Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.National Health Insurance, United StatesTaiwanInsurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.United StatesMedically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Insurance Pools: An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Insurance Claim Reporting: The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance Selection Bias: Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Insurance, Life: Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Insurance, Long-Term Care: Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Ethics Committees: Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Insurance, Major Medical: Insurance providing a broad range of medical services and supplies, when prescribed by a physician, whether or not the patient is hospitalized. It frequently is an extension of a basic policy and benefits will not begin until the basic policy is exhausted.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Occupational Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of any occupational or work activity for remedial purposes.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Insurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Health Insurance Exchanges: State-provided health insurance marketplaces established under the PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.JapanEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.): A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Great BritainGuidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Bacteria, AnaerobicComorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Professional Staff Committees: Committees of professional personnel who have responsibility for determining policies, procedures, and controls related to professional matters in health facilities.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Ethics Committees, Clinical: Hospital or other institutional ethics committees established to consider the ethical dimensions of patient care. Distinguish from ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH, which are established to monitor the welfare of patients or healthy volunteers participating in research studies.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Insurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.TriazolesEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Cefmetazole: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Prehypertension: Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
  • From 1941 until 1945, he was Governor of Rhode Island, reorganizing the juvenile court system while sponsoring a workers' compensation fund and a labor relations board, but he resigned in the middle of his third term to accept appointment as Solicitor General of the United States (1945-1946). (wikipedia.org)
  • McGrath was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate from Rhode Island in 1946 to join a Congress (the Eightieth, 1947 to 1949), where the opposition Republican Party had just replaced Democratic majorities in both houses. (wikipedia.org)
  • See United States elections, 1946. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jepsen became a paratrooper in the United States Army 1946-1947 and served in the United States Army Reserve 1948-1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Economic Status of Registered Professional Nurses 1946-47 Bulletin No. 931 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR L. B. Schwellenbach, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. C om m issioner Price 30 cents LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL U nited States D epartment of L abor, B ureau of L abor Statistics, Washington, D . (7. (stlouisfed.org)
  • A year after professor Susan M. Reverby, a historian at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, uncovered a heinous Guatemalan syphilis experiment conducted between 1946 and 1948, on at least 5,500 under the auspices of the US Public Health Service, a hearing was held this week about the findings of the President's Bioethics Commission investigation. (ahrp.org)
  • As the war progressed, the state agency was federalized, and, when she left in 1946, she was a counselor for the U.S. Employment Service, still in the "Tri-Cities" region. (umflint.edu)
  • The records cover the years of Messick's Tenure from 1947 to 1959, but also include materials up until Messick's death in 1993. (ecu.edu)
  • He was briefly chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on the District of Columbia for the 81st Congress (to which the 1948 election had returned Democratic majorities). (wikipedia.org)
  • In managing President Harry Truman's successful 1948 election campaign, McGrath alienated white Southerners but won over crucial black constituencies by integrating the Democratic national headquarters staff. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the NHS was founded in 1948, agreements had to be thrashed out with GPs, doctors and consultants to allow private practice to continue and sit alongside the new national health service. (thecommunists.org)
  • H.R. 1947, S.954, Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act (FARRM) of 2013/Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013, Issues pertaining to agriculture research, energy, and education. (opensecrets.org)
  • S.1284, Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014 H.R. 2642, Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013. (opensecrets.org)
  • Voncina L, Strizrep T, Bagat M, Pezelj-Duliba D, Pavić N, Polašek O. Croatian 2008-2010 health insurance reform hard choices toward financial sustainability and efficiency. (springer.com)
  • The ACA is a comprehensive reform, although the signature component is the expansion of health insurance primarily by expanding Medicaid eligibility and by providing subsidies for consumers to purchase private insurance in online marketplaces called exchanges. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude by discussing how health system reform under the ACA could affect patients with stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • These international and national political turmoils led to the reform of the electoral system (from almost perfect proportional to uninominal/multi-seat circumscriptions) and radical restructuring of the Italian political system, including the dissolution of most traditional political parties, including Christian Democracy and Communist Party . (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical assimilationists, on the other hand, have sought to use health reform and medical institutions to help turn Latinos into better Americans, more "fit to be citizens. (nps.gov)
  • Engineers follow an ethical guide that states that they "hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. (visionlearning.com)
