal infection. It is Based on the principle of double sandwich immunoassay for the detection of gonorrhea antigen in the secretory specimen or urine. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are employed to identify gonorrhea specifically. Both sensitivity and specifically of the test are higher than those of the present methods, which often involve long hours of culturing the collected specimen. Test results are not affected by any medication that is being taken. Results are read visually without any instrumentation. This test is ideal for screening specimen samples containing at least 1x 10 bacteria per ml.. Gonorrhea or gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can infect both men and women which is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It can cause infections in the ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae[editar , editar a fonte]. Neisseria gonorrhoeae é a bacteria transmitida por vía sexual que produce a ... Deguchi T, Nakane K, Yasuda M, Maeda S (setembro de 2010). "Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae". J. ... 163,0 163,1 Tapsall (2001) Antimicrobial resistance in Niesseria gonorrhoeae. World Health Organization. ... gonorrhoeae poden ser resistentes a antibióticos que normalmente se usan para o tratamento, como: cefixime (unha cefalosporina ...
Knapp JS, Fox KK, Trees DL, Whittington WL (1997). "Fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae". Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3 ... Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae Klebsiella pneumoniae Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteus mirabilis ...
... characterizes Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. Additionally, recent studies out of Stockholm have shown that Neisseria can ... Davies, J. K.; Koomey, J. M.; Seifert, H. S. (1994). "Pili (fimbriae) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae". In Klemm, Per (ed.). Fimbriae ... as is the case in Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Despite these challenges, progress is being made in the creation of anti-adhesion ... N. gonorrhoeae is host restricted almost entirely to humans. "Extensive studies have established type 4 fimbrial adhesins of N ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the Gonococcus, and Gonorrhea. Archived 2013-01-19 at the Wayback Machine Lectures in Microbiology. 2009 ... An example of a fastidious bacterium is Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which requires blood or hemoglobin and several amino acids and ...
Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis are present in 75 to 90 percent of cases. Often, multiple ... Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Prevotella spp. Streptococcus pyogenes Prevotella bivia Prevotella disiens ... Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are usually the main cause of PID. Data suggest that PID is often polymicrobial ... N. gonorrhoeae has been isolated from fallopian tubes, facultative and anaerobic organisms were recovered from endometrial ...
... is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Previous infection does not confer immunity - a person who has been ... Deguchi T, Nakane K, Yasuda M, Maeda S (September 2010). "Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae". J. ... Ng, Lai-King; Martin, Irene E (2005). "The laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae". The Canadian Journal of Infectious ... Trebach, Joshua D.; Chaulk, C. Patrick; Page, Kathleen R.; Tuddenham, Susan; Ghanem, Khalil G. (2015). "Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...
Qu XD, Harwig SS, Oren AM, Shafer WM, Lehrer RI (April 1996). "Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to protegrins". ... The protegrins are highly microbicidal against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli,Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...
Martin I, Sawatzky P, Liu G, Mulvey MR (February 2015). "Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Canada: 2009-2013". Canada Communicable ... especially if it is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or Chlamydia trachomatis. It is currently unclear whether PVP-I is more ...
talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Requesting an assessment or re-assessment: neisseria gonorrhoeae). 8 December 2017. *(diff , hist) . . m ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antibiotic resistance Ligon BL (2005). "Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser: discoverer of the cause of ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, has developed antibiotic ... Deguchi T, Nakane K, Yasuda M, Maeda S (September 2010). "Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae". J. ... Print Rouquette-Loughlin, Dunham, Kuhn, Balthazar, Shafer (2003) The NorM Efflux Pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neissera ...
Rarely bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or Haemophilus influenzae may be the cause. ... and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anaerobic bacteria have been implicated in tonsillitis, and a possible role in the acute ...
... a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection may be the cause.[9][43] These infections are typically classified ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus *Gonorrhea. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. ungrouped:. *Eikenella corrodens/ ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus *Gonorrhea. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. ungrouped:. *Eikenella corrodens/ ... Neisseria meningitidis colonises a substantial proportion of the general population harmlessly, but in a very small percentage ... Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus). It has a ... Al'Aldeen AA, Cartwright KA; Cartwright (November 1996). "Neisseria meningitidis: vaccines and vaccine candidates". J. Infect. ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus *Gonorrhea. ungrouped:. *Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae *HACEK. *Chromobacterium ...
... such as members of the genus Neisseria: N. gonorrhoeae and N. meninngitides being primary examples, which cause gonorrhea and ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis) Klebsiella granulomatis Group A streptococcal infection Streptococcus ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus *Gonorrhea. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. ungrouped:. *Eikenella corrodens/ ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus *Gonorrhea. ungrouped:. *Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae *HACEK. *Chromobacterium ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae typically sexually transmitted[1]. Diagnostic method. Testing the urine, urethra in males, or cervix in ... Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.[15] Previous infection does not confer immunity - a person who has ... Deguchi T, Nakane K, Yasuda M, Maeda S (September 2010). "Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae". J. ... Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PDF) (Report). World Health Organisation. 2012. p. 2. Archived from ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus *Gonorrhea. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. ungrouped:. *Eikenella corrodens/ ...
Tobiason DM, Seifert HS (June 2006). "The obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is polyploid". PLOS Biology. 4 (6): ...
Hence, it can be confused with Crohn's disease.[citation needed] Rectal gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, P. bivia and Staphylococcus aureus. It is generally accepted that this is ... "The role of acidification in the inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by vaginal lactobacilli during anaerobic growth". Annals ...
Sandlin RC, Stein DC (May 1994). "Role of phosphoglucomutase in lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis in Neisseria gonorrhoeae". ... "Phase-variation of the truncated lipo-oligosaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis NMB phosphoglucomutase isogenic mutant NMB-R6 ... "Lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis in pathogenic Neisseria. Cloning, identification, and characterization of the ...
Barten R, Meyer TF (April 1998). "Cloning and characterisation of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae aroB gene". Molecular & General ...
including groups A and B), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. Free gas in the tissues, abscess ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and bacterial toxins e.g. nigericin and maitotoxin. The downstream point where all the different NLRP3 ... "Neisseria gonorrhoeae activates the proteinase cathepsin B to mediate the signaling activities of the NLRP3 and ASC-containing ...
This secretion pathway is exemplified by the prototypical IgA1 Protease of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The protein is directed to ... Pohlner J, Halter R, Beyreuther K, Meyer TF (1987). "Gene structure and extracellular secretion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae IgA ...
