Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup Y: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.Neisseriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Neisseria cinerea: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in the human NASOPHARYNX.Neisseria mucosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA, found in the human NASOPHARYNX and in the normal flora of the respiratory tissues in DOLPHINS. It is occasionally pathogenic for humans and pathogenic for MICE. (Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1st edition, p295)Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Neisseriaceae: A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.Spectinomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Neisseria sicca: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA found in the human NASOPHARYNX; SALIVA; and SPUTUM.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Urethritis: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Transferrin-Binding Protein B: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Neisseria elongata: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA consisting of short chains of rods. It has been isolated from the PHARYNX of healthy individuals and patients with ENDOCARDITIS. There are several recognized subspecies.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Pili, Sex: Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Moraxella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Pyocins: Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same or related species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Transferrin-Binding Protein A: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Cytidine Monophosphate N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay: Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Ophthalmia Neonatorum: Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Kingella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Some species are pathogenic for man.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)PeptidoglycanQuinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Leukorrhea: A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Haemophilus ducreyi: A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.Male Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.

In vitro activities of ketolides HMR 3647 [correction of HRM 3647] and HMR 3004 [correction of HRM 3004], levofloxacin, and other quinolones and macrolides against Neisseria spp. and Moraxella catarrhalis. (1/381)

In vitro activities of the ketolides HMR 3647 [corrected] and HMR 3004 [corrected] against pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, saprophytic Neisseria isolates, and Moraxella catarrhalis were determined. The comparison of ketolide activities with those of the other macrolides shows a much better activity in the majority of species, with macrolide MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited between 8- and 10-fold higher.  (+info)

Pathogenic neisseriae: complexity of pathogen-host cell interplay. (2/381)

Recent studies have provided insight into the function of important neisserial adhesins (pili and Opa) and their interaction with cellular receptors, including members of heparan sulfate proteoglycan, CD66, and integrin receptor families. These interactions not only allow colonization of the human mucosa but also stimulate cellular signaling cascades involving phosphatidylcholine-dependent phospholipase C, acidic sphingomyelinase and protein kinase C in epithelial cells, and Src-related kinases, Rac1, p21-activated kinase, and Jun N-terminal kinase in phagocytic cells. Activation of these pathways is essential for cellular entry and intracellular accommodation of the pathogens but also leads to early induction of cytokine release, thus priming the immune response. Detailed knowledge of the cellular signaling cascades that are activated by infection will aid us in applying both current and novel interfering drugs (in addition to classical antibiotic therapy) as therapy and prophylaxis for persistent or otherwise difficult-to-treat bacterial infections, including periodontal infections.  (+info)

Structural and evolutionary inference from molecular variation in Neisseria porins. (3/381)

The porin proteins of the pathogenic Neisseria species, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, are important as serotyping antigens, putative vaccine components, and for their proposed role in the intracellular colonization of humans. A three-dimensional structural homology model for Neisseria porins was generated from Escherichia coli porin structures and N. meningitidis PorA and PorB sequences. The Neisseria sequences were readily assembled into the 16-strand beta-barrel fold characteristic of porins, despite relatively low sequence identity with the Escherichia proteins. The model provided information on the spatial relationships of variable regions of peptide sequences in the PorA and PorB trimers and insights relevant to the use of these proteins in vaccines. The nucleotide sequences of the porin genes from a number of other Neisseria species were obtained by PCR direct sequencing and from GenBank. Alignment and analysis of all available Neisseria porin sequences by use of the structurally conserved regions derived from the PorA and PorB structural models resulted in the recovery of an improved phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with an important role for horizontal genetic exchange in the emergence of different porin classes and confirmed the close evolutionary relationships of the porins from N. meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae, Neisseria lactamica, and Neisseria polysaccharea. Only members of this group contained three conserved lysine residues which form a potential GTP binding site implicated in pathogenesis. The model placed these residues on the inside of the pore, in close proximity, consistent with their role in regulating pore function when inserted into host cells.  (+info)

Erythromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and oral commensal Neisseria spp. carry known rRNA methylase genes. (4/381)

Two Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Seattle and two isolates from Uruguay were resistant to erythromycin (MIC, 4 to 16 microg/ml) and had reduced susceptibility to azithromycin (MIC, 1 to 4 microg/ml) due to the presence of the self-mobile rRNA methylase gene(s) ermF or ermB and ermF. The two Seattle isolates and one isolate from Uruguay were multiresistant, carrying either the 25.2-MDa tetM-containing plasmid (Seattle) or a beta-lactamase plasmid (Uruguay). Sixteen commensal Neisseria isolates (10 Neisseria perflava-N. sicca, 2 N. flava, and 4 N. mucosa) for which erythromycin MICs were 4 to 16 microg/ml were shown to carry one or more known rRNA methylase genes, including ermB, ermC, and/or ermF. Many of these isolates also were multiresistant and carried the tetM gene. This is the first time that a complete transposon or a complete conjugative transposon carrying an antibiotic resistance gene has been described for the genus Neisseria.  (+info)

Networks and groups within the genus Neisseria: analysis of argF, recA, rho, and 16S rRNA sequences from human Neisseria species. (5/381)