  • June 1940 All States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico were actively participating in programs providing child welfare services under the Social Security Act. (ssa.gov)
  • July 1940 The Report on Migratory Labor, presented to the President by the Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate Health and Welfare Activities, recommended the extension of social insurance programs to agricultural labor. (ssa.gov)
  • November 28, 1940 The National Defense Council, with the approval of the President, designated the Federal Security Administrator as coordinator of all health, medical, welfare, nutrition, recreation, and related fields of activity affecting the national defense. (ssa.gov)
  • He will write, "So Reagan-on behalf of the AMA-was suggesting that the nation should be content with welfare benefits under a Medicaid-type program as the only form of government-provided health care coverage. (historycommons.org)
  • The Act created the Office of Population Affairs (OPA) under the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (here called the Secretary). (asu.edu)
  • Wauneka served as chair of the Health and Welfare Committee of the Navajo Tribal Council and as a member of the US Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Indian Health. (asu.edu)
  • Oveta Culp Hobby, first secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first commanding officer of the Women's Army Corps, and chairman of the board of the Houston Post , second of seven children of Ike W. and Emma Elizabeth (Hoover) Culp, was born in Killeen, Texas, on January 19, 1905. (tshaonline.org)
  • Between 1942 and 1945, the United States reportedly lost eight million man-days to the disease. (jaapl.org)
  • The AMA, along with most Congressional Republicans and a good number of Democrats, has been fighting the idea of government-provided health care since 1945 (see 1962 ). (historycommons.org)
  • In April 1945, the Allies of World War II advanced in the Po plain supported by the Italian resistance movement , and defeated the fascist Italian Social Republic , a puppet state instituted by Nazi Germany and headed by Benito Mussolini . (wikipedia.org)
  • He continued to seek "a much more scientific, and certainly more desirable, system of measuring our money values" (P.D. 1945, v270, p247) or a "true scientific index of prices" (P.D. 1947, v279, p334). (geocities.ws)
  • He was enthusiastic about the new United Nations Charter, which arose from a fifty nation conference opening on 25 April 1945. (geocities.ws)
  • Rejecting total state control, as "we stand for the public ownership of public things and for the private ownership of private things" (P.D. 1945, v268, p319), he preferred a planned economy, with both government and private enterprise involvement. (geocities.ws)
  • He graduated from Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona in 1950 with a bachelor's degree and in 1953 with a master's degree. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article will return to the middle of the twentieth century to explore how 65 became a federal marker of old age and why health insurance came to be seen, in the years following the first National Conference on Aging (1950), as the best solution to the problems afflicting America's elders. (osu.edu)
  • The Menzies Government passed the Commonwealth's State Grants ( Milk for School Children ) Act in December 1950. (pittwateronlinenews.com)
  • 1942 As a mentor and close friend to Leon B. Hess, David T. Wilentz serves as a caretaker of Hess' burgeoning business in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor after Hess joins the United States Army. (wilentz.com)
  • c) National Association of Social Workers and Oxford University Press USA, 2016. (oxfordre.com)
  • CTS constitutes 3% of all Workers' Compensation Insurance claims. (cdc.gov)
  • January 1, 1940 Monthly benefits first became payable under old-age and survivor's insurance to aged retired workers and their dependents and to survivors of deceased insured workers. (ssa.gov)
  • On December 29, 1970, President Richard Nixon signed into law the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act, which gave the Federal Government the authority to set and enforce safety and health standards for most of the country's workers. (dol.gov)
  • The Progressive Era and the growth of mass circulation newspapers and national magazines helped forge a national movement for workers' safety and health. (dol.gov)
  • The U.S. Supreme Court handed down a decision in Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) that limits the freedom of millions of government workers to come together in unions in order to bargain for decent wages and benefits and have a voice on the job. (americanprogressaction.org)
  • However, many states permitted government workers covered by a union contract to refuse union membership and pay "fair share" fees that covered only the cost of workplace bargaining and contract administration, rather than the full cost of dues. (americanprogressaction.org)
  • Indeed, research shows that the typical full-time worker in states with so-called right-to-work laws-which extend the same provisions to private sector workers-are paid $1,500 less per year. (americanprogressaction.org)
  • This report provides state and local policymakers with guidance on how to combat this attack on workers' rights, offering policies to ensure that public sector workers are free to come together in strong unions. (americanprogressaction.org)
  • In recent years, the same groups backed Harris v. Quinn -a case in which conservative Supreme Court justices eliminated the ability of states to require fair share fees for unionized public sector home care workers-and successfully championed legislation in Wisconsin and Iowa preventing nearly all public sector bargaining. (americanprogressaction.org)
  • Other states have passed legislation to chip away at the number of public sector workers who are allowed to bargain, limit what they can bargain over, pre-empt progressive municipal lawmakers from raising local workplace standards, and enact private sector right-to-work laws. (americanprogressaction.org)
  • Employer-sponsored health insurance costs have skyrocketed in the past decade, far above inflation or workers' wages. (truth-out.org)
  • According to a Kaiser Family Foundation report, "between 1999 and 2009, health insurance premiums rose 131 percent, a much faster rate of increase than general inflation (28 percent) or workers' earnings (38 percent). (truth-out.org)
  • A microfilm edition of The United States and Castro's Cuba, 1950s-1970s: The Paterson Collection appeared in 1999. (powells.com)
