Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute: A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Galactosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous: A form of LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, L. braziliensis in South America, and L. mexicana in Central America. This disease is characterized by massive dissemination of skin lesions without visceral involvement.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Panthera: Genus in the family FELIDAE comprised of big felines including LIONS; TIGERS; jaguars; and the leopard.Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Tigers: The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Mice, Inbred C57BLMyelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.ColoradoFellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Peritoneovenous Shunt: An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Colorado tick fever virus: A species of COLTIVIRUS transmitted by the tick DERMACENTOR andersonii and causing fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. It occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast.History of Medicine

*Interleukin 22

"A human natural killer cell subset provides an innate source of IL-22 for mucosal immunity". Nature. 457 (7230): 722-5. doi: ... "Th22 cells represent a distinct human T cell subset involved in epidermal immunity and remodeling". The Journal of Clinical ... "Stage 3 immature human natural killer cells found in secondary lymphoid tissue constitutively and selectively express the TH 17 ... IL-22 along with IL-17 is rapidly produced by splenic LTi-like cells and also produced by Th17 cells and likely plays a role in ...

*KIR3DL2

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... 1996). "The natural killer cell receptor specific for HLA-A allotypes: a novel member of the p58/p70 family of inhibitory ... 2000). "Diversity of the p70 killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR3DL) family members in a single individual". Mol. Cells. 10 (1 ... 2003). "DNA methylation maintains allele-specific KIR gene expression in human natural killer cells". J. Exp. Med. 197 (2): 245 ...

*KIR2DL1

Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... Kim J, Chwae YJ, Kim MY, Choi IH, Park JH, Kim SJ (1997). "Molecular basis of HLA-C recognition by p58 natural killer cell ... Fan QR, Long EO, Wiley DC (2000). "A disulfide-linked natural killer cell receptor dimer has higher affinity for HLA-C than ... Fan QR, Long EO, Wiley DC (May 2001). "Crystal structure of the human natural killer cell inhibitory receptor KIR2DL1-HLA-Cw4 ...

*KIR3DL3

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... "Inhibition of natural killer cell activation signals by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (CD158)". Immunol Rev. 181: ... 2002). "Natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) locus profiles in African and South Asian populations". Genes ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR3DL3 gene. ...

*KIR2DS4

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... family of receptors is selectively expressed on a subset of human natural killer cells and induces both triggering of cell ... Fan QR, Long EO, Wiley DC (2000). "Cobalt-mediated dimerization of the human natural killer cell inhibitory receptor". J. Biol ... 1997). "Molecular basis of HLA-C recognition by p58 natural killer cell inhibitory receptors". J. Immunol. 159 (8): 3875-82. ...

*KIR3DL1

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... "Multiple transcripts of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor family, KIR3DL1 (NKB1), are expressed by natural killer ... 1996). "The natural killer cell receptor specific for HLA-A allotypes: a novel member of the p58/p70 family of inhibitory ... A natural killer cell receptor for HLA-B allotypes". J. Immunol. 155 (5): 2306-10. PMID 7650366. Litwin V, Gumperz J, Parham P ...

*KIR2DS1

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, short cytoplasmic tail, 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Zhang HQ, Zhao JJ, Zhao YR, Guan QB, Gao L, Song HD (August 2009). "[Genotype analysis of killer cell immunoglobulin-like ... Majorczyk E, Pawlik A, Łuszczek W, Nowak I, Wiśniewski A, Jasek M, Kuśnierczyk P (December 2007). "Associations of killer cell ...

*KIR2DL4

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... induction of IFN-gamma production but not cytotoxicity by the killer cell Ig-like receptor KIR2DL4 (CD158d) in resting NK cells ... G-specific receptor expressed on all natural killer cells". J. Exp. Med. 189 (7): 1093-100. doi:10.1084/jem.189.7.1093. PMC ... and phosphotyrosine-independent inhibitory signaling by a killer cell Ig-like receptor cytoplasmic domain in human NK cells". J ...

*SLAMF7

... a novel human natural killer cell receptor belonging to the CD2 subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily". Immunogenetics. 52 ( ... The surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) is a robust marker of normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. In ... Claus M, Meinke S, Bhat R, Watzl C (2007). "Regulation of NK cell activity by 2B4, NTB-A and CRACC". Frontiers in Bioscience. ... Del Valle JM, Engel P, Martín M (May 2003). "The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its ...

*Ulrich von Andrian

His laboratory has also identified a subset of natural killer cells that acquires antigen-specific memory to haptens and ... His group has also characterized the dynamics of T-cell interactions with antigen-presenting dendritic cells and identified a ... with a focus on how T-cell and B-cell-specific responses to antigen are initiated and how antigen is transported to the lymph ... and then engaging B cells in the adjacent follicles to trigger B cell activation. ...

*CD226

... is a ~65 kDa glycoprotein expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, platelets, monocytes and a subset of T cells ... and NKp46 in the natural killer cell-mediated killing of myeloma cells". Cancer Research. 67 (18): 8444-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... "Expression of human CD226 on T cells and natural killer cells and of soluble CD226 in plasma of HIV-1-infected Chinese patients ... "Analysis of the receptor-ligand interactions in the natural killer-mediated lysis of freshly isolated myeloid or lymphoblastic ...

*Focal infection theory

... whose other arm is mediated by killer T cells. As acquired immunity's two principal mediators, B cells and T cells are subsets ... On the other hand, innate immunity is mediated not only by phagocytes but also by a third subset of lymphocytes: natural killer ... Lida H Mattman, Cell Wall Deficient Forms: Stealth Pathogens, 3rd edn (Boca Raton FL: CRC Press, 2000), pp 286 & 289, while p ... whereas the other three zones-surrounding the zone of infection-revealed immune cells or other host cells but no bacteria. Fish ...

*Sialoadhesin

... natural killer cells, B cells and a subset of cytotoxic T cells by interacting with sialic acid molecules in the ligands on ... CD169+ macrophages mediate signaling between the various cells and seem to promote hematopoietic stem cell retention to the ... Sialoadhesin is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of macrophages. It is found in especially high amounts on ... Sialaodhesin (CD169) positive macrophages, along with mesenchymal stem cells and beta-adrenergic neurons, form the ...

*Immunoglobulin superfamily

... novel members of the CD2 subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily molecules expressed on natural killer cells and other ... Seda V, Mraz M (2015). "B-cell receptor signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in normal and malignant cells". Eur. J ... The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large protein superfamily of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in ... Members of the IgSF include cell surface antigen receptors, co-receptors and co-stimulatory molecules of the immune system, ...

*Alloimmunity

Role of natural killer cell subsets in cardiac allograft rejection. Am J Transplant. 6(3):505-13 Yu G, Xu X, Vu MD, Kilpatrick ... 17 cells. Nature 448(7152):484-7 Villard J. (2011), The role of natural killer cells in human solid organ and tissue ... NK cells can also directly target the transplanted tissue. It depends on the balance of activating and inhibitory NK cell ... Receptors of KIR (Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) family bind concrete MHC class I molecules. If the graft has these ...

*Neprilysin

... natural killer, and dendritic cells arise from a common bone marrow progenitor cell subset". Immunity. 3 (4): 459-73. Oct 1995 ... Some benign T cells can be CD10+ Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (Clear cell RCC) CD10+ distinguishes renal cell carcinoma, ... Follicular lymphoma (follicle centre cell lymphoma) are CD10+. Burkitt Lymphoma cells are CD10+. CD10+ diffuse large B cell ... B or natural killer cells. CD10 is of use in hematological diagnosis since it is expressed by early B, pro-B and pre-B ...

*Cytokine-induced killer cell

... of CIK cells by the National Cancer Institute Natural killer cell Natural killer T cell Lymphokine-activated killer cell ... Others propose to classify CIK cells as subset of NKT cells. It has been shown that lymphocytes, when exposed to interferon- ... CIK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells or LAK cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells and LAK cells ... Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) ...

*CIK

Cytokine-induced killer cell, a subset of Natural killer T cells Crypto Ignition Key, or KSD-64, a security token developed by ...

*Gamma delta T cell

T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs, such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, gamma delta T cells exhibit several ... Naive T cells Memory T cells Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells Natural killer T cells Innate immune system Adaptive immune ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are ... These Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can also behave like professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). It seems that human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are ...

*CXCL16

Cells that bind and migrate in response to CXCL16 include several subsets of T cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells. CXCL16 ... CXCL16 is produced by dendritic cells found in the T cell zones of lymphoid organs, and by cells found in the red pulp of the ... "Microbial exposure during early life has persistent effects on natural killer T cell function". Science. 336 (6080): 489-493. ... These are unusual features for a chemokine, and allow CXCL16 to be expressed as a cell surface bound molecule, as well as a ...

*HLA-E

... has a very specialized role in cell recognition by natural killer cells (NK cells). HLA-E binds a restricted subset of ... "Human natural killer cells: their origin, receptors and function". European Journal of Immunology. 32 (5): 1205-11. doi:10.1002 ... "HLA-E binds to natural killer cell receptors CD94/NKG2A, B and C". Nature. 391 (6669): 795-9. doi:10.1038/35869. PMID 9486650. ... This allows HLA-E to assemble correctly and to be expressed on the cell surface. NK cells recognize the HLA-E+peptide complex ...

*List of MeSH codes (A11)

... natural MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.537.500 - killer cells, lymphokine-activated MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.550 - lymphocyte subsets ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... k562 cells MeSH A11.251.860.180.750 - pc12 cells MeSH A11.251.860.180.880 - u937 cells MeSH A11.284.149.165 - cell membrane ... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ...

*Harvey Cantor

Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ... functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. ... Glimcher L, Shen FW, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J Exp ... This experimental approach was also used to investigate other lymphocyte populations, including "natural killer" cells. His ...

*GZMM

Human natural killer (NK) cells and activated lymphocytes express and store a distinct subset of neutral serine proteases ... 2003). "The serine protease granzyme M is preferentially expressed in NK-cell, gamma delta T-cell, and intestinal T-cell ... "The gene encoding a human natural killer cell granule serine protease, Met-ase 1, maps to chromosome 19p13.3". Immunogenetics. ... cloning and distinct chromosomal location of a serine protease preferentially expressed in human natural killer cells". J. ...