Ophthalmia neonatorum due to gonococci (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) typically manifests in the first five days post birth and is ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Delivery of the baby until 5 days post-birth (Early onset). ... baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal from a mother infected with either Neisseria gonorrhoeae or ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Delivery of the baby until 5 days after birth (early onset) ... or a bacterial infection such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis.[1] ... Ophthalmia neonatorum due to gonococci (N. gonorrhoeae) typically manifests in the first 5 days after birth and is associated ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrea), Neisseria meningitidis (meningitis), Helicobacter pylori (ultzera gastrikoa), Treponema, ...
"Low-Level Pilin Expression Allows for Substantial DNA Transformation Competence in Neisseria gonorrhoeae". Infection and ...
... hyperacute cases are usually caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Neisseria meningitidis. Chronic cases of bacterial ... Vaccination against adenovirus, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and Neisseria meningitidis is also effective.[27] ... bacterial conjunctivitis that involve the production of membranes or pseudomembranes are associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...
Some Gram-negative organisms such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Leptospira weilii are also reported to be susceptible to ...
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). *Mycoplasma hominis infection (Mycoplasma hominis). *Syphilis (Treponema pallidum). * ...
M- Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus (Gonorrhea). ungrouped: Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae (HACEK) · Chromobacterium ... M+ Neisseria meningitidis/meningococcus (Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia). ...
... og unge mænd kan få symptomer på urinvejsfektioner ved infektion af Chlamydia trachomatis eller Neisseria gonorrhoeae.[2][25] ...
Resistance amongst Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, anaerobes, members of the Enterobacteriaceae ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae) ଜୀବାଣୁଦ୍ୱାରା ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହୁଏ । [୧] ଅନେକ ଲୋକଙ୍କର କୌଣସି ଲକ୍ଷଣ ଦେଖାଯାଏ ନାହିଁ । ଲକ୍ଷଣ: ପୁରୁଷ ରୋଗୀଙ୍କର ଡିସୟୁରିଆ ( ... the rapidly evolving Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to challenge". BMC infectious diseases. 15: 364. PMID 26293005.. ... pdf) Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Report). World Health Organisation. 2012. pp. 2. Archived from ...
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). *সিফিলিস (Treponema pallidum). *Ureaplasma infection (Ureaplasma urealyticum). প্রোটোজোয়া ...
Infections with N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only conditions known to be associated with deficiencies in the MAC ... Deficiencies of the terminal pathway predispose to both autoimmune disease and infections (particularly Neisseria meningitidis ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.[44]. Eukaryotic pathogens are often capable of sexual interaction by a ...
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). *Mycoplasma hominis infection (Mycoplasma hominis). *Syphilis (Treponema pallidum). * ...
Gonorrea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). *Granuloma inguinal (Klebsiella granulomatis). *Mycoplasma genitalium[42][43][44] ...
For infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae *^ Or homatropine (hydrobromide) or cyclopentolate ( ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus *Gonorrhea. ungrouped:. *Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae *HACEK. *Chromobacterium ...
Type IV pilin is a protein found on the surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Gram-negative ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bahagi ng Bilugang Negatibong Bakterya. Bilugang Negatibong Bakterya[baguhin , baguhin ang batayan]. ... Neisseria, Branhamella, Maraxella at Acinetobacter, at dalawang henera na hindi malaman ang kanilang apilasyon, ang Paracoccus ...
Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Sexually Transmitted Infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis ... "Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States ...
Si existeix infecció associada per Neisseria gonorrhoeae (un fet freqüent, que pot arribar al 50% en grups de risc), cal afegir ... Molecular genetic methods for diagnosis and characterisation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: impact on ...
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). *Syphilis (Treponema pallidum). *Ureaplasma infection (Ureaplasma urealyticum). Protozoal. * ...
"Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Japan" (PDF). Emerging Infectious Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and ... "Cephalosporin susceptibility among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates--United States, 2000-2010" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and ... hindi na nirerekomiyenda dahil sa mataas na rate ng hindi pagtalab ng antibiotiko sa bacterium na Neisseria gonorrhoeae .[17] ...
Belsoğukluğu (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). *Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L1, L2, L3 Bkz.Chlamydia) ...
Chlamydia pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been reported to delay neutrophil apoptosis.[27][28][29] Thus, some ... 2006). "Neisseria gonorrhoeae delays the onset of apoptosis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Cell Microbiol. 8 (11): 1780-90. ... "Neisseria gonorrhoeae-mediated inhibition of apoptotic signalling in polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Infect. Immun. 79 (11): ...
Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1988-1994: the emergence of decreased susceptibility to ... Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae -- San Diego, California, 1997 The fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin ... Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to fluoroquinolones -- Ohio and Hawaii, 1992-1993. MMWR 1994;43:325-7. ... Fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae -- Colorado and Washington, 1995. MMWR 1995;44:761-4. ...
... development and application of new methods and protocols to understand the biology of the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... Use of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Study Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection Jimena Gatica, Paula I. Rodas, Alejandro ... Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Methods and Protocols provides researchers with a foundation for ... Phenotypic MicroArray Screening of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Chemically Defined Liquid Medium Benjamin I. Baarda, Aleksandra E. ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae. From Conservapedia. This is the current revision of Neisseria gonorrhoeae as edited by Aschlafly (Talk ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus, is a fastidious gram-negative diplococcus responsible for the disease ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Neisseria_gonorrhoeae&oldid=232981" ...
Gonorrhea at eMedicine "Neisseria gonorrhoeae". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 485. Type strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at BacDive - ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae is named for Albert Neisser, who isolated it as the causative agent of the disease gonorrhea in 1878. ... "Neisseria gonorrhoeae genome statistics". Broad Institute. Retrieved 8 April 2017. Chung, G. T.; Yoo, J. S.; Oh, H. B.; Lee, Y ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of Gram-negative diplococci ...
... , Gonococcal Infection, Gonorrhea, Gonococcus, Gonococci, Gonococcemia, Disseminated Gonococcus, Multi- ... Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhea, Gonococcal Urethritis, Gonococcal Cervicitis, Gonococcal Proctitis. ... gonorrhoeae, gonococcus, gonorrhoeae neisseria, neisseria gonorrheae, n. gonorrhoeae, neisseria gonorrhoeae, n gonorrhoeae, ... GONOKOKKI, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, ГОНОКОККИ. Spanish. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrheae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( ...
