The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Decreased salivary flow.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
The position or attitude of the body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.
An accumulation of purulent material in the space between the PHARYNX and the CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. This usually results from SUPPURATION of retropharyngeal LYMPH NODES in patients with UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS, perforation of the pharynx, or head and neck injuries.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Replacement of the hip joint.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. This anomaly is found in 1-2% of the population and can put pressure on adjacent structures causing CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME; THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; or other conditions.
Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A partial joint replacement in which only one surface of the joint is replaced with a PROSTHESIS.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Breaks in bones.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.

Concurrent inhibition and excitation of phrenic motoneurons during inspiration: phase-specific control of excitability. (1/1532)

The movements that define behavior are controlled by motoneuron output, which depends on the excitability of motoneurons and the synaptic inputs they receive. Modulation of motoneuron excitability takes place over many time scales. To determine whether motoneuron excitability is specifically modulated during the active versus the quiescent phase of rhythmic behavior, we compared the input-output properties of phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) during inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration. In neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations that generate rhythmic respiratory motor outflow, we blocked excitatory inspiratory synaptic drive to PMNs and then examined their phase-dependent responses to superthreshold current pulses. Pulses during inspiration elicited fewer action potentials compared with identical pulses during expiration. This reduced excitability arose from an inspiratory-phase inhibitory input that hyperpolarized PMNs in the absence of excitatory inspiratory inputs. Local application of bicuculline blocked this inhibition as well as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory firing. Correspondingly, bicuculline locally applied to the midcervical spinal cord enhanced fourth cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory burst amplitude. Strychnine had no effect on C4 output. Nicotinic receptor antagonists neither potentiated C4 output nor blocked its potentiation by bicuculline, further indicating that the inhibition is not from recurrent inhibitory pathways. We conclude that it is bulbospinal in origin. These data demonstrate that rapid changes in motoneuron excitability occur during behavior and suggest that integration of overlapping, opposing synaptic inputs to motoneurons is important in controlling motor outflow. Modulation of phasic inhibition may represent a means for regulating the transfer function of PMNs to suit behavioral demands.  (+info)

Contribution of extracranial lymphatics and arachnoid villi to the clearance of a CSF tracer in the rat. (2/1532)

The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles of arachnoid villi and cervical lymphatics in the clearance of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer in rats. 125I-labeled human serum albumin (125I-HSA; 100 micrograms) was injected into one lateral ventricle, and an Evans blue dye-rat protein complex was injected intravenously. Arterial blood was sampled for 3 h. Immediately after this, multiple cervical vessels were ligated in the same animals, and plasma recoveries were monitored for a further 3 h after the intracerebroventricular injection of 100 micrograms 131I-HSA. Tracer recovery in plasma at 3 h averaged (%injected dose) 0.697 +/- 0.042 before lymphatic ligation and dropped significantly to 0.357 +/- 0. 060 after ligation. Estimates of the rate constant associated with the transport of the CSF tracer to plasma were also significantly lower after obstruction of cervical lymphatics (from 0.584 +/- 0. 072/h to 0.217 +/- 0.056/h). No significant changes were observed in sham-operated animals. Assuming that the movement of the CSF tracer to plasma in lymph-ligated animals was a result of arachnoid villi clearance, we conclude that arachnoid villi and extracranial lymphatic pathways contributed equally to the clearance of the CSF tracer from the cranial vault.  (+info)

Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood--a clinicopathological study of 17 cases. (3/1532)

AIMS: To assess the clinical and pathological features of atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood to define the salient clinical and histological features. METHODS: 17 cases were included on the basis of positive culture or demonstration of bacilli of appropriate morphology and staining characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 4.86 years. All children were systemically well, with clear chest x rays. Unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was the commonest mode of presentation. Differential Mantoux testing played no part in diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis improved with awareness. Treatment varied with surgeons opting for excision and paediatricians adding six months antituberculous chemotherapy. Acid- and alcohol-fast bacilli were identified in nine cases. Bacterial cultures were conducted in 16 cases and were positive for atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria in 14, the main organism being M avium-intracellulare complex (11 cases). Histologically, 12 cases had bright eosinophilic serpiginous necrosis with nuclear debris scattered throughout the necrotic foci. Langhans type giant cells featured in the majority of cases but infiltration by plasma cells and neutrophils was not consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis of childhood represents a rare but significant disease with characteristic clinical and histological features.  (+info)

Bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation: a new standard of care in primary hyperparathyroidism? (4/1532)

OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with initial bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this new approach are examined. BACKGROUND: Standard bilateral parathyroid exploration under general anesthesia is associated with significant risk, especially in an elderly population. Image-guided unilateral approaches, although theoretically less invasive, expose patients to the potential risk of missing multiple adenomas or asymmetric hyperplasia. Initial bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation may maximize the strengths of both approaches while minimizing their weaknesses. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 121 initial cervicotomies for primary hyperparathyroidism performed between 1995 and 1997, 31 patients were selected on the basis of their own request to undergo a conventional bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation. Neither preoperative testing of hypnotic susceptibility nor expensive localization studies were done. A hypnotic state (immobility, subjective well-being, and increased pain thresholds) was induced within 10 minutes; restoration of a fully conscious state was obtained within several seconds. Patient comfort and quiet surgical conditions were ensured by local anesthesia of the collar incision and minimal intravenous sedation titrated throughout surgery. Both peri- and postoperative records were examined to assess the safety and efficacy of this new approach. RESULTS: No conversion to general anesthesia was needed. No complications were observed. All the patients were cured with a mean follow-up of 18 +/- 12 months. Mean operating time was <1 hour. Four glands were identified in 84% of cases, three glands in 9.7%. Adenomas were found in 26 cases; among these, 6 were ectopic. Hyperplasia, requiring subtotal parathyroidectomy and transcervical thymectomy, was found in five cases (16.1%), all of which had gone undetected by localization studies when requested by the referring physicians. Concomitant thyroid lobectomy was performed in four cases. Patient comfort and recovery and surgical conditions were evaluated on visual analog scales as excellent. Postoperative analgesic consumption was minimal. Mean length of hospital stay was 1.5 +/- 0.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Initial bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism can be performed safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively under hypnosedation, which may therefore be proposed as a new standard of care.  (+info)

Neck soft tissue and fat distribution: comparison between normal men and women by magnetic resonance imaging. (5/1532)

BACKGROUND: Obesity and increased neck circumference are risk factors for the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS). SAHS is more common in men than in women, despite the fact that women have higher rates of obesity and greater overall body fat. One factor in this apparently paradoxical sex distribution may be the differing patterns of fat deposition adjacent to the upper airway in men and women. A study was therefore undertaken to compare neck fat deposition in normal men and women. METHODS: Using T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the fat and tissue volumes in the necks of 10 non-obese men and 10 women matched for age (men mean (SE) 36 (3) years, women 37 (3) years, p = 0.7), body mass index (both 25 (0. 6) kg/m2, p>0.9), and Epworth Sleepiness Score (both 5 (1), p = 0.9) were assessed; all denied symptoms of SAHS. RESULTS: Total neck soft tissue volume was greater in men (1295 (62) vs 928 (45) cm3, p<0. 001), but the volume of fat did not differ between the sexes (291 (29) vs 273 (18) cm3, p = 0.6). The only regions impinging on the pharynx which showed a larger absolute volume of fat in men (3.2 (0. 7) vs 1.1 (0.3) cm3, p = 0.01) and also a greater proportion of neck fat in men (1.3 (0.3)% vs 0.4 (0.1)%, p = 0.03) were the anterior segments inside the mandible at the palatal level. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in neck fat deposition between the sexes which, together with the greater overall soft tissue loading on the airway in men, may be factors in the sex distribution of SAHS.  (+info)

Volume flow estimation by colour duplex. (6/1532)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of volume blood flow using a digitised colour duplex scanner. DESIGN: Observer-blinded experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Method comparison was performed with linear regression analysis of 89 paired observations in 11 anaesthetised pigs. A Siemens Sonoline Elegra ultrasound system was used for transcutaneous volume flow estimation using invasive transit time flowmetry by Cardiomed as a reference. RESULTS: For the individual measurement we found a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 22 ml/min. For the regression line, however, the SEE was only 0.2 ml/min. CONCLUSIONS: Digitised colour-duplex sonography has a volume flow measurement error that is too high for single measurements in the individual patient for the method to be useful in clinical decision making, but sufficient for examinations of groups and comparison of groups.  (+info)

Dural arteriovenous fistula of the cervical spine presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. (7/1532)

We describe a case of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The diagnosis of DAVF was based on spinal angiography. A review of the literature revealed that five of 13 previously reported DAVFs of the cervical spine were accompanied by SAH. SAH has not been observed in DAVFs involving other segments of the spinal canal.  (+info)

Can nuchal cord cause transient increased nuchal translucency thickness? (8/1532)

When detected in a first trimester scan, an increased thickness of nuchal translucency (NT) may be associated with chromosomal, cardiac or genetic disorders. However, less attention has been devoted to the outcome of those fetuses who have confirmed normal anatomies and karyotyping, but have abnormal first trimester scans. Thus, a challenging new issue is how to counsel such cases of transient increased NT in which the translucency rapidly vanishes with no evidence of other underlying abnormalities. Two cases of transient increased thickness of NT are reported. In both, a nuchal cord was ultrasonographically demonstrated and a thorough work-up revealed chromosomally and anatomically normal fetuses. The pathophysiological theories behind these observations and their significance are discussed. Based on these observations, we suggest that transvaginal sonography combined with Doppler flow studies should be utilized for the presize detection of cord patterns to accomplish the work-up in cases of increased NT.  (+info)

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Neck pain is discomfort or soreness in the neck region, which can extend from the base of the skull to the upper part of the shoulder blades, caused by injury, irritation, or inflammation of the muscles, ligaments, or nerves in the cervical spine. The pain may worsen with movement and can be accompanied by stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, or hands. In some cases, headaches can also occur as a result of neck pain.