*T cell

Recently, Treg17 cells have been added to this list. Natural killer T cells (NKT cells - not to be confused with natural killer ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their ... Cytotoxic (Killer) CD8 +ve Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and ... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ...
Insufficient natural killer cell responses against retroviruses: how to improve NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sharma, S D.; Tsai, V; and Proffitt, M R., "Enhancement of mouse natural killer cell activity by thyroxine." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1180 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stage-dependent gene expression profiles during natural killer cell development. AU - Kang, Hyung Sik. AU - Kim, Eun Mi. AU - Lee, Sanggyu. AU - Yoon, Suk Ran. AU - Kawamura, Toshihiko. AU - Lee, Young Cheol. AU - Kim, Sangsoo. AU - Myung, Pyung Keun. AU - San, Ming Wang. AU - Choi, Inpyo. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Natural killer (NK) cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow. To understand the molecular regulation of NK cell development, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was applied to HSCs, NK precursor (pNK) cells, and mature NK cells (mNK) cultured without or with OP9 stromal cells. From 170,464 total individual tags from four SAGE libraries, 35,385 unique genes were identified. A set of ...
CHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS Williams Hematology CHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS GIORGIO TRINCHIERI LEWIS L. LANIER Identification and Definition of Natural Killer Cells Definition Morphology Origin and Tissue Distribution Mechanisms of Natural Killer Cell Functions Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Production of Cytokines Physiologic Roles of Natural Killer Cells Natural Resistance Regulation of…
Now, results from a new study carried out using a mouse model, show that modified cells called "super natural killer cells" are able to seek out cancer cells in lymph nodes to destroy them, thus halting the process of metastasis. Michael King, senior author of the study, said in a press release: "We want to see lymph node metastasis become a thing of the past.". The super natural killer cells find the cancerous cells in the lymph nodes and induce apoptosis - in other words, the cancer cells self-destruct and disintegrate, thus averting their further lymphatic spread. But what are these super natural killer cells? They are a modified version of the so-called ...
This sensitivity allows natural killer cells to vigorously initiate natural killer cytotoxicity (by emptying granules of porforin and granzyme) and inflammation as soon as pathogenesis is detected, and is essential to protection against viruses and tumors. Natural killer cells have genomic (not needed recombination, or RAG-independent) cell surface receptors which recognize classical Class I MHC molecules (and structural relatives like MICA, RAE-1 and H-60).. Natural killer cells lack TcRs, CD4s and CD8; instead, they have: cell-surface activating receptors, which bind noncovalently to molecules with ITAMs; and on the cytoplasmic side, inhibitory receptors ...
Methods have been developed for isolating human tissue macrophages from first trimester or term pregnancy decidua. After a two stage enzymic digestion, viable cells were separated from cellular debris by velocity sedimentation at unit gravity or by Percoll centrifugation. Cell populations were analysed by flow cytometry after labelling with monoclonal antibodies. In term decidua, 47% of the cells were of bone marrow origin, comprising 18% macrophages, 3% large granular lymphocytes and 8% T cells. The remaining cells, the proportion of which varied between individuals, were CD16-positive granulocytes. Macrophages were isolated flow cytometrically from both first trimester and term decidual cell dispersions after labelling with an antibody to MHC class II. Yields of up to 4 X 10(6) macrophages, greater than 95% pure, were routinely obtained.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monocyte- and natural killer cell-mediated spontaneous cytotoxicity against human noncultured solid tumor cells. AU - Itoh, Kyogo. AU - Platsoucas, Chris D.. AU - Balch, Charles M.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exhibited spontaneous cytotoxicity against noncultured solid tumor targets in a 12- to 24-hr 51Cr release or 111In release assay. Both purified monocytes (, 99% monocytes) and natural killer (NK)-enriched lymphocytes exhibited comparable levels of spontaneous cytotoxicity against fresh melanoma tumor targets. This cytotoxicity was observed under endotoxin-free conditions. NK-depleted lymphocytes did not lyse the melanoma targets. Culture supernatants of monocytes incubated with the melanoma tumor cells did not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of CD94 and 56bright on Natural Killer Lymphocytes - the Influence of Exercise. AU - Horn, Peggy. AU - Leeman, K. AU - Gore, Christopher. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. M3 - Article. VL - 23. SP - 595. EP - 599. JO - International Journal of Sports Medicine. JF - International Journal of Sports Medicine. SN - 0172-4622. IS - 8. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of Cord Blood Natural Killer and Lymphokine Activated Killer Lymphocytes Following Ex Vivo Cellular Engineering. AU - Ayello, Janet. AU - van de Ven, Carmella. AU - Fortino, Weiwei. AU - Wade-Harris, Cheryl. AU - Satwani, Prakash. AU - Baxi, Laxmi. AU - Simpson, Lynn L.. AU - Sanger, Warren G. AU - Pickering, Diana. AU - Kurtzberg, Joanne. AU - Cairo, Mitchell S.. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cytotoxic cells are poorly characterized but might be used to treat minimal residual and/or recurrent malignant disease. Currently, there is no mechanism to use CB for adoptive cancer cellular immunotherapy after CB transplantation (CBT). Recognizing this as ...
Natural Killer Cells are the most aggressive white cells in the immune system. They make up about 5% to 15% of the total lymphocyte circulating population. They target tumor cell and protect against a wide variety of infectious microbes. Natural Killer Cells are a very important factor in the fight against cancer. Immune Stimulation is the key to keeping the white blood cell count high and giving the Natural Killer Cells a chance to fight cancer and other diseases.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic polymorphism analysis of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Chinese Uygur population. AU - Wang, Hong Dan. AU - Zhu, Bo Feng. AU - Shen, Chun Mei. AU - Yuan, Guo Lian. AU - Yang, Guang. AU - Guo, Juan Ning. AU - Yan, Jiang Wei. AU - Qin, Hai Xia. AU - Guo, Jian Xin. AU - Zhang, Li Ping. AU - Jia, Xiao Qin. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Abstract Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are expressed in natural killer cells and subsets of T lymphocytes. They regulate these cells upon interaction with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules and other ligands presented by target cells. KIR gene frequencies and haplotype distributions have been shown to differ significantly between populations from ...
Background: Although there is convincing data in support of the effectiveness of hyperthermia in tumor therapy, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of hyperthermia are still poorly understood. Objective: To investigate natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity against heat-treated SW-872 and HeLa tumor cell lines. Methods: NKG2D ligands and HLA class I transcription were examined using quantitative real-time PCR in treated tumor cell lines at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h following thermal treatment at 39C and 42C for 1 h. The expression of MICA/B, ULBP1 and ULBP2 were also determined by flow cytometry. NK92-MI cytotoxic activity against heat-treated target cell lines was assessed by LDH release as well as annexin-V and 7-AAD assays. Results: Our results showed that heat treatment at 39C improved the cytolytic activity of NK cells against SW-872 ...
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL1-mediated recognition of human leukocyte antigen B.: Members of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)
Polymorphisms in cell surface receptors of natural killer cells and their ligands on target cells can affect susceptibility to viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. We found that the carriage of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G minus 14-bp polymorphism, LILRB1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1061680, and activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) were different when data were compared between Caucasian, African Americans and Asian populations. However, carriage was similar when HIV-1 patients were compared with control donors, with the exception of the African American cohort.. ...
NK cells are the first line of defense against infected and transformed cells. Defective NK cell activity was shown to increase susceptibility for viral infections and reduce tumor immune-surveillance. With age, the incidence of infectious diseases and malignancy rises dramatically, suggesting that impaired NK cell function might contribute to disease in these individuals. We found an increased frequency of NK cells with high expression of the inhibitory killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) in individuals |70 y. The role of KLRG1 in ageing is not known, and the mechanism of KLRG1-induced inhibition of NK cell function is not fully understood. We report that NK cells with high KLRG1 expression spontaneously activate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that activation of AMPK negatively regulates NK ...
NK cells are the first line of defense against infected and transformed cells. Defective NK cell activity was shown to increase susceptibility for viral infections and reduce tumor immune-surveillance. With age, the incidence of infectious diseases and malignancy rises dramatically, suggesting that impaired NK cell function might contribute to disease in these individuals. We found an increased frequency of NK cells with high expression of the inhibitory killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) in individuals |70 y. The role of KLRG1 in ageing is not known, and the mechanism of KLRG1-induced inhibition of NK cell function is not fully understood. We report that NK cells with high KLRG1 expression spontaneously activate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that activation of AMPK negatively regulates NK ...
R.T.Gergova, M.P.Slavova, V.I.Boev, M.S.Mourdjeva, L.K.Yotova, R.T.Georgieva-Nikolova Comparative investigation of the feasibility of bacterial biofilms formation on the surface of the hybrid material UREASIL. Bulgarian Chemical Communications, 47, 2, 706-713, 2015.. ISSN: 0324-1130IF: 0.349. Elena Stoyanova, M. Mourdjeva, S. Kyurjchiev. Early selection of human fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 29, 5, 942-948, 2015.. ISSN: 1310-2818IF:0.3. Kyurkchiev D, E.Naydenov, K.Tumangelova-Yuzeir, E.Ivanova-Todorova, K.Belemezova, I.Bochev, K.Minkin, M.Mourdjeva, T.Velikova, S.Nachev, S.Kyurkchiev Cells Isolated from Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Express Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor (PIBF). Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 34, 1, 479-489, 2014. ISSN: 0272-4340 IF: 2.506. K.Belemezova, I.Bochev, M.Mourdjeva, A.Shterev, S.Kyurkchiev Effect of GNRH analogues ganirelix and triptorelin on human ...
Rabinowich H., Manciulea M., Metes D., Sulica A., Herberman R.B., Corey S.J., Whiteside T.L.. We recently reported that Fc mu R on NK cells is a signal transducing protein that stimulates a rapid increase in the level of cytoplasmic free calcium upon binding of IgM. This study was designed to examine signal transduction via the Fc mu R on NK cells and to characterize intracellular second messengers activated by IgM. Immunoprecipitation of IgM-bound Fc mu R by IgM-specific Ab coimmunoprecipitated the zeta- and Fc epsilon RI gamma-chains. Furthermore, engagement and clustering of Fc mu R by polyclonal IgM induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the zeta- and Fc epsilon RI gamma-chains, indicating their functional association with the Fc mu R-induced signal transduction cascade. Ligand-induced clustering of the Fc mu R also induced activity of src family kinases, Lck, Fyn, Lyn, and Src, as well as their physical interaction with the receptor. Triggering via Fc mu R ...
Looking for Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor? Find out information about Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor. Physiol a sensory nerve ending that changes specific stimuli into nerve impulses a sensory nerve structure that perceives and transforms stimuli from an... Explanation of Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor
The Notch signaling pathway plays a substantial role on human NK cell development, however the role of Notch on KIR upregulation and acquisition of effector function has not been explored. To evaluate how Notch influences terminal differentiation, cord blood derived NK cells or sorted KIR- peripheral blood NK cells were cultured with IL-15 for 7 days in the presence or absence of gamma-secretase inhibitor, known to inhibit Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling significantly decreased KIR expression. Conversely, co-culturing the same cells with OP9 cells bearing Notch ligands enhanced KIR expression. Overexpression of the active portion of Notch on cord blood derived NK cells after 28 days of culture resulted in a 2-fold increase in KIR expression indicating that Notch signaling plays a direct, cell intrinsic, role in KIR regulation. By knocking down delta-like 1 (DLL1) on NK ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invariant natural killer T cells direct B cell responses to cognate lipid antigen in an IL-21-dependent manner. AU - King, Irah L.. AU - Fortier, Anne. AU - Tighe, Michael. AU - Dibble, John. AU - Watts, Gerald F.M.. AU - Veerapen, Natacha. AU - Haberman, Ann M.. AU - Besra, Gurdyal S.. AU - Mohrs, Markus. AU - Brenner, Michael B.. AU - Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Mouse invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) provide cognate and noncognate help for lipid and protein-specific B cells, respectively. However, the long-term outcome for B cells after cognate help is provided by iNKT cells is unknown at present. Here we found that cognate iNKT cell help resulted in a B cell ...