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Neisseria gonorrhoeae SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Gonococcus, Gonorrhea, GC CHARACTERISTICS: Family Neisseriaceae; gram negative diplococci, intra and extra-cellular, ßlactamases plasmids (PNPG strain); infects columnar and transitional epithelium; antigenically heterogeneous SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Localized inflammatory conditions - urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis (PID), pharyngitis of adults, vulvovaginitis in children; conjunctivitis of the newborn; septicemia may occur with lesions, bacteremia in the arthritis and dermatitis syndrome; endocarditis and meningitis; other complications include perihepatitis and neonatal amnionitis; death is rare except among those with endocarditis; reinfection is common despite development of antibodies EPIDEMIOLOGY: Common worldwide; affects both sexes and all ages; prevalent in sexually active adolescents and younger adults; incidence increasing ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA19 supercont1.10 genomic scaffold, whole genome shotgun sequence. GenBank: EQ972754.1 ...
The Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus protein is one of the major antigenic determinants on the cells surface. It is comprised of ... Pilus expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves chromosomal rearrangement.. Meyer TF, Mlawer N, So M. ... gonorrhoeae involves chromosomal rearrangement. Although the pilus protein is produced by E. coli, it does not appear to be ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC ® 43070™ Designation: CDC Ng-98 TypeStrain=False Application: Media testing Sexually Transmitted ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Zopf) Trevisan (ATCC® 43070™) Strain Designations: CDC Ng-98 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 2 ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC ® 700825™ Designation: FA1090 TypeStrain=False Application: Sexually Transmitted Disease Research ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Zopf) Trevisan (ATCC® 700825D-5™) Add to dried Total DNA: At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer. OD260/OD280: ... Quantitative Genomic DNA from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC® 700825DQ™) Add to frozen Specification range: ≥1 x 105 copies/µL. ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Zopf) Trevisan (ATCC® 700825™) Strain Designations: FA1090 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 2 ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative ...
Testing of vaginal swab specimen requires use of Aptima Multitest Swab Specimen Collection Kit. Testing of endocervical or male urethral swab specimens requires use of Aptima Unisex Swab specimen collection kit. Large white swab is for preparatory cleaning of the endocervix and is unacceptable for testing Testing of male and female urine specimens: Patient should not have urinated for at least 1 hour prior to specimen collection. Patient should collect first portion of a voided urine (first part of stream- not midstream) into a screw-capped, sterile, plastic, preservative-free specimen collection container. Do not collect more than 20mL of urine. Females should NOT clean the labial area prior to urination. Testing of throat, conjunctival, or anal/rectal swab specimens requires collection using M4 Collection Kit (swab and M4 media).Culture for Chlamydia on such nongential specimens can be ordered on the same specimen. If a GC culture is also requested see GC culture collection procedure.. ...
... Appl Microbiol. 1972 May;23(5):986-9. ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae / classification* * Neisseria gonorrhoeae / growth & development * Neisseria gonorrhoeae / isolation & ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses exfoliation by stimulating epithelial cells to produce endoglin (ENG, also known as CD105), a ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae blocks epithelial exfoliation by nitric-oxide-mediated metabolic cross talk to promote colonization in ... gonorrhoeae outer membrane enzyme that produces NO, suppressed epithelial exfoliation in vitro. In a model of N. gonorrhoeae ... gonorrhoeae adhesion proteins, such as those of the Opa family, that bind to host cell adhesion molecules of the CEACAM family ...
Comparison of dot blot with in situ hybridization for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethral exudate. J Appl ... Young H, Moyes A. Utility of monoclonal antibody coagglutination to identify Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Genitourin Med. 1989 Jan; 65 ... Cultures are usually evaluated only for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. No other organisms are identified. Overgrowth by Proteus and ... Direct detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with monoclonal antibodies characterized by serotyping reagents. J Clin Microbiol. ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its ... Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; antibiotic resistance; gonorrhea; treatment Neisseria gonorrhoeae; antibiotic resistance; ... Future Prospects for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Treatment by Beatriz Suay-García. and María Teresa Pérez-Gracia *. ... Future Prospects for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Treatment. Antibiotics. 2018; 7(2):49. Chicago/Turabian Style. Suay-García, Beatriz ...
Epidemic of gonorrhea due to penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Epidemic of gonorrhea due to penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. B. Romanowski, R. Sutherland and C. M. Anand ...
NCBI: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Accessed August 23, 2007 11. "Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes Gonorrhea" European Bioinformatics ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae is not used for any known biotechnology. Current Research. N terminus determinants of MinC from Neisseria ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae have a circular DNA genome. [7] N. gonorrhoeae strain 1090 genome was sequenced by the University of ... 8]. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is only found after sexual contact with an infected person (or in the case of infections in the ...
Glucose Metabolism in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Glucose Metabolism in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Stephen A. Morse, Stefanie Stein, James Hines ... The metabolism of glucose was examined in several clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Radiorespirometric studies ...
Gonorrhoeae which causes the sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhoea. ... Neisseria Gonorrhoeae CultureTest is done to detect the presence of the diplococci, N. ... Test : Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture. Indications : N gonorrhoeae culture is ordered when gonorrhea is suspected. N gonorrhoeae ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture results are negative (no growth) Abnormal Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture results are positive. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Neisseria gonorrhoeae antibody. Validated in Conjugation, ICC/IF. Cited in 2 publication(s). Immunogen ... Many normal individuals may harbor Neisseria meningitidis in the upper respiratory tract, but Neisseria gonorrhoeae is never ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are acquired by sexual contact and usually affect the mucous membranes of the urethra in males ... Identification of Novel Immunogenic Proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Phage Display.. PLoS One 11:e0148986 (2016). Read more ...
... Updated: Apr 18, 2019 ... encoded search term (What are the therapeutic regimens for neisseria gonorrhoeae septic arthritis of native joints?) and What ... are the therapeutic regimens for neisseria gonorrhoeae septic arthritis of native joints? What to Read Next on Medscape. ...
... Updated: Oct 02, 2020 ... encoded search term (What are the therapeutic regimens for neisseria gonorrhoeae septic arthritis of native joints?) and What ... are the therapeutic regimens for neisseria gonorrhoeae septic arthritis of native joints? What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Roles of PilC and PilE Proteins in Pilus-Mediated Adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis to Human ... Release of soluble pilin antigen coupled with gene conversion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. R Haas, H Schwarz, and T F Meyer ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae Epithelial Cell Interaction Leads to the Activation of the Transcription Factors Nuclear Factor κB and ... Transcellular Passage of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Involves Pilus Phase Variation. Dag Ilver, Helena Källström, Staffan Normark, ...
