The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
An increase in the rate of speed.
The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The position or attitude of the body.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Histological characteristics of sternoclavicular beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis and clues for its histogenesis. (1/399)

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis (A beta 2m) has yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS: We describe the distribution and extent of A beta 2m deposition and macrophagic infiltration in cartilage, capsule, and synovium of sternoclavicular joints obtained postmortem from 54 patients after 3 to 244 (median 46) months of dialysis. Twenty-four nonuremic patients served as a control group. The diagnosis of amyloidosis (A) rested on a positive Congo Red staining (typical birefringence) and that of A beta 2m on positive immunostaining of the A deposits with a monoclonal anti-beta 2m antibody. The size of A deposits was measured. RESULTS: A beta 2m was detected in 32 (59%), and non-beta 2m amyloid (Anon beta 2m) was detected in an additional 8 (15%) of the 54 dialyzed patients. A beta 2m deposits were present in the cartilage of all A beta 2m (+) patients (100%). They were localized solely in the cartilage in 27% of the cases, either as a thin patchy layer or as a continuous thicker layer (identified as stage I). A beta 2m was additionally present in the capsule and/or synovium without macrophages in 27% of the cases (identified as stage II). The correlation between the size of cartilaginous deposits and dialysis duration (P = 0.02) as well as with the prevalence (P = 0.03) and size of capsular deposits (P = 0.02) suggests that stage II is a later stage of A deposition. Clusters of macrophages were detected around capsular and synovial amyloid deposits in 46% of the cases (identified as stage III). The longer duration of dialysis in those with stage III as well as the relationship between the size of the A beta 2m deposits and the prevalence of macrophagic infiltration suggests that stage III is the last stage of A beta 2m deposition. Marginal bone erosions were observed in 9 out of 12 patients with stage III deposits. Their size was correlated with that of cartilaginous deposits (P = 0.01). Among the 24 control patients, Anon beta 2m was detected in 12 patients (cartilage 100%, capsule 8%, synovium 30%). CONCLUSIONS: The earliest stage of A beta 2m deposition occurs in the cartilage. A beta 2m subsequently extends to capsule and synovium. These two first stages do not require macrophage infiltration. Macrophages are eventually recruited around larger synovial or capsular deposits in the final stage. Marginal bone erosions develop in this late stage.  (+info)

The prevalence and CT appearance of the levator claviculae muscle: a normal variant not to be mistaken for an abnormality. (2/399)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The levator claviculae muscle is an infrequently recognized variant in humans, occurring in 2% to 3% of the population, and has rarely been reported in the radiologic or anatomic literature. The importance of this muscle to radiologists is in distinguishing it from an abnormality; most commonly, cervical adenopathy. After discovering this muscle on the CT scans of two patients during routine clinical examinations, we conducted a study to determine the prevalence and appearance of the muscle on CT studies. METHODS: We evaluated 300 CT scans that adequately depicted the expected location of the muscle. The most superior level in which the muscle could be identified and the apparent location of insertion on the clavicle were recorded for all subjects in whom the muscle was detected. RESULTS: Seven levator claviculae muscles were identified in six subjects (2%). It was bilateral in one, on the left in four, and on the right in one. It was identified up to the level of the transverse process of C3 in all cases. The insertion was the middle third of the clavicle for two muscles and the lateral third of the clavicle for the remaining five muscles. CONCLUSION: Because the levator claviculae muscle will most likely be encountered during a radiologist's career, it is important to recognize this muscle as a variant and not as an abnormality.  (+info)

Cervical electromyographic activity during low-speed rear impact. (3/399)

Whiplash motion of the neck is characterized by having an extension-flexion motion of the neck. It has been previously assumed that muscles do not play a role in the injury. Eight healthy males were seated in a car seat mounted on a sled. The sled was accelerated by a spring mechanism. Muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured by wire electrodes in semi-spinalis capitis, splenius capitis, and levator scapulae. Surface EMG activity was measured over trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus. Wavelet analysis was used to establish the onset of muscle activity with respect to sled movement. Shorter reaction times were found to be as low as 13.2 ms from head acceleration and 65.6 ms from sled acceleration. Thus the muscles could influence the injury pattern. It is of interest that clinical symptoms are often attributed to muscle tendon injuries.  (+info)

Effect of gaze on postural responses to neck proprioceptive and vestibular stimulation in humans. (4/399)

1. We studied the effect of gaze orientation on postural responses evoked by vibration of neck dorsal muscles or by galvanic stimulation of the vestibular system during quiet standing in healthy humans. Various gaze orientations were obtained by different combinations of horizontal head-on-feet (-90, -45, 0, 45, 90 deg) and eye-in-orbit (-30, 0, 30 deg) positions. The instantaneous centre of foot pressure was recorded with a force platform. 2. With a symmetrical position of the vibrator relative to the spine, neck muscle vibration elicited a body sway in the direction of the head naso-occipital axis when the eyes were aligned with it. The same result was obtained both during head rotations and when the head and trunk were rotated together. 3. For lateral eye deviations, the direction of the body sway was aligned with gaze orientation. The effect of gaze was present both with eyes open and eyes closed. After long-lasting (1 min) lateral fixation of the target the effect of gaze decreased significantly. 4. Postural responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation tended to occur orthogonal to the head naso-occipital axis (towards the anodal ear) but in eight of the 11 subjects the responses were also biased by the direction of gaze. 5. The prominent effect of gaze in reorienting automatic postural reactions indicates that both neck proprioceptive and vestibular stimuli are processed in the context of visual control of posture. The results point out the importance of a viewer-centred frame of reference for processing multisensory information.  (+info)

Intramuscular desmoid tumor (musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis) in two horses. (5/399)

Intramuscular desmoid tumors (musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis) were discovered in two young adult horses. The tumor in one horse was in the lateral cervical musculature, and that in the second horse occurred in the pectoral musculature. Histopathologic features were similar in both horses and included proliferation of fibroblasts and cells expressing muscle actin (myofibroblasts), with extensive dissecting fibrosis within muscle. These features are similar to those of desmoid tumors in humans, particularly those also known as musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis. Dissection of these lesions revealed a single central (horse No. 1) or multiple central (horse No. 2) fluid-filled cavities with associated sterile inflammation. The presence of these cavities supports the hypothesis that equine desmoid tumors are traumatic in origin, possibly occurring at sites of injections or bursal rupture. Surgical excision of the tumor in horse No. 1 was apparently curative, but the extent of the tumor in horse No. 2 precluded surgical excision.  (+info)

Use of a platysma myocutaneous flap for the reimplantation of a severed ear: experience with five cases. (6/399)