NK cells respond to tumor and virus-infected cells directly through several activation receptors, including natural cytotoxicity receptors, or indirectly through the activating Fc receptor CD16 for antibody-coated cells. Triggering of NK-cell effector functions through these receptors depends on physically associated transmembrane signaling adaptors, such as FcRγ (also known as FcεRIγ) and CD3ζ, both of which have been traditionally believed to be expressed by all mature NK cells. However, we have identified a distinct subset of human NK cells that are deficient for FcRγ expression but express normal levels of CD3ζ. FcRγ-deficient NK cells were readily detectable in about one-third of the healthy individuals examined. The deficiency was confined to the CD56dim population and was due to low FcRγ mRNA. FcRγ-deficient NK cells displayed ...
Bridging innate and adaptive immunity, the NK cell is an important effector lymphocyte that participates in the early immune response to pathogens through the production of cytokines and chemokines (1). Furthermore, the NK cell has also been found to mediate cytolytic activity against virally infected cells and malignant cells (1, 2). Following the principle of the "missing self" hypothesis, NK recognition of "self" MHC Ags on putative target cells leads to inhibition of effector functions. Accordingly, target cell loss of self-MHC class I expression releases NK cell effector functions by removing the MHC-mediated inhibition (3). Regulation of NK cell function is accomplished through a diverse complement of receptors mediating, activating, and inhibiting signals in response to ligand interactions.. In humans, receptors that signal activation include the NK cytotoxicity ...
Granularity is a characteristic of both dNK and CD56dim pNK cells, both of which are also called large granular lymphocytes (65), whereas CD56bright pNK cells are known to be less granular (15). Granzyme B and perforin (components of cytotoxic granules) were expressed at similar levels in dNK and CD56dim pNK cells, whereas granzyme A was 3- and 10-fold overexpressed in dNK cells versus the CD56dim and CD56bright pNK cells, respectively (Fig. 3 C). Thus, the potential cytolytic function of dNK cells, probably regulated, cannot be ignored. This nascent activity could be manifest in the decidua under special circumstances (e.g., virus infection of the trophoblast or decidual remodeling).. Many other genes overexpressed in dNK cells that are presented in Fig. 3 (e.g., CD31, CD38, MIP-1 α/β, Syk, LEF1, AARS, arp2/3 subunit, and tubulins) may be of considerable interest but are beyond the scope of ...
Elevated level of free 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha in the decidua basalis of women with preeclampsia. Increased contents of phospholipids, cholesterol, and lipid peroxides in decidua basalis in women with preeclampsia
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess endometrial chemokines in users of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and correlate them with leucocyte populations, uterine natural killer cells (uNK) and mast cells (MCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endometrium was obtained from two groups of women who had been using LNG-IUS for 3 years or more: 11 amenorrhoeic women formed the non-bleeding group and 15 women who maintained some form of cyclic bleeding comprised the bleeding group. Specific antibodies were used for the assessment of neutrophils, uNK cells and MCs. Immunohistochemistry was performed to locate the chemokines 6Ckine and interleukin-8 (IL-8). RESULTS: Neutrophils were few and without differences between the two groups. uNK cells were significantly higher in the bleeding group (P , 0.0001). There was no difference between the total number of MCs and ...
इस अध्ययन के एक सत्यापित और अलगाव और मानव एंडोमेट्रियल stromal कोशिकाओं की संस्कृति के लिए प्रक्रिया को इन विट्रो...
The researchers used an animal model to show that the loss of innate immune control by young natural killer cells can lead to infectious mononucleosis. "Young natural killer cells, which small children in particular have in abundance, seem to be especially suited to killing off the cells that multiply EBV", according to Christian Münz, Professor of Experimental Immunology at the University of Zurich. "This weakens the primary infection and infectious mononucleosis does not break out".. Without the defense of the natural killer cells, EBV multiplies so dramatically during the primary infection phase that the aggressive response of the adaptive immune system - chiefly of the T killer cells - ...
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Horowitz, A., Strauss-Albee, D.M., Leipold, M. et al.. Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in immune defense and reproduction, yet remain the most poorly understood major lymphocyte population. Because their activation is controlled by a variety of combinatorially expressed activating and inhibitory receptors, NK cell diversity and function are closely linked. To provide an unprecedented understanding of NK cell repertoire diversity, we used mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze 37 parameters, including 28 NK cell receptors, on peripheral blood NK cells from 5 sets of monozygotic twins and 12 unrelated donors of defined human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype. This analysis revealed a remarkable degree of NK cell diversity, with ...
Gellert, Ginelle C. uPAR Interaction and Regulation of Natural Killer Cell Integrins: Implications for the Modulation of NK Cell Migration and Invasion. Doctor of Philosophy (Biomedical Sciences), May 2003; pp. 118, 2 tables; 12 figures; bibliography 163. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored receptor, devoid of an intracellular domain, but nevertheless initiates signaling, possibly through lateral interactions with integrins. Since adoptively transferred interleuking-2 (IL-2) activated natural killer (A-NK) cells can accumulate within established cancer metastases, these A-NK cells may integrate components of adhesion and proteolysis to facilitate their infiltration into tumors. The work in this dissertation investigates the hypothesis that uPAR directly ...
In the present study, we provide evidence that freshly isolated neuroblastoma cells are susceptible to NK-mediated lysis. More importantly, we show that a key role in the lytic process is played by PVR, a molecule expressed at the tumor cell surface that is recognized by the DNAM-1 receptor. We analyzed highly purified, fresh neuroblastoma cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates (22) . As compared with cultured neuroblastoma cell lines (20) , freshly isolated neuroblasts were generally more resistant to lysis. Remarkably, a certain degree of variability existed among different tumors. In particular, we show that tumor cells displaying maximal susceptibility to lysis were characterized by high surface expression of PVR. This molecule was recently recognized as a ligand for DNAM-1, a surface receptor mediating NK cell activation and tumor cell killing (17) . In line with these findings, we ...
A successful pregnancy requires that the maternal immune system adapts to tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetal-placental unit. This adaptation mainly occurs locally, i.e. at the fetal-maternal interface, where fetal-derived tissues come into close contact with maternal cells in the uterine endometrium (called decidua during pregnancy). Macrophages and regulatory T (Treg) cells are maternal immune cells that are enriched in the decidua and they likely play a central role in promoting fetal tolerance. However, the precise function of decidual macrophages and the factors regulating both macrophages and Treg cells in humans are unknown. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the phenotype and function of decidual macrophages from first trimester human pregnancy and to identify factors responsible for inducing tolerogenic properties in both decidual macrophages and Treg cells. CD14+ decidual macrophages showed characteristics ...
We report evidence that murine NK cells express a functional Fc gamma RII encoded by the Fc gamma RII alpha gene. Several lines of indirect evidence indicate that freshly obtained NK cells from mice of several strains bear a functional Fc gamma RII: (a) anti-Fc gamma RII antibody 2.4G2 detects a small but significant proportion of sIg- cells and a small proportion of the 2.4G2+ cells are included in the Thy-1+ population; (b) sIg- lymphocytes contain 2.4G2+ and Fc gamma R-bearing cells in similar proportions; (c) binding of particulate immune complexes by sIg- lymphocytes is completely inhibited by 2.4G2; (d) 2.4G2+ cells mediate greater than 50% of the spontaneous cytotoxicity in sIg- splenic lymphocytes. Direct evidence for the presence of Fc gamma RII on murine NK cells is provided by the results of two-color immunofluorescence studies performed on splenic lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice ...
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Glycolipid ligands for invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are loaded onto CD1d molecules in the late endosome/lysosome. Accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in lysosomal storage diseases could potentially influence endogenous and exogenous lipid loading and/or presentation and, thus, affect iNKT cell selection or function. The percentages and frequency of iNKT cells were reduced in multiple mouse models of lysosomal GSL storage disease, irrespective of the specific genetic defect or lipid species stored. Reduced numbers of iNKT cells resulted in the absence of cytokine production in response to alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) and reduced iNKT cell-mediated lysis of wild-type targets loaded with alpha-GalCer. The reduction in iNKT cells did not result from defective expression of CD1d or a lack of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Suppress the Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in a Mouse Model of Cholestatic Liver Damage. AU - Wintermeyer, Philip. AU - Cheng, Chao Wen. AU - Gehring, Stephan. AU - Hoffman, Beth L.. AU - Holub, Martin. AU - Brossay, Laurent. AU - Gregory, Stephen H.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: NK1.1+ TCRαβint CD1-restricted T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of T lymphocytes that are believed to have an immunoregulatory role in a wide range of diseases. Most mouse NKT cells express a T-cell receptor that contains an invariant Vα14Jα18 chain and recognizes antigenic glycolipids presented in association with major histocompatibility complex class Ib (CD1d) molecules. These invariant NKT (iNKT) cells have been implicated in cholestatic liver injury. Methods: We examined the role of iNKT ...
Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of innate immunity that respond to virus infected and tumor cells. After allogeneic transplantation, NK cells are the first reconstituting lymphocytes, but are dysfunctional. Manipulating this first wave of lymphocytes could be instrumental in reducing the 40% relapse rate following transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning. NK cells express numerous activating and inhibitory receptors. Some recognize classical or non-classical HLA class I ligands, others recognize class I-like ligands or unrelated ligands. Dominant in the NK cell transplant literature are killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), encoded on chromosome 19q. Inhibitory KIR recognition of cognate HLA class I ligand is responsible for NK cell education, which makes them ...
In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumor cells. If lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of Interleukin 2, it results in the development of effector cells which are cytotoxic to tumor cells. It has been shown that lymphocytes, when exposed to Interleukin 2, are capable of lysing fresh, non-cultured cancer cells, both primary and metastatic. LAK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK cell activity. The mechanism of LAK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells because they can lyse ...
Williams, J. L., Eggen, A., Ferretti, L., Farr, C. J., Gautier, M., Amati, G., Ball, G., Caramorr, T., Critcher, R., Costa, S., Hextall, P., Hills, D., Jeulin, A., Kiguwa, S. L., Ross, O., Smith, A. L., Saunier, K., Urquhart, B. and Waddington, D., A bovine whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and outline map. Mamm. Genome 2002. 13: 469-474 ...
Background Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that help potentiate and regulate immune responses. Although human NKT cell subsets with distinct effector functions have been identified, it is unclear whether the effector functions of these subsets are imprinted during development or can be selectively reprogrammed in the periphery. Results We found that neonatal NKT cells are predominantly CD4+ and express higher levels of CCR7 and CD62L and lower levels of CD94 and CD161 than adult CD4+ or CD4− NKT cell subsets. Accordingly, neonatal NKT cells were more flexible than adult CD4+ NKT cells in their capacity to acquire Th1- or Th2-like functions upon either cytokine-mediated polarization or ectopic expression of the Th1 or Th2 transcription factors T-bet and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor α (CD25) is selectively decreased on decidual CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes in normal pregnancies. AU - Chao, Kunag Han. AU - Wu, Ming Yih. AU - Yang, Jehn Hsiahn. AU - Chen, Shee Uan. AU - Yang, Yu Shih. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. PY - 2002/7/22. Y1 - 2002/7/22. N2 - In a previous study, we demonstrated that the proportion of activated T cells (CD69 +CD3 + and HLA-DR +CD3 +) is higher in the endometrium and decidua after the luteal phase and throughout early pregnancy compared with in the peripheral blood. However, there was no difference in the proportion of CD25 +CD3 + lymphocytes between the endometrium and peripheral blood. In this study, we further verify that the levels of CD25 on CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes are not increased in normal pregnancy, although the levels of CD69 and HLA-DR are markedly increased. We also elucidate that the amounts of all three activation molecules on local T lymphocytes are down-regulated in pregnancy ...