Neck injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in any part of the neck, including soft tissues (muscles, ligaments, tendons), nerves, bones (vertebrae), and joints (facet joints, intervertebral discs). These injuries can result from various incidents such as road accidents, falls, sports-related activities, or work-related tasks. Common neck injuries include whiplash, strain or sprain of the neck muscles, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and pinched nerves, which may cause symptoms like pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, shoulders, arms, or hands. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

A femoral neck fracture is a type of hip fracture that occurs in the narrow, vertical section of bone just below the ball of the femur (thigh bone) that connects to the hip socket. This area is called the femoral neck. Femoral neck fractures can be categorized into different types based on their location and the direction of the fractured bone.

These fractures are typically caused by high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or falls from significant heights, in younger individuals. However, in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, femoral neck fractures can also result from low-energy trauma, like a simple fall from standing height.

Femoral neck fractures are often serious and require prompt medical attention. Treatment usually involves surgery to realign and stabilize the broken bone fragments, followed by rehabilitation to help regain mobility and strength. Potential complications of femoral neck fractures include avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow to the femoral head), nonunion or malunion (improper healing), and osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Whiplash injuries are a type of soft tissue injury to the neck that occurs when the head is suddenly and forcefully thrown backward (hyperextension) and then forward (hyperflexion). This motion is similar to the cracking of a whip, hence the term "whiplash."

Whiplash injuries are most commonly associated with rear-end automobile accidents, but they can also occur from sports accidents, physical abuse, or other traumatic events. The impact of these forces on the neck can cause damage to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues in the neck, resulting in pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

In some cases, whiplash injuries may also cause damage to the discs between the vertebrae in the spine or to the nerves exiting the spinal cord. These types of injuries can have more serious consequences and may require additional medical treatment.

Whiplash injuries are typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, patient history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for whiplash injuries may include pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, or in some cases, surgery.

Laryngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Laryngeal neoplasms can affect any part of the larynx, including the vocal cords, epiglottis, and the area around the vocal cords called the ventricle.

Benign laryngeal neoplasms may include papillomas, hemangiomas, or polyps. Malignant laryngeal neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas, which account for more than 95% of all malignant laryngeal tumors. Other types of malignant laryngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.

Risk factors for developing laryngeal neoplasms include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to industrial chemicals, and a history of acid reflux. Symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, or a lump in the neck. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

In medical terms, the "head" is the uppermost part of the human body that contains the brain, skull, face, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears. It is connected to the rest of the body by the neck and is responsible for many vital functions such as sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought processing. The head also plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, speech, and eating.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the structures related to the head and neck, which are studied and managed by the medical specialty of otorhinolaryngology (also known as ENT - ear, nose, and throat). These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can develop in various areas such as:

1. The external auditory canal (the ear canal)
2. The middle ear and inner ear
3. The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
4. The pharynx (throat), including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx
5. The larynx (voice box)

The symptoms and treatment options for otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms depend on their location, size, and type (benign or malignant). Common symptoms include:

* A mass or growth in the ear, nose, or throat
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Nosebleeds or nasal congestion
* Facial pain or numbness
* Swelling in the neck or face

It is essential to consult an otorhinolaryngologist if any concerning symptoms are present, as early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Squamous cell neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that originate from squamous cells, which are flat, scale-like cells that make up the outer layer of the skin and the lining of mucous membranes. These neoplasms can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When malignant, they are called squamous cell carcinomas.

Squamous cell carcinomas often develop in areas exposed to excessive sunlight or ultraviolet radiation, such as the skin, lips, and mouth. They can also occur in other areas of the body, including the cervix, anus, and lungs. Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include fair skin, a history of sunburns, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and a weakened immune system.

Symptoms of squamous cell carcinomas may include rough or scaly patches on the skin, a sore that doesn't heal, a wart-like growth, or a raised bump with a central depression. Treatment for squamous cell carcinomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.

Pharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Pharyngeal neoplasms can occur in any part of the pharynx, which is divided into three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. The most common type of pharyngeal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the flat cells that line the mucosal surface of the pharynx.

Risk factors for developing pharyngeal neoplasms include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, ear pain, neck masses, and changes in voice or speech. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Shoulder pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or hurt in the shoulder joint, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding structures. The shoulder is one of the most mobile joints in the body, and this mobility makes it prone to injury and pain. Shoulder pain can result from various causes, including overuse, trauma, degenerative conditions, or referred pain from other areas of the body.

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint, can also be a source of pain if it becomes inflamed or torn.

Shoulder pain can range from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, bruising, weakness, numbness, tingling, or reduced mobility in the affected arm. The pain may worsen with movement, lifting objects, or performing certain activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.

Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause of shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, medication, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and nature of the condition.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Oropharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the oropharynx, which is the middle part of the pharynx (throat) that includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant global health concern, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type of malignant neoplasm in this region. The primary risk factors for oropharyngeal cancers include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a medical treatment that uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells, shrink tumors, and prevent the growth and spread of cancer. The radiation can be delivered externally using machines or internally via radioactive substances placed in or near the tumor. Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Normal cells are also affected by radiation, but they have a greater ability to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. The goal of radiotherapy is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Hypopharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the hypopharynx, which is the lower part of the pharynx or throat. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant hypopharyngeal neoplasms are often squamous cell carcinomas and are aggressive with a poor prognosis due to their location and tendency to spread early. They can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, and neck masses. Risk factors for hypopharyngeal cancer include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition.

In anatomical terms, the shoulder refers to the complex joint of the human body that connects the upper limb to the trunk. It is formed by the union of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (upper arm bone). The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket type of synovial joint, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation.

The shoulder complex includes not only the glenohumeral joint but also other structures that contribute to its movement and stability, including:

1. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint: where the clavicle meets the acromion process of the scapula.
2. The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament: connects the coracoid process of the scapula to the clavicle, providing additional stability to the AC joint.
3. The rotator cuff: a group of four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that surround and reinforce the shoulder joint, contributing to its stability and range of motion.
4. The biceps tendon: originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and passes through the shoulder joint, helping with flexion, supination, and stability.
5. Various ligaments and capsular structures that provide additional support and limit excessive movement in the shoulder joint.

The shoulder is a remarkable joint due to its wide range of motion, but this also makes it susceptible to injuries and disorders such as dislocations, subluxations, sprains, strains, tendinitis, bursitis, and degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis. Proper care, exercise, and maintenance are essential for maintaining shoulder health and function throughout one's life.

Xerostomia is a medical term that describes the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth due to decreased or absent saliva flow. It's also commonly referred to as "dry mouth." This condition can result from various factors, including medications, dehydration, radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and other medical disorders. Prolonged xerostomia may lead to oral health issues such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, and difficulty with speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Musculoskeletal diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. These diseases can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and decreased function in the affected areas of the body. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and bone erosion.
3. Gout: A form of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, leading to severe pain, redness, and swelling.
4. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weakened bones that are more susceptible to fractures due to decreased bone density.
5. Fibromyalgia: A disorder that causes widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and tenderness in specific areas of the body.
6. Spinal disorders: Conditions affecting the spine, such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative disc disease, which can cause back pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
7. Soft tissue injuries: Damage to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, often caused by overuse, strain, or trauma.
8. Infections: Bone and joint infections (septic arthritis or osteomyelitis) can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
9. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in bones, muscles, or soft tissues can lead to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
10. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can affect the musculoskeletal system and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for musculoskeletal diseases varies depending on the specific condition but may include medications, physical therapy, exercise, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Head movements refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the head in various directions. These movements can occur in different planes, including flexion (moving the head forward), extension (moving the head backward), rotation (turning the head to the side), and lateral bending (leaning the head to one side).

Head movements can be a result of normal physiological processes, such as when nodding in agreement or shaking the head to indicate disagreement. They can also be caused by neurological conditions, such as abnormal head movements in patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar disorders. Additionally, head movements may occur in response to sensory stimuli, such as turning the head toward a sound.

In a medical context, an examination of head movements can provide important clues about a person's neurological function and help diagnose various conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A laryngectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This is typically performed in cases of advanced laryngeal cancer or other severe diseases of the larynx. After the surgery, the patient will have a permanent stoma (opening) in the neck to allow for breathing. The ability to speak after a total laryngectomy can be restored through various methods such as esophageal speech, tracheoesophageal puncture with a voice prosthesis, or electronic devices.

Fracture fixation, internal, is a surgical procedure where a fractured bone is fixed using metal devices such as plates, screws, or rods that are implanted inside the body. This technique helps to maintain the alignment and stability of the broken bone while it heals. The implants may be temporarily or permanently left inside the body, depending on the nature and severity of the fracture. Internal fixation allows for early mobilization and rehabilitation, which can result in a faster recovery and improved functional outcome.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Urinary bladder neck obstruction is a medical condition that refers to a partial or complete blockage at the bladder neck, which is the area where the bladder connects to the urethra. This obstruction can be caused by various factors such as prostate enlargement, bladder tumors, scar tissue, or nerve damage.

The bladder neck obstruction can lead to difficulty in urinating, a weak urine stream, and the need to strain while urinating. In severe cases, it can cause urinary retention, kidney failure, and other complications. Treatment for this condition depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or minimally invasive procedures.

Radiotherapy dosage refers to the total amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by tissues or organs, typically measured in units of Gray (Gy), during a course of radiotherapy treatment. It is the product of the dose rate (the amount of radiation delivered per unit time) and the duration of treatment. The prescribed dosage for cancer treatments can range from a few Gray to more than 70 Gy, depending on the type and location of the tumor, the patient's overall health, and other factors. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a sufficient dosage to destroy the cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

Paraganglioma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the nervous system, specifically in the paraganglia. Paraganglia are clusters of specialized nerve cells throughout the body that release hormones in response to stress or physical activity. Most paragangliomas are benign (noncancerous), but some can be malignant (cancerous) and may spread to other parts of the body.