N. gonorrhoeae, a gram-negative bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, infects humans exclusively and can form aggregates during ... This study demonstrates that the aggregation of N. gonorrhoeae can reduce the susceptibility to antibiotics, and suggests that ... Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) has become an emerging threat worldwide and heightens the need for ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae Aggregation Reduces Its Ceftriaxone Susceptibility. Liang-Chun Wang * , Madeline Litwin. ...
Unemo M, Norlén O, Fredlund H. The porA pseudogene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae- low level of genetic polymorphism and a few, ... The porA pseudogene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae- low level of genetic polymorphism and a few, mainly identical, inactivating ... N. meningitidis is the only Neisseria species known to express two outer membrane porins, PorA and PorB. However, a porA ... In conclusion, the porA pseudogene and its few inactivating mutations are widespread in the N. gonorrhoeae population and the ...
All samples should reach the laboratory within two hours of collection. When a delay in the transport of samples for GC culture cannot be avoided, keep the plates at room temperature or 35°C in a candle jar (please see Remarks on how to set up a candle jar) and despatch to the laboratory as soon as possible. Do not keep any samples in the refrigerator. ...
  • On October 17, 1997, the STD Program of the San Diego Department of Health was notified by the GISP laboratory that the N. gonorrhoeae isolates from patients 1 and 2 were resistant to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (minimum inhibitory concentration {MIC} 16 ug/mL for both antibiotics). (cdc.gov)
  • No other fluoroquinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates have been identified in San Diego County, neighboring Orange County, and the city of Long Beach. (cdc.gov)
  • We subcultured N. gonorrhoeae isolates on Difco GC medium agar base (Becton, Dickinson and Company, https://www.bd.com) supplemented with 1% Britalex enrichment supplement (Laboratorios Britania S.A., https://www.britanialab.com) for 18-24 h at 35°C in a humid 5% carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere before conducting antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Amino acid sequences of mosaic MtrD loci in N. gonorrhoeae isolates, Argentina, 2005-2019. (cdc.gov)
  • The metabolism of glucose was examined in several clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (asm.org)
  • Approximately 80% of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 17.5% of Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates carry a ~59 kb genomic island known as the gonococcal genetic island (GGI). (springer.com)
  • Gonococci isolates from 65 patients in São Paulo were submitted to susceptibility testing, and a decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 8.7% of these patients, indicating that Neisseria gonorrhoeae fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • This report compares laboratory surveillance data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates submitted by provincial microbiology laboratories to the National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) from 2011-2015. (canada.ca)
  • The proportion of azithromycin resistant (MIC ≥ 2 mg/L) N. gonorrhoeae isolates has been increasing steadily from 0.4% (13/3,360) in 2011 to 4.7% (198/4,190) in 2015. (canada.ca)
  • Since 2010, all N. gonorrhoeae isolates submitted to the NML were also analyzed by molecular genotyping using the N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence type (NG-MAST) method. (canada.ca)
  • Effects of penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline on Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in 1944 and 1957. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The remaining isolates were all provided singularly, meaning that the N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility EQA panel comprised six different strains in total. (europa.eu)
  • Overall, the laboratories participating in the EQA scheme QA18 performed well and showed good levels of competency in testing N. gonorrhoeae isolates of unknown phenotype. (europa.eu)
  • The culture isolates and identifies Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. (specialtylabs.com)
  • The MIC 50 and MIC 90 for gepotidacin against the 25 N. gonorrhoeae isolates tested were 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, conventional phenotypic characterization and genetic characterization by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the entire porB gene, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and pyrosequencing of a quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene of Swedish ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae serovar IB-10 isolates (n=45) were performed. (ovid.com)
  • The DNA of 45 clinical isolates including 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates, seven non-gonococcal Neisseria species, and five non-Neisseria species was tested using the multiplex PCR assay. (bmj.com)
  • Results All 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates were successfully detected by the assay and none of the non-gonococcal isolates was detected. (bmj.com)
  • Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been identified frequently during the 1990s in the Far East (2). (cdc.gov)
  • We used the N. gonorrhoeae strain ATCC 49226 and 8 WHO reference strains documented in 2008 for quality control ( 15 , Reference 3 in Appendix). (cdc.gov)
  • N. gonorrhoeae is a public health threat due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. (mdpi.com)
  • The present study investigated the prevalence and genetic polymorphism of this porA pseudogene in 87 different N. gonorrhoeae strains. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The secreted ssDNA is involved in the initial stages of biofilm formation, and the presence of the T4SS enables TonB-independent intracellular survival of N. gonorrhoeae strains during infection of cervical cells. (springer.com)
  • Despite the existence of effective antibiotic treatments, N. gonorrhoeae remains one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens and antibiotic resistant strains have arisen that limit treatment options. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae strains is on the rise worldwide and effective treatment options have become limited. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are 70 different strains of N. gonorrhoeae Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • We examined the role of properdin in AP activation on diverse strains of Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae specifically using native versus unfractionated properdin. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, reconstituting properdin-depleted serum with native properdin a priori enhanced C3 deposition on all strains of Neisseria tested. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gepotidacin (formerly GSK2140944) is a novel, first-in-class, triazaacenaphthylene antibacterial that inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV via a unique mechanism and has demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae , including drug-resistant strains, and also targets pathogens associated with other conventional and biothreat infections. (asm.org)
  • Broth microdilution was used to evaluate the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) activity of gepotidacin and comparators against 25 N. gonorrhoeae strains (including five ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strains). (asm.org)
  • Gepotidacin activity was also evaluated against three N. gonorrhoeae strains (including a ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strain) for resistance development, against three N. gonorrhoeae strains (including two tetracycline- and azithromycin-nonsusceptible strains) using time-kill kinetics and checkerboard methods, and against two N. gonorrhoeae strains for the investigation of postantibiotic (PAE) and subinhibitory (PAE-SME) effects. (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, a precise, i.e. genetic, characterization for identification of individual strains is a very valuable support to the crucial active surveillance of the epidemiological characteristics and the antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae in the effective treatment of gonorrhoea. (ovid.com)
  • Antigen: Pool of UV-inactivated Neisseria gonorrhoeae cells: Neisseria Reference laboratory strains G-7, R-11, and 7122 (W-I), 5766 and 8038 (W-II), and 8660 (W-III). (qedbio.com)
  • According to the product package insert, ofloxacin is effective against these microorganisms: Aerobic Gram-positive microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains) Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains) Streptococcus pyogenes Aerobic Gram-negative microorganisms Citrobacter koseri (Citrobacter diversus) Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae Klebsiella pneumoniae Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteus mirabilis Pseudomonas aeruginosa Other microorganisms: Chlamydia trachomatis In general, fluoroquinolones are well tolerated, with most side effects being mild to moderate. (wikipedia.org)
