Near Drowning: Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.KazakhstanMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.PhotochemistrySwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectModels, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Personal Space: Invisible boundaries surrounding the individual's body which are maintained in relation to others.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Acute renal impairment after immersion and near-drowning. (1/47)

Acute renal impairment (ARI) secondary to immersion and near-drowning is rarely described and poorly understood. A retrospective case-control study was performed: (1) to determine the incidence of ARI associated with near-drowning or immersion and (2) to define the clinical syndrome and to assess clinical predictors of ARI. Of 30 patients presenting after immersion or near-drowning, 50% were identified with ARI, with a mean admission serum creatinine of 0.24 +/- 0.33 mmol/L (2.7 +/- 3.7 mg/dl). These patients were a heterogeneous group: Eight had mild reversible ARI, three had ARI related to shock and multisystem failure, two had rhabdomyolysis-related ARI, and two had severe isolated ARI. Two patients required supportive hemodialysis and two died. Patients with ARI experienced more marked acidosis than control patients, as measured by serum bicarbonate (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.001), and base excess (P < 0.001). There was also a higher admission lymphocyte count in the ARI group (P = 0.056). Dipstick hematuria on admission was significantly more common in patients with ARI (P = 0.016), and patients with 2 to 3+ of admission dipstick proteinuria had a higher peak serum creatinine than patients with less proteinuria (P < 0.05). Admission predictors of ARI by univariate logistic regression analysis included reduced serum bicarbonate (P = 0.002), pH (P = 0.001), and base excess (P < 0.001). The best predictor of ARI on multivariate analysis was a negative base excess (P = 0.01). In summary, acute renal impairment commonly occurs after immersion and near-drowning and is a heterogeneous condition. Although mild reversible renal impairment (serum creatinine < 0.30 mmol/L) (3.4 mg/dl) is usual, severe acute renal failure requiring dialysis can occur. It is recommended that any patient who presents after near-drowning or immersion should be assessed for potential ARI by serial estimations of serum creatinine, particularly when there is an increase in the initial serum creatinine, marked metabolic acidosis, an abnormal urinalysis, or a significant lymphocytosis.  (+info)

Acute subdural hematoma due to near-drowning--case report. (2/47)

A 46-year-old male was transferred to our hospital after near-drowning when swimming. Examination found no subcutaneous hematoma or abrasion on his head. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started immediately. Emergent computed tomography (CT) revealed no abnormalities. The next day, his consciousness level improved and repeat CT suggested an acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in the parieto-occipital region. The acute subdural hematoma was evacuated. The source of bleeding was probably an abnormally large vein located in the center of the hematoma. The patient was discharged without neurological deficit. Repeat CT is needed even if there were no abnormality on initial CT after drowning.  (+info)

Epidemiology of unintentional drowning and near-drowning in Denmark in 1995. (3/47)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern of accidental drowning and near-drowning in Denmark. DESIGN: Prospective study of all cases of accidental drowning and near-drowning during one year. SETTING: Denmark, 1995. SUBJECTS: All patients brought to Danish hospitals after incidents of unintentional near-drowning or cooling in water and all fatal cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of near-drowned patients reported prospectively by hospital departments supplemented by cases reported after requests based on the National Patient Register. Number of drownings reported by public health medical officers (as medical examiners), institutes of forensic medicine, and hospitals. RESULTS: Sixty three (38%) of 167 unintentionally immersed persons died: eight (17%) of 47 children and 55 (46%) of 120 adults. The annual incidence of serious immersion events in children leading to hospital contact was 5.2/100,000; mortality was 0.7/100,000. For adult males the annual incidence of serious unintentional immersions was 4.3/100,000 and for females 1.2/100,000. For foreigners the risk was three to four times higher than for Danes. CONCLUSIONS: More attention should be paid to the risk of drowning in children, adult males, and foreigners.  (+info)

Rapidly progressive pneumonia due to Aeromonas hydrophila shortly after near-drowning. (4/47)

An 87-year-old woman died of rapidly progressive pneumonia due to Aeromonas hydrophila shortly after a near-drowning event. Autopsy showed necrotizing pneumonia and postmortem cultures of both blood and lung revealed the organism. Fulminant pneumonia should be considered in patients of a near-drowning event.  (+info)