To understand the pattern of nucleotide sequence variation among bacteria that frequently exchange chromosomal genes, we analyzed sequences of the recA, argF, and rho genes, as well as part of the small-subunit (16S) rRNA gene, from about 50 isolates of human commensal Neisseria species and the pathogenic N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Almost all isolates of these species could be assigned to five phylogenetic groups that are found for all genes examined and generally are supported by high bootstrap values. In contrast, the phylogenetic relationships among groups varied according to the gene analyzed with notable incongruences involving N. cinerea and N. lactamica. Further analysis using split decomposition showed that for each gene, including 16S rRNA, the patterns of sequence divergence within N. meningitidis and closely related species were inconsistent with a bifurcating treelike phylogeny and better represented by an interconnected network. These data indicate that the human commensal Neisseria species can be separated into discrete groups of related species but that the relationships both within and among these groups, including those reconstructed using 16S rRNA, have been distorted by interspecies recombination events.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, functional expression and purification of a glucan branching enzyme from Neisseria denitrificans(1). (6/381)

The nucleotide sequence containing the complete structural information for a glucan branching enzyme was isolated from a Neisseria denitrificans genomic library. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the active recombinant protein was purified. The deduced protein of 762 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 86313 Da shows similarity to the primary protein sequences of other known glucan branching enzymes. Amino acid sequencing of the isolated protein by Edman degradation confirmed the deduced start codon of the structural gene of the glucan branching enzyme. The purified glucan branching enzyme has a stimulating effect on the Neisseria amylosucrase activity.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of an esterase involved in cellulose acetate degradation by Neisseria sicca SB. (7/381)

An esterase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acetyl ester moieties in cellulose acetate was purified 1,110-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from the culture supernatant of Neisseria sicca SB, which can assimilate cellulose acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa and the isoelectric point was 5.3. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 8.0-8.5 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of acetyl saccharides, p-nitrophenyl esters of short-chain fatty acids, and was slightly active toward aliphatic and aromatic esters. The K(m) and Vmax for cellulose acetate (degree of substitution, 0.88) and p-nitrophenyl acetate were 0.0162% (716 microM as acetyl content in the polymer) and 36.0 microM, and 66.8 and 39.1 mumol/min/mg, respectively. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate, which indicated that the enzyme was a serine esterase.  (+info)

Rapid micro-carbohydrate test for confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (8/381)

A rapid carbohydrate utilization procedure for the confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and identification of other Neisseria species has been developed. This method utilizes both preformed enzymes, introduced in a heavy inoculum, and enzymes formed by the microorganisms as a result of growth in a small volume of super-enriched medium. Expected carbohydrate reactions were produced by 383 clinical isolates of neisseriae and were clearly visible within 4 h of incubation. The combined use of disposable glass tubes (6 by 50 mm) and microamounts of media (0.05 ml) make this method not only rapid, but also low in cost.  (+info)

  • Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) has become an emerging threat worldwide and heightens the need for monitoring treatment failures. (mdpi.com)
  • Research characterizing the mechanisms of pathogenesis and transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is important for developing new prevention strategies, since antibiotic resistance of the organism is becoming increasingly prevalent. (asm.org)
  • Many of these methods are applicable to the close relative, Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and several of the methods described can also be used in investigating host-pathogen interactions for a range of other organisms. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and practical, Neisseria meningitidis: Methods and Protocols will allow for the use of these methods by more laboratories and foster collaboration and consistency in investigations of this enigmatic and dangerous pathogen. (springer.com)
  • This detailed book addresses the continual development and application of new methods and protocols to understand the biology of the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (springer.com)
  • Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Neisseria spp. (canada.ca)
  • Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) clonal complex 11 (cc11) lineage is a hypervirulent pathogen responsible for outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease, including among men who have sex with men, and is increasingly associated with urogenital infections. (pnas.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4003447 Title: Immunobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae : proceedings of a conference held in San Francisco, California, 18-20 January 1978 Author: George F Brooks Publisher: Washington : American Society for Microbiology, 1978. (worldcat.org)
View source for Neisseria - microbewiki
View source for Neisseria - microbewiki (microbewiki.kenyon.edu)
A New Family of Secreted Toxins in Pathogenic Neisseria Species
A New Family of Secreted Toxins in Pathogenic Neisseria Species (journals.plos.org)
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PLOS ONE: Epitope determination of immunogenic proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (journals.plos.org)
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Gonorrhea | 1996 Case Definition (wwwn.cdc.gov)
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	     | Answers in Genesis
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Meningitis | Lab Manual | PCR Detection and Characterization | CDC
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Meningitis | Lab Manual | Id and Characterization of Neisseria | CDC
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Disk Diffusion Testing - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CDC
Disk Diffusion Testing - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CDC (cdc.gov)
Surveillance Manual | Lab Support | Vaccine Preventable Diseases | CDC
Surveillance Manual | Lab Support | Vaccine Preventable Diseases | CDC (cdc.gov)
Neisseria meningitidis | SpringerLink
Neisseria meningitidis | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Dr Christopher D.Bayliss - University of Leicester
Dr Christopher D.Bayliss - University of Leicester (www2.le.ac.uk)
April 1999 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 : Nursing2019
April 1999 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 : Nursing2019 (journals.lww.com)
Gonorrhea - New World Encyclopedia
Gonorrhea - New World Encyclopedia (newworldencyclopedia.org)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae | SpringerLink
Neisseria gonorrhoeae | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Frontiers | Does Male Circumcision Reduce Women's Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Cervical Cancer, and Associated...
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Conservapedia
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Conservapedia (conservapedia.com)
Imported Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis - Volume 15, Number 11-November 2009 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
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Bacterial Achilles' heel discovered providing a new target for antimicrobial treatments
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