CONTEXT: The traumatic loss of an ear greatly affects the patient because of the severe aesthetic deformity it entails. The characteristic format of the ear, with a fine skin covering a thin and elastic cartilage, is not found anywhere else in the human body. Thus, to reconstruct an ear, the surgeon may try to imitate it by sculpting cartilage and covering it with skin. OBJECTIVE: To use a platysma myocutaneous flap for the reimplantation of a severed ear in humans. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Emergency unit of the university hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Ribeirao Preto - USP. CASE REPORT: Five cases are reported, with whole ear reimplantation in 3 of them and only segments in 2 cases. The surgical technique used was original and was based on the principle of auricular cartilage revascularization using the platysma muscle. We implanted traumatically severed auricular cartilage into the platysma muscle. The prefabricated ear was later transferred to its original site in the form of a myocutaneous-cartilaginous flap. Of the 5 cases treated using this technique, 4 were successful. In these 4 cases the reimplanted ears showed no short- or long-term problems, with an aesthetic result quite close to natural appearance. In one case there was necrosis of the entire flap, with total loss of the ear. The surgical technique described is simple and utilizes the severed ear of the patient. Its application is excellent for skin losses in the auricular region or for the ear itself, thus obviating the need for microsurgery or the use of protheses or grafts.  (+info)

Differences in expression of acetylcholinesterase and collagen Q control the distribution and oligomerization of the collagen-tailed forms in fast and slow muscles. (7/399)

The collagen-tailed forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are accumulated at mammalian neuromuscular junctions. The A(4), A(8), and A(12) forms are expressed differently in the rat fast and slow muscles; the sternomastoid muscle contains essentially the A(12) form at end plates, whereas the soleus muscle also contains extrajunctional A(4) and A(8) forms. We show that collagen Q (ColQ) transcripts become exclusively junctional in the adult sternomastoid but remain uniformly expressed in the soleus. By coinjecting Xenopus oocytes with AChE(T) and ColQ mRNAs, we reproduced the muscle patterns of collagen-tailed forms. The soleus contains transcripts ColQ1 and ColQ1a, whereas the sternomastoid only contains ColQ1a. Collagen-tailed AChE represents the first evidence that synaptic components involved in cholinergic transmission may be differently regulated in fast and slow muscles.  (+info)

Frequency analysis of EMG activity in patients with idiopathic torticollis. (8/399)

The pathophysiology of idiopathic dystonic torticollis is unclear and there is no simple test that confirms the diagnosis and excludes a psychogenic or voluntary torticollis in individual patients. We recorded EMG activity in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SPL) muscles of eight patients with rotational torticollis and eight age-matched controls, and analysed the signals in the frequency and time domains. All control subjects but one showed a significant peak in the autospectrum of the SPL EMG at 10-12 Hz, which was absent in all patients with torticollis. Conversely, patients with torticollis had evidence of a 4-7 Hz drive to the SPL and SCM that was absent in coherence spectra from controls. The pooled cumulant density estimates revealed a peak in both groups, and within the patient group there was a second narrow subpeak with a width of 13 ms. The activity in the SCM and SPL was in phase in the patients but not in the controls. The lack of any phase difference and the suggestion of short-term synchronization between SCM and SPL are consistent with an abnormal corticoreticular and corticospinal drive in dystonic torticollis. Clinically, the pattern of SPL EMG autospectra and of SCM-SPL coherence may provide a sensitive and specific feature distinguishing dystonic from psychogenic torticollis.  (+info)

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Head movements refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the head in various directions. These movements can occur in different planes, including flexion (moving the head forward), extension (moving the head backward), rotation (turning the head to the side), and lateral bending (leaning the head to one side).

Head movements can be a result of normal physiological processes, such as when nodding in agreement or shaking the head to indicate disagreement. They can also be caused by neurological conditions, such as abnormal head movements in patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar disorders. Additionally, head movements may occur in response to sensory stimuli, such as turning the head toward a sound.

In a medical context, an examination of head movements can provide important clues about a person's neurological function and help diagnose various conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.

Neck pain is discomfort or soreness in the neck region, which can extend from the base of the skull to the upper part of the shoulder blades, caused by injury, irritation, or inflammation of the muscles, ligaments, or nerves in the cervical spine. The pain may worsen with movement and can be accompanied by stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, or hands. In some cases, headaches can also occur as a result of neck pain.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

In medical terms, the "head" is the uppermost part of the human body that contains the brain, skull, face, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears. It is connected to the rest of the body by the neck and is responsible for many vital functions such as sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought processing. The head also plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, speech, and eating.

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a condition where the neck muscles contract and cause the head to turn to one side. There are different types of torticollis including congenital (present at birth), acquired (develops after birth), and spasmodic (neurological).

Congenital torticollis can be caused by a tight or shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck, which can occur due to positioning in the womb or abnormal blood vessels in the muscle. Acquired torticollis can result from injury, infection, or tumors in the neck. Spasmodic torticollis is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary contractions of the neck muscles and can be caused by a variety of factors including genetics, environmental toxins, or head trauma.

Symptoms of torticollis may include difficulty turning the head, tilting the chin upwards or downwards, pain or discomfort in the neck, and a limited range of motion. Treatment for torticollis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or surgery.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Skeletal muscle fibers, also known as striated muscle fibers, are the type of muscle cells that make up skeletal muscles, which are responsible for voluntary movements of the body. These muscle fibers are long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, meaning they contain multiple nuclei. They are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the endomysium, and many fibers are bundled together into fascicles, which are then surrounded by another layer of connective tissue called the perimysium.

Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils, which are long, thread-like structures that run the length of the fiber. Myofibrils contain repeating units called sarcomeres, which are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments, which slide past each other during muscle contraction to shorten the sarcomere and generate force.

Skeletal muscle fibers can be further classified into two main types based on their contractile properties: slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II). Slow-twitch fibers have a high endurance capacity and are used for sustained, low-intensity activities such as maintaining posture. Fast-twitch fibers, on the other hand, have a higher contractile speed and force generation capacity but fatigue more quickly and are used for powerful, explosive movements.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Labyrinth diseases refer to conditions that affect the inner ear's labyrinth, which is the complex system of fluid-filled channels and sacs responsible for maintaining balance and hearing. These diseases can cause symptoms such as vertigo (a spinning sensation), dizziness, nausea, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Examples of labyrinth diseases include Meniere's disease, labyrinthitis, vestibular neuronitis, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medications, physical therapy, or surgery.

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

In the context of medicine and physiology, acceleration refers to the process of increasing or quickening a function or process. For example, heart rate acceleration is an increase in the speed at which the heart beats. It can also refer to the rate at which something increases, such as the acceleration of muscle strength during rehabilitation. In physics terms, acceleration refers to the rate at which an object changes its velocity, but this definition is not typically used in a medical context.

The mastoid is a term used in anatomy and refers to the bony prominence located at the base of the skull, posterior to the ear. More specifically, it's part of the temporal bone, one of the bones that forms the side and base of the skull. The mastoid process provides attachment for various muscles involved in chewing and moving the head.

In a medical context, "mastoid" can also refer to conditions or procedures related to this area. For example, mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, while a mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part or all of the mastoid process.

Muscle development, also known as muscle hypertrophy, refers to the increase in size and mass of the muscles through a process called myofiber growth. This is primarily achieved through resistance or strength training exercises that cause micro-tears in the muscle fibers, leading to an inflammatory response and the release of hormones that promote muscle growth. As the muscles repair themselves, they become larger and stronger than before. Proper nutrition, including adequate protein intake, and rest are also essential components of muscle development.