  • N. gonorrhoeae can cause infection of the genitals, throat, and eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a model of N . gonorrhoeae vaginal infection in transgenic mice expressing a human CEACAM, application of purified AniA enabled mutant N . gonorrhoeae that could not engage CEACAMs to suppress exfoliation and establish infection, but a mutated form of AniA that cannot generate NO did not. (sciencemag.org)
  • 8] More specifically, during infection, N. gonorrhoeae is like to encounter hydrogen peroxide, which inhibits growth. (kenyon.edu)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are acquired by sexual contact and usually affect the mucous membranes of the urethra in males and the endocervix and urethra in females, although the infection may disseminate to a variety of tissues. (abcam.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae , a gram-negative bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, infects humans exclusively and can form aggregates during infection. (mdpi.com)
  • The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. (nih.gov)
  • The most common site of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is the urogenital tract. (aafp.org)
  • The high prevalence of HPV, C. trachomatis , and N. gonorrhoeae infection in CSW poses a risk of further transmission of STD to the general public, suggesting the need for further education and screening for CSW and the general public. (hindawi.com)
  • In symptomatic infections, N. gonorrhoeae induces a robust inflammatory response at the site of infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies of the natural history of infection as well as some of the humoral and cellular immune responses to infection offer a window into the issues surrounding N. gonorrhoeae vaccine development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rarely, infection with N. gonorrhoeae disseminates leading to septic arthritis and skin manifestations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Better understanding of the immune response to natural infection with N. gonorrhoeae is vital for the prevention of disease transmission and the development of an effective gonococcal vaccine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our understanding of the natural history of N. gonorrhoeae infection is hampered by a lack of rigorous scientific studies of microbiologically defined N. gonorrhoeae infection from the pre-antibiotic era. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since the introduction of sulfa-based antibiotics and subsequently penicillin, antibiotic treatment for men with symptomatic N. gonorrhoeae infection, usually urethritis, has been the standard of care. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the genital infection gonorrhea and is exposed to seminal fluid during sexual transmission. (asm.org)
  • In addition, infection of epithelial cells with N. gonorrhoeae in the presence of seminal plasma resulted in enhanced microcolony formation. (asm.org)
  • Both MGL and DC-SIGN are locally expressed at the male and female genital area, the primary site of N. gonorrhoeae infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In females, cervicitis (infection of endocervix) is the main infection caused by N. gonorrhoeae , and is characterized by increased vaginal discharge, dysuria, abdominal pain, and menstrual abnormalities Footnote 1 - Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • The optimal methods for the diagnosis of pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection are uncertain. (asm.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) is the etiological agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection that initially infects the female lower genital tract. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) is a Gram-negative diplococcus and the etiological agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection exclusive to humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • The worldwide incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection equaled or surpassed that of Chlamydia trachomatis as the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection for the first time in 2008 ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • To assess the importance of this structure during human infection, we constructed PEA transferase ( lptA ) deletion mutants of N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090, which cannot add PEA to lipid A, and tested FA1090 Δ lptA in competitive infections with isogenic lptA + gonococci in the female murine lower genital tract and the human male urethra. (asm.org)
  • N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 is a porin serotype PIB-3, streptomycin (Sm)-resistant strain that has been used extensively in experimental human infection studies ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • We have used this model to study the downstream effects of cell signaling following Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • N. gonorrhoeae is known to facilitate the acquisition of HIV infection ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The incidence of infection caused by N. gonorrhoeae in the United States is currently estimated at 820,000 cases per year, with an estimated yearly health care cost of $162 million ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • High numbers of lactobacilli in the vaginal tract have been correlated with a decreased risk of infection by the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (asm.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus) is an obligate human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. (asm.org)
  • Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) is characterized by abundant neutrophil (PMN, polymorphonuclear leucocyte) influx, but PMNs cannot clear initial infection, indicating that Gc possess defences against PMN challenge. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) can trigger an intense local inflammatory response at the site of infection, yet there is little specific immune response or development of immune memory. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interesting in this regard, N. gonorrhoeae infection is associated with impaired HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses and with transient increases in plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected patients, suggesting that N. gonorrhoeae may also subvert immune responses to co-pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While morphological changes reminiscent of DC maturation were evident upon N. gonorrhoeae infection, we observed a marked downregulation of DC maturation marker CD83 when the gonococci expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa CEA , but not other Opa variants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, Opa CEA -expressing N. gonorrhoeae showed the potential to impair DC-dependent development of specific adaptive immunity, since infection with Opa CEA -positive gonococci suppressed the ability of DCs to stimulate HIV-1-specific memory CTL responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results reveal a novel mechanism to explain why infection of N. gonorrhoeae fails to trigger an effective specific immune response or develop immune memory, and may affect the potent synergy between gonorrhea and HIV-1 infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • N. gonorrhoeae infection initiates with the physical attachment of the bacterial surface appendages called pili to the apical side of the host mucosal cells [1] , [2] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can result in life-threatening ectopic pregnancy and infertility, and can increase the risk of getting and giving HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Methods and Protocols provides researchers with a foundation for progress toward the eventual control of this disease and a significant reduction in global case numbers of gonorrhea. (springer.com)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae , also known as gonococcus , is a fastidious gram-negative diplococcus responsible for the disease gonorrhea . (conservapedia.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea and N. meningitidis is one cause of bacterial meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • N gonorrhoeae culture is ordered when gonorrhea is suspected. (medindia.net)
  • N. gonorrhoeae is a bacterium that causes a sexually-transmitted disease , gonorrhea, which chiefly affects the mucous membranes of the urethra and cervix. (medindia.net)
  • The emergence of resistance to azithromycin complicates treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae , the etiologic agent of gonorrhea. (nature.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae'' is the causative agent of [[gonorrhea]] (also called "The Clap") and is transmitted via sexual contact. (wikidoc.org)
  • Since the beginning of the modern chemotherapeutic era, the treatment of gonorrhea has been dogged by the shifting antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (annals.org)
  • The past decade has been a period of relative stability in the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae and recommended treatments for gonorrhea in the United States. (annals.org)
  • Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics used to treat gonorrhea, coupled with a dearth of new antimicrobial therapies in development, raises the specter of incurable N. gonorrhoeae infections ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) is a human-specific pathogen, and the agent of a sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhea. (mcponline.org)
  • Background: Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) infections pose diagnostic and control problems in developing countries. (rti.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative coccus and is the cause of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea with humans as its only natural host. (qedbio.com)
  • Gonorrhea, caused by the Gram-negative intracellular diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( N. gonorrhoeae ), is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of humans, with over 88 million new cases reported globally each year ( http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2011/WHO_RHR_11.14_eng.pdf ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in women attending inner city general practices. (bmj.com)
  • Southgate L J , Treharne J D , Forsey T . Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in women attending inner city general practices. (bmj.com)
  • We used the hybrid capture assays to investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among commercial sex workers in Tokyo. (hindawi.com)
  • PID is often caused by sexually transmitted organisms, most commonly Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by ligase chain reaction-based assays with clinical specimens from various sites: implications for diagnostic testing and screening. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • According to the company, the ACCURUN 341 Nucleic Acid Positive controls for CT/NG are derived from cultured Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and closely simulate an actual patient sample, challenging every stage of the assay from sample extraction through amplification and detection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Performance Characteristics of the Becton Dickinson ProbeTec System for Direct Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Male and Female Urine Specimens in Comparison With the Roche Cobas System. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the 2 leading bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Becton Dickinson BDProbTec ET system is a new semiautomated system using strand displacement amplification technology for the simultaneous amplification and detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. (hindawi.com)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus) is able to colonize and penetrate the human mucosa, to avoid the host's defences and to persist in various anatomical niches. (ovid.com)
  • This detailed book addresses the continual development and application of new methods and protocols to understand the biology of the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (springer.com)
  • This study demonstrates that the aggregation of N. gonorrhoeae can reduce the susceptibility to antibiotics, and suggests that antibiotic utilization can select for GC surface molecules that promote aggregation which in turn drive pathogen evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae is an exclusive human pathogen that infects the genital tract of both men and women as well as other mucosal surfaces including the oropharynx and rectum. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen that most commonly infects the lower genital tract, the cervix in women, and anterior urethra in men. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ngo0372-74 and ngo2011-14 gene clusters from the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae were predicted by sequence homology as ABC transporters for the uptake of cystine and cysteine, respectively, and chosen for structural characterization. (rcsb.org)
  • Cahoon and Seifert (p. 764 ) have found that antigenic variation of a single genetic locus in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is triggered by a specific cis-acting DNA element. (sciencemag.org)
  • We identified a cis-acting DNA sequence near the antigenically variable pilin locus of the human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (sciencemag.org)
  • Our studies translate results from test tube to animal model and into the human host and demonstrate the utility of the mouse model for studies of virulence factors of the human-specific pathogen N. gonorrhoeae that interact with non-host-restricted elements of innate immunity. (asm.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate pathogen that hijacks iron from the human iron transport protein , holo-transferrin (Fe 2 -Tf), by expressing TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor proteins , TbpA and TbpB. (rsc.org)
  • Genetic basis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide antigenic variation. (asm.org)
  • A guanine quartet DNA structure regulates antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrheae . (sciencemag.org)
  • Many normal individuals may harbor Neisseria meningitidis in the upper respiratory tract, but Neisseria gonorrhoeae is never part of the normal flora and is only found after sexual contact with an infected person (or direct contact, in the case of infections in the newborn). (abcam.com)
  • If left untreated, N. gonorrhoeae infections can disseminate to other areas of the body, which commonly causes synovium and skin infections. (aafp.org)
  • Urogenital N. gonorrhoeae infections can be diagnosed using culture or nonculture (e.g., the nucleic acid amplification test) techniques. (aafp.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections may present as a broad range of symptoms and can affect urogenital, anorectal, pharyngeal, and conjunctival areas. (aafp.org)
  • Mucosal Immunity and Evasion Strategies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Sexually Transmitted Infections Nancy Malla, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/32824. (intechopen.com)
  • Nevertheless, ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscular with 1 g of azithromycin against Chlamydia trachomatis remains the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae infections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • N gonorrhoeae is responsible for an estimated 820,000 new infections annually. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • The intimate relationship between humans and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections span centuries, which is evidenced in case reports from studies dating back to the late 1700s and historical references that predate medical literature. (frontiersin.org)
  • N. gonorrhoeae infections have been effectively treated with antibiotics since their use was introduced in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is largely accepted that natural protective immunity to N. gonorrhoeae infections in humans does not occur or is very rare. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge pertaining to human immune responses to gonococcal infections and the role of these responses in mediating protection from N. gonorrhoeae . (frontiersin.org)
  • However, asymptomatic infections with N. gonorrhoeae are common and may serve as a significant reservoir of transmissible bacteria in the population. (frontiersin.org)
  • We will review the current state of knowledge regarding immune responses to gonococcal infections and the role of those responses in mediating protection from N. gonorrhoeae in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae is a serious threat to effective treatment of gonococcal infections. (canada.ca)
  • N. gonorrhoeae may also cause pharyngeal (pharyngitis) and anorectal infections (proctitis) in both males and females Footnote 1 - Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • In the latter part of the 1990s, testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infections was revolutionized by the introduction of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), which achieve sensitivities greater than those of traditional culture methods and which also allow the use of simplified means of specimen collection. (asm.org)
  • At present, however, there are few published data on the performance of NAATs commercially available in the United States for the diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infections at nongenital sites of exposure. (asm.org)
  • An EQA scheme for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been available to laboratories participating in ECDC's European Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) surveillance network since 2010. (europa.eu)
  • Methods: Participants in China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe were screened for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and symptoms. (rti.org)
  • These data have important implications because properdin deficiency in humans is associated with an increased incidence of invasive infections with Neisseria meningitidis ( 8 - 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • On its surface, N. gonorrhoeae bears hair-like pili, surface proteins with various functions, and sugars called lipooligosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • This requires N . gonorrhoeae adhesion proteins, such as those of the Opa family, that bind to host cell adhesion molecules of the CEACAM family. (sciencemag.org)