Injuries in whitewater kayaking. (5/47)

OBJECTIVE: To provide epidemiological data on whitewater kayaking injuries using a descriptive study. METHODS: A retrospective survey was distributed at whitewater events and club meetings, and made available and advertised on the world wide web, through postings and announcements to newsgroups, related sites, and search engines. Data on sex, age, experience, and ability were collected. Injury data collected included mechanism, activity, difficulty of rapid, and self reported severity. RESULTS: Of the 392 kayaking respondents included in the final analysis, 219 suffered 282 distinct injury events. The number of days spent kayaking per season was the only independent predictor of injury. The overwhelming majority of injuries occurred while the kayaker was still in the boat (87%). Striking an object was the most common mechanism of injury (44%), followed by traumatic stress and overuse (25% each). The most common types of injury were abrasion (25%), tendinitis (25%), contusion (22%), and dislocation (17%). The upper extremity, especially the shoulder, was the most commonly injured area of the body. Although half of injured kayakers sought medical care for their injury, and almost one third missed more than one month of kayaking because of the injury, almost all (96%) reported a complete or good recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Factors relating to likelihood of injury appear to be connected with exposure, namely the number of days a year that the sport was pursued. Except for class V (extreme) kayakers, reports of injuries paralleled the number of participants. Kayakers reported injuries predominantly on rivers that they assessed to be at a level appropriate to their skills.  (+info)

Use of Washington State newspapers for submersion injury surveillance. (6/47)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usefulness of newspapers as a surveillance tool for submersion injury, the proportion of submersion events and important details reported in Washington State newspapers was determined. It was also determined whether a letter sent to newspaper editors to encourage reporting changed the proportion and content of reported submersion events. METHODS: Newspaper articles regarding submersion were collected from 225 Washington newspapers from June 1993 through September 1998. Newspaper articles were linked to computerized state death and hospital records. Reporting during periods before and after a letter was sent encouraging more newspaper articles on submersion injury and preventative factors was compared. RESULTS: A total of 1,874 submersion victims were identified in the three data sources. Of the 983 victims who had a death certificate, 52% were reported in at least one news article. Of the 471 persons in hospital discharge data, 25% were reported in a newspaper. Reporting of pediatric victims who died increased from 63% to 79% (p=0.008); reporting of hospitalized persons increased from 23% to 27% (p=0.3). There were increases in reporting of swimming ability (7% to 15%, p<0.001), supervision (82% to 91%, p<0.001), and alcohol use (7% to 24%, p<0.001). Reporting of life vest use decreased (35% to 23%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Newspapers failed to report about one half of fatal submersions and three quarters of submersions that resulted in a hospitalization. An effort to improve reporting was associated with an increase in the proportion of pediatric drownings that were reported, but a consistent improvement in content was found. The usefulness of newspaper articles as a surveillance tool may be limited.  (+info)

Mycotic aneurysms as lethal complication of brain pseudallescheriasis in a near-drowned child: a CT demonstration. (7/47)

Intracranial true mycotic aneurysms are rare and generally lethal. We report a case of a near-drowned child with brain abscesses due to Pseudallescheria boydii, a saprophytic fungus, who died after subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred. CT showed contrast-enhancing lesions indicative of aneurysms of basilar and right posterior cerebral arteries that could not be appreciated 2 days before. P. boydii is often resistant to commonly used antimycotic drugs. Because CNS infection is frequently associated with near-drowning, early diagnosis and specific therapy are strongly recommended for these patients.  (+info)