It is important to note that while muscle development can lead to an increase in strength and muscular endurance, it does not necessarily result in improved athletic performance or overall fitness. A well-rounded exercise program that includes cardiovascular activity, flexibility training, and resistance exercises is recommended for optimal health and fitness outcomes.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

The occipital bone is the single, posterior cranial bone that forms the base of the skull and encloses the brain. It articulates with the parietal bones anteriorly and the temporal bones laterally. The occipital bone also contains several important structures such as the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord connects to the brain, and the external and internal occipital protuberances, which serve as attachment points for neck muscles.

Isometric contraction is a type of muscle activation where the muscle contracts without any change in the length of the muscle or movement at the joint. This occurs when the force generated by the muscle matches the external force opposing it, resulting in a balanced state with no visible movement. It is commonly experienced during activities such as holding a heavy object in static position or trying to push against an immovable object. Isometric contractions are important in maintaining posture and providing stability to joints.

Whiplash injuries are a type of soft tissue injury to the neck that occurs when the head is suddenly and forcefully thrown backward (hyperextension) and then forward (hyperflexion). This motion is similar to the cracking of a whip, hence the term "whiplash."

Whiplash injuries are most commonly associated with rear-end automobile accidents, but they can also occur from sports accidents, physical abuse, or other traumatic events. The impact of these forces on the neck can cause damage to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues in the neck, resulting in pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

In some cases, whiplash injuries may also cause damage to the discs between the vertebrae in the spine or to the nerves exiting the spinal cord. These types of injuries can have more serious consequences and may require additional medical treatment.

Whiplash injuries are typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, patient history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for whiplash injuries may include pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, or in some cases, surgery.

The tegmentum mesencephali, also known as the mesencephalic tegmentum, is a region in the midbrain (mesencephalon) of the brainstem. It contains several important structures including the periaqueductal gray matter, the nucleus raphe, the reticular formation, and various cranial nerve nuclei. The tegmentum mesencephali plays a crucial role in various functions such as pain modulation, sleep-wake regulation, eye movement control, and cardiovascular regulation.

Muscle fatigue is a condition characterized by a reduction in the ability of a muscle to generate force or power, typically after prolonged or strenuous exercise. It is often accompanied by sensations of tiredness, weakness, and discomfort in the affected muscle(s). The underlying mechanisms of muscle fatigue are complex and involve both peripheral factors (such as changes in muscle metabolism, ion handling, and neuromuscular transmission) and central factors (such as changes in the nervous system's ability to activate muscles). Muscle fatigue can also occur as a result of various medical conditions or medications that impair muscle function.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type II fibers, are a type of skeletal muscle fiber that are characterized by their rapid contraction and relaxation rates. These fibers have a larger diameter and contain a higher concentration of glycogen, which serves as a quick source of energy for muscle contractions. Fast-twitch fibers are further divided into two subcategories: type IIa and type IIb (or type IIx). Type IIa fibers have a moderate amount of mitochondria and can utilize both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, making them fatigue-resistant. Type IIb fibers, on the other hand, have fewer mitochondria and primarily use anaerobic metabolism, leading to faster fatigue. Fast-twitch fibers are typically used in activities that require quick, powerful movements such as sprinting or weightlifting.

Muscle denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss of nerve supply to a muscle or group of muscles. This can occur due to various reasons, such as injury to the nerves, nerve compression, or certain medical conditions like neuromuscular disorders. When the nerve supply to the muscle is interrupted, it can lead to muscle weakness, atrophy (wasting), and ultimately, paralysis.

In denervation, the communication between the nervous system and the muscle is disrupted, which means that the muscle no longer receives signals from the brain to contract and move. Over time, this can result in significant muscle wasting and disability, depending on the severity and extent of the denervation.

Denervation may be treated with various therapies, including physical therapy, medication, or surgical intervention, such as nerve grafting or muscle transfers, to restore function and prevent further muscle wasting. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause and severity of the denervation.

Ocular fixation is a term used in ophthalmology and optometry to refer to the ability of the eyes to maintain steady gaze or visual focus on an object. It involves the coordinated movement of the extraocular muscles that control eye movements, allowing for clear and stable vision.

In medical terminology, fixation specifically refers to the state in which the eyes are aligned and focused on a single point in space. This is important for maintaining visual perception and preventing blurring or double vision. Ocular fixation can be affected by various factors such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, or visual processing disorders.

Assessment of ocular fixation is often used in eye examinations to evaluate visual acuity, eye alignment, and muscle function. Abnormalities in fixation may indicate the presence of underlying eye conditions or developmental delays that require further investigation and treatment.

Slow-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type I muscle fibers, are specialized skeletal muscle cells that contract relatively slowly and generate less force than fast-twitch fibers. However, they can maintain contraction for longer periods of time and have a higher resistance to fatigue. These fibers primarily use oxygen and aerobic metabolism to produce energy, making them highly efficient during prolonged, lower-intensity activities such as long-distance running or cycling. Slow-twitch muscle fibers also have an abundant blood supply, which allows for efficient delivery of oxygen and removal of waste products.

Anti-dyskinetic agents are a class of medications that are used to treat or manage dyskinesias, which are involuntary movements or abnormal muscle contractions. These medications work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in movement control.

Dyskinetic symptoms can occur as a side effect of long-term use of levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anti-dyskinetic agents such as amantadine, anticholinergics, and dopamine agonists may be used to manage these symptoms.

Amantadine works by increasing the release of dopamine and blocking its reuptake, which can help reduce dyskinesias. Anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl and benztropine work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to dyskinesias. Dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinirole mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can help reduce dyskinesias by reducing the dose of levodopa required for symptom control.

It is important to note that anti-dyskinetic agents may have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Smooth muscle myocytes are specialized cells that make up the contractile portion of non-striated, or smooth, muscles. These muscles are found in various organs and structures throughout the body, including the walls of blood vessels, the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the reproductive system.

Smooth muscle myocytes are smaller than their striated counterparts (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells) and have a single nucleus. They lack the distinctive banding pattern seen in striated muscles and instead have a uniform appearance of actin and myosin filaments. Smooth muscle myocytes are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which allows them to contract and relax involuntarily.

These cells play an essential role in many physiological processes, such as regulating blood flow, moving food through the digestive tract, and facilitating childbirth. They can also contribute to various pathological conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal disorders.

Mitochondria in muscle, also known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, are organelles that play a crucial role in generating energy for muscle cells through a process called cellular respiration. They convert the chemical energy found in glucose and oxygen into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy used by cells.

Muscle cells contain a high number of mitochondria due to their high energy demands for muscle contraction and relaxation. The number and size of mitochondria in muscle fibers can vary depending on the type of muscle fiber, with slow-twitch, aerobic fibers having more numerous and larger mitochondria than fast-twitch, anaerobic fibers.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to various muscle disorders, including mitochondrial myopathies, which are characterized by muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and other symptoms related to impaired energy production in the muscle cells.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

The vestibular system is a part of the inner ear that contributes to our sense of balance and spatial orientation. It is made up of two main components: the vestibule and the labyrinth.