BackgroundAlthough uterine macrophages are thought to play an important regulatory role at the maternal-fetal interface, their global gene expression profile is not known.Methodology/Principal FindingsUsing micro-array comprising approximately 14,000 genes, the gene expression pattern of human first trimester decidual CD14+ monocytes/macrophages was characterized and compared with the expression profile of the corresponding cells in blood. Some of the key findings were confirmed by real time PCR or by secreted protein. A unique gene expression pattern intrinsic of first trimester decidual CD14+ cells was demonstrated. A large number of regulated genes were functionally related to immunomodulation and tissue remodelling, corroborating polarization patterns of differentiated macrophages mainly of the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. These include known M2 markers such as CCL-18, CD209, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, mannose receptor c type (MRC)-1 and fibronectin-1. ...
Tissue antigens, 2007; 69 Suppl 1 doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.759_5.x. Authors: Hsu K C, Pinto-Agnello C, Gooley T, Malkki M, Dupont B Hsu K C, Pinto-Agnello C, Gooley T, Malkki M, Dupont B, Petersdorf E W et al.(1) Affiliation: Memorial Hospital, 10021, NY, United States Sample size: 1770 Abstract: Recognition of recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligand by donor natural killer cell killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) has been proposed as the basis for donor allograft reactivity against malignancy leading to reduction in posttransplant relapse and higher survival for acute myelogenous leukemia. Analysis of KIR ligand effects in 1770 patients undergoing myeloablative T-replete hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors showed that lack of KIR ligand in patients for inhibitory KIR was associated with lower ...
Work in T cells has demonstrated that actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and lipid raft polarization induced by contact with an APC are dependent on Vav1 activity (10-12). Therefore, early signals upstream of actin polymerization that induce Vav1 phosphorylation must exist. Activation receptor 2B4 on NK cells is not likely to provide such early signals because 2B4 phosphorylation is itself dependent on actin polymerization (20). To test if LFA-1 engagement on NK cells can activate Vav1 upstream of cytoskeleton rearrangements, actin polymerization was blocked by treatment with cytochalasin D and Latrunculin A. As shown in Fig. 3 B, these inhibitors did not block the Vav1 phosphorylation induced by SC2-ICAM cells. In contrast, and consistent with the actin polymerization-dependent phosphorylation of 2B4 (20), the enhancement of Vav1 phosphorylation due to coengagement of 2B4 with LFA-1 was blocked by cytochalasin D and Latrunculin A (Fig. 3 B). ...
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Background: Invariant natural killer cells (iNKT) are an important immunoregulatory T cell subset. Currently several flow cytometry-based approaches exist for the identifi-cation of iNKT cells, which rely on using the 6B11 monoclonal antibody or a combina-tion of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 antibodies. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the ability of two flow cytometry-based methods for detecting the frequency of circulating iNKT cells. Methods: The frequency of iNKT cells was detected in the pe-ripheral blood of 37 healthy adult donors by flow cytometry using the 6B11 antibody or a combination of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 antibodies. Results: The frequency of iNKT cells detected by 6B11 antibody or by combination of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 anti-bodies was significantly different (0.54% vs. 0.31%, respectively, p|0.001) but the ...
CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) possess a wide range of effector and regulatory activities that are related to their ability to secrete both T helper 1 (Th1) cell- and Th2 cell-type cytokines. We analyzed presentation of NKT cell activating α galactosylceramide (αGalCer) analogs that give predominantly Th2 cell-type cytokine responses to determine how ligand structure controls the outcome of NKT cell activation. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for αGalCer-CD1d complexes to visualize and quantitate glycolipid presentation, we found that Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing ligands were characterized by rapid and direct loading of cell-surface CD1d proteins. Complexes formed by association of these Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing αGalCer analogs with CD1d ...
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent a unique population of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes expressing an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) encoded by Vα14-Jα18 and Vα24-Jα18 gene segments in mice and humans, respectively. Recognition of CD1d-loaded endogenous lipid antigen(s) on CD4/CD8-double positive (DP) thymocytes is essential for the development of iNKT cells. The lipid repertoire of DP thymocytes and the identity of the decisive endogenous lipid ligands have not yet been fully elucidated. Glycosphingolipids (GSL) were implicated to serve as endogenous ligands. However, further in vivo investigations were hampered by early embryonal lethality of mice deficient for the key GSL-synthesizing enzyme glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase (GCS, EC 2.4.1.80). We have now analyzed the GSL composition of DP thymocytes and shown that GlcCer represented the sole neutral GSL and the acidic ...
Immunoglobulin (Ig) M production can be induced by the interaction of thymus-independent type-2 (TI-2) antigen (Ag) with B cell Ag receptors (BCRs) without the involvement of conventional T cells; for IgG production through the same process, however, a second signal is required. Previous studies have reported that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells may be responsible for the second signal involved in IgG production. In the present study, we addressed whether human iNKT cells could participate in the production of Ig against TI-2 Ag in vitro. Two major distinct subsets of human iNKT cells, CD4+ CD8β- (CD4) and CD4- CD8β- [double negative (DN)] cells, were generated from peripheral blood monocytes from a healthy volunteer. BCR engagement, triggered by anti-IgM antibody stimulation, examined here as a model of BCR ...
Comparison of mutant killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) 3DL1*015 substituted at natural positions of variation showed that tryptophan/leucine dimorphism at position 283 uniquely changes receptor conformation and can strongly influence binding of the A24nef tetramer. Dimorphic motifs at positions 2, 47, and 54 in D0 and 182 and 283 in D1+D2 distinguish the two 3DL1 lineages, typified by 3DL1*005 and 3DL1*015. The interlineage recombinant, KIR3DL1*001, combines D0 of 3DL1*005 with D1+D2 of 3DL1*015 and binds A24nef more strongly than either parent. In contrast, the reciprocal recombinant with D0 from 3DL1*015 and D1+D2 from 3DL1*005 cannot bind A24nef. Thus, D0 polymorphism directly affects the avidity of the KIR3DL1 ligand binding site. From these observations, multiple sequence alignment, and homology modeling, we constructed structural models for KIR3DL1 and its complex with A24nef. In these models, D0, D1, and D2 come ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus infection promotes rapid maturation of NK cells expressing activating killer Ig-like receptor in patients transplanted with NKG2C-/- umbilical cord blood. AU - Della Chiesa, Mariella. AU - Falco, Michela. AU - Bertaina, Alice. AU - Muccio, Letizia. AU - Alicata, Claudia. AU - Frassoni, Francesco. AU - Locatelli, Franco. AU - Moretta, Lorenzo. AU - Moretta, Alessandro. PY - 2014/2/15. Y1 - 2014/2/15. N2 - NK cells are the first lymphoid population recovering after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and play a crucial role in early immunity after the graft. Recently, it has been shown that humanCMV (HCMV) infection/reactivation can deeply influence NK cell reconstitution after umbilical cord blood transplantation by accelerating the differentiation of mature NKG2A-killer Ig-like receptor (KIR)+ NK cells ...
In cycling rodents, the circulating E and P are produced and secreted by the concerted actions of ovarian granulosa and theca cells (10). The adrenal glands in rodents are incapable of synthesizing significant levels of these steroid hormones (11). In pregnant mice, the corpora lutea develop fully by d 3 of pregnancy and start to produce P, the level of which increases and remains elevated until mid-gestation (12). In contrast, the level of serum E, which is high on d 1 of pregnancy because of the preovulatory hormonal surge, decreases and reaches approximately 15 pg/mL on d 2 and 3. The serum E level increases transiently to approximately 22 pg/mL on d 4 of pregnancy and plays a critical role in embryo attachment. When the embryo attaches to the uterus, the ovarian E synthesis decreases. During the decidualization phase, which lasts from d 5 through 8 of gestation, the circulating level of E remains low at approximately 15 pg/mL (12). When the ovaries were removed after embryo attachment, ...
KLRC3, human recombinant protein, Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, NKG2-E; NKG2E validated in (PBV10978r-100), Abgent
NKT cells are a unique population of T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by a nonclassical MHC-like molecule CD1d. There are two types of NKT cells, type I and type II. Our group previously showed that type I NKT cells enhance and type II NKT cells suppress anti-tumor responses, and that these two types of NKT cells cross-regulate each other. One of the defined antigens for type I NKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (aGC), and aGC-loaded CD1d tetramers are widely used to study them. Unlike conventional T cells, each subset of NKT cells recognizes distinct antigens. Sulfatide (3-o-sulfo-beta-D-galactosylceramide), an endogenous lipid, is the only lipid proven to be recognized by type II NKT cells in vivo. In addition, recently phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), also endogenous lipids, were reported to be ...
Introduction: At the maternal fetal interface, the decidua may play a role in labor, a process which involves the prostaglandin (PG) pathway (important clinical target for labor management). However, the PG pathway is highly complex with three rate limiting steps, and its complexity remains to be addressed in the decidua. We hypothesize the decidua exhibits 1) a distinct expression profile of PG genes with labor, and 2) differential expression in preterm labor (PTL) compared to term labor ...
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a disorder in which the immune system produces too many activated immune cells (lymphocytes) called T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, and macrophages (histiocytes). Excessive amounts of immune system proteins called cytokines are also produced. This overactivation of the immune system causes fever and damages the liver and spleen, resulting in enlargement of these organs.. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis also destroys blood-producing cells in the bone marrow, a process called hemophagocytosis. As a result, affected individuals have low numbers of red blood cells (anemia) and a reduction in the number of platelets, which are involved in clotting. A reduction in platelets may cause easy bruising and abnormal bleeding.. The brain may also be affected in familial hemophagocytic ...
MICA shedding is thought to be the principal mechanism by which tumor cells escape from NKG2D- mediated immunosurveillance.13 In this study, we demonstrated that ADAM9 was overexpressed in human HCC tissues and that ADAM9 knockdown resulted in increased expression of membrane-bound MICA, decreased production of soluble MICA, and up-regulation of NK sensitivity of human HCC cells. These results point to ADAM9 as a possible therapeutic target for inhibiting MICA shedding, thereby increasing immunity against HCC.. We identified the ADAM9 cleavage site of MICA in vitro, which is located at the intracellular domain of MICA. ADAM9 protease is usually located in the extracellular area, but we revealed that ADAM9 protease is required for the production of not only the 37 kD soluble MICA but also the 39 kD MICA in HCC cells. Based on our present data, it is speculated that ADAM9 protease may enable intracellular ...
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations ...
Dr. Bommanna Loganathan is a Professor of environmental/analytical chemistry with a joint appointment in the Department of Chemistry and WSI. He received MS and Ph.D. degrees in Biology and Environmental Chemistry from Annamalai University, India and Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan respectively. Dr. Loganathan received postdoctoral training at the Great Lakes Laboratory, State University of New York College at Buffalo, NY and at the Murray State University. Dr. Loganathans current research involves investigations on the distribution, environmental transformation, and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the environment and their effect on wildlife and human health. A major focus of his research is to evaluate the status and trends of classical as well as emerging pollutants in human constructed freshwater lakes, such as Kentucky Lake, in comparison with natural lakes and marine ecosystems and to assess effects of these compounds on human ...