Paragangliomas can occur in various locations, including the head and neck region (called "head and neck paragangliomas") or near the spine, abdomen, or chest (called "extra-adrenal paragangliomas"). When they develop in the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney, they are called pheochromocytomas.

Paragangliomas can produce and release hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine, leading to symptoms like high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, sweating, anxiety, and headaches. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with medications to manage symptoms and control hormone levels before and after surgery.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a type of external beam radiation therapy that uses advanced technology to precisely target tumors while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues. In IMRT, the intensity of the radiation beam is modulated or varied during treatment, allowing for more conformal dose distributions and better sparing of normal structures. This is achieved through the use of computer-controlled linear accelerators that shape the radiation beam to match the three-dimensional shape of the tumor. The result is improved treatment accuracy, reduced side effects, and potentially higher cure rates compared to conventional radiotherapy techniques.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

There are different types of thyroidectomy procedures, including:

1. Total thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland.
2. Partial (or subtotal) thyroidectomy: Removal of a portion of the thyroid gland.
3. Hemithyroidectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, often performed to treat benign solitary nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer.

Thyroidectomy may be recommended for various reasons, such as treating thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or thyroid cancer. Potential risks and complications of the procedure include bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures like the parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerve, and hypoparathyroidism or hypothyroidism due to removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands or thyroid gland, respectively. Close postoperative monitoring and management are essential to minimize these risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

The femoral head is the rounded, ball-like top portion of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. It has a smooth, articular cartilage surface that allows for smooth and stable articulation with the pelvis. The femoral head is connected to the femoral neck, which is a narrower section of bone that angles downward and leads into the shaft of the femur. Together, the femoral head and neck provide stability and range of motion to the hip joint.

Otolaryngology is a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders related to the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and head and neck region. It's also known as ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) specialty. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management of conditions such as hearing and balance disorders, nasal congestion, sinusitis, allergies, sleep apnea, snoring, swallowing difficulties, voice and speech problems, and head and neck tumors.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

A computer terminal is a device that enables a user to interact with a computer system. It typically includes an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse, and an output device, such as a monitor or a printer. A terminal may also include additional features, such as storage devices or network connections. In modern usage, the term "computer terminal" is often used to refer specifically to a device that provides text-based access to a computer system, as opposed to a graphical user interface (GUI). These text-based terminals are sometimes called "dumb terminals," because they rely on the computer system to perform most of the processing and only provide a simple interface for input and output. However, this term can be misleading, as many modern terminals are quite sophisticated and can include features such as advanced graphics capabilities or support for multimedia content.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

Nasopharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasopharynx, which is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant nasopharyngeal neoplasms are often referred to as nasopharyngeal carcinoma or cancer. There are different types of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, including keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, non-keratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

The risk factors for developing nasopharyngeal neoplasms include exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), consumption of certain foods, smoking, and genetic factors. Symptoms may include a lump in the neck, nosebleeds, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and difficulty swallowing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) are a group of conditions that result from repeated exposure to biomechanical stressors, often related to work activities. These disorders can affect the muscles, tendons, nerves, and joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and reduced range of motion.

CTDs are also known as repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) or overuse injuries. They occur when there is a mismatch between the demands placed on the body and its ability to recover from those demands. Over time, this imbalance can lead to tissue damage and inflammation, resulting in chronic pain and functional limitations.

Examples of CTDs include carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, epicondylitis (tennis elbow), rotator cuff injuries, and trigger finger. Prevention strategies for CTDs include proper ergonomics, workstation design, body mechanics, taking regular breaks to stretch and rest, and performing exercises to strengthen and condition the affected muscles and joints.

Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the soft tissues in the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can cause discomfort, pain, and sores or lesions in the mouth. Stomatitis may result from a variety of causes, such as infection, injury, allergic reaction, or systemic diseases. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, mouth rinses, or changes in oral hygiene practices.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation or bulging of the abdominal aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that supplies oxygenated blood to the trunk and lower extremities. Normally, the diameter of the abdominal aorta measures about 2 centimeters (cm) in adults. However, when the diameter of the aorta exceeds 3 cm, it is considered an aneurysm.

AAA can occur anywhere along the length of the abdominal aorta, but it most commonly occurs below the renal arteries and above the iliac bifurcation. The exact cause of AAA remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified, including smoking, hypertension, advanced age, male gender, family history, and certain genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

The main concern with AAA is the risk of rupture, which can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding. The larger the aneurysm, the greater the risk of rupture. Symptoms of AAA may include abdominal or back pain, a pulsating mass in the abdomen, or symptoms related to compression of surrounding structures such as the kidneys, ureters, or nerves. However, many AAAs are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

Diagnosis of AAA typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small AAAs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to assess for growth. Larger AAAs or those that are growing rapidly may require surgical repair, either through open surgery or endovascular repair using a stent graft.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Deglutition disorders, also known as swallowing disorders, are conditions that affect the ability to move food or liquids from the mouth to the stomach safely and efficiently. These disorders can occur at any stage of the swallowing process, which includes oral preparation (chewing and manipulating food in the mouth), pharyngeal phase (activating muscles and structures in the throat to move food toward the esophagus), and esophageal phase (relaxing and contracting the esophagus to propel food into the stomach).

Symptoms of deglutition disorders may include coughing or choking during or after eating, difficulty initiating a swallow, food sticking in the throat or chest, regurgitation, unexplained weight loss, and aspiration (inhaling food or liquids into the lungs), which can lead to pneumonia.

Deglutition disorders can be caused by various factors, such as neurological conditions (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), structural abnormalities (e.g., narrowing or blockage of the esophagus), muscle weakness or dysfunction, and cognitive or behavioral issues. Treatment for deglutition disorders may involve dietary modifications, swallowing exercises, medications, or surgical interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

I believe you may be looking for the term "human factors engineering" or "ergonomics," as there is no widely recognized medical definition for "human engineering." Human factors engineering is a multidisciplinary field that focuses on the design and integration of systems, products, and environments to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. This includes considering human capabilities, limitations, and characteristics in the design process to ensure safe, efficient, and effective interactions between humans and technology.

A retropharyngeal abscess is a deep neck infection involving the potential space between the buccopharyngeal fascia and the alar fascia, primarily located in the retropharyngeal space. This space extends from the base of the skull to the mediastinum and contains loose connective tissue, fat, and lymph nodes. The infection usually originates from an upper respiratory tract infection or a penetrating injury to the posterior pharyngeal wall.

The abscess can cause swelling and compression of surrounding structures, leading to potentially serious complications such as airway obstruction, mediastinitis, or sepsis if left untreated. Symptoms may include neck pain, difficulty swallowing, fever, drooling, and decreased appetite. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves surgical drainage of the abscess and antibiotic therapy to manage the infection.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a serious and potentially disabling complication of radiation therapy, particularly in the head and neck region. It is defined as an area of exposed necrotic bone that fails to heal over a period of 3-6 months in a patient who has received radiation therapy. The pathophysiology of ORN involves damage to blood vessels, connective tissue, and bone, leading to hypoxia, hypocellularity, and hypovascularity.

The clinical presentation of ORN includes pain, swelling, trismus (difficulty opening the mouth), foul odor, and purulent drainage. The diagnosis is typically made based on clinical examination and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options for ORN include hyperbaric oxygen therapy, surgical debridement, and antibiotic therapy. Preventive measures include good oral hygiene, dental evaluation before radiation therapy, and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol use.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Dose fractionation is a medical term that refers to the practice of dividing the total dose of radiation therapy or chemotherapy into smaller doses, which are given over a longer period. This approach allows for the delivery of a higher total dose of treatment while minimizing damage to healthy tissues and reducing side effects.

In radiation therapy, fractionation is used to target cancer cells while sparing surrounding normal tissues. By delivering smaller doses of radiation over several treatments, healthy tissue has time to recover between treatments, reducing the risk of complications. The number and size of fractions can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health.

Similarly, in chemotherapy, dose fractionation is used to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment while minimizing toxicity. By administering smaller doses of chemotherapy over time, the body has a chance to recover between treatments, reducing side effects and allowing for higher total doses to be given. The schedule and duration of chemotherapy fractionation may vary depending on the type of drug used, the type and stage of cancer, and other factors.

Overall, dose fractionation is an important technique in both radiation therapy and chemotherapy that allows for more effective treatment while minimizing harm to healthy tissues.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Chemoradiotherapy is a medical treatment that combines chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill or damage cancer cells, while radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation to achieve the same goal. In chemoradiotherapy, these two modalities are used simultaneously or sequentially to treat a malignancy.

The aim of chemoradiotherapy is to increase the effectiveness of treatment by targeting cancer cells with both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This approach can be particularly effective in treating certain types of cancer, such as head and neck cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and rectal cancer.

The specific drugs used in chemoradiotherapy and the doses and schedules of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated. The side effects of chemoradiotherapy can be significant and may include fatigue, skin reactions, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myelosuppression. However, these side effects are usually manageable with appropriate supportive care.

Pharyngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx plays a crucial role in swallowing, speaking, and breathing. Pharyngeal diseases can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, pain during swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, and earaches.

Some common pharyngeal diseases include:

1. Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the pharynx, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
2. Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, which are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the back of the throat.
3. Epiglottitis: Inflammation of the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the lungs.
4. Abscesses: A collection of pus in the pharynx caused by a bacterial infection.
5. Cancer: Malignant tumors that can develop in the pharynx, often caused by smoking or heavy alcohol use.
6. Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing due to nerve damage, muscle weakness, or structural abnormalities in the pharynx.
7. Stridor: Noisy breathing caused by a narrowed or obstructed airway in the pharynx.