The vestibule is a bony chamber in the inner ear that contains two important structures called the utricle and saccule. These structures contain hair cells and fluid-filled sacs that help detect changes in head position and movement, allowing us to maintain our balance and orientation in space.

The labyrinth, on the other hand, is a more complex structure that includes the vestibule as well as three semicircular canals. These canals are also filled with fluid and contain hair cells that detect rotational movements of the head. Together, the vestibule and labyrinth work together to provide us with information about our body's position and movement in space.

Overall, the vestibular system plays a crucial role in maintaining our balance, coordinating our movements, and helping us navigate through our environment.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Neck injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in any part of the neck, including soft tissues (muscles, ligaments, tendons), nerves, bones (vertebrae), and joints (facet joints, intervertebral discs). These injuries can result from various incidents such as road accidents, falls, sports-related activities, or work-related tasks. Common neck injuries include whiplash, strain or sprain of the neck muscles, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and pinched nerves, which may cause symptoms like pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, shoulders, arms, or hands. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

Striated muscle, also known as skeletal or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle tissue that is characterized by the presence of distinct light and dark bands, or striations, when viewed under a microscope. These striations correspond to the arrangement of sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle fibers.

Striated muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated by signals from the nervous system. It is attached to bones via tendons and is responsible for producing movements of the body. Striated muscle fibers are multinucleated, meaning that they contain many nuclei, and are composed of numerous myofibrils, which are rope-like structures that run the length of the fiber.

The myofibrils are composed of thick and thin filaments that slide past each other to cause muscle contraction. The thick filaments are made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin. When a nerve impulse arrives at the muscle fiber, it triggers the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which bind to troponin and cause a conformational change that exposes the binding sites on actin for myosin. The myosin heads then bind to the actin filaments and pull them towards the center of the sarcomere, causing the muscle fiber to shorten and contract.

In a medical context, "orientation" typically refers to an individual's awareness and understanding of their personal identity, place, time, and situation. It is a critical component of cognitive functioning and mental status. Healthcare professionals often assess a person's orientation during clinical evaluations, using tests that inquire about their name, location, the current date, and the circumstances of their hospitalization or visit.

There are different levels of orientation:

1. Person (or self): The individual knows their own identity, including their name, age, and other personal details.
2. Place: The individual is aware of where they are, such as the name of the city, hospital, or healthcare facility.
3. Time: The individual can accurately state the current date, day of the week, month, and year.
4. Situation or event: The individual understands why they are in the healthcare setting, what happened leading to their hospitalization or visit, and the nature of any treatments or procedures they are undergoing.

Impairments in orientation can be indicative of various neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as delirium, dementia, or substance intoxication or withdrawal. It is essential for healthcare providers to monitor and address orientation issues to ensure appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and patient safety.

Muscle spindles are specialized sensory organs found within the muscle belly, which primarily function as proprioceptors, providing information about the length and rate of change in muscle length. They consist of small, encapsulated bundles of intrafusal muscle fibers that are interspersed among the extrafusal muscle fibers (the ones responsible for force generation).

Muscle spindles have two types of sensory receptors called primary and secondary endings. Primary endings are located near the equatorial region of the intrafusal fiber, while secondary endings are situated more distally. These endings detect changes in muscle length and transmit this information to the central nervous system (CNS) through afferent nerve fibers.

The activation of muscle spindles plays a crucial role in reflexive responses, such as the stretch reflex (myotatic reflex), which helps maintain muscle tone and joint stability. Additionally, they contribute to our sense of body position and movement awareness, known as kinesthesia.

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

Papillary muscles are specialized muscle structures located in the heart, specifically in the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). They are attached to the tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets via tendinous cords, also known as chordae tendineae. The main function of papillary muscles is to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction by providing tension to the valve leaflets through these tendinous cords.

There are two sets of papillary muscles in the heart:

1. Anterior and posterior papillary muscles in the left ventricle, which are attached to the mitral (bicuspid) valve.
2. Three smaller papillary muscles in the right ventricle, which are attached to the tricuspid valve.

These muscle structures play a crucial role in maintaining proper blood flow through the heart and ensuring efficient cardiac function.

The superior colliculi are a pair of prominent eminences located on the dorsal surface of the midbrain, forming part of the tectum or roof of the midbrain. They play a crucial role in the integration and coordination of visual, auditory, and somatosensory information for the purpose of directing spatial attention and ocular movements. Essentially, they are involved in the reflexive orienting of the head and eyes towards novel or significant stimuli in the environment.

In a more detailed medical definition, the superior colliculi are two rounded, convex mounds of gray matter that are situated on the roof of the midbrain, specifically at the level of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Each superior colliculus has a stratified laminated structure, consisting of several layers that process different types of sensory information and control specific motor outputs.

The superficial layers of the superior colliculi primarily receive and process visual input from the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and other visual areas in the brain. These layers are responsible for generating spatial maps of the visual field, which allow for the localization and identification of visual stimuli.

The intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculi receive and process auditory and somatosensory information from various sources, including the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus, and ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. These layers are involved in the localization and identification of auditory and tactile stimuli, as well as the coordination of head and eye movements towards these stimuli.

The superior colliculi also contain a population of neurons called "motor command neurons" that directly control the muscles responsible for orienting the eyes, head, and body towards novel or significant sensory events. These motor command neurons are activated in response to specific patterns of activity in the sensory layers of the superior colliculus, allowing for the rapid and automatic orientation of attention and gaze towards salient stimuli.

In summary, the superior colliculi are a pair of structures located on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that play a critical role in the integration and coordination of visual, auditory, and somatosensory information for the purpose of orienting attention and gaze towards salient stimuli. They contain sensory layers that generate spatial maps of the environment, as well as motor command neurons that directly control the muscles responsible for orienting the eyes, head, and body.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