CD8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with autoimmune cytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis and vascular mammary skin lesions: Successful response to 2- deoxycoformycin. We report a case of CD8(+)/Vbeta(5.1)(+) T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL leukemia) presenting with mild lymphocytosis, severe autoimmune neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, polyarthritis and recurrent infections with a chronic disease course. Immunophenotyping showed an expansion of CD3(+)/TCRalphabeta(+)/CD8(+bright)/CD11c(+)/CD57(-)/CD56(-) large granular lymphocytes with expression of the TCR-Vbeta5.1 family. Southern blot analysis revealed a clonal rearrangement of the TCR beta-chain gene. Hematopoietic growth factors, high dose intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids were of limited therapeutic benefit to correct the cytopenias. During the disease course, the patient developed a severe cutaneous leg ulcer and bilateral vascular mammary skin lesions. Treatment with ...
Felty syndrome is a rare disease defined by neutropenia, splenomegaly, and rheumatoid arthritis. Sometimes the differential diagnosis between Felty syndrome and large granular lymphocyte leukemia is problematic. Recently, somatic STAT3 and STAT5B mutations were discovered in 30-40% of patients with large granular lymphocyte leukemia. We now aimed to study whether these mutations can also be detected in Felty syndrome, which would imply for a common pathogenic mechanism between these two disease entities. We collected samples and clinical information from 14 Felty syndrome patients who were monitored at the rheumatology outpatient clinic for Felty syndrome. Somatic STAT3 mutations were discovered in 43% (6/14) of Felty syndrome patients with deep amplicon sequencing targeting all STAT3 exons. Mutations were located in the SH2 domain of STAT3 which is a known mutational hotspot. No STAT5B mutations were found. In blood smears, overrepresentation of large granular lymphocytes was observed, and in ...
Abstract: In early human pregnancy, uterine decidual NK cells (dNK) are abundant and considered as cytokine producers but poorly cytotoxic despite their cytolytic granule content, suggesting a negative control of this latter effector function. To investigate the basis of this control, we examined the relative contribution to the cytotoxic function of different activating receptors expressed by dNK. Using a multicolor flow cytometry analysis, we found that freshly isolated dNK exhibit a unique repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors, identical among all the donors tested. We then demonstrated that in fresh dNK, mAb-specific engagement of NKp46-, and to a lesser extent NKG2C-, but not NKp30-activating receptors induced intracellular calcium mobilization, perforin polarization, granule exocytosis and efficient target cell lysis. NKp46-mediated cytotoxicity is coactivated by CD2 but dramatically blocked by NKG2A coengagement, indicating that the dNK ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The small total number of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) in cord blood limited its use in adult recipients. Since the hematopoiesis might be controlled by both positive and negative factors, the finding of negative cellular components and thereafter depletion of them would be of importance for further expansion of HPC from cord blood in vitro. The role of natural killer cells (NK cells) in hematopoiesis remains unclear and needs to be elucidated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cord blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured in a liquid culture system containing the hematopoietic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-6, stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and G-CSF for a total of 20 days with or without depletion of NK cells. RESULTS: The percentage of CD34+ ...
As the most common NK/T-cell lymphoma in Asian countries, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL), has unique clinical features and a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In order to gain a preliminary understanding of the relationship between ENKTL and EBV, we performed genotypic analysis of EBV and investigated LMP1 expression in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma. Our study shows that ENKTL is an EBV-associated malignancy and that A, C and F are the predominant EBV genotypes in northern China. LMP1 expression is stronger in extranasal sites than nasal sites, and the expression level is strongly correlated to ENKTL and may play an important role in the development of ENKTL.
Adenomyosis refers to the presence of endometrial glands and stroma that is haphazardly deep within the myometrium. However, the etiology and pathologic mechanism responsible for adenomyosis are not yet very well known. Our previous results revealed that the expression of killer inhibitory receptors on natural killer cells was decreased in eutopic endometrium in women with adenomyosis. It implies that the formation of adenomyosis might be due to abnormal endometrial tissues, but not the aberrant local immunological dysfunction in myometrium. Our further investigation revealed that in vitro coculture of macrophages and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) increase the expression of IL-6 mRNA in ESC, which might further enhance the proliferation of ESC and subsequently result in the formation of ectopic endometrial implants in adenomyosis.. Abnormal cell ...
Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) cell-like phenotype. They are generated by ex vivo incubation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or cord blood mononuclear cells with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), anti-CD3 antibody, recombinant human interleukin (IL-) 1 and recombinant human interleukin (IL)-2. Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. However, CIK cells have the ability to recognize infected or even malignant cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a fast and unbiased immune reaction. This is of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen-C genotypes in rheumatoid arthritis primary responders and non-responders to anti-TNF-α therapy. AU - McGeough, Cathy. AU - Berrar, Daniel. AU - Wright, Gary. AU - Mathews, Clare. AU - Gilmore, Paula. AU - Cunningham, Rodat T.. AU - Bjourson, AJ. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. U2 - 10.1007/s00296-011-1838-6. DO - 10.1007/s00296-011-1838-6. M3 - Article. VL - 32. SP - 1647. JO - Rheumatology International. JF - Rheumatology International. SN - 0172-8172. IS - 6. ER - ...
Uncovering the causes of pregnancy complications such as preterm labor requires greater insight into how the uterus remains in a noncontractile state until term and then surmounts this state to enter labor. Here, we show that dynamic generation and erasure of the repressive histone modification tri-methyl histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in decidual stromal cells dictate both elements of pregnancy success in mice. In early gestation, H3K27me3-induced transcriptional silencing of select gene targets ensured uterine quiescence by preventing the decidua from expressing parturition-inducing hormone receptors, manifesting type 1 immunity, and most unexpectedly, generating myofibroblasts and associated wound-healing responses. In late gestation, genome-wide H3K27 demethylation allowed for target gene upregulation, decidual activation, and labor entry. Pharmacological inhibition of H3K27 demethylation in late gestation not only prevented term parturition, but also inhibited delivery while ...
NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on all human NK cells and a subset of T cells. In cytolytic conjugates between NK cells and target cells expressing its ligand MHC class I chain-related gene A, NKG2D accumulates at the immunological synapse with GM1-rich microdomains. Furthermore, NKG2D is specifically recruited to detergent-resistant membrane fractions upon ligation. However, in the presence of a strong inhibitory stimulus, NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity can be intercepted, and recruitment of NKG2D to the immunological synapse and detergent-resistant membrane fractions is blocked. Also, downstream phosphorylation of Vav-1 triggered by NKG2D ligation is circumvented by coengaging inhibitory receptors. Thus, we propose that one way in which inhibitory signaling can control NKG2D-mediated activation is by blocking its recruitment to GM1-rich membrane domains. The accumulation of activating NK cell receptors in GM1-rich ...
Nancy P, Tagliani E, Tay CS, Asp P, Levy DE, Erlebacher A. Chemokine gene silencing in decidual stromal cells limits T cell access to the maternal-fetal interface. Science. 2012 Jun 8;336(6086):1317-21. PubMed PMID: 22679098 ...
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Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several "framework" genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack ...
KIR2DS2 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_036444), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several framework genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Nasal T/NK-cell lymphomas are highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). They are more frequent in Asia than in Western countries. In Central and South America there are few studies about nasal T/NK-cell lymphoma and they have shown a strong predominance of this phenotype in Native American descents, supporting the hypothesis of a racial predisposition for the disease. We studied the lymphomas involving midline facial region at a Brazilian institution. T/NK cell lymphomas (16/25) were more frequently found compared to B lymphomas (9 cases, all B large cell). T/NK cell lymphomas involved predominantly the nasal region. Histologically they showed angioinvasion and necrosis. All of them were positive for CD3 and CD56 and showed numerous tumor cells labeled by EBER-1. Although disease was localized in 61% at diagnosis, there was no tendency to cure. The racial distribution of patients with ...
The pathophysiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated haemophagocytosis remains poorly understood.1 In EBV-related haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, EBV-infected CD8 T cells and natural killer cells are thought to trigger haemophagocytosis and the associated cytokine-storm/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) directly.2,-,4. By contrast, in the context of uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected B cells, hyperactively responding EBV-specific T cells are assumed to mediate haemophagocytosis/SIRS.5 Both the quantity and quality of such deregulated EBV-specific T-cell reactivity remain undefined. Unique insight into basic aspects of the postulated T-cell requirements necessary to trigger haemophagocytosis was provided by the case of a 37-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (ribonucleoprotein-Ab positive, ...
Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are the most abundant cell type in first trimester human pregnancy decidua. We have shown previously that CD56-positive decidual LGL have cytotoxic activity against the natural killer (NK) target K562, and that this cytotoxicity is augmented by pretreatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now report that flow cytometrically purified populations of CD56-positive decidual LGL have no cytotoxic activity against either the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line or freshly isolated term trophoblast. Incubation of unfractionated decidual cells with IL-2 induced cytotoxicity against BeWo, but term trophoblast remained resistant to lysis. Both BeWo and trophoblast showed much lower binding frequencies to decidual or peripheral blood cells than K56 targets, and excess trophoblast did not inhibit cytotoxic activity against K562. This suggests that the resistance ...
Innate CD56(pos) natural killer (NK) and natural T (NT) cells comprise important hepatic antiviral effector lymphocytes whose activity is fine-tuned through surface NK receptors (NKRs). Dysregulation of NKRs in patients with long-standing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been shown, but little is known regarding NKRs in acute infection. Treatment-naïve patients with acute HCV (n = 22), including 10 with spontaneous recovery, were prospectively studied. CD56(pos) NT levels were reduced early in acute HCV infection and did not fluctuate over time. In resolving HCV infection, NT cells with a more activated phenotype (lower CD158A and higher natural cytotoxicity receptor expression) at baseline predated spontaneous recovery. Moreover, NKG2A expression on CD56(+) NT cells correlated directly with circulating HCV RNA levels. ...
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In addition to their role as effector cells in virus control, natural killer (NK) cells have an immunoregulatory function in shaping the antiviral T-cell response. This function is further pronounced in perforin-deficient mice that show the enhanced NK-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion upon mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Here we confirmed that stronger activation and maturation of NK cells in perforin-deficient mice correlates with higher MCMV load. To further characterize the immunoregulatory potential of perforin, we compared the response of NK cells that express or do not express perforin using bone-marrow chimeras. Our results demonstrated that the enhanced proliferation and maturation of NK cells in MCMV-infected bone-marrow chimeras is an intrinsic property of perforin-deficient NK ...
Autoimmune Diseases. The Biologic Response Modifier report does the thorough study of the key industry players to understand their business strategies, annual revenue, company profile and their contribution to the Biologic Response Modifier market share in the United States. Diverse factors of the Biologic Response Modifier industry like the supply chain scenario, industry standards, import/export details are also mentioned in this report.. Key Highlights of the United States Biologic Response Modifier Market 2017 Report:. A Clear understanding of the Biologic Response Modifier market based on growth, constraints, opportunities, feasibility study.. Concise Biologic Response Modifier Market study based on major United States regions.. Analysis of evolving market segments as well as a complete study of existing Biologic Response Modifier market segments.. Before Purchasing, Request Free Sample Copy of the Report Here: ...