Treatment for pharyngeal diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain relievers, surgery, or radiation therapy.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Mucositis is a common side effect of cancer treatment, particularly chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It's defined as the inflammation and damage to the mucous membranes that line the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. This condition can cause symptoms such as pain, redness, swelling, and ulcers in the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

Mucositis can make it difficult for patients to eat, drink, and swallow, which can lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss. It can also increase the risk of infection, as the damaged mucous membranes provide an entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms.

The severity of mucositis can vary depending on the type and dose of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, as well as individual patient factors such as age, overall health status, and genetic makeup. Mucositis typically occurs within a few days to a week after starting cancer treatment and may persist for several weeks or even months after treatment has ended.

Management of mucositis typically involves a combination of strategies, including pain relief, oral hygiene measures, nutritional support, and infection prevention. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and manage infection.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a type of receptor found on the surface of many cells in the body, including those of the epidermis or outer layer of the skin. It is a transmembrane protein that has an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain.

EGFR plays a crucial role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. When EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) or other ligands bind to the extracellular domain of EGFR, it causes the receptor to dimerize and activate its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. This leads to the autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on the receptor, which in turn recruits and activates various downstream signaling molecules, resulting in a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

Abnormal activation of EGFR has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or mutation of EGFR can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, angiogenesis, and metastasis, making it an important target for cancer therapy.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

In medical terms, the hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the rounded head of the femur (thigh bone) fits into the cup-shaped socket, also known as the acetabulum, of the pelvis. This joint allows for a wide range of movement in the lower extremities and supports the weight of the upper body during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide stability and enable proper functioning.

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a condition where the neck muscles contract and cause the head to turn to one side. There are different types of torticollis including congenital (present at birth), acquired (develops after birth), and spasmodic (neurological).

Congenital torticollis can be caused by a tight or shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck, which can occur due to positioning in the womb or abnormal blood vessels in the muscle. Acquired torticollis can result from injury, infection, or tumors in the neck. Spasmodic torticollis is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary contractions of the neck muscles and can be caused by a variety of factors including genetics, environmental toxins, or head trauma.

Symptoms of torticollis may include difficulty turning the head, tilting the chin upwards or downwards, pain or discomfort in the neck, and a limited range of motion. Treatment for torticollis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or surgery.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called a radiotracer, to produce detailed, three-dimensional images. This technique measures metabolic activity within the body, such as sugar metabolism, to help distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify cancerous cells, or examine the function of organs.

During a PET scan, the patient is injected with a radiotracer, typically a sugar-based compound labeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope, such as fluorine-18 (^18^F). The radiotracer accumulates in cells that are metabolically active, like cancer cells. As the radiotracer decays, it emits positrons, which then collide with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays. A special camera, called a PET scanner, detects these gamma rays and uses this information to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and processes.

PET is often used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide both functional and anatomical information, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Common applications include detecting cancer recurrence, staging and monitoring cancer, evaluating heart function, and assessing brain function in conditions like dementia and epilepsy.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Parathyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the parathyroid glands, which are small endocrine glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parathyroid neoplasms are typically called parathyroid adenomas and are the most common type of parathyroid disorder. They result in overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to a condition known as primary hyperparathyroidism. Symptoms may include kidney stones, osteoporosis, fatigue, depression, and abdominal pain.

Malignant parathyroid neoplasms are called parathyroid carcinomas. They are rare but more aggressive than adenomas, with a higher risk of recurrence and metastasis. Symptoms are similar to those of benign neoplasms but may also include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.

It is important to note that parathyroid neoplasms can only be definitively diagnosed through biopsy or surgical removal and subsequent histopathological examination.

A carotid body tumor is a rare, usually noncancerous (benign) growth that develops in the carotid body, a small structure located near the bifurcation (fork) of the common carotid artery in the neck. The carotid body is part of the chemoreceptor system that helps regulate breathing and blood pressure by responding to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels in the blood.

Carotid body tumors are also known as carotid body paragangliomas or chemodectomas. They typically grow slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, as they enlarge, they can cause a visible or palpable mass in the neck, along with symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, or voice changes. In some cases, carotid body tumors can compress nearby nerves or blood vessels, leading to more serious complications like stroke or nerve damage.

Treatment for carotid body tumors typically involves surgical removal of the growth, which may be performed using traditional open surgery or minimally invasive techniques such as endovascular surgery or robotic-assisted surgery. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are generally not effective in treating these tumors. Regular follow-up care is important to monitor for recurrence or development of new tumors.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

Glossectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the partial or total removal of the tongue. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as treating certain types of cancer (like oral or tongue cancer) that have not responded to other forms of treatment, or removing a portion of the tongue that's severely damaged or injured due to trauma.

The extent of the glossectomy depends on the size and location of the tumor or lesion. A partial glossectomy refers to the removal of a part of the tongue, while a total glossectomy involves the complete excision of the tongue. In some cases, reconstructive surgery may be performed to help restore speech and swallowing functions after the procedure.

It is essential to note that a glossectomy can significantly impact a patient's quality of life, as the tongue plays crucial roles in speaking, swallowing, and taste sensation. Therefore, multidisciplinary care involving speech therapists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals is often necessary to help patients adapt to their new conditions and optimize their recovery process.

Kinesin is not a medical term per se, but a term from the field of cellular biology. However, understanding how kinesins work is important in the context of medical and cellular research.

Kinesins are a family of motor proteins that play a crucial role in transporting various cargoes within cells, such as vesicles, organelles, and chromosomes. They move along microtubule filaments, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to generate mechanical force and motion. This process is essential for several cellular functions, including intracellular transport, mitosis, and meiosis.

In a medical context, understanding kinesin function can provide insights into various diseases and conditions related to impaired intracellular transport, such as neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease) and certain genetic disorders affecting motor neurons. Research on kinesins can potentially lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting these conditions.

Arm injuries refer to any damage or harm sustained by the structures of the upper limb, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common arm injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, tendonitis, and nerve damage. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, numbness, or weakness in the affected area. Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, and may include rest, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Traction, in medical terms, refers to the application of a pulling force to distract or align parts of the body, particularly bones, joints, or muscles, with the aim of immobilizing, reducing displacement, or realigning them. This is often achieved through the use of various devices such as tongs, pulleys, weights, or specialized traction tables. Traction may be applied manually or mechanically and can be continuous or intermittent, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. Common indications for traction include fractures, dislocations, spinal cord injuries, and certain neurological conditions.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Laryngoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the larynx, which is the upper part of the windpipe (trachea), and the vocal cords using a specialized instrument called a laryngoscope. The laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth or nose to provide a clear view of the larynx and surrounding structures. This procedure can be performed for diagnostic purposes, such as identifying abnormalities like growths, inflammation, or injuries, or for therapeutic reasons, such as removing foreign objects or taking tissue samples for biopsy. There are different types of laryngoscopes and techniques used depending on the reason for the examination and the patient's specific needs.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Computer-assisted radiotherapy planning (CARP) is the use of computer systems and software to assist in the process of creating a treatment plan for radiotherapy. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a precise and effective dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy tissue. CARP involves using imaging data, such as CT or MRI scans, to create a 3D model of the patient's anatomy. This model is then used to simulate the delivery of radiation from different angles and determine the optimal treatment plan. The use of computers in this process allows for more accurate and efficient planning, as well as the ability to easily adjust the plan as needed.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

A free tissue flap in medical terms refers to a surgical procedure where living tissue, along with its own blood supply, is lifted from its original location and moved to another part of the body for reconstruction or repair. The term "free" indicates that the tissue is completely detached from its original blood vessels and then reattached to new blood vessels at the recipient site using microvascular surgical techniques.

Free tissue flaps can be composed of various tissues, such as skin, muscle, fascia (the connective tissue beneath the skin), or bone. They are often used in reconstructive surgery following trauma, tumor removal, or for treating complex wounds that cannot heal on their own. The advantages of free tissue flaps include increased flexibility in choosing the type and size of tissue to be transferred, as well as improved blood flow to the transplanted tissue, which can enhance healing and overall surgical success.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

A cervical rib is a congenital anomaly, which means it is present at birth, and it refers to the existence of an extra rib that arises from the seventh cervical vertebra in the neck. Normally, humans have 12 pairs of ribs attached to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. However, in some individuals, an additional rib develops from one or both sides of the seventh cervical vertebra, resulting in a cervical rib.

Cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic and may not cause any issues. However, in some cases, they can compress nearby nerves (such as the brachial plexus) or blood vessels (like the subclavian artery), leading to symptoms like pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arm and hand, also known as thoracic outlet syndrome. If the compression is severe or causes significant discomfort, treatment options may include physical therapy, pain management, or surgical removal of the cervical rib.

Spinal manipulation is a manual therapy technique often used in the practice of chiropractic, osteopathic medicine, and physical therapy. It involves applying controlled force to the spinal joints, usually through quick and precise thrusting movements. The goal of this technique is to improve mobility and range of motion in the spine, reduce pain and muscle tension, and promote overall function of the nervous system. Spinal manipulation may also be used to treat various conditions such as low back pain, neck pain, headaches, and other musculoskeletal disorders. It is important to note that spinal manipulation should only be performed by licensed healthcare professionals with proper training and expertise in this technique.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG-18) is not a medical condition, but a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging. It is a type of glucose (a simple sugar) that has been chemically combined with a small amount of a radioactive isotope called fluorine-18.

FDG-18 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help identify areas of the body where cells are using more energy than normal, such as cancerous tumors. The FDG-18 is injected into the patient's vein and travels throughout the body. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than normal cells, they tend to absorb more FDG-18.