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Muscles of the head, face, and neck. Zygomaticus major shown in red. Zygomaticus minor muscle Sarilita, E.; Rynn, C.; Mossey, P ... the orbicularis oris muscle, and the deeper muscular structures. The muscle muscle receives motor innervation from the buccal ... The average muscle can contract with a force of 200 g. The zygomaticus major muscle may be used in reconstructive surgery to ... The zygomaticus major muscle is a muscle of the face. It arises from either zygomatic arch (cheekbone); it inserts at the ...
Head and Neck, Eye Extraocular Muscles". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. PMID 30137849. Retrieved 12 January 2022. " ... the superior rectus muscle, lateral rectus muscle, medial rectus muscle, and inferior rectus muscle. The recti muscles are all ... The extraocular muscles, or extrinsic ocular muscles, are the seven extrinsic muscles of the human eye. Six of the extraocular ... The two oblique muscles are the inferior oblique muscle, and the superior oblique muscle. The movements of the extraocular ...
Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Course and distribution of the ... Styloglossus muscle Styloglossus muscle Styloglossus muscle Styloglossus muscle Morton, David A. (2019). The Big Picture: Gross ... The styloglossus muscle is a bilaterally paired muscle of the tongue. It originates at the styloid process of the temporal bone ... The styloglossus muscle is the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles.[citation needed] It arises from (the ...
Muscles of the neck. Lateral view. The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Distribution of the maxillary and ... Laterally, in between the hyoglossus muscle and the mylohyoid muscle, lay several important structures (from upper to lower): ... Coronal section of tongue, showing intrinsic muscles. Hyoglossus Muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain ... The hyoglossus is a thin and quadrilateral extrinsic muscle of the tongue. It originates from the hyoid bone; it inserts onto ...
... from the mastoid process to the root of the neck. Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. Posterior triangle of the neck This ... Human head and neck, Triangles of the neck). ... plexus and the external jugular vein and platysma muscle. A ...
11.3 Axial muscles of the head, neck and back. ISBN 978-1-947172-04-3. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muscles of ... Other muscles, usually associated with the hyoid, such as the mylohyoid muscle, are responsible for opening the jaw in addition ... While these four muscles are the primary participants in mastication, other muscles are usually if not always helping the ... Unlike most of the other facial muscles, which are innervated by the facial nerve (or CN VII), the muscles of mastication are ...
Although it is mostly in the neck and can be grouped with the neck muscles by location, it can be considered a muscle of facial ... muscle Temporoparietalis muscle Procerus muscle Nasalis muscle Depressor septi nasi muscle Orbicularis oculi muscle Corrugator ... Orbicularis oris muscle Depressor anguli oris muscle Risorius Zygomaticus major muscle Zygomaticus minor muscle Levator labii ... These muscles also cause wrinkles at right angles to the muscles' action line. The facial muscles are supplied by the facial ...
The omohyoid muscle is a muscle in the neck. It is one of the infrahyoid muscles. It consists of two bellies separated by an ... The omohyoid muscle consists of muscle bellies that meet at an angle at the muscle's intermediate tendon. The inferior belly is ... Cysts of the Neck, Unknown Primary Tumor, and Neck Dissection", Diagnostic Surgical Pathology of the Head and Neck (Second ... The muscle depresses the hyoid bone when the bone is in an elevated position. A putative action of the muscle is tension of the ...
Sternocleidomastoid muscle Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. The triangles of the neck. (Anterior triangles to the left; ... Human head and neck, Triangles of the neck). ... Suprahyoid labeled at left.) Anterior triangle of the neck This ... The inferior carotid triangle (or muscular triangle), is bounded, in front, by the median line of the neck from the hyoid bone ... the vein lies lateral to the artery on the right side of the neck, but overlaps it below on the left side; the nerve lies ...
Sternocleidomastoid muscle Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. Posterior triangle of the neck labeled. (Anterior triangles to ... Human head and neck, Triangles of the neck). ... or pierces the fibers of that muscle. The subclavian vein lies ... Occipital triangle labeled at center left.) ) Posterior triangle of the neck This article incorporates text in the public ... and also with the height at which the Omohyoideus crosses the neck. Its height also varies according to the position of the arm ...
Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck. Newborn dissection. Wilson-Pauwels, Linda; Stewart, Patricia A.; Akesson, Elizabeth J. ( ... neck) via "hitchhiking" on the carotid arteries middle cervical ganglion (smallest) - adjacent to C6; target: heart, neck ... adjacent to C7; target: heart, lower neck, arm, posterior cranial arteries Nerves emerging from cervical sympathetic ganglia ...
Temporal muscle (red). Muscles of head and neck Temporal muscle.Deep dissection.Mummification process. Illustrated Anatomy of ... but larger muscle fibres vary in length in the muscle and between people. The temporalis muscle is the most powerful muscle of ... In anatomy, the temporalis muscle, also known as the temporal muscle, is one of the muscles of mastication (chewing). It is a ... Specifically, the muscle is supplied by the deep temporal nerves. At least 6 smaller branches recruit muscle fibres the most ...
The thyrohyoid muscle is a small skeletal muscle of the neck. Above, it attaches onto the greater cornu of the hyoid bone; ... 709 The thyrohyoid muscle is the only infrahyoid muscle that is not innervated via the ansa cervicalis. The muscle is provided ... 538 the sternohyoid muscle,: 538 and the superior portion of the omohyoid muscle.: 538 The thyrohyoid muscle depresses and ... The thyrohyoid muscle is a small, broad and short muscle. It is quadrilateral in shape. It may be considered a superior-ward ...
Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. Muscles, nerves and arteries of neck.Deep dissection. Anterior view. ... frontal view Submandibular gland Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. ... Each submandibular gland is divided into a superficial lobe and a deep lobe, the two being separated by the mylohyoid muscle: ... It is situated posteroinferior to the ramus of mandible,: 601 and between the two bellies of the digastric muscle.: 601 The ...
... Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. Muscles, nerves and arteries of neck.Deep ... and sternothyroid muscles. To its medial side are the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the external branch of the ... and supplies the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and neighboring muscles and skin; it frequently arises as a separate branch from ... It distributes twigs to the adjacent muscles, and numerous branches to the thyroid gland, connecting with its fellow of the ...
McCarty's head shook and his neck muscles bulged. From his face went the smile he had carried only moments before. From the ... He revealed that death was caused by a spinal haemorrhage, the result of a dislocation of the neck. Mosher remarked that the ... "Dislocated Neck Causes Death". Standard-Examiner. 26 May 1913. p. 10. Retrieved 21 March 2020. Allen, Arly (19 March 2002). " ... who found that a dislocation of a vertebra in his neck had taken place, and it was the accepted theory by most that this injury ...
... well-muscled neck; long, straight, heavily boned legs and a long tail. The Poitevin's short coat is usually tricolour; all ...
The sternothyroid muscle (or sternothyroideus) is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck. It acts to depress the hyoid bone. The two ... The muscle may be absent or doubled. It may issue accessory slips to the thyrohyoid muscle, inferior pharyngeal constrictor ... The sternothyroid muscle is shorter and wider than the sternohyoid muscle and is situated deep to and partially medial to it. ... The sternothyroid muscle depresses the hyoid bone. When the hyoid bone is fixed, it instead elevates the larynx (producing an ...
The suprahyoid muscles are four muscles located above the hyoid bone in the neck. They are the digastric, stylohyoid, ... Articles with TA98 identifiers, Suprahyoid muscles, Muscles of the head and neck). ... geniohyoid, and mylohyoid muscles. They are all pharyngeal muscles, with the exception of the geniohyoid muscle. The digastric ... thin muscles that are nearly parallel with the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. These four muscles have different ...