NKT cells are a regulatory subset of T lymphocytes with immune modulatory effects and an important role in anti-tumor immunity. The feasibility of ex-vivo education of NKT cells has recently been demonstrated. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of ex-vivo immune-modulated NKT lymphocytes in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Athymic Balb/C mice were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human Hep3B HCC. NKT cells prepared from immunocompetent Balb/C mice were pulsed ex vivo with HCC-derived antigens (Group A), Hep3B cells (group B) or BSA (group C), and adoptively transferred into HCC harboring mice (1 x 0(6) NKT cells per mouse). Group D mice did not undergo NKT cell transplantation. Group E mice were transplanted with 1 x 10(6) NKT cells from HBV-immunized donors. Mice were followed for tumor size and weight. To determine the mechanism of the anti-tumor ...
Objectives: This study aims to identify the presenting symptoms, treatment and outcome of patients with nasal natural killer T (NK/T)-cell lymphoma and to find possible differences in survival based on Ann-Arbor stage and international prognostic index (IPI). Patients and Methods: Computed tomography and biopsy results of 23 patients (15 males, 8 females; mean age 41 years; range 22 to 72 years) with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma who were treated at the department of clinical hematology between 1995 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The median time from onset of clinical symptoms to histological diagnosis was five months. Most patients presented with nasal obstruction (69%) and rhinism (52%). The site of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma primarily involved nasal cavity in 39%. Orbital extension was observed in 26%. Lymphomas were classified as stage IE in 30.4%, stage IIE in 47.8% ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a persistent latent infection in B lymphocytes and is associated with the development of numerous human tumors. (EBV) is a potent transforming agent of resting B lymphocytes, promoting cell cycle entry and subsequent continuous proliferation. EBV is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous lymphoid tumors, including Burkitts lymphoma (BL), Hodgkins disease, posttransplant lymphomas, and certain T-cell and natural killer cell lymphomas, in addition to the epithelial cell tumor nasopharyngeal carcinoma (reviewed in reference 54). Like other members of the herpesvirus family, EBV has a biphasic life cycle involving a latent and a lytic phase. In infected B cells, EBV establishes a latent infection where the Ntrk3 172-kb double-stranded DNA viral genome is maintained as a closed circular episome and expresses a limited ...
available TLR-7 agonist that was selected because its antiviral response dominated its proinflammatory response.33 In preclinical studies of woodchucks and chimpanzees, this agent reduced surface antigen and viral DNA, and some animals lost surface antigen and seroconverted to surface antibody.34 This agent also decreased HBeAg and induced IFN-α and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well as natural killer cells. However, the agent did not decrease HBsAg in humans in short-term studies, although it did induce ISG-15 production.35 When studied in the clinic in a group of 26 HBeAg-negative CHB patients who were suppressed on TDF for at least 3 years, the addition of 12 weeks of GS-9620 at 1, 2, or 4 mg orally each week did not alter HBsAg levels in serum.36 There were improvements in natural killer cell and specific T-cell ...
2Ukranian Anticancer Institute, Laimgrubengasse 19/7. A-1060 Vienna, Austria. Abstract - Ukrain is a semisynthetic compound consisting of alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. conjugated to thiophosphoric acid. with immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties in cancer patients. The present m vitro studies demonstrate that Ukrain is an effective biological response modifier in that it augmented, by up to 48-fold. the lytic activity of spleen lymphocytes obtained from alloimmunized mice. The lytic activities of IL-2-treated spleen cells and peritoneal exudate lymphocytes were also increased significantly by the addition of Ukrain to the CML assay medium. The highest Ukrain-induced enhancement of spleen lymphocyte lytic activity in vitro was found to occur at 18 days after alloimmunization, was dose dependent and specific for the immunizing P815 tumor cells. Since Ukrain was present only during the CML assays, its mode of action is thought to be via direct activation of the ...
The question we are addressing is: how does the maternal immune system regulate placentation in humans? Our view of the fetal allograft is one of cooperation between mother and fetus. We focus on how the dominant population of uterine leukocytes, Natural Killer (NK) cells, that have receptors for HLA class I ligands on fetal trophoblast cells, regulate trophoblast function.. We work in close collaboration with Dr Francesco Colucci in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. The main areas of current research are:. 1) Interactions between maternal Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) and fetal HLA-C molecules. Because both KIR and HLA-C genes are highly polymorphic, each pregnancy is likely to be different. Our genetic and functional studies in Europeans and Africans show certain KIR/HLA-C genetic combinations are associated with extremes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Appearance of Human Plasma Cells Following Differentiation of Human B Cells in NOD/SCID Mouse Spleen. AU - Kikuchi, Kentaro. AU - Lian, Zhe Xiong. AU - He, Xiaosong. AU - Ansari, Aftab A.. AU - Ishibashi, Miyuki. AU - Miyakawa, Hiroshi. AU - Shultz, Leonard D.. AU - Ikehara, Susumu. AU - Gershwin, M. Eric. PY - 2003/6. Y1 - 2003/6. N2 - Relatively little is known for the differentiation and maturation process of human B cells to plasma cells. This is particularly important in reconstitution work involving transfer of autoantibodies. To address this issue, we transplanted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) directly into the spleen of irradiated NOD/SCID mice depleted of natural killer cell activity. Within 6 weeks, naïve B cells differentiated into memory B cells and, importantly, ...
Dexamethasone used as an antiemetic in chemotherapy protocols inhibits natural cytotoxic (NC) cell activity. Antiemetic superiority of lorazepam over oxazepam and methylprednisolone as premedicants for patients receiving cisplatin-containing chemotherapy
Mutations in the human NBEAL2 gene cause gray platelet syndrome (GPS), a bleeding diathesis characterized by a lack of α granules in platelets. The functions of the NBEAL2 protein have not been explored outside platelet biology, but there are reports of increased frequency of infection and abnormal neutrophil morphology in patients with GPS. We therefore investigated the role of NBEAL2 in immunity by analyzing the phenotype of Nbeal2-deficient mice. We found profound abnormalities in the Nbeal2-deficient immune system, particularly in the function of neutrophils and NK cells. Phenotyping of Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils showed a severe reduction in granule contents across all granule subsets. Despite this, Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils had an enhanced phagocyte respiratory burst relative to Nbeal2-expressing neutrophils. This respiratory burst was associated with increased expression of cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase complex. Nbeal2-deficient NK ...
Mutations in the human NBEAL2 gene cause gray platelet syndrome (GPS), a bleeding diathesis characterized by a lack of α granules in platelets. The functions of the NBEAL2 protein have not been explored outside platelet biology, but there are reports of increased frequency of infection and abnormal neutrophil morphology in patients with GPS. We therefore investigated the role of NBEAL2 in immunity by analyzing the phenotype of Nbeal2-deficient mice. We found profound abnormalities in the Nbeal2-deficient immune system, particularly in the function of neutrophils and NK cells. Phenotyping of Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils showed a severe reduction in granule contents across all granule subsets. Despite this, Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils had an enhanced phagocyte respiratory burst relative to Nbeal2-expressing neutrophils. This respiratory burst was associated with increased expression of cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase complex. Nbeal2-deficient NK ...
Mutations in the human NBEAL2 gene cause gray platelet syndrome (GPS), a bleeding diathesis characterized by a lack of α granules in platelets. The functions of the NBEAL2 protein have not been explored outside platelet biology, but there are reports of increased frequency of infection and abnormal neutrophil morphology in patients with GPS. We therefore investigated the role of NBEAL2 in immunity by analyzing the phenotype of Nbeal2-deficient mice. We found profound abnormalities in the Nbeal2-deficient immune system, particularly in the function of neutrophils and NK cells. Phenotyping of Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils showed a severe reduction in granule contents across all granule subsets. Despite this, Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils had an enhanced phagocyte respiratory burst relative to Nbeal2-expressing neutrophils. This respiratory burst was associated with increased expression of cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase complex. Nbeal2-deficient NK ...
The influence of a chronic social stress upon immunity was investigated in Wistar rats, submitted for four weeks to two different behavioral situations, balanced in a factorial design: housing with three females and membership rotation. The combination of these two factor led to adrenal enlargement (43.3%), thymus involution (39.5%) and increased basal corticosterone levels, all indices of activation of the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis. However, neither natural killer cell activity, splenocyte reactivity to mitogen nor the rate of spontaneous development of antibodies against Mycoplasma pulmonis, a common pathogen of the respiratory tract, were changed in the endocrine activated animals. Analysis of the data on kinetics of stress at 1, 7 and 28 days after the initial mixing of the animals gave the same results. These data question the immunosuppressant activity usually conferred to corticosteroids, at least when ...
Preferred Name: Jin Fu Kang Definition: A traditional Chinese herbal medicine derived from the plant Astragalus membranaceus with potential immunopotentiation activity. Jin Fu Kang may stimulate anti-tumor macrophage and natural killer cell activity and may enhance immune recognition of tumor cells by inhibiting the production of T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Label: Jin Fu Kang NCI Thesaurus Code: C61316 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: C1831812 (see NCI Metathesaurus info) Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see Synonym Details) ...
Sulfatides are innate glycosphingolipids shown to activate a subpopulation of type II NKT cells. Their activation has been reported to sometimes have antagonistic roles to those of type I NKT cells in some disease models. This has sparked a lot of interest in the synthesis of natural and unnatural sulfatides for an examination of their influence on NKT cell responses. The design, synthesis and evaluation of type II NKT cell activation of several sulfatide ligands are described in this thesis. A two-step methodology has been developed for the rapid assembly of disubstituted β-lactones. The first step is olefin cross metathesis (CM) of a-methylene-β-lactones with various alkene cross partners to furnish a-alkylidine-β-lactones. These are subsequently diastereoselectively reduced. A diverse library of β-lactones, including (±)-nocardiolactone has been prepared. Combining this ...
This grant award was a joint offering from TMS and Mastokids, with $20,000 contributed from TMS and $20,000 from Mastokids.. Award amount: $40,000. Award recipient:. Richard Stevens, PhD, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Collaborators: Mariana Castells, MD, PhD, Brigham and Womens Hospital. Matthew Hamilton, MD, Brigham and Womens Hospital. (current Principal Investigator of grant). Steven Krilis, MD, PhD, University New South Wales (AUS). Title: Importance of hTryptase-beta in Pediatric Mast Cell Disorders. Resulting Publication(s)/Presentation(s):. CD117+ Dendritic and Mast Cells Are Dependent on RasGRP4 to Function as Accessory Cells for Optimal Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Responses to Lipopolysaccharide. Zhou S, Tanaka K, OKeeffe M, Qi M, El-Assaad F, Weaver JC, et al. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 16;11(3) ...
The highly polymorphic nonclassical MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes MICA and MICB encode stress inducible glycoproteins expressed on a variety of epithelial cells including intestinal cells. Interaction with the receptor NKG2D is likely to provide an important costimulatory signal for activation and proliferation of NK cells, activated macrophages and CD8 αβ and γδ T cells. Fifty-four MICA and 17 MICB alleles have been described to date. Although the functional significance of this polymorphism is not known, the high degree of nonconservative substitution, concentration to the putative ligand-binding site and recent observation that different MICA alleles bind to NKG2D with varying affinity has generated much interest. The MIC genes are attractive functional and positional candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility as a consequence of their position in the HLA region and expression on the gastrointestinal epithelium. ...