Once inside the body, the FDG-18 emits positrons, which interact with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays that can be detected by a PET scanner. The resulting images can help doctors locate and assess the size and activity of cancerous tumors, as well as monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

An abscess is a localized collection of pus caused by an infection. It is typically characterized by inflammation, redness, warmth, pain, and swelling in the affected area. Abscesses can form in various parts of the body, including the skin, teeth, lungs, brain, and abdominal organs. They are usually treated with antibiotics to eliminate the infection and may require drainage if they are large or located in a critical area. If left untreated, an abscess can lead to serious complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Musculoskeletal manipulations refer to the skilled manual movement of or pressure applied to a joint or joints, muscle, or muscles and connective tissues. The goal is to improve mobility, relieve pain, reduce muscle tension, or restore function in the body. This technique is often used by chiropractors, osteopathic physicians, physical therapists, and some massage therapists as a treatment intervention for various musculoskeletal conditions such as low back pain, neck pain, headaches, and joint disorders.

It's important to note that musculoskeletal manipulations should be performed by trained healthcare professionals, as there are potential risks and contraindications associated with this type of treatment. Patients should consult with their healthcare provider before undergoing any form of manual therapy.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

Papillomavirus infections are a group of diseases caused by various types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses infect the skin and mucous membranes, and can cause benign growths such as warts or papillomas, as well as malignant growths like cervical cancer.

There are more than 100 different types of HPVs, and they can be classified into low-risk and high-risk types based on their potential to cause cancer. Low-risk HPV types, such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, commonly cause benign genital warts and respiratory papillomas. High-risk HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

HPV infections are typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most sexually active individuals will acquire at least one HPV infection during their lifetime. In many cases, the immune system is able to clear the virus without any symptoms or long-term consequences. However, persistent high-risk HPV infections can lead to the development of cancer over time.

Prevention measures for HPV infections include vaccination against high-risk HPV types, safe sex practices, and regular screening for cervical cancer in women. The HPV vaccine is recommended for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years old, and can also be given to older individuals up to age 45 who have not previously been vaccinated or who have not completed the full series of shots.

Pathologic dilatation refers to an abnormal and excessive widening or enlargement of a body cavity or organ, which can result from various medical conditions. This abnormal dilation can occur in different parts of the body, including the blood vessels, digestive tract, airways, or heart chambers.

In the context of the cardiovascular system, pathologic dilatation may indicate a weakening or thinning of the heart muscle, leading to an enlarged chamber that can no longer pump blood efficiently. This condition is often associated with various heart diseases, such as cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or long-standing high blood pressure.

In the gastrointestinal tract, pathologic dilatation may occur due to mechanical obstruction, neuromuscular disorders, or inflammatory conditions that affect the normal motility of the intestines. Examples include megacolon in Hirschsprung's disease, toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis, or volvulus (twisting) of the bowel.

Pathologic dilatation can lead to various complications, such as reduced organ function, impaired circulation, and increased risk of infection or perforation. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the root problem and prevent further enlargement.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a specific type of osteoporosis that occurs in women after they have gone through menopause. It is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures. In this condition, the decline in estrogen levels that occurs during menopause accelerates bone loss, resulting in a decrease in bone density and quality, which can lead to fragility fractures, particularly in the hips, wrists, and spine.

It's important to note that while postmenopausal osteoporosis is more common in women, men can also develop osteoporosis due to other factors such as aging, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes, and there are over 200 types of HPV. Some types of HPV can cause warts, while others are associated with an increased risk of certain cancers.

HPV16 is one of the high-risk types of HPV and is strongly associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV16 is responsible for about 50% of all cervical cancers and is the most common high-risk type of HPV found in these cancers.

HPV16 is typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most people who are sexually active will acquire at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. While HPV infections are often harmless and clear up on their own without causing any symptoms or health problems, high-risk types like HPV16 can lead to cancer if left untreated.

Fortunately, there are vaccines available that protect against HPV16 and other high-risk types of HPV. These vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cancers and precancerous lesions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls starting at age 11 or 12, although the vaccine can be given as early as age 9. Catch-up vaccinations are also recommended for older individuals who have not yet been vaccinated.

A hip fracture is a medical condition referring to a break in the upper part of the femur (thigh) bone, which forms the hip joint. The majority of hip fractures occur due to falls or direct trauma to the area. They are more common in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and makes them more prone to breaking. Hip fractures can significantly impact mobility and quality of life, often requiring surgical intervention and rehabilitation.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Hemiarthroplasty is a surgical procedure where only one half (hemi-) of a joint is replaced with an artificial component, usually a metal ball attached to a stem that fits into the bone. This procedure is most commonly performed on the shoulder or hip joints. In a hip hemiarthroplasty, it involves replacing the femoral head (the ball part of the thighbone) which has been damaged due to fracture or arthritis. The acetabulum (socket part of the pelvis) is not replaced and remains as it is. This procedure aims to relieve pain, restore mobility, and improve joint function.

The glottis is a medical term that refers to the opening between the vocal cords (the ligaments in the larynx that produce sound when air passes through them during speech) in the human throat or larynx. It is an important structure for breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds or speech. The glottis opens during inhalation to allow air into the lungs and closes during swallowing to prevent food or liquids from entering the trachea (windpipe) and lungs.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