This exercise strengthens their neck, arm and leg muscles. Catch me: Dangling a toy-on-a-string (preferably squeaky) in front ... This swinging action builds stomach and leg muscles. Tower power: Using old or unused items like cereal boxes, lightweight ...
Doctors removed half of his tongue muscles and his jaw. They also took out half of his neck muscles. Doctors took sections of ... He subsequently endured more than forty operations on his face, neck, and mouth, radiation treatments and chemotherapy. ... healthy skin from his legs and grafted them to his face and neck. Because of radiation treatments, all of his teeth were ...
... provided large attachment areas for several neck muscles; large epipophyses are therefore indicative of a strong ... they became lost in several derived theropod lineages in the wake of an increasingly S-shaped curvature of the neck. Several ... neck musculature. The presence of epipophyses is a synapomorphy (distinguishing feature) of the group Dinosauria. Epipophyses ...
"How to ensure your baby's neck muscles are strong". Parent. Retrieved 2021-03-19. Myers, MM; Fifer, WP; Schaeffer, L; Sahni, R ... they are provided with opportunities to strengthen their neck and trunk muscles. Positioning the infant on their stomach while ... to encourage development of the neck and trunk muscles and prevent skull deformations. In 1992, the American Academy of ... Tummy time may also be used to stabilize the neck in torticollis, and to address hypertonia associated with Down syndrome. ...
... s can also cause sore neck muscles if overused. (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, All articles lacking ... A chambon is not a way to quickly fix the head set of a horse; its purpose is to help develop the correct muscles. Chambons ... They may attach to the bit or pass through the bit rings and attach to themselves below the horse's neck. A chambon prevents ... help a horse to develop the muscles of their back and topline. It applies pressure to the poll and mouth of the horse when he ...
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Keep your mind off your sore muscles. Its usually a good idea to get out and do things when you have sore neck muscles because ... Sore neck muscles could be caused by playing a sport or riding a rollercoaster, so you should think really hard to try and ... Massages have always been a great way to deal with sore muscles all over the body, and the neck is especially an area that can ... There are many different reasons as to why you could be dealing with sore neck muscles, but it is sometimes hard to pinpoint ...
X-linked myotubular myopathy is a rare disorder characterized by weakness of the respiratory muscles causing respiratory ...
Neck muscle control patterns in 3D isometric experiments. Title Neck muscle control patterns in 3D isometric experiments. ... are an appropriate method to study neuromuscular control patterns of neck muscles. As the human head-neck system is highly ... neck muscles. isometric. electromyography. visual feedback. muscle control patterns. To reference this document use: http:// ... 12 healthy male subjects had surface electromyography (EMG) placed bilaterally on 4 neck muscles: sternocleidomastoid, splenius ...
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The effects of forward head posture on expiratory muscle strength in chronic neck pain patients: A cross-sectional study.. ... The effects of forward head posture on expiratory muscle strength in chronic neck pain patients: A cross-sectional study. ... The effects of forward head posture on expiratory muscle strength in chronic neck pain patients: A cross-sectional study. ... and respiratory dysfunctions in patients with chronic neck pain. ...
Neck muscle activation is believed to generally protect against whiplash and head injury in automotive impacts and sports ... When the torso is struck, active tensing of the neck muscles may prevent the neck from rotating excessively due to the inertia ... Neck Muscle Strength Measured During Vigorous Head Shaking James R. Funk, James R. Funk ... In this scenario, neck muscle tension may also reduce the severity of a secondary head impact occurring after the primary ...
Neck Pain - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Some disorders cause only neck pain. Other disorders can cause neck and low back pain. Occasionally, neck pain results from a ... Causes of Neck Pain Most of the disorders that can cause low back pain Causes Low back pain and neck pain are among the most ... Spasms of the neck muscles are common and may occur on their own or after an injury, even a minor injury. ...
Van Daele, D. J., Finnegan, E. M., Rodnitzky, R. L., Zhen, W., McCulloch, T. M., & Hoffman, H. T. (2002). Head and neck muscle ... Head and neck muscle spasm after radiotherapy: Management with botulinum toxin A injection. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head ... Head and neck muscle spasm after radiotherapy: Management with botulinum toxin A injection. / Van Daele, Douglas J.; Finnegan, ... Head and neck muscle spasm after radiotherapy : Management with botulinum toxin A injection. In: Archives of Otolaryngology - ...
... but neck muscles are directly related with eyes. I had terrible times with my eyes, eye saw lots of mds. Until a... ... Check your Neck Muscles Canerguler. I dont know anyone pointed out this before, but neck muscles are directly related with ... My neck muscles are really soft and my posture is also very "good" on doctor terms. However in front of a bad display i can ... My neck muscles are really soft and my posture is also very "good" on doctor terms. However in front of a bad display i can ...
Category: Neck Muscles. Understanding Soft Tissue Connection Between Neck Muscles and Dura Mater Can Help Address ... The said connection has been stated to exist between the dura mater and neck muscles. The evidence offered by this review could ...
Effect of gaze direction on neck muscle activity during cervical rotation. ... Neck Muscle Activity. by Admin , Mar 31, 2014 , Gaze and Motor Responses Articles ... Do you know the 4 primary causes of chronic muscle pain and tension? ...
Agonist Contract Stretching for the Neck. US$12.00. US$9.00. This e-Booklet is at 50% i as an LearnMuscles Continuing Education ... Neck & Low Back and Pelvis 6-Pack e-Booklets. US$72.00. US$49.00. Add to cart. ... SKU: e-bk33 Category: E-Booklets Tags: assessment, e-book, e-booklet, manual therapy, neck, treatment ...
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... side of the vertebral column in the neck. The muscle connects the atlas (the topmost vertebra of the spine) with the third ... The longus colli muscle is found on the anterior (front) ... The muscles of the neck run from the base of the skull to the ... Muscles of neck. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Neck muscles are bodies of tissue that produce motion in ... The longus colli muscle is found on the anterior (front) side of the vertebral column in the neck. The muscle connects the ...
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A pulled neck muscle can be quite painful due to the frequent twisting and turning. Learn more about the ideal treatment ... A pulled neck muscle can be quite painful due to the frequent twisting and turning. The injury might affect a specific muscle ... The heat helps alleviate the spasms in the neck muscles, promote improved blood flow as well as soothe the muscle. Both cold ... Pulled neck muscle: Ideal treatment options. Leave a Comment / Sprains and Strains / By C. Young ...
Learn about Extrinsic Muscles from Head and Neck Anatomy: Part II - Musculature dental CE course & enrich your knowledge in ... These muscles do not change the shape of the tongue like the intrinsic muscle but instead change its position. These muscles ... In fact, its fibers join the inferior longitudinal muscle and the hyoglossus muscle. This muscle will, due to its position, ... Extrinsic Muscles. These muscles which are all named for their origins and insertions all end in -glossus which means they all ...
Learn the the attachments and actions of the superficial and mid-layer neck muscles which are important for moving and ... Neck muscles in breathing. Although we might think of the diaphragm as our breathing muscle, many neck muscles are also ... Our neck muscles are involved in the important actions of both moving and supporting our head in space. Some neck muscles also ... So when we describe attachments of neck muscles imagine each muscle or set of muscles that I describe as part of a pair. ...