Drowning and near drowning in children in the United Kingdom: lessons for prevention. (8/47)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern of drowning and near drowning of children in Britain and identify means of prevention. DESIGN: Study of drowned and nearly drowned children under 15 years old. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1988 and 1989. SUBJECTS: Children under 15 years either drowning or admitted to hospital after a submersion incident. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of nearly drowned children, obtained from consultant paediatricians returning monthly notification cards through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Number of drowned children notified by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys and other national epidemiological offices; information from coroners. RESULTS: 306 children had confirmed submersion incidents: 149 died and 157 survived after near drowning. The annual incidence in England and Wales was 1.5/100,000, and mortality 0.7/100,000. Mortality was lowest in public pools 6% (2/32) and highest in rivers, canals, and lakes (78%, 56/73). Most of the children (263, 83%) were unsupervised at the time of the accident. 208 (68%) children were under 5 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Drowning and near drowning of children are problems in the British Isles. Appropriate supervision and safety barriers seem important for preventing such accidents. Improving information on dangers of drowning given to parents through the child surveillance programmes, encouraging fencing or draining of garden ponds and domestic swimming pools, and increasing supervision of swimming in lakes, rivers, and beaches should reduce the number of accidents.  (+info)

  • GENEVA - The U.N. migration agency says 46 migrants drowned, including nine women, and 16 remain missing, presumed dead after their vessel capsized in high waves while crossing the Gulf of Aden. (nationalpost.com)
  • Bodies of 12 out of 50 Afghan migrants - allegedly tortured and drowned by the Iranian border guards - have been recovered from the river in the Herat province, an official confirmed on Monday. (turkishpress.com)
  • Abdul Ghani, the governor of Gulran district in Herat bordering Iran, told Anadolu Agency the locals recovered 12 dead bodies of the 50 Afghan migrants who wished to enter Iran, but were first tortured and later drowned in the Harirod River. (turkishpress.com)
  • This comes as the Afghan Foreign Minister Mohammed Haneef Atmar in a statement on Saturday expressed grim concerns over reported torture and drowning of dozens of migrants by the Iranian border guards. (turkishpress.com)
  • The iconic 2015 image of the drowned toddler lying in the sand continues to stir discussion over policies toward migrants. (abcactionnews.com)
  • A photo of the two drowned migrants caught them face-down in the reeds of the river's trash-strewn shore. (thedailystar.net)
  • At least 41 people drowned when their boat capsized in the Central Mediterranean on Saturday, the latest shipwreck involving migrants and refugees fleeing conflict-stricken Libya and seeking a better life in Europe. (aljazeera.com)
  • The United Nations migration and refugee agencies, IOM and UNHCR, said in a joint statement on Wednesday that the drowned people were among at least 120 migrants on a dinghy that left Libya on February 18. (aljazeera.com)
  • GENEVA, May 10 (UNHCR) - The UN refugee agency on Tuesday lamented the latest drowning deaths of people fleeing Libya by boat and reiterated a call for European nations to urgently improve mechanisms for rescue at sea. (unhcr.org)
  • At the Hankey Law Office, our Indianapolis drowning accident attorneys believe that many drowning deaths can and should be prevented: statistics show that nearly 20% of drowning deaths involving children occur in swimming pools where one or more certified lifeguards are on duty. (hankeylawoffice.com)
  • There have been six drownings at Wattamolla Beach, in Sydney's Royal National Park, over the past five years and a total of 12 drownings/deaths at Royal National Park beaches in general - including Figure 8 Pools and Cape Solander. (surflifesaving.com.au)
  • Drowning deaths have spiked since last fall as a surge of law enforcement along the Mexico border prompts immigrants, desperate to avoid detection by a surge of law enforcement, to choose more dangerous and remote crossings into South Texas. (mrt.com)
  • It's not like slow dying in the desert or in the prairies of South Texas," said Nestor Rodriguez, a University of Texas at Austin sociology professor who published a study that found drowning was the most common cause of migrant deaths. (mrt.com)