Immobilization is a medical term that refers to the restriction of normal mobility or motion of a body part, usually to promote healing and prevent further injury. This is often achieved through the use of devices such as casts, splints, braces, slings, or traction. The goal of immobilization is to keep the injured area in a fixed position so that it can heal properly without additional damage. It may be used for various medical conditions, including fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and soft tissue injuries. Immobilization helps reduce pain, minimize swelling, and protect the injured site from movement that could worsen the injury or impair healing.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Muscles of the neck are described separately from the compartments. They bound the neck triangles. In anatomy, the neck is also ... Disorders of the neck are a common source of pain. The neck has a great deal of functionality but is also subject to a lot of ... The neck is the part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso. The neck supports the weight of the ... Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of the spinal nerves C2-C4, and at the back of the neck from the ...
The mock polo neck clings to the neck smoothly, is easy to manufacture, and works well with a zip closure. Turtle neck-like ... A simpler variant of the standard polo neck is the mock polo neck (or mock turtleneck), that resembles the polo neck with the ... A polo neck, roll-neck (South Africa), turtleneck (United States, Canada), or skivvy is a garment-usually a sweater-with a ... Royalty adopted high-neck fashion, with the height and volume of the neck ruffle indicating status. From the late 19th century ...
2014, p. 24 "I Couldn't Wait to Leave 6 Months Ago - Neck Deep". Neck Deep. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2015. "Neck Deep ... Neck Deep (2 June 2014). "Interview: Neck Deep take on the U.S." (Interview). Alternative Press. For the shows in Florida and ... "TRACK REVIEW: Neck Deep - 'She's a God'". Sound Mouth. 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. "Neck Deep Drop Surprise New Single ... "Neck Deep Announce Late Fall North American Tour". Loudwire. Retrieved 5 March 2020. Rogers, Jack. "Neck Deep Drummer Dani ...
... may refer to: Swan neck, a curved spout for dispensing beer Swan neck duct, an air duct with a large change in mean ... a style of equestrian riding boot spur Swan-neck tow ball, a type of trailer tow ball Edith Swan-neck, the first wife or ... radius Swan-neck bottle, a type of ornamental glass bottle made in Iran Swan neck flask, laboratory glassware designed to slow ... a deformity of the human finger This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Swan neck. If an internal ...
Steel guitars often have multiple necks and were among the first multi-neck instruments; each neck is tuned differently to ... The neck of a violin is usually maple with a flamed figure compatible with that of the ribs and back. The shape of the neck and ... With neck-through, making the neck part of the body. This method is used on some solid-body electric guitars, where the piece ... The neck graft allows the original scroll to be kept with a Baroque violin when bringing its neck to conformance with modern ...
A neck spasm is an involuntary contraction of the muscles in the neck region. The possible causes of neck spasms include:[ ... v t e (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Human head and neck, All ... Neck Spasms". McKesson Provider Technologies. Archived from the original on 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2008-04-29. ...
A neck rein is a type of indirect rein aid. The horse responds to a neck rein when it has learned that a light pressure of the ... The neck rein is used in both English riding and in Western riding, though the style differs between the disciplines. In both ... The neck rein in English riding is used in addition to a direct rein and reinforces certain riding aids, particularly turns ... A horse that has been well trained to neck rein becomes so responsive to legs and seat that it is possible to take the bridle ...
The femoral neck (femur neck or neck of the femur) is a flattened pyramidal process of bone, connecting the femoral head with ... Femoral neck Femoral neck. Posterior view. *"Prevention and Management of Hip Fracture on Older People. Section 7: Surgical ... In the female, in consequence of the increased width of the pelvis, the neck of the femur forms more nearly a right angle with ... In the adult, the neck forms an angle of about 125° with the body, but this varies in inverse proportion to the development of ...
On babies, webbed neck may look like loose folds of skin on the neck. As the child grows, the skin may stretch out to look like ... A webbed neck, or pterygium colli, is a congenital skin fold that runs along the sides of the neck down to the shoulders. There ... Hikade KR, Bitar GJ, Edgerton MT, Morgan RF (2002). "Modified Z-plasty repair of webbed neck deformity seen in Turner and ... Miller LB, Kanter M, Wolfort F (1990). "Treatment of webbed neck in Turner's syndrome with tissue expansion". Ann Plast Surg. ...
... or Penn's Neck may refer to: Penns Neck, New Jersey, an unincorporated community in Mercer County, New Jersey Penns ... Neck Baptist Church Penns Neck (cape), a cape on the Delaware River in Salem County, New Jersey Penn's Neck Township, New ... also known as Penns Neck, Salem County, New Jersey This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Penns Neck ... Jersey, former township in Salem County, New Jersey Lower Penns Neck, New Jersey, now Pennsville Township Upper Penns Neck, New ...
Neck is a village in the northwest Netherlands. It is located in the municipality of Wormerland, North Holland, about 3 km west ... The village was first mentioned in 1328 as "sic: van Hicke", and means "neck" which refers to the narrowest point of the ... "Neck - (geografische naam)". Etymologiebank (in Dutch). Retrieved 2 May 2022. "Nekkermolen". Molen database (in Dutch). ...
"Neck pain and stiff neck". NHS Choices. National Health Service. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2015. "Stiff Neck". ... Neck stiffness, stiff neck and nuchal rigidity are terms often used interchangeably to describe the medical condition when one ... Neck pain Acquired torticollis "Neck pain". MedlinePlus. National Institutes of Health. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015 ... McCoy, Krisha (7 May 2009). "Stiff Neck: A Look At Possible Causes". Everyday Health. Retrieved 27 October 2015. "Nuchal ...
... of Virginia Historical Society Northern Neck Planning District Commission Northern Neck National Heritage Area ( ... The Northern Neck is the northernmost of three peninsulas (traditionally called "necks" in Virginia) on the western shore of ... Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace AVA Northern Neck Proprietary Mason, George Carrington. "The Colonial Churches of ... The aristocratic society and autonomy of the Northern Neck created strong antipathies between the Northern Neck and other ...
The cowl neck enjoyed the peak of its popularity in the 1930s. Cowl neck sweaters were popular in the 1970s. Dresses of the ... Polo neck Boat neck Morton, Camilla. "Fashion A-Z". Business of Fashion. Retrieved 26 September 2020. Montgomery, Joy. " ... A cowl neck is a neckline consisting of a loose draped fabric collar. The term can describe the neckline of a wide variety of ... The cowl neck experienced a resurgence in the late 2010s as part of renewed interest in 1990s fashion. Vivienne Westwood has ...
... can be differentiated from rosacea and sarcoid reaction with granulomas. The proximal causes of fiddler's neck ... An accomplished professional player could practice hard their whole life and never develop fiddler's neck. Fiddler's neck ... Fiddler's neck does not usually form unless the musician is practicing or playing for more than a few hours each day, and only ... Fiddler's neck may exacerbate existing acne, but acne may also be limited solely to the lesion and not appear elsewhere. ...
"Neck Stanley". Retrieved August 4, 2020. "John Stanley". Retrieved August 4, 2020. " ... John Wayman Stanley (May 9, 1905 - January 1, 1959), nicknamed "Neck", was an American Negro league pitcher from the 1920s to ...
The fisherman passing by then gave the land the name Bearskin Neck. Due to its prime location, Bearskin Neck served as lookout ... Bearskin Neck is a peninsula located on the coastline of Cape Ann in Rockport, Massachusetts. The location played a vital role ... Bearskin Neck has been used as the backdrop for several films over the years, including the 2009 film The Proposal, which ... Motif Number 1 is a building that stands in the heart of Bearskin Neck and Rockport Harbor. Built-in the mid-1800s to house ...
USA Neck Face (2004). Neck Face: Satan's Bride!!!. KAWS. Neck Face (2010). Neck Face: The Devil Made Me Do It!!!. OHWOW.- Total ... 2012 Neck Face "A Deal with the Devil", One Grand Gallery in Portland, OR 2012 Neck Face "Simply the Worst", New Image Art ... As a skateboarder, Neck Face has helped design for Baker Skateboards, and is the Art Director for Baker Skateboards. Neck Face ... Spears, Lori (July 22, 2009). "Neck Face is not a crackhead - Surviving face skids and ducking fans from NYC to Tokyo, Neck ...
A neck guard (also called a Kim Crouch collar) is a piece of protective equipment worn by players around the neck area, ... Most neck guards have a moisture system which helps keep the guard cool, ensuring the player's neck won't become too hot while ... Based in Quebec, BNQ is an organization that created the standard for cut-resistant neck guards. The test requires the neck ... suffered a serious neck injury when a neck artery was sliced by a skate when he dived into a fray during a 1975 match against ...
... may refer to: Narrow Neck, New Zealand, a suburb of Auckland Narrow Neck Plateau, in the Blue Mountains, near ... Australia This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Narrow Neck. If an internal link led you here, you ...
... plantation was a prominent feature of Linton Neck in Colonial times. After falling into ruin, the house was rebuilt ... Linton Neck also known as Burbage's Neck is a peninsula in eastern Prince William County, Virginia bounded by the Occoquan ... To the north of Linton Neck is Mason Neck, the site of the historic plantation of Gunston Hall. To the south could be found the ... Linton Neck Plantation was originally part of Hamilton Parish of the Episcopal Church in Stafford County, before the area was ...
... may refer to: Rocky Neck, Gloucester, Massachusetts, art colony, peninsula and park Rocky Neck State Park, ...
By the 1910s, brandy, or bourbon would be added for a "horse's neck with a kick" or a "stiff horse's neck." The non-alcoholic ... The horse's neck became popular in the wardrooms of the Royal Navy in the 1960s, displacing Pink Gin as the officers' signature ... A horse's neck is an American cocktail recognised by the International Bartenders Association (IBA), identifiably sporting a ... horse's neck,' a drink made of ginger ale, lemon peel, and no alcohol." In the 1934 film The Captain Hates the Sea, Alison ...
... , also known as Pitts Neck Farm, is a historic home located near New Church, Accomack County, Virginia. It consists ... and Accompanying photo Media related to Pitts Neck at Wikimedia Commons Pitts Neck Farm, State Route 709, New Church, Accomack ... Pitts Neck" (PDF). Commonwealth of Virginia, Department of Historic Resources. ...
Chicken neck or chicken's neck may refer to The neck of a chicken Siliguri Corridor, a narrow strip of Indian territory ... connecting the northeastern states to the rest of India Chicken's Neck (Pakistan), a narrow strip of Pakistani territory that ... in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chicken's Neck. If ...
"Neck & Wrist" is a song by American rapper Pusha T featuring fellow American rappers Jay-Z and Pharrell Williams. Produced by ... Mier, Tomás (April 6, 2022). "Jay-Z and Pusha T's 'Neck and Wrist' Is An Ode to Bling and Finer Things". Rolling Stone. ... "Decoding the Subliminals on Pusha T and Jay-Z's "Neck & Wrist"". GQ. Strauss, Matthew (April 6, 2022). "Pusha T and Jay-Z ... Callas, Brad (April 6, 2022). "Jay-Z Responds to Faizon Love's Claim That He Faked Drug Dealing Lifestyle on Pusha-T's "Neck & ...
The cervical areas is located in the upper neck region of the spine from C1 to C7 . Many types of practitioners use various ... Chances of stroke may be increased due to possible tears in neck arteries, known as cervical dissection, and is among the most ... Anahad O'Connor (August 25, 2008). "Really? - Can Manipulating Your Neck Lead to a Stroke?". New York Times. Retrieved January ... Cervical manipulation, commonly known as neck manipulation, is a procedure involving adjustment of the upper seven vertebrae of ...
Neck are a six-piece London-Irish Celtic punk band from the North London neighborhood of Holloway whose frontman was a member ... Neck have released four albums to date, with their third album, Sod 'Em & Begorrah!, being picked out for particularly high ... p. 3. Over the last few years, London-Irish band Neck have established themselves as a leading force in the folk-punk scene ... Neck O'fficial website Online store YouTube channel (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use ...