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Temporal fascia, Auricularis anterior muscle, Auricularis superior muscle, Auricularis posterior muscle, Frontal belly of ... Depressor anguli oris muscle, Buccinator muscle, Risorius muscle, Platysma muscle, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Orbital part, ... Zygomaticus minor muscle, Zygomaticus major muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle, Mentalis muscle, Depressor labii inferioris muscle ... Auricularis superior muscle, Auricularis posterior muscle, Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle, Procerus muscle, ...
Target muscle mass region no. 3: Neck flexors. These deep muscle mass teams rest in the entrance of the neck and are dependable ... Target muscle area no. 1: Rotator cuffs. The rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscle tissue and their linked tendons that attach ... Goal muscle space no. 4: Glutes. Although they get a lot of attention, the muscle tissue underlying your butt are often ... Tendons arent muscles: Theyre connective tissue that attaches muscle mass to bones, controlling motion of the skeleton. While ...
Neck. Neck Muscles. Trachea. Cattle. Anatomy, Comparative. Part of Book De vocis auditusq; organis historia anatomica, ... Neck muscles in cattle, deep dissection, anterior view. Trachea partly visible.. General Note(s) Part of the book: Casseri, ...
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... strengthen and increase the flexibility of target muscles and joints in your body. The result is fitness, wellness, and ... Stretching the Neck Muscle. Next, we will take on another practical test, stretching the neck muscles. Neck muscles are easy to ... As relating to muscles, "Exercise that stretch the muscle fibres with the aim to increase muscle-tendon flexibility, improve ... This will let the weight of the head stretch the scanlines muscles. These are located on the sides of the neck. ...
Discover the role of the stylopharyngeus muscle in elevating the pharynx and larynx, its origin, insertion, and innervation. ... Stylopharyngeus Muscle. The stylopharyngeus muscle is responsible for raising the larynx and pharynx and functions during ... The stylopharyngeus muscle descends inferiorly along the external surface of the pharynx. It then passes between the superior ... The stylopharyngeus muscle originates from the base of the styloid process of the temporal bone. ...
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  • Patients: Individuals who had undergone primary or adjuvant radiotherapy for treatment of carcinoma of the head and neck were asked about painful spasms of the neck musculature. (
  • The heat helps alleviate the spasms in the neck muscles, promote improved blood flow as well as soothe the muscle. (
  • 12 healthy male subjects had surface electromyography (EMG) placed bilaterally on 4 neck muscles: sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, trapezius. (
  • The pain usually results from problems with the musculoskeletal system-the spine, including the bones of the spine (backbones, or vertebrae) and the muscles and ligaments that support it. (
  • As relating to muscles, "Exercise that stretch the muscle fibres with the aim to increase muscle-tendon flexibility, improve range of motion or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. (
  • If they desired treatment with botulinum toxin A, they were included in the study, Intervention: Patients received botulinum toxin A injections to the affected sternocleidomastoid muscle(s) in 1 or 2 locations. (
  • Results: Four of 6 patients with painful tightness of the neck who received botulinum toxin A injections to the sternocleidomastoid muscle achieved pain relief. (
  • Female participants used sternocleidomastoid muscle to a significantly greater extent than male participants. (
  • The scalenus posterior, also called the posterior scalene, is the smallest of the scalene muscles in the neck. (
  • We have two splenius muscles on the right and left sides of our posterior neck. (
  • From these origins, the fibers spread backward and medially to insert with the muscle of the opposite side into the fibrous pharyngeal raphe in the posterior median line of the pharynx. (
  • All these branches and nerves come from the vagus nerve (CN X). The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle can merge with superior pharyngeal constrictor, or posterior part of pharyngobasilar fascia. (
  • Our neck muscles do all of these types of contractions . (
  • Tetanus is characterized by painful muscular contractions, primarily of the masseter, and other large muscles. (
  • In this scenario, neck muscle tension may also reduce the severity of a secondary head impact occurring after the primary impact with the body. (
  • In a direct impact to the head, it has been hypothesized that active neck muscle tension may reduce the acceleration experienced by the head by increasing its effective mass. (
  • Once the initial neck pain has settled, gentle stretching exercises can help alleviate the tension as well as promote the flow of blood to the area. (
  • Psychophysiological stress responses, muscle tension, and neck and shoulder pain among supermarket cashiers. (
  • The effects of forward head posture on expiratory muscle strength in chronic neck pain patients: A cross-sectional study. (
  • This study aims to investigate the relationship between forward head posture (FHP) and respiratory dysfunctions in patients with chronic neck pain. (
  • If you do prioritize working out, you could however be neglecting important muscle teams that assist posture, movement, and in general well being. (
  • These deep muscle mass teams rest in the entrance of the neck and are dependable for holding its placement, contributing to posture. (
  • Stiffness in neck and abdominal muscles, tetanus. (
  • Isometric experiments using electromyography (EMG) are an appropriate method to study neuromuscular control patterns of neck muscles. (
  • In this study the effect of horizontal pushing and pulling exertions on the activity of major neck muscles, sternocleidomastoid and cervical trapezius, was studied biomechanically by using electromyography (EMG). (
  • The body is firm, muscles developed, shoulders round and abs chiseled. (
  • The individual should steadily rotate the head sideways, tucking the chin and rolling the shoulders to stretch various neck muscles. (
  • The muscle as a whole has attachments from the head and neck to the shoulders to the spine . (
  • The superior, or upper, oblique connects the anterior arch of the atlas with the transverse processes of the third, fourth, and fifth cervical vertebra with a narrow tendon - a flexible and fibrous tissue that often attaches muscle to bone. (
  • The trapezius is a large superficial muscle that covers much of our back. (
  • Since our focus in this article is the neck, let's take a look at just the cervical portion of the trapezius. (
  • The levator scapulae muscle is interwoven with the upper trapezius. (
  • Then, as it travels down, a portion of this muscle weaves under the upper trapezius. (
  • A significantly higher activation of cervical trapezius muscle was observed for male participants than female participants. (
  • The longus colli muscle is found on the anterior (front) side of the vertebral column in the neck. (
  • The hyoglossus muscle originates along the anterior portion of the hyoid bone from the greater cornu to the midline. (
  • Neck muscles in cattle, deep dissection, anterior view. (
  • The cheek region is subdivided by the anterior prominence of the clenched masseter muscle. (
  • The malar subunit is around the zygoma anterior to the masseter muscle. (
  • If you're experiencing neck soreness just after staring down at a phone or laptop for a long period of time, it may be worthy of it to practice these muscular tissues. (
  • This increases blood flow to the muscles, thus increasing muscular elasticity and preventing injury from stretching the muscles too far. (
  • The part of the spine that is in the neck is called the cervical spine. (
  • Our neck has many critical functions and it's the muscles that surround our cervical spine that support its movement , stability, and protective functions. (
  • The better understanding of neuromuscular control of the human neck is of critical importance to understand whiplash injury and neurological movement disorders. (
  • Neck muscle activation is believed to generally protect against whiplash and head injury in automotive impacts and sports activities. (
  • X-linked myotubular myopathy is a rare disorder characterized by weakness of the respiratory muscles causing respiratory distress. (
  • Sore neck muscle s could be caused by playing a sport or riding a rollercoaster, so you should think really hard to try and imagine what could be causing your soreness. (
  • You should not have your head tilted up too high on a pillow when you fall asleep because that is where the majority of the neck soreness in the world comes from. (
  • You usually just have to change your sleeping arrangement to find relief from your muscle soreness . (