  • This includes the opacity (Opa) proteins which are responsible for the opaque colony phenotype caused by tight junctions between adjacent Neisseria , and are also responsible for tight adherence to host cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • 1] Neisseria gonorrhoeae can produce one or several Opa proteins. (kenyon.edu)
  • Epitope determination of immunogenic proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (abcam.com)
  • Identification of Novel Immunogenic Proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Phage Display. (abcam.com)
  • Boyle-Vavra S, Seifert HS (1995) Shuttle mutagenesis: a mini-transposon for producing PhoA fusions with exported proteins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (springer.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae'' has surface proteins called Opa proteins, which bind to receptors on immune cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • The many permutations of surface proteins make it more difficult for immune cells to recognize ''N. gonorrhoeae'' and mount a defense. (wikidoc.org)
  • Treatment of N. gonorrhoeae with seminal plasma or purified semen proteins lactoferrin, serum albumin, and prostate-specific antigen each facilitated type IV pilus-mediated twitching motility of the bacterium. (asm.org)
  • The membrane proteins expressed by N. gonorrhoeae when grown under iron-limitation have been examined. (google.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the colony opacity-associated (Opa) proteins on the N. gonorrhoeae surface can bind human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) on CD4 + T cells to suppress T cell activation and proliferation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that play a key role in the induction of an adaptive immune response, we investigated the effects of N. gonorrhoeae Opa proteins on human DC activation and function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Similarly, the lipopolysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis is highly toxic, as it has an additional virulence factor in the form of its antiphagocytic capsule. (abcam.com)
  • N. meningitidis is the only Neisseria species known to express two outer membrane porins, PorA and PorB. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In conclusion, the porA pseudogene and its few inactivating mutations are widespread in the N. gonorrhoeae population and the homology with the N. meningitidis porA gene reflects their common evolutionary origin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Even though Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cause distinctly different diseases, the bacteria are closely related and are genetically and antigenically very similar. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In conclusion, the physiological forms of properdin do not bind directly to either N. meningitidis or N. gonorrhoeae but play a crucial role in augmenting AP-dependent C3 deposition on the bacteria through the "conventional" mechanism of stabilizing AP C3 convertases. (jimmunol.org)
  • The finding that properdin binds to N. gonorrhoeae and activates complement has been extrapolated to N. meningitidis ( 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses exfoliation by stimulating epithelial cells to produce endoglin (ENG, also known as CD105), a matrix-binding protein that is normally produced by endothelial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Purified AniA, a N . gonorrhoeae outer membrane enzyme that produces NO, suppressed epithelial exfoliation in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings imply that tight adhesion of N . gonorrhoeae to epithelial cells is required to concentrate bacterial NO production in close proximity to the host cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infects epithelial cells lining the female reproductive tract. (umd.edu)
  • Consistent with this, endocervical epithelial cells were unresponsive to protein-free preparations of lipooligosaccharide from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and LPS from Escherichia coli . (jimmunol.org)
  • Our previous investigations showed that all three epithelial cell lines respond to N. gonorrhoeae by up-regulation of cytokines and adhesion molecules and that these responses are independent of bacterial internalization and IL-1 production ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • N. gonorrhoeae first attaches to epithelial cells by means of its fimbriae. (qedbio.com)
  • Thus, exposure of N. gonorrhoeae to seminal plasma is proposed to alter bacterial motility and aggregation characteristics to influence the processes of transmission and colonization. (asm.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae LOS phenotype C constitutes the first bacterial ligand to be described for the human C-type lectin receptor MGL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Together, our results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae LOS variation allows for selective manipulation of dendritic cell function, thereby shifting subsequent immune responses in favor of bacterial survival. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interference of Neisseria gonorrhoeae growth by aerobic bacterial representatives of the urogenital flora. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 10] N. gonorrhoeae is highly efficient in using transferrin-bound iron for in vitro growth. (kenyon.edu)
  • Wild-type gyrase A genotype of Neisseria gonorrhoeae predicts in vitro susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study was designed to evaluate the effects of culture-medium temperatures on the growth of known quantities of in vitro inoculum of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (jaoa.org)
  • Phosphoethanolamine (PEA) on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipid A influences gonococcal inflammatory signaling and susceptibility to innate host defenses in in vitro models. (asm.org)
  • NATtrol™ Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) Positive Controls (MDZ003) consist of in vitro diagnostic external run controls intended for use with qualitative molecular assays. (zeptometrix.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae: production of antibodies directed against a strain-specific cell surface antigen. (atcc.org)
  • 3. Unemo M, Fasth O, Fredlund H, Limnios A, Tapsall J. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of the 2008 WHO Neisseria gonorrhoeae reference strain panel intended for global quality assurance and quality control of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance for public health purposes. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, the first strain of super-resistant N. gonorrhoeae was recently detected in the United Kingdom, which was resistant to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. (mdpi.com)
  • 7] N. gonorrhoeae strain 1090 genome was sequenced by the University of Oklahoma. (kenyon.edu)
  • 6 ) reported that properdin bound to a strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and a "rough" LPS mutant of Escherichia coli K12, and that bacteria-bound properdin was capable of enhancing C3 deposition on these bacteria after the addition of properdin-deficient serum. (jimmunol.org)
  • A highly discriminative and objective genetic characterization of N. gonorrhoeae, which increases our knowledge of strain populations in different geographic areas, is crucial for the development of improved control measures. (ovid.com)
  • The genetic characterization identified one widely spread ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae ST147 strain. (ovid.com)
  • Consequently, comprehensive characterization identified the first confirmed large domestic transmission, mainly among young heterosexuals, of one ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain in Swedish society during 2002-2003. (ovid.com)
  • A single strain of N. gonorrhoeae encodes up to 11 related but antigenically distinct Opa alleles [5] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide directs dendritic cell-induced T helper responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The most abundant lipid constituent of the N. gonorrhoeae outer membrane is lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a glycolipid comprised of an antigenically variable oligosaccharide core ( 4 ) attached to lipid A, which is frequently decorated by phosphoethanolamine (PEA) at the 4′ position ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we use genome-wide association on a global meta-analysis dataset to identify additional genetic variants that confer increased azithromycin resistance in N. gonorrhoeae . (nature.com)
  • High-level azithromycin resistance occurs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a result of a single point mutation in the 23S rRNA genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. (nih.gov)
  • These data demonstrate that the response to N. gonorrhoeae and other Gram-negative bacteria at the mucosal surface of the female genital tract occurs in the absence of endotoxin recognition and TLR4-mediated signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • Objective Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated prevalences of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) of any country in the Asia-Pacific region. (bmj.com)