A crew neck (also spelled crewneck or crew-neck) is a type of shirt or sweater that has a round neckline and no collar and is ... The U.S. Navy was the first of the U.S. armed forces to adopt the crew-neck T-shirt, or "Gob Shirt". "Definition of Crew Neck ... The T-shirt crew neck was developed in 1932 as an undergarment that would absorb sweat and prevent the shoulder pads of ...
A neck corset (sometimes called corset collar or neck lacer) is a type of BDSM collar. Unlike a normal corset which compresses ... Neck corsets usually have back lacing: others have front lacing or are secured by ribbon or zipper. Neck corsets are worn by ... When a neck corset is worn to restrict head movement, it is known as a posture collar. Although neck corset restricts head ... Fetish fashion Gothic fashion Neck ring Description on, retrieved 21 July, 2012 Neck corset article on ...
Peachey, R. D.; Matthews, C. N. (1978). "Fiddlers neck". The British Journal of Dermatology. 98 (6): 669-674. doi:10.1111/j. ... Fiddlers neck does not usually form unless the musician is practicing or playing for more than a few hours each day, and only ... Treatment for fiddlers neck is unnecessary if it is painless and shows minimal swelling,[3] particularly since minor cases are ... Fiddlers neck is an occupational disease that affects violin and viola players.[1] ...
al, for the PET-NECK Trial Management Group, PET-CT Surveillance versus Neck Dissection in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer , NEJM ... PET-Neck A multicentre randomised phase III trial comparing PET-CT guided watch and wait policy versus planned neck dissection ... PET-NECK: A multi-centre randomised Phase III trial comparing PET-CT guided active surveillance with planned neck dissection in ... PET-NECK: Setting up a collaborative clinical trial in a rare disease site. Society of Clinical Trials, May 2008.. ...
Enjoy truly local Ware Neck Toyota deals from the official Toyota site. ... Look no further for the best Ware Neck Toyota deals, incentives, and special offers. ... Deals And Incentives / Virginia / Ware Neck Toyota Special Offers in Ware Neck. What makes vehicle lease deals so attractive? ... At Toyota, our is to ensure you save big with fresh Toyota rebates in Ware Neck, Virginia on auto care or an air filter ...
This natural color image of Sandy Neck and Barnstable Harbor, on the north side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, was acquired on ... n.d.) Sandy Neck Beach Park. Accessed February 18, 2011.. *U.S. Geological Survey (n.d.) Geological History of Cape Cod, ... This natural-color image of Sandy Neck and Barnstable Harbor, on the north side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, was acquired on ... This natural color image of Sandy Neck and Barnstable Harbor, on the north side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, was acquired on ...
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Learn about the real causes of neck pain, including problems in the muscles and the spinal column. ... What to know about neck pain in seniors. ... Other Causes of Neck Pain *What are the other causes of neck ... "Neck Pain." OrthoInfo: "Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck)." Versus Arthritis: "Neck Pain." ... Injury to any of these parts can cause neck pain.. Pressure on the spinal cord in the neck can be serious because most of the ...
When someone say something that's dumb you can neck them meaning u slap them on the neck ... "Chris Pine could step on my neck any day" "I would totally let John step on my neck" ... Saying your (Idol, crush, favorite celebrity) "could step on my neck".. Means that they could do what ever they please to you. ... You really going to choose her over me when I was the one breaking my neck for you ...
"The point is to frame the neck, not cover it up." This can be as simple as turning up the collar of a tailored shirt or jacket ... The right neckline is crucial: Deep Vs or low-cut tank tops will make the neck look longer, Schwab says, but they also display ... A silk or chiffon neck square is an attractive ploy for filling in the neckline of a shirt or jacket; a gently draped oblong ... Beauty routines for neck maintenance. Our faces shouldnt hog all the products. Lets do something for our highly susceptible ( ...
Can anyone give me any advice on what they do to combat neck pain. Im in agony with it and have been given no pain relief from ... all can agrivate your neck muscles as well as stressful situations.....even driving can strain your neck and cause more pain ... My neck starts to burn if I have one of those. I also deal with migraine. I use mint essential oil and/or Tiger Balm to help ... What type of neck pain are you having,? Do you see a pain specialist? Most MDs dont handle pain management. Especially with ...
Head and Neck Cancer. CancerCare provides free, professional support services for people affected by head and neck cancer, as ... Head and Neck Cancer Alliance (formerly the Yul Brynner Head and Neck Foundation) is a foundation that hosts an online forum, ... Head and Neck Cancer. *After a Head or Neck Cancer Diagnosis: Questions to Ask Your Health Care TeamNew ... I underwent a modified radical neck dissection. I lost feeling on the left side of my neck, head, tongue and shoulder. I have ...
What does tech neck actually mean? Find out inside PCMags comprehensive tech and computer-related encyclopedia. ... The sagging skin and neck wrinkles resulting from constantly bending downward to look at a smartphone, which can also cause ...
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  • all can agrivate your neck muscles as well as stressful situations. (
  • Head and neck cancers can also begin in the salivary glands , sinuses , or muscles or nerves in the head and neck, but these types of cancer are much less common than squamous cell carcinomas ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • While muscles are often the reason for pain in the upper back and neck, bone pain is another cause. (
  • Muscles of the neck are described separately from the compartments. (
  • Muscles of the neck attach to the skull, hyoid bone, clavicles and the sternum. (
  • Anxiety and stress can also sometimes cause tension in your neck muscles, leading to neck pain. (
  • This is known as acute torticollis and is caused by injury to the neck muscles. (
  • Poor posture, obesity and weak abdominal muscles often disrupt spinal balance, causing the neck to bend forward to compensate. (
  • Sometimes you can strain your neck muscles from sleeping in an awkward position or overdoing it during exercise. (
  • Cancer Care provides free, professional support services for people affected by head and neck cancer, as well as head and neck cancer treatment information and additional resources. (
  • Oncology social workers help you cope with the emotional and practical challenges of head and neck cancer. (
  • We currently do not offer a head and neck cancer specific group. (
  • Providers at the Dan L Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center have the expertise to treat recurrent head and neck cancer. (
  • Smoking cessation is the most important way to prevent recurrent head and neck cancer. (
  • Symptoms of recurrent head and neck cancer are very similar to those of the original tumor. (
  • Continued or worsening pain, new neck mass, or unexplained weight loss can be signs that a cancer may have returned. (
  • Surgery with appropriate reconstruction, radiation or re-irradiation and systemic therapy are all options available for the treatment of recurrent head and neck cancer at the Cancer Center. (
  • See clinical trials for head and neck cancer. (
  • Sometimes, cancerous squamous cells can be found in the lymph nodes of the upper neck when there is no evidence of cancer in other parts of the head and neck, possibly because the original primary tumor is too small. (
  • More information about this cancer type can be found in the Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (PDQ®) cancer treatment summary. (
  • Although HPV can be detected in other head and neck cancers, it appears to be the cause of cancer formation only in the oropharynx. (
  • At the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, we offer you the region's most advanced care for head and neck cancer. (
  • As a top cancer center, we treat more head and neck cancers than any hospital in the region. (
  • Our surgeons perform hundreds of head and neck cancer procedures a year. (
  • The OHSU Knight Cancer Institute offers the most advanced procedures and tests in Oregon and southwest Washington to diagnose head and neck cancer. (
  • OHSU was among the first to offer medications that use patients' own biology to slow cancer, and targeted therapies that attack head and neck tumors at the molecular level. (
  • Our doctors have published more than 100 studies related to head and neck cancer . (
  • Our cancer surgeons are experts in the removal of benign and cancerous tumors in the head and neck. (
  • Head and neck cancer often requires the expertise of otologists and lateral skull base surgeons, some of whom participate in the head and neck center. (
  • Once the head and neck cancer has been addressed, you may require reconstructive surgery. (
  • When head and neck cancer affects these areas, you may benefit from their care. (
  • Ever since he was diagnosed with stage four head and neck cancer caused by a virus known as HPV in July 2022, Rhod has bravely tried to keep a smile on his and his fans' faces, as well as using his celebrity profile to raise awareness of the disease. (
  • The other irony is that I was in Cuba on a trek, fundraising for this cancer centre when the first lump popped up in my neck. (
  • Thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the neck (as in cervical vertebrae or cervical lymph nodes) or to the uterine cervix (as in cervical cap or cervical cancer). (
  • The study will investigate whether exposure to pollution from the World Trade Center (WTC) 9/11 attacks is associated with increased risk of head and neck cancer among WTC responders and remediation workers. (
  • It will further explore whether that exposure adds to known causes of head and neck cancer including tobacco and alcohol. (
  • Thyroid Cancer Your thyroid is a gland below the Adam's apple in your neck. (
  • Introduction:Head‑and‑neck cancer (HNC) treatments are elusive, and the hunt for an appropriate radiation strategy continues.Hypofractionation has the potential to provide several advantages, including a shorter overall duration that reduces rapid repopulation, dosage escalation with a higher biologically effective dose, and patient convenience. (
  • Besides neck pain, people with spinal stenosis often have symptoms in their extremities. (
  • That means that the symptoms aren't focused around your brain or neck, but can also affect your entire body. (
  • During this exam, you'll be asked about your symptoms, including any neck pain or stiffness. (
  • Over-the-counter medication may be recommended by your doctor to help with neck pain, headaches, and other symptoms. (
  • Anyone experiencing neck pain along with other heart attack symptoms should call 911 or visit an emergency room. (
  • For most types of general neck pain, the advice is to carry on with your normal daily activities, keep active, and take painkillers to relieve the symptoms. (
  • It doesn't always cause symptoms, although in some people the bone changes can cause neck stiffness. (
  • Postural stress can contribute to chronic neck pain with symptoms extending into the upper back and the arms. (
  • Materials and Methods: Between January 2020 and August 2021, 120 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head‑and‑neck subsites were randomly allocated to either the hypofractionated arm A (n = 60) or the standard fractionation arm B (n = 60) with concomitant treatment. (
  • Pressure on the spinal cord in the neck can be serious because most of the nerves that serve the body pass through the neck. (
  • Many organs rely on the nerves that pass through the neck for proper function. (
  • These changes in the neck may cause pain from pinched nerves. (
  • Changes in the neck cause the spinal canal to narrow, putting pressure on the spinal cord and other nerves. (
  • The neck supports the weight of the head and protects the nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down to the rest of the body. (
  • Within these compartments, the neck houses the cervical vertebrae and cervical part of the spinal cord, upper parts of the respiratory and digestive tracts, endocrine glands, nerves, arteries and veins. (
  • Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of the spinal nerves C2-C4, and at the back of the neck from the roots of C4-C5. (
  • In addition to nerves coming from and within the human spine, the accessory nerve and vagus nerve travel down the neck. (
  • Nerves that come off the spinal cord, at the level of your neck can become squashed as the bones and joints wear down. (
  • Stenosis may cause neck, shoulder, and arm pain, as well as numbness, when these nerves are unable to function normally. (
  • These cancers are referred to as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. (
  • If a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is going to spread, it almost always does so locally and/or to the lymph nodes in the neck. (
  • Most head and neck squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth and voice box are caused by tobacco and alcohol use ( 8 ). (
  • Concurrent chemoradiation therapy is the current standard of care for patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (
  • The differential diagnosis for cysts in the neck includes congenital neck masses, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma , acquired laryngoceles, and cystic schwannomas. (
  • Cite this: Calcific Tendonitis: An Unusual Presentation of Neck Pain - Medscape - Sep 06, 2017. (
  • Neck pain along with weakness, numbness, or tingling of hands, feet, legs, or arms is the most common symptom of possible pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve roots. (
  • The differential diagnoses of fiddler's neck include branchial cleft cyst , disease of the salivary glands , tumors of the parotid gland , psoriasis , lichen planus , contact dermatitis , herpes simplex and similar infections, and insect bites and stings especially from fleas . (
  • Advanced procedures such as robotic surgery to remove head and neck tumors while maintaining the patient's ability to eat and speak. (
  • Head and neck endocrine surgeons specialize in the removal of tumors on the thyroid and parathyroid including their research and surgical approaches. (
  • Baylor ENT (Otolaryngology) has nationally and internationally recognized surgeons who specialize in diagnosing, treating and rehabilitating cancers and tumors of the head and neck region, including those of the thyroid, skin, salivary glands, ears, sinuses, mouth, throat and voice box. (
  • Most neck masses in children are benign inflammatory lesions, which can be successfully treated medically with antibiotics. (
  • Soft tissues play a significant role in neck pain, as evidenced by the effectiveness of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. (
  • Anterior triangle is defined by the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, inferior edge of the mandible and the midline of the neck. (
  • The thyroid cartilage of the larynx forms a bulge in the midline of the neck called the Adam's apple. (
  • TGDCs are the most common mass found in the midline of the neck in children. (
  • The thyroid gland then forms 2 lobes and descends along a hollow canal called the thyroglossal duct in the midline of the neck. (
  • The sagging skin and neck wrinkles resulting from constantly bending downward to look at a smartphone, which can also cause headaches and neck, shoulder and back pain. (
  • It is a cutaneous condition usually characterized by redness, thickening, and inflammation on the left side of the neck below the angle of the jaw where the instrument is held. (
  • The recognition of a cyst in the neck may not occur until decades later, commonly in association with a minor upper respiratory infection. (
  • Neck pain caused by a squashed nerve is known as cervical radiculopathy. (
  • A neck adjustment (also known as cervical manipulation) is a precise procedure applied to the joints of the neck, usually by hand. (
  • Most neck masses in children that require surgery for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes are congenital in origin. (
  • Neck pain or a stiff neck is a common problem which usually gets better after a few days or weeks. (
  • Because such problems can often be responsible for the clinical complaints of patients , this review aims to assist radiologists in identifying and describing common dental conditions on computed tomography of paranasal sinuses , face , and neck . (
  • Doctors can often diagnose this type of neck pain with a physical examination. (
  • The joints of the neck are subject to wear and tear just like other joints in the body. (
  • Sometimes neck pain is caused by the 'wear and tear' that occurs to the bones and joints in your neck. (
  • A muscle spasm or sprain can cause neck pain. (
  • Whiplash, a soft tissue injury to the neck, is also called neck sprain or strain. (
  • Cancers of the brain, the eye, the esophagus, the thyroid gland, and the skin of the head and neck are not usually classified as head and neck cancers. (
  • If you want to go to the left, you pick your hand up toward your left shoulder and lay the right rein lightly against the horse's neck. (
  • The neck rein cue should be very light, and the reining hand should never cross an imaginary line from the horse's neck to the rider's shoulder. (
  • The clavicle or collar-bone forms the lower limit of the neck, and laterally the outward slope of the neck to the shoulder is caused by the trapezius muscle. (
  • The right neckline is crucial: Deep V's or low-cut tank tops will make the neck look longer, Schwab says, but they also display lots of possibly sun-damaged skin. (
  • The neck contains seven bones called vertebrae that enclose the spinal cord. (
  • Changes in the disks between the vertebrae can cause neck pain. (
  • The neck structures are distributed within four compartments: Vertebral compartment contains the cervical vertebrae with cartilaginous discs between each vertebral body. (
  • The alignment of the vertebrae defines the shape of the human neck. (
  • As the vertebrae bound the spinal canal, the cervical portion of the spinal cord is also found within the neck. (
  • Our neck, also called the cervical spine, begins at the base of the skull and contains seven small vertebrae. (
  • If your chiropractor diagnoses a condition outside of this conservative scope, such as a neck fracture or an indication of an organic disease, they will refer you to the appropriate medical physician or specialist. (
  • Injuries and certain illnesses can cause neck pain , but the most common cause is holding your neck in the same position for a long time. (
  • These changes often cause neck pain in seniors. (
  • Injury to any of these parts can cause neck pain . (
  • Many older people have osteoarthritis , which can cause neck pain. (
  • Why Does Meningitis Cause Neck Pain? (
  • Let's do something for our highly susceptible (but often neglected) necks. (
  • While the cervical spine can move your head in nearly every direction, this flexibility makes the neck very susceptible to pain and injury. (
  • The causes of neck pain in seniors include muscle spasms, arthritis, poor posture, cervical spondylosis, cervical spinal stenosis and disk problems. (
  • Get help for big jobs that involve the arms, shoulders, and neck. (
  • and avoid activities that put a strain on your neck and shoulders. (
  • This is caused by swelling located in the back of your neck, behind your skull, that you may be able to feel. (
  • Pain in the neck and upper back can be temporary. (
  • In this article, we review the causes of this type of pain and the treatment options to relieve uncomfortable upper back and neck aches. (
  • Although upper back pain is not as common as neck pain, according to a 2014 study , it affects approximately 1 in 5 females and 1 in 10 males. (
  • A person may experience long-term health consequences when their upper back or neck sustains a severe injury in an accident. (
  • In rare cases, an epidural abscess may be the cause of upper back and neck pain. (
  • Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that can cause upper back and neck pain. (
  • Treatment for upper back and neck pain varies depending on the cause. (
  • A physical therapist can use muscle release techniques and explain how to do strengthening and stretching exercises to help relieve upper back and neck pain. (
  • Perhaps an even more pertinent measure concerns the curvature-the distance you feel as you wrap your hand around the back of the neck. (
  • Something else to consider: While you're playing, different parts of your thumb contact the back of the neck. (
  • Another factor that can elicit strong opinions is how a builder seals the back of a wooden neck to protect it from sweat, skin oils, and the elements. (
  • Fellow starting safety Quinton Carter (lower back) and nickel cornerback Chris Harris (neck), who leads all rookie defensive backs with 62 tackles, both participated in the team's final full-padded practice after leaving last weekend's loss at Buffalo with those injuries. (
  • According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, neck and back pain were the leading causes of disability, with neck pain accounting for 44% of cases. (
  • The neck experiences greater stress on musculature and facet joints than the lower back. (
  • When neck trauma results from a motor vehicle crash, inquire about seat belt use, location of the patient in the car (driver or front or back seat passenger), deployment of an air bag, and magnitude of car damage (eg, intrusion, steering column and windshield intact or broken). (
  • PET-NECK: Setting up a collaborative clinical trial in a rare disease site. (
  • We offer patients access to a wide range of clinical trials , including our own studies of new medications for head and neck cancers. (
  • Because many critical organs and structures are at risk from neck trauma, clinical manifestations can vary greatly. (
  • A clinical assessment was done of 30 patients who were receiving head and neck radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Center. (
  • However, in the daily practice of head and neck radiology , or even general radiology , it is common to encounter clinical situations or examination findings related to dental problems that should not be ignored. (
  • The vigorous movement of the head overstretches and damages the tendons and ligaments in the neck. (
  • even driving can strain your neck and cause more pain. (
  • Whiplash is a neck injury caused by a sudden movement of the head forwards, backwards or sideways. (
  • A sudden forced movement of the head or neck in any direction and the resulting "rebound" in the opposite direction is known as whiplash. (
  • A constant feature, and one of the earliest signs, was marked weakness of the neck flexors and inability of patients to raise their heads off their pillows. (
  • You can treat muscular pain in the neck with over-the-counter pain relievers and with heat and cold . (
  • Although the presence of fiddler's neck is sometimes used as an indicator of a violinist's skill, or 'battle scars' from constant practice, many violinists never develop fiddler's neck, due to differences in skin sensitivity, playing habits, and the materials used in the construction of the instrument. (
  • An accomplished professional player could practice hard their whole life and never develop fiddler's neck. (
  • To compare the efficacy of a PET-CT guided watch and wait policy with the current practice of planned neck dissection on overall survival, disease-specific survival, recurrence, quality of life and cost-effectiveness in the management of advanced (N2 or N3) nodal metastasis in patients treated with chemo/radiotherapy (CRT) for their head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) primary. (
  • ENGLEWOOD, Colo. -- Brian Dawkins was held out of the Denver Broncos ' practice Wednesday because of a neck injury that has bothered him for most of the month. (
  • On typical guitar necks, that distance varies by less than 10 percent. (
  • The voice box is a short passageway formed by cartilage just below the pharynx in the neck. (
  • Feminine and sexy, this mock neck sweater is the perfect addition to your wardrobe. (
  • This is why the presence of an infection in your meninges is often enough to cause both neck pain and stiffness. (
  • Congenital masses in the neck include branchial cleft cysts, thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs), ectopic thymus cysts, dermoid and teratoid cysts, cystic vascular abnormalities, and lymphatic malformations such as the cystic lymphangioma. (
  • The objective of this study was to assess the dental and malignant risk factors associated with head and neck radiotherapy complications in patients treated at the Radiotherapy Center in Aracaju, Sergipe. (
  • Besides the listed structures, the neck contains cervical lymph nodes which surround the blood vessels. (
  • A single examination is not sufficient, because the onset of signs of injury may be delayed and progressive with neck trauma. (
  • About 50% of cases of penetrating neck trauma in which the platysma is violated have no further injury. (
  • Consider an arterial injury of the neck in patients manifesting any degree of gross bleeding or presence of a hematoma. (
  • [3] The location and complex mechanism of causation for fiddler's neck give rise to a wider spectrum of skin changes when compared to contact dermatitis from more common irritants. (
  • Poor posture that results in muscle strain is a common cause of neck pain. (
  • Arteries which supply the neck are common carotid arteries, which bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries. (
  • Neck pain is very common. (
  • Falls or accidents, including car accidents, are another common cause of neck pain. (
  • Training errors are the most common risk factors for femoral neck fractures, including a sudden increase in the quantity or intensity of training and the introduction of a new activity. (
  • See 10 Patients with Neck Masses: Identifying Malignant versus Benign , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify several types of masses. (
  • Meningitis neck pain may feel like severe stiffness when you try to turn your neck or bend you neck forward. (
  • Treatment for fiddler's neck is unnecessary if it is painless and shows minimal swelling, [3] particularly since minor cases are taken as a mark of pride. (
  • The anatomic understanding of the superficial compartments of the head and neck are evolving. (
  • Doctors use X-rays to diagnose neck pain caused by arthritis . (
  • When rheumatoid arthritis affects the neck joints, particularly those located at the top of the spine, complications can occur. (