The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets.  - PubMed - NCBIThe biology of human natural killer-cell subsets. - PubMed - NCBI

NK cells are crucial components of the innate immune system. Human NK cells can be divided into two subsets based on their cell ... The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets.. Cooper MA1, Fehniger TA, Caligiuri MA. ... Human natural killer (NK) cells comprise approximately 15% of all circulating lymphocytes. Owing to their early production of ... NK-cell subset. By contrast, the CD56(bright) subset has the capacity to produce abundant cytokines following activation of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11698225?dopt=Abstract

Frontiers | NCR1 Expression Identifies Canine Natural Killer Cell Subsets with Phenotypic Similarity to Human Natural Killer...Frontiers | NCR1 Expression Identifies Canine Natural Killer Cell Subsets with Phenotypic Similarity to Human Natural Killer...

In conclusion, we have identified and characterized canine NK cells, including an NKp46- subset of canine and human NK cells, ... Like human NK cells, CD3-/NKp46+ cells expand rapidly on feeder cells expressing 4-1BBL and membrane-bound IL-21 (median= ... Like human NK cells, CD3-/NKp46+ cells expand rapidly on feeder cells expressing 4-1BBL and membrane-bound IL-21 (median= ... NKp46+ cells. Null cells in canines and humans have reduced expression of NKG2D, NKp44, and CD16 compared to NKp46+ NK cells, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00521/full

Human Decidual Natural Killer Cells Are a Unique NK Cell Subset with Immunomodulatory Potential | JEMHuman Decidual Natural Killer Cells Are a Unique NK Cell Subset with Immunomodulatory Potential | JEM

pNK cells comprise two different subsets, the predominant CD56dim NK cell subset and the much smaller CD56bright NK cell subset ... Human Decidual Natural Killer Cells Are a Unique NK Cell Subset with Immunomodulatory Potential. Louise A. Koopman, Hernan D. ... Human Decidual Natural Killer Cells Are a Unique NK Cell Subset with Immunomodulatory Potential ... Expression of killer cell inhibitory receptors on human uterine natural killer cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 27:979-983. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/198/8/1201

Subset classification of mouse uterine natural killer cells by DBA lectin reactivity. - Semantic ScholarSubset classification of mouse uterine natural killer cells by DBA lectin reactivity. - Semantic Scholar

The present study sought to discrimate uNK cells from cNK cells in mice by identification of a unique uNK cell marker. Dolichos ... This is the first report showing mouse uNK cells expressing specific molecules not found in other NK cells. Use of this reagent ... reacted with the plasma membranes of mouse uNK cells. DBA lectin did not react with other uterine lymphocytes or with cNK cell ... non-granulated forms of uNK cells and provide new strategies for purification of mouse uNK cells for functional and molecular ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Subset-classification-of-mouse-uterine-natural-by-Paffaro-Bizinotto/442b1dc97457cbaa5ac9b7fb9060c20b669a3387

Human natural killer cells: a unique innate immunoregulatory role for the CD56bright subset | Blood JournalHuman natural killer cells: a unique innate immunoregulatory role for the CD56bright subset | Blood Journal

NK cell subsets have differential natural killer receptor (NKR) repertoires. All resting CD56bright NK cells have high ... Human natural killer cells: a unique innate immunoregulatory role for the CD56bright subset. Megan A. Cooper, Todd A. Fehniger ... Human natural killer cells: a unique innate immunoregulatory role for the CD56bright subset. Blood, 97(10), 3146-3151. Accessed ... Differential expression and function of L-selectin on CD56bright and CD56dim natural killer cell subsets. J Immunol. 1998;161: ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/97/10/3146?ijkey=ca697b472ee21c8c4834e9b648ae6b93f3820b88&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

Cancers | Free Full-Text | Natural Killer T Cells Subsets in Cancer, Functional Defects in Prostate Cancer and Implications for...Cancers | Free Full-Text | Natural Killer T Cells Subsets in Cancer, Functional Defects in Prostate Cancer and Implications for...

This article briefly reviews the physiological functions of NKT cell subsets, their implications in cancer and the attempts ... Since the discovery of NKT cells other subsets with different specificities and effector functions have been described. ... The majority of NKT cells, termed type-I or iNKT cells, recognize lipid antigens presented on MHC-like CD1d molecules. Type-I ... Specific activation of type-I NKT cells in mouse models boosts immunity and prevents metastasis, which has led to a number of ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/3/3/3661

Regulation Of Natural Killer T Cell Subset Development And Function By by Victoria DeVault"Regulation Of Natural Killer T Cell Subset Development And Function By" by Victoria DeVault

... proteins are cell surface-expressed molecular switches that are expressed on all hematopoietic cells. The nine SLAM family ... We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SLAM family receptor co-expression on iNKT cell subsets in the lung, spleen, liver, ... Interestingly, we found that SLAM family receptor expression profiles varied among different iNKT cell subsets. In particular, ... and it was recently discovered that different tissues possess iNKT cell subsets that preferentially produce IFN-γ (NKT1), IL-4 ...
more infohttps://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/990/

Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to an antigen present on subsets of natural killer cells and human...Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to an antigen present on subsets of natural killer cells and human...

... four non T-non B cell lines, and three myelomonocytic cell lines. Of thirty T cell leukemia/lymphoma cell lines tested, the H-1 ... Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to an antigen present on subsets of natural killer cells and human ... Add tags for Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to an antigen present on subsets of natural killer cells ... Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to an antigen present on subsets of natural killer cells and human ...
more infohttp://digital.library.musc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/medica/id/1137/rec/7

OPUS at UTS: Monoclonal antibody 2B6-F2 identifies a subset of murine natural killer cells with receptors for YAC-1 and WEHI...OPUS at UTS: Monoclonal antibody 2B6-F2 identifies a subset of murine natural killer cells with receptors for YAC-1 and WEHI...

Western blot and radioimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that 2B6-F2 identifies a 14-kDa monomeric cell surface molecule. © ... Monoclonal antibody 2B6-F2 identifies a subset of murine natural killer cells with receptors for YAC-1 and WEHI-164 targets. ... Monoclonal antibody 2B6-F2 identifies a subset of murine natural killer cells with receptors for YAC-1 and WEHI-164 targets. en ... NK cells in BALB/c and DBA/2 mice bind and kill YAC-1 and WEHI-164 target cells via a receptor that recognizes a shared ...
more infohttps://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/15518

Distinct Cytokine Profiles of Neonatal Natural Killer T Cells after Expansion with Subsets of Dendritic Cells | The Journal of...Distinct Cytokine Profiles of Neonatal Natural Killer T Cells after Expansion with Subsets of Dendritic Cells | The Journal of...

... of T Helper Cell Type 2 Cell Differentiation and Immunoglobulin E Response by Ligand-Activated Vα14 Natural Killer T Cells ... Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a highly conserved subset of T cells that have been shown to play a critical role in ... Distinct Cytokine Profiles of Neonatal Natural Killer T Cells after Expansion with Subsets of Dendritic Cells Norimitsu ... Distinct Cytokine Profiles of Neonatal Natural Killer T Cells after Expansion with Subsets of Dendritic Cells. J Exp Med 21 May ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/193/10/1221/25874/Distinct-Cytokine-Profiles-of-Neonatal-Natural

Brain Functions Modulating Redistribution of Natural Killer Cells Accompanying Cognitive Appraisal of Acute Stress |...Brain Functions Modulating Redistribution of Natural Killer Cells Accompanying Cognitive Appraisal of Acute Stress |...

... cells, which plays a critical role in innate immunity, in peripheral circulation within several minutes. This phenomenon is ... Acute stress increases the number of natural killer (NK) ... The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets. Trends in ... 1998). Differential expression and function of L-selectin on CD56bright and CD56dim natural killer cell subsets. Journal of ... 2009). Regulation of natural killer cell redistribution by prefrontal cortex during stochastic learning. Neuroimage, 47, 897- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-6852-3_11

Group items tagged function study immunity  -  Cancer | Diigo GroupsGroup items tagged function study immunity - Cancer | Diigo Groups

... cancer T-cells T-helper NK_cells natural_killer_cells tumor_infiltrating_lymphocytes TIL immune function immunity cell-mediated ... 2008 study review acute exercise physical_activity natural_killer_cells NK_cells subsets immunity immune response function CD56 ... Human natural killer cell subsets and acute exercise: a brief review - .[Exerc Immunol ... - 0 views. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/... ... Human natural killer cell subsets and acute exercise: a brief review. Timmons BW, Cieslak T. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2008;14:8-23. ...
more infohttps://groups.diigo.com/group/cancer/content/tag/function%20study%20immunity

E-GEOD-13229 - Transcription profiling of mouse natural killer (NK) cell subsets defined by CD27 and CD11b expression - OmicsDIE-GEOD-13229 - Transcription profiling of mouse natural killer (NK) cell subsets defined by CD27 and CD11b expression - OmicsDI

NK1.1+ cells were sorted into CD27+ CD11b-, CD27+ CD11b+ and CD27- CD11b+ subsets by flow cytometry. There are two independent ... To address this issue, we evaluated the overall proximity between mouse NK cell subsets defined by CD27 and CD11b expression ... Experiment Overall Design: Spleen cells from RAG-/- mice have been isolated and stained with anti-NK1.1, anti CD27 and anti ... The developmental relationship between these subsets was unclear. ...
more infohttps://www.omicsdi.org/dataset/arrayexpress-repository/E-GEOD-13229

Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subset Panel -
Mayo Medical Laboratories | Pediatric CatalogNatural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subset Panel - Mayo Medical Laboratories | Pediatric Catalog

1. Fan YY, Yang BY, Wu CY: Phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of natural killer cells in human PBMCs. Cell Biol ... Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subset Panel Useful For. Quantitation of natural killer (NK)/natural killer T (NKT) cell subsets as ... Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subsets, Quantitative. Further, a minimum CD45 lymph count (as measured by flow ... 3. Poli A, Michel T, Theresine M, et al: CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells: an important NK cell subset. Immunology 2009;126 ...
more infohttp://pediatric.testcatalog.org/show/NKSP

Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subsets, Quantitative -
Mayo Medical Laboratories | Pediatric CatalogNatural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subsets, Quantitative - Mayo Medical Laboratories | Pediatric Catalog

Quantitation of ONLY the major natural killer (NK)-cell subsets relative to total NK cells (NK cell subsets) or total ... Test ID QNKS Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subsets, Quantitative Useful For. ... Order NKSP / Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subset Panel. ... 1. Fan YY, Yang BY, Wu CY: Phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of natural killer cells in human PBMCs. Cell Biol ...
more infohttp://pediatric.testcatalog.org/show/QNKS

Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subsets, Quantitative, Blood -
United Health Services LaboratoriesNatural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subsets, Quantitative, Blood - United Health Services Laboratories

Quantitation of ONLY the major natural killer (NK)-cell subsets relative to total NK cells (NK cell subsets) or total ... Test Code QNKS Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subsets, Quantitative, Blood Useful For. ... Order NKSP / Natural Killer (NK)/Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Subset Panel. ... This assay does not measure cell-surface or intracellular proteins on NK/NKT cell subsets. ...
more infohttps://nyuhslab.testcatalog.org/show/QNKS

WHO EMRO | Natural killer cell populations in Egyptians infected with hepatitis C virus | Volume 18, issue 9 | EMHJ volume 18,...WHO EMRO | Natural killer cell populations in Egyptians infected with hepatitis C virus | Volume 18, issue 9 | EMHJ volume 18,...

Natural killer cell populations in Egyptians infected with hepatitis C virus ... Human natural killer cells: A unique innate immunoregulatory role for the CD56 (bright) subset. Blood, 2001, 97:3146-3151. ... Altered natural killer cell subset distributions in resolved and persistent hepatitis C virus infection following single source ... CD56 together with natural T (NT) cells comprise about 5%-15% of the peripheral T cell pool and up to 50% of T cells within the ...
more infohttp://www.emro.who.int/emhj-volume-18-2012/issue-9/article-10.html

Increase in Peripheral CD3−CD56brightCD16− Natural Killer Cells in Hashimotos Thyroiditis Associated with HHV-6 Infection |...Increase in Peripheral CD3−CD56brightCD16− Natural Killer Cells in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Associated with HHV-6 Infection |...

CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells: an important NK cell subset. Immunology 126(4):458-465. doi:IMM3027 [pii] 10.1111/j.1365- ... Cooper MAFT, Caligiuri MA (2001) The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets. Trends Immunol 22(11):633-640CrossRefPubMed ... Wu ZSC, Reichel JJ, Just M, Mertens T (2015) Natural killer cells can inhibit the transmission of human cytomegalovirus in cell ... natural killer cells is selectively responsible for both cell proliferation and interferon-gamma production upon interaction ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F5584_2015_5010

Identification and characterisation of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 and CD38 channels on natural killer cells...Identification and characterisation of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 and CD38 channels on natural killer cells...

... cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system and are subclassed into CD56BrightCD16Dim/− and CD56DimCD16+ NK ... Dual identification of TRPM2 and CD38 surface expression on natural killer cell subsets. To further explore the co-expression ... Peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation and natural killer cell isolation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were ... TRPM2 surface expression on Natural Killer cell subsets in healthy participants. TRPM2 surface expression was measured on (a) ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12865-019-0293-0

Complete Avoidance of Calcineurin Inhibitors in Renal Transplantation: A Randomized Trial Comparing Sirolimus and Tacrolimus -...Complete Avoidance of Calcineurin Inhibitors in Renal Transplantation: A Randomized Trial Comparing Sirolimus and Tacrolimus -...

Role of Natural Killer Cell Subsets in Cardiac Allograft Rejection Previous article in issue: Role of Natural Killer Cell ... Rapamycin inhibits spontaneous and fibroblast growth factor beta-stimulated proliferation of endothelial cells and fibroblasts ... The mean white blood cell count at 1 month in the tacrolimus and sirolimus groups was 7600 ± 3200/m3 and 4400 ± 1800/m3, ... However, while the mean white blood cell count was significantly lower in the sirolimus group 1 month after transplant, there ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2005.01177.x/full

Frontiers | Immunotherapy for Dogs: Running Behind Humans | ImmunologyFrontiers | Immunotherapy for Dogs: Running Behind Humans | Immunology

NCR1 expression identifies canine natural killer cell subsets with phenotypic similarity to human natural killer cells. Front ... Natural killer cells for immunotherapy-advantages of the NK-92 cell line over blood NK cells. Front Immunol (2016) 7:91. doi: ... The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets. Trends Immunol (2001) 211:633-40. doi:10.1016/S1471-4906(01)02060-9 ... Enhanced targeting of stem-like solid tumor cells with radiation and natural killer cells. Oncoimmunology (2016) 4(9):e1036212 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00133/full

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Increase of NK Cells and Proinflammatory Monocytes Are Associated with...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Increase of NK Cells and Proinflammatory Monocytes Are Associated with...

... although Leishmania skin tests were negative and interferon γ was not detected in mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with ... An association between the increase of the frequency of innate immune system cells and the healing of lesions is shown, ... The frequencies of CD16 +CD56+ NK cells (~2×) and CD14 +CD16+ proinflammatory monocytes (~8×) increased in peripheral blood, ... suggesting that this protocol of immunotherapy reduced the parasite load and activated NK cells and monocytes. ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.81.378

Interferon γ Contributes to Initiation of Uterine Vascular Modification, Decidual Integrity, and Uterine Natural Killer Cell...Interferon γ Contributes to Initiation of Uterine Vascular Modification, Decidual Integrity, and Uterine Natural Killer Cell...

... an NK cell subset, known as uterine (u)NK cells, is the most abundant maternal lymphocyte population in the uterus (3)(4). IFN- ... 1993) Granulated metrial gland cellsa natural killer cell subset of the pregnant murine uterus. Microsc. Res. Tech. 25:189-200 ... 1996) Accounting for the peripartum loss of granulated metrial gland cells, a natural killer cell population, from the pregnant ... 1996) Natural killer cell development is blocked in the context of aberrant T lymphocyte ontogeny. Int. Immunol. 8:939-949, ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/192/2/259

Fionda C[au] - PubMed - NCBIFionda C[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Key Role of the CD56lowCD16low Natural Killer Cell Subset in the Recognition and Killing of Multiple Myeloma Cells. ... Reconstitution of multifunctional CD56lowCD16low natural killer cell subset in children with acute leukemia given α/β T cell- ... Natural Killer Cell Response to Chemotherapy-Stressed Cancer Cells: Role in Tumor Immunosurveillance. ... Translating the anti-myeloma activity of Natural Killer cells into clinical application. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Fionda+C%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
  • There was a significant reduction in the frequency of total NK cells in the chronic group compared to the control (P = 0.001) or resolved (P = 0.01) groups. (who.int)
  • Specific activation of type-I NKT cells in mouse models boosts immunity and prevents metastasis, which has led to a number of phase I-II clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • Cumulatively, these data reveal the presence of discrete regulatory mechanisms at work in different iNKT subsets, a finding that has broad implications for our understanding of iNKT-cell mediated immunity. (uvm.edu)
  • Acute stress increases the number of natural killer (NK) cells, which plays a critical role in innate immunity, in peripheral circulation within several minutes. (springer.com)
  • Stress-induced enhancement of cell-mediated immunity. (springer.com)
  • The inflammatory Th 17 subset in immunity against self and non-self antigens - Autoimmu. (diigo.com)
  • Thus, although the impact of TH17 cells on the evolution of EOC remains to be established, our data suggest that local IL-2 treatment in ovarian cancer may result in the conversion of tumor-associated Treg into TH17 cells, relieve Treg-mediated suppression, and contribute to enhance antitumor immunity. (diigo.com)
  • 6-8 These NK cells also express the c- kit receptor tyrosine kinase whose ligand enhances IL-2-induced proliferation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NK cell subsets have differential natural killer receptor (NKR) repertoires. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SLAM family receptor co-expression on iNKT cell subsets in the lung, spleen, liver, and thymus and identified co-expression profiles that varied in a tissue and strain-dependent manner. (uvm.edu)
  • Interestingly, we found that SLAM family receptor expression profiles varied among different iNKT cell subsets. (uvm.edu)
  • Further experimentation revealed that impaired iNKT cell development and function was associated with changes in the expression of Fcgr3 (Fc gamma receptor III) on iNKT cells, suggesting it as a novel candidate gene regulating iNKT cell function. (uvm.edu)
  • Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca 2+ -permeable non-selective cation channel that possesses a critical role in calcium-dependent cell signalling to maintain cellular homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • They express an invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes self and bacterial glycosphingolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d. (testcatalog.org)
  • Implantation sites in mice lacking uNK cells (alymphoid recombinase activating gene [RAG]-2 −/ − common cytokine receptor chain γ [γ c ] −/ −) or IFN-γ signaling (IFN-γ −/ − or IFN-γRα −/ −) fail to initiate normal pregnancy-induced modification of decidual arteries and display hypocellularity or necrosis of decidua. (rupress.org)
  • IL-22 binds to a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization is possible if the N-linked glycosylation sites are removed in mutants of IL-22 bound with high-affinity cell-surface receptor sIL-22R1. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms cell surface complexes with IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 chains resulting in signal transduction through receptor, IL-10R2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR3DL2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This investigation also revealed that the SLAMf6high NKT2 and NKT17 subsets exhibited significantly higher proliferative capacity than the NKT1 subset and the NKT2 and NKT17 proliferation was dependent, in part, on SLAMf6 expression. (uvm.edu)
  • Addition of type 2 dendritic cells (DC2) enhances the development of neonatal NKT cells into IL-4 + IFN-γ − NKT2 cells, whereas addition of type 1 dendritic cells (DC1) induces polarization towards IL-4 − IFN-γ + NKT1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Bertelsen LBPC, Kofod-Olsen E, Oster B, Höllsberg P, Agger R, Hokland M (2010) Human herpesvirus 6B induces phenotypic maturation without IL-10 and IL-12p70 production in dendritic cells. (springer.com)
  • The cell lineage origin of interferon-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDC), which exhibit prominent anti-tumoral activity, has been subject to debate. (omicsdi.org)
  • Among the ∼10,000 genes studied, 278 genes showed at least a threefold change with P ≤ 0.001 when comparing the dNK and peripheral NK cell subsets, most displaying increased expression in dNK cells. (rupress.org)
  • Semi-invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are critical components of the host immune response in peripheral tissues such as the lung, liver, and gut, and they play important roles in cancer, bacterial infections, autoimmunity, wound repair, and atherosclerosis. (uvm.edu)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral circulation rapidly increase (redistribution) in acute stress and can facilitate preventive defense. (springer.com)
  • Despite their critical role in the immune response, the mechanisms that regulate iNKT cell function in the periphery remain unclear. (uvm.edu)
  • To test the hypothesis that Slam gene polymorphisms regulate iNKT cell function, we refined this genetic interval by generating B6.129 subcongenic lines and assessing iNKT cell function. (uvm.edu)
  • Unexpectedly, we found that while Slam gene polymorphisms in this model do regulate iNKT cell function, the dominant regulator was in a 0.14 Mbp interval centromeric to the Slam genes. (uvm.edu)
  • Administration of murine recombinant IFN-γ to pregnant RAG-2 −/ −γ c −/ − mice initiated decidual vessel modification and promoted decidual cellularity in the absence of uNK cells. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the KIR locus is polygenic and polymorphic, giving rise to variable KIR repertoires that are expressed on subsets of NK cells among individuals. (rupress.org)
  • Experiment Overall Design: Spleen cells from RAG-/- mice have been isolated and stained with anti-NK1.1, anti CD27 and anti CD11b antibodies. (omicsdi.org)
  • In particular, we noted a close association of SLAMf6 expression with the NKT2 and NKT17 subsets in both the periphery and in the thymus. (uvm.edu)
  • Taken together, these data reveal for the first time a specific role for SLAMf6 on NKT2 and NKT17 subset development and function. (uvm.edu)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has impaired cellular immune response and circulating NK cells, NK subsets (in- the ability to establish chronic infection virus persistence . (who.int)
  • However , blocking studies indicated that the H-1 antigen did not have a functional role in NK cell cytotoxicity , interleukin-2 production , or cellular proliferation . (musc.edu)
  • 2002). Temporal stability of acute stress-induced changes in leukocyte subsets and cellular adhesion molecules in older adults. (springer.com)
  • Cytotoxicity can be subdivided into (1) natural cytotoxicity directed largely toward virally infected cells or tumor cells, in the absence of prior stimulation or immunization, and (2) antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against antibody-coated target cells. (testcatalog.org)
  • Intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) is fundamental to regulate a number of intracellular signalling pathways and functions in NK cells, which are essential in mediating their natural cytotoxic function. (springer.com)
  • Seven solid tumor cell lines from colon carcinoma , osteosarcoma , pancreatic carcinoma , melanoma , and neuroblastoma were reactive with H-1 MoAb as determined by immunofluorescence . (musc.edu)
  • A single 74 kD molecule was present on four human solid tumor cell lines tested by this method . (musc.edu)
  • NK cells serve an important role in host defense against viral infections, as well as tumor surveillance. (testcatalog.org)
  • CD56 bright NK cells also express the adhesion molecule L-selectin (CD62L), which mediates initial interactions with vascular endothelium. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, the cell activation of CD3 − CD56 bright NK cells in HT patients significantly correlates with TPO and Tg Ab levels. (springer.com)
  • In some contexts, the pro-inflammatory versus tissue-protective functions of IL-22 are regulated by the often co-expressed cytokine IL-17A Targets of this cytokine are mostly non-hematopoietic cells such as hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and lung and intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates Nectin2/CD112 expression and impairs NK cell recognition and killing. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage of CD56(bright) cells was significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.04). (who.int)
  • This phenomenon is called redistribution of NK cells and has been thought to reflect facilitation of preventive defense. (springer.com)
  • However, a lack of antibodies recognizing canine NK cell markers has resulted in suboptimal characterization and unknown purity of NK cell products, hindering the development of canine models of NK cell adoptive immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • This article briefly reviews the physiological functions of NKT cell subsets, their implications in cancer and the attempts that have been made to employ NKT cells for immune therapy of cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • NK cells have diverse biological functions, which include recognizing and killing virally infected or transformed cells. (springer.com)
  • IL-22 is produced by activated NK and T cells and initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens especially in epithelial cells such as respiratory and gut epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 along with IL-17 is rapidly produced by splenic LTi-like cells and also produced by Th17 cells and likely plays a role in the coordinated response of both adaptive innate immune systems, autoimmunity and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)