  • We have cloned the gene encoding a gonococcal pilus protein into Escherichia coli, and, using one of these clones as a probe in hybridization studies, we have shown that conversion of the pilus positive to pilus negative state in N. gonorrhoeae involves chromosomal rearrangement. (nih.gov)
  • Of the 11 species of Neisseria that colonize humans, only two are pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cervical sample was obtained for hybrid capture assays for HPV-A (low-oncogenic-risk types), HPV-B (intermediate- and high-oncogenic-risk types), C. trachomatis , and N. gonorrhoeae . (hindawi.com)
  • Rectal samples represent robust biospecimens for N. gonorrhoeae NAAT testing and may not require confirmation when screened with the assays described. (asm.org)
  • The culture grew N. gonorrhoeae and was sent for antimicrobial susceptibility testing as part of the national Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). (cdc.gov)
  • Chen H, Wu Z, Chen R, Shuai J, Xu L, Yu Y, Tu Y (2008) Study on the classification of gonococcal island of different genotypes and effects of sac-4 gene on serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (springer.com)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance among men who have sex with men and men who have sex exclusively with women: the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, 2005-2010. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae has proven to be very adept at developing resistance to antimicrobials used to treat gonococcal disease. (asm.org)
  • Neisseria species are fastidious, Gram-negative cocci that require nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This agar preparation facilitates the growth of Neisseria species while inhibiting the growth of contaminating bacteria and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, this T4SS secretes ssDNA into the extracellular milieu, where it can serve to transform highly competent Neisseria species, thereby increasing the transfer of genetic information. (springer.com)
  • Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (asm.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA 1090, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • We must fear a diffusion of extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the future. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. (hindawi.com)
  • N gonorrhoeae is a very fragile organism and mixes easily with the normal human flora. (medindia.net)
  • Research characterizing the mechanisms of pathogenesis and transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is important for developing new prevention strategies, since antibiotic resistance of the organism is becoming increasingly prevalent. (asm.org)
  • Locations of genetic markers on the physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090. (atcc.org)
  • The highly conserved N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene may reflect an evolutionary neutral molecular clock and may be a suitable genetic target for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae genome contains many genes that are predicted to be involved severeal DNA repair pathyways. (kenyon.edu)
  • Recombinational DNA repair has been studied in N. gonorrhoeae and requires the recA and recX genes, which act with either the RecBCD pathway (recB, recC, and recD genes) or the RecF-like pathway (recO, recQ, recR, and recJ genes). (kenyon.edu)
  • To date, only two genes that are involved in DNA repair and recombination have been found to protect against oxidative damage in N. gonorrhoeae . (kenyon.edu)
  • Objectives To improve the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by designing a multiplex PCR assay using two N gonorrhoeae -specific genes as targets, thereby providing detection and confirmation of a positive result simultaneously. (bmj.com)
  • Methods PCR primers were designed to detect two N gonorrhoeae genes, namely porA and pgi1. (bmj.com)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture test is done to detect the presence of the gram negative, coffee bean - shaped bacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (medindia.net)
  • However, the specificity of N. gonorrhoeae NAATs may be suboptimal, particularly for extragenital biospecimens. (asm.org)
  • Specificity: These antibodies recognize N. gonorrhoeae. (qedbio.com)
  • Dynamic polymeric protein filaments called type IV pili allow N. gonorrhoeae to adhere to and move along surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus protein is one of the major antigenic determinants on the cell's surface. (nih.gov)
  • This invention relates to the major iron regulated protein (MIRP) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in isolated immunospecific antigenically, substantially pure form, and its use as a vaccine. (google.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae'' are non-motile and possess type IV pili to adhere to surfaces. (wikidoc.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae belongs to the genus Neisseria within the family Neisseriaceae Footnote 2 . (canada.ca)
  • Over time, N. gonorrhoeae has acquired resistance to many antibiotics such as penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. (canada.ca)
  • In males, N. gonorrhoeae causes mainly urethritis, characterized by purulent urethral/penile discharge and dysuria Footnote 1 - Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • The objective of this study was to define the performance of culture and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae . (asm.org)
  • The requirement to confirm N. gonorrhoeae in validated samples is not required for all NAATs, although initial assay-specific evaluation is justified given observed variability. (asm.org)
  • The test performance of culture for N. gonorrhoeae , the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA), the BD ProbeTec ET amplified DNA strand displacement assay (SDA), and the Roche Cobas Amplicor PCR was defined by using a rotating "gold standard" of any positive results by two or three of the three tests that excluded the test being evaluated. (asm.org)
  • Eine einfache Messung der ATP Assay und lebenden/Toten Färbung Methode dienten zu quantifizieren und zu visualisieren, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Überleben nach Behandlung mit Ceftriaxon. (jove.com)
  • Conclusion This multiplex PCR assay offers a sensitive and specific assay suitable for the detection of N gonorrhoeae , and offers real potential for diagnostic use. (bmj.com)
  • Martin Lewis and New York City agar are other types of selective chocolate agar commonly used for Neisseria growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8] The recommended procedure for isolating Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves the inoculation of a specimen directly onto a nutritive growth medium that is at room temperature and immediate incubation at 35-37ºC in an atmosphere of 3 - 10% added CO2. (kenyon.edu)
  • Cathcart S, Austin M, Nowak M. Effect of culture-medium temperature on growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (jaoa.org)
  • Growth of N gonorrhoeae was significantly greater on room-temperature culture medium than on refrigerated culture medium with inocula of 10(2) and 10(3) colony-forming units. (jaoa.org)
  • The effect of NaHCO 3 on the growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae cultures was studied in a liquid and a semisolid growth medium. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of disk diffusion and agar dilution methods for gentamicin susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (cdc.gov)
  • Two methods for detecting N. gonorrhoeae are culture and nonculture tests. (aafp.org)
  • the offer includes analysis equipment for the detection of chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and mycoplasma genitalia with associated equipment-dependent consumer goods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, M. hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. (edu.au)
  • The culture grew N. gonorrhoeae and was sent to the GISP laboratory for susceptibility testing. (cdc.gov)
  • PHO Laboratory accepts swabs from the following specimen sources for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) by a Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT). (publichealthontario.ca)
  • Intragenic recombination between the single complete pilin gene (expression locus) and multiple, distinct, partial pilin gene copies (silent, storage loci) is thought to account for the generation of pilus antigenic diversity and piliation phase (on-off) changes exhibited by Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (genetics.org)
  • These antibodies have been qualified for use in ELISA to detect N. gonorrhoeae. (qedbio.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4003447 Title: Immunobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae : proceedings of a conference held in San Francisco, California, 18-20 January 1978 Author: George F Brooks Publisher: Washington : American Society for Microbiology, 1978. (worldcat.org)
  • Several Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) with high sensitivity exist. (asm.org)