  • A corner's inquest concluded Thursday that Dolores O'Riordan, late singer of The Cranberries, died by drowning. (news9.com)
  • The inquest determined that O'Riordan accidentally drowned in a bathtub after drinking. (news9.com)
  • A TEENAGER drowned after going missing from a beach party at Walberswick, near Southwold, an inquest heard.The body of Rory Unwin-Rose, 15, of Cretingham, near Framlingham, was found in the River Blyth at Southwold on Sunday, August 10. (eadt.co.uk)
  • A TEENAGER drowned after going missing from a beach party at Walberswick, near Southwold, an inquest heard. (eadt.co.uk)
  • The family of a 13-year-old drowning victim who was pulled to the surface of a Murrieta high school pool by his classmates, with little to no help from lifeguards, Tuesday detailed an $11 million settlement with the Murrieta Valley Unified School District. (nbclosangeles.com)
  • The claim is filed by the victim, or if a child had the drowning accident, then the victim's parents or guardian files the claim. (hankeylawoffice.com)
  • If the victim did not survive the drowning, then his or her family or estate files the claim on their behalf to seek a court judgment of liability and damages for the untimely death of their loved one. (hankeylawoffice.com)
  • Dry drowning happens when the victim is immersed in water and the body goes into shock resulting in a severe muscle spasm of the larynx that prevents the lungs from filling up with water. (eadt.co.uk)
  • One near-drowning victim saved by Mary's lifeline was Blessed Bartolo Longo, an Italian lawyer who at one point had been "ordained" as a satanic priest. (catholicphilly.com)
  • Oscar Alberto Martinez and his daughter, identified by officials from El Salvador as Angie Valeria M., drowned in the currents of the Rio Grande on Sunday as they tried to slip into the United States. (abcactionnews.com)
  • Tania Avalos, wife of Oscar Alberto Martinez Ramirez, a migrant who drowned in the Rio Grande river with his daughter Valeria during their journey to the US, attends a news conference as she arrives at Monsenor Oscar Arnulfo Romero International Airport in San Luis Talpa, El Salvador, June 28, 2019. (thedailystar.net)
  • A 12-year-old girl from a top Harlem school tragically drowned during a "chaotic" end-of-year class trip to the beach today as her horrified classmates helplessly watched from shore, witnesses and authorities said. (nypost.com)
  • If you or a loved one has been injured in a drowning accident, or you have tragically lost a loved one to drowning, you will need the most skilled professionals to recover damages for the expenses you incurred due to the accident, hold those responsible parties accountable, and seek justice for your family. (hankeylawoffice.com)
  • Root's friends quickly lost sight of him and - after U.S. Coast Guard and Humboldt County Sheriff's office personnel spent more than 17 hours searching the water and nearby beaches by air, land and sea - officials now presume him drowned and have shift their focus from rescue to body recovery. (northcoastjournal.com)
  • RENO -- Fifteen students at the University of Nevada, Reno have been charged with campus violations in connection with the October drowning of a classmate, officials said. (nevadaappeal.com)
  • Although local officials believe she drowned, famed forensic pathologist Dr. Michael Baden has reportedly been hired to investigate how she died. (insideedition.com)
  • Last week, boy, 2, drowned in his pool in the Loggers' Run subdivision off Palmetto Park Road when he fell in while under the supervision of his 7- and 11-year-old brothers. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A county ordinance the next year that mandated audible alarms, screen enclosures or self-latching fences that limit access to pools helped cut pool drownings in 1994 and 1995, but the figures have since climbed. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • CHARLOTTE, N.C. (AP) - Charlotte-Mecklenburg police are investigating the drowning of an 8-year-old boy in a swimming pool. (washingtontimes.com)
  • SHARONVILLE, Ohio -- Jamie Melton remembers the moment her heart stopped Friday night: When she saw lifeguards jumping into the pool at Splash Cincinnati to save a young boy who appeared to have drowned. (wcpo.com)
  • Montgomery CBS affiliate WAKA8 announced a settlement has been reached in a case where two young boys drowned at an apartment complex pool. (beasleyallen.com)
  • The following testimonial was written by one of our clients, a man whose son had drowned in a swimming pool during gym class. (pritzkerlaw.com)
  • The United Nations refugee agency, UNHCR, compared the photo to that of a three-year-old Syrian boy, Aylan Kurdi, who drowned in the Mediterranean Sea and whose body washed ashore on a beach in Turkey in 2015. (thedailystar.net)