  • There is usually not much you can do on your own when it comes to healing the soreness once it is already in your neck, but you may be able to get a little help from a friend if there is one who wants to help you out. (
  • There are different types of massages that you can get for the neck, although anything is likely to work when you have some soreness in that region. (
  • Just about every abdominal muscle mass has to get the job done in harmony to control your again and pelvis, while "you don't automatically want them to do a ton of your each day pursuits," Geiser says. (
  • Examinees who had a history of myocardial infarction within the past six weeks, chest or abdominal surgery within the past three weeks, knee surgery or knee replacement surgery, severe back pain, a history of brain aneurysm or stroke were excluded from the muscle strength exam. (
  • As the human head-neck system is highly complex, it often exerts forces and moments simultaneously during isometric testing. (
  • A new intuitive 3D visual feedback was applied in a neck isometric experiment which assisted subjects in separating force from moment tasks. (
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  • The rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscle tissue and their linked tendons that attach the shoulder blade to the higher arm, stabilizing the shoulder and allowing 360-degree motion. (
  • If you presently have shoulder discomfort or a rotator cuff injuries, nonetheless, you could exacerbate it by performing exercises those muscle tissue. (
  • Broader in the middle than at the ends, the muscle contains three sections: the superior oblique , the inferior oblique , and a vertical portion . (
  • In fact, its fibers join the inferior longitudinal muscle and the hyoglossus muscle. (
  • The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a skeletal muscle of the neck. (
  • The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is composed of two parts. (
  • From the cricoid cartilage, it arises in the interval between the cricothyroid muscle in front, and the articular facet for the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage behind. (
  • The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle can be supplied by branches from the pharyngeal plexus, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, or a combination of these (the recurrent laryngeal nerve being the most common innervation of the cricopharyngeal part). (
  • The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle has a broad role in moving the lower part of the pharynx. (
  • The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, along with the other constrictors, contract upon the bolus, and convey it downward into the esophagus. (
  • The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is partially used during breathing and speech. (
  • Uncoordinated muscle contraction, cricopharyngeal spasm, or impaired relaxation of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle are currently considered the main factors in development of a Zenker's diverticulum. (
  • The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle may be damaged by chemotherapy-intensity modulated radiotherapy. (
  • This patient presented with facial tetany, involving contraction of the masseter and his neck muscles. (
  • Objective: To introduce the concept of neck muscle pain and spasm after radiotherapy and its treatment with botulinum toxin A. Design: Case series. (
  • Conclusions: A subset of patients with irradiation-induced cervical muscle spasm benefit from treatment with botulinum toxin A injections. (
  • The eyelid is a complex structure with multiple subunits that mimic the underlying orbicularis oculi muscle. (
  • In part one of this two-part article series, we'll take a look at the attachments and actions of the superficial and mid-layer neck muscles to better understand how our neck functions. (
  • It stretches the muscles and keeps their supply. (
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  • Its interaction with the muscles of facial expression leads to the development of STLs. (
  • These muscles which are all named for their origins and insertions all end in -glossus which means they all insert into the tongue. (
  • These muscles do not change the shape of the tongue like the intrinsic muscle but instead change its position. (
  • These muscles like the rest of the tongue muscles discussed in this section are innervated by fibers derived from the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII). (
  • Remember we already discussed one of the muscles, the palatoglossus with the muscles of the palate and will not discuss it here but one should understand that it is considered one the extrinsic muscles of the tongue too. (
  • As I am sure you expect by now the styloglossus muscle originates at the styloid process and inserts in the tongue. (
  • This muscle will, due to its position, elevate and retract the tongue which is important in moving the bolus of food into the esophagus. (
  • Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (
  • Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the isokinetic strength of the knee extensors (quadriceps). (
  • can also cause neck pain, and most involve the spine, the tissues that support it, or both. (
  • This provides your muscles, cells, and tissues with immediate energy. (
  • Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery , 128 (8), 956-959. (
  • Acquired hypoparathyroidism may be due to an autoimmune process or may occur after neck irradiation or surgery. (
  • Effect of horizontal pushing and pulling exertions on neck muscle activity. (
  • Stretching specific muscles of the body is an exercise aimed at stretching the flexibility of joints and muscles in the body. (
  • Employed specific stretching exercises two to three times weekly to lengthen, strengthen, and increase the flexibility of target muscles, and joints in your body. (
  • Stretching prepares the body for exercise, increases your range of motion and prevents muscle imbalances that can lead to serious injury. (
  • Muscles and ligaments in the neck support the spine. (
  • The muscle connects the atlas (the topmost vertebra of the spine) with the third thoracic vertebra in the upper back. (
  • In comparison, anatomic areas where multiple muscles act in different directions are likely to have greater variability. (
  • If you want to get a little bit of relief before your neck has fully healed, you could always get a nice massage to help weaken the pain. (
  • Low Back Pain Low back pain and neck pain are among the most common reasons for health care visits. (
  • neck pain is a very common reason for health care visits. (
  • Some disorders cause only neck pain. (
  • Other disorders can cause neck and low back pain. (
  • Neck pain, like back pain, is common and becomes more common as people age. (
  • Neck pain can involve damage to bones, muscles, disks, or ligaments, but pain can also be caused by damage to nerves or the spinal cord. (
  • A pulled neck muscle triggers pain and inflammation. (
  • The discomfort caused by a pulled neck muscle can be managed using over-the-counter pain medications. (
  • It is important to note that neck pain might be an indication of a serious issue. (
  • In addition, a doctor must be seen if the neck pain does not subside after 4-5 days of home treatment. (
  • It's our neck muscles which are arranged in interwoven layers, that create these movements and simultaneously meet our need for stabilizing the head on our neck . (
  • Our Semi Crop V-Neck Tee is made of our premium quality cotton/spandex fabric. (
  • When the torso is struck, active tensing of the neck muscles may prevent the neck from rotating excessively due to the inertia of the head. (
  • Also, the neck has the critical job of holding up the head. (
  • Our neck muscles support and move our head allowing us to point our eyes in different directions and do things like nodding yes and no. (
  • Both heads of SCM then travel up towards our head and merge together to form one band of muscle. (
  • This section of the muscle is thicker and arises in the front of the bottom of the muscle. (
  • As the insertion is over a long area and the relationship of the hyoid to the genial tubercle varies over that area, the action depends on which area of the muscle is contracted. (
  • It's important to point out that there is variation from person to person in the points of attachment ( origin and insertion ) for all of these muscles. (
  • Strength or resistance training exercises make your muscles stronger. (
  • Six muscle strength measurements are obtained: three warm-up/ learning measurements and three test measurements for the muscle strength component record. (
  • Although six muscle strength trials are preformed only the highest peak forced is reported in the data file. (
  • Generally, STLs are perpendicular to the underlying muscles of the face. (