  • According to Courthouse News Service (CNS), unnamed officers repeatedly tasered Raul Rosas, a father of several small children, pepper-sprayed him, threw him to the ground, and ultimately drowned him with a garden hose after responding to a domestic disturbance call back in the summer of 2011. (naturalnews.com)
  • In those hours, six persons died after falling into the water, while two others tried to swim to a boat spotted in the distance and drowned. (aljazeera.com)
  • Pratapgarh (UP), Mar 11 (PTI) Two girls were fear drowned in the Ganga in the Manikpur area of this Uttar Pradesh district after they slipped into deep water while bathing in the river on the occasion of Mahashivratri on Thursday, police said. (yahoo.com)
  • The father of Liverpool goalkeeper Alisson Becker drowned in a lake near his holiday home in southern Brazil on Wednesday, local police said. (espn.co.uk)
  • Police said a Nigerian woman admitted to drowning her 1-year-old daughter earlier this month because the child was getting in the way of her education. (lifenews.com)
  • Police said earlier this month, she filled a bucket with water and held her daughter under the water until she drowned. (lifenews.com)
  • A family is heartbroken in Iria Itune-na Konyo village, Kamaindi, Tharaka Nithi County after six-year-old twins drowned in a flooded river on Wednesday. (co.ke)
  • Thomson, who later went on to run M2M globally, would have been familiar with the dangers of drowning - a former Jack Tar, he built M2M into a potent force through his energy. (campaignlive.co.uk)
  • The report also indicates there was no evidence of drugs or alcohol playing a role in the drowning, although toxicology tests will be conducted. (deadline.com)
  • Coroner Shirley Radcliffe said that O'Riordan died from drowning because of alcohol intoxication. (news9.com)
  • KOTA BARU - Soffiyah Mustaffa just turned 1 yesterday but plans for her birthday celebration turned sour after she was found drowned. (asiaone.com)
  • But Maximus communications coordinator Larry Del Carlo only got a few minutes into his presentation about the proposed community benefits (which can be found at the bottom of this post) before he was drowned out by booing, hissing, or speeches delivered via the call-and-response crowd-based amplification technique known as the "human microphone. (missionlocal.org)
  • She fell out of the inner tube in the much rougher river and drowned Monday, he said. (ksl.com)
  • A GANG of Nepali thugs kicked an Esher waiter senseless and drowned him in the River Thames following a booze-fuelled punch-up, a court hears. (getsurrey.co.uk)
  • Thakali and two friends, Rocky and Arjun Gurung, are alleged to have picked him up and dumped him in the freezing river where he drowned. (getsurrey.co.uk)
  • Encompassing some 320 miles of river, his sector has already seen at least 16 drownings in nearly six months, nearly a third of them in the canals. (mrt.com)
  • ON 11 JUNE last year Caolán Seoige Webster drowned in the River Shannon. (thejournal.ie)
  • What he does know is that Caolán was around 10 feet either from the bank of the river or from a jetty when he drowned, and that the water was probably around 6 degrees - which would have been cold enough to send his body into shock. (thejournal.ie)
  • Bobby Allan Root, a 20-year-old from Vicksburg, Michigan who enjoyed sketching and a good Will Ferrell movie is presumed drowned after going missing in the ocean off the North Coast on March 24. (northcoastjournal.com)
  • He says he's never seen more than seven ocean drownings in a year but, since December, Humboldt has seen three of them and another pair of drownings in local rivers. (northcoastjournal.com)
  • Join us for the Bay Area launch of the Les Figues Press anthology I'LL DROWN MY BOOK: CONCEPTUAL WRITING BY WOMEN edited by Caroline Bergvall, Laynie Browne, Teresa Carmody and Vanessa Place. (atasite.org)
  • Franco Columbu, a world-renowned bodybuilder who parlayed his success into an acting career, drowned Friday off the coast of his native Sardinia after suffering a heart attack while swimming, THR reports . (extratv.com)
  • Nicolini says trends show few drownings in the ocean off the North Coast in the middle stretches of summer and winter. (northcoastjournal.com)
  • Through a mysterious voice from the bottom of the sea, Drowning Letters tells the most tragic years of our contemporary history. (agenciafreak.com)
  • Because physical evidence may be lost or destroyed, hesitating to hire an attorney may prevent the claimants from discovering who is at fault for causing the drowning. (hankeylawoffice.com)