  • According to the U.S. surgeon general (1999), mental health is the successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and providing the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Organization for Public Health Nursing. (stlouisfed.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational dependence, and self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2018 Ms. Allred received the Lenore Kramer Award for Excellence from the Women's Caucus of the New York State Trial Lawyers Association and in July 2018 she was given a Lifetime Achievement Award by the National Organization for Women ( NOW ) for her enduring commitment to fighting injustices against women. (windycitymediagroup.com)
  • Marie Stopes International (MSI) is a not-for-profit organization based in the United Kingdom that promotes reproductive and sexual health. (asu.edu)
  • The nation's key eugenic organizations funded by the Rockefeller, Harriman and Carnegie families included the American Eugenics Society (AES), and its sister organization, the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) established in 1947, the Cold Springs Harbor Experimental Station for the Study of Evolution, the Eugenic Record Office, and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. (all.org)
  • CATMAT gratefully acknowledges the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board for contributing to the development of the statement. (canada.ca)
  • McGrath, a Democrat, served as U.S. Attorney for Rhode Island before becoming Governor, U.S. Solicitor General, U.S. Senator, chairman of the Democratic National Committee, and Attorney General of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a bust of Senator McGrath outside the House chamber in the Rhode Island State House. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jepsen served as a county supervisor of Scott County from 1962 to 1965 and was a state Senator from 1966 to 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hillary Rodham Clinton served as the 67th Secretary of State of the United States from January 21, 2009 until February 1, 2013, after nearly four decades in public service as an advocate, attorney, First Lady, and Senator. (harrywalker.com)
  • Hillary Rodham Clinton has spent four decades in public service as an advocate, attorney, First Lady, U.S. Senator, U.S. Secretary of State, and presidential candidate. (harrywalker.com)
  • When the campaign for Al Smith had gone its losing way, she was called to work in Tom (Thomas T.) Connally 's campaign for United States senator against Earle B. Mayfield , the Ku Klux Klan candidate. (tshaonline.org)
  • She explains how 65 became a federal marker of old age and why health insurance came to be offered as the best solution to the problems afflicting America's elders. (osu.edu)
  • On July 30, 1965, Lyndon Johnson, the 57-year-old President of the United States, honored 81-year-old former president Harry Truman by traveling to Independence, Missouri, to sign into law a bill that would give America's elders federally funded health insurance. (osu.edu)
  • These two men are highly critical in other contexts of for-profit industries that affect the nation's health. (prospect.org)
  • The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. (flagcounter.com)
  • There are, however, well-known and accepted indices of a nation's life, not unlike the symptoms discoverable through a medical examination of a man's health, that reveal equally unerringly the state of health of a nation. (wikisource.org)
  • In the post-WWII years, references to mental hygiene were gradually replaced by the term 'mental health' due to its positive aspect that evolves from the treatment of illness to preventive and promotive areas of healthcare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Private healthcare insurance has been around for longer than the NHS. (thecommunists.org)
  • Over 11 percent growth is forecast and it is highly competitive though dominated by United Healthcare and Aetna-over 600 new plans are entering the market next year. (telecareaware.com)
  • As Governor, McGrath presided over a limited-purpose state constitutional convention in 1944. (wikipedia.org)
  • convention convened at the Rhode Island College of Education auditorium in Providence, March 28, 1944 for the purpose of amending the State constitution to eliminate voting registration requirements by members of the armed forces, merchant marines or persons absent from the state performing services connecting with military operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US federal government passed the law, Public Law 91-572, in 1970 as an amendment to the Public Health Services Act of 1944. (asu.edu)
  • James Howard McGrath (November 28, 1903 - September 2, 1966) was an American politician and attorney from the U.S. state of Rhode Island. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asked by the tobacco attorney what the public awareness of the health risks of smoking was in the 20 years prior to 1966, when warning labels first went on cigarette packs, Ambrose said, "When the warning went on the labels, you would have to have been deaf and blind not to have known that already in the United States. (prospect.org)
  • The Korangi-Lāndhi and Drigh-Malīr municipal committees were established in 1966 and 1970, respectively, to provide civic facilities to the suburban areas developed after 1947. (britannica.com)
  • This proceeding, before the court on petition to review, involves a $10,000 civil penalty imposed against petitioner, Detroit Steel Corporation, for willful violation of the general duty clause of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29 U.S.C. § 654(a)(1), 1 (hereinafter referred to as the Act. (openjurist.org)
  • should be added to the Federal debt in evaluating the overall national financial obligation in the opinion of many economists. (ssa.gov)
  • 1 The workshop will bring together labor economists who are knowledgeable about labor force dynamics, and health services researchers who are knowledgeable about one or more of the three vulnerable populations and coverage disparities. (docplayer.net)
  • This month historian Tamara Mann explores how, in the United States, the so-called "geriatric crisis" is less related to age itself than to the relationship between old age and government funds, particularly Medicare. (osu.edu)
  • In the United States the so-called "geriatric crisis" is less related to age itself than to the relationship between old age and government support-such as the unequal distribution of health care dollars, via Medicare, across the age spectrum. (osu.edu)
  • However, as in France where Maurice Thorez and four other communist ministers were forced to leave Paul Ramadier 's government during the May 1947 crisis , both the Italian Communists (PCI) and Socialists (PSI) were excluded from government the same month under Harry Truman 's pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic provisions for hearing and review instituted by the Social Security Board under authority to establish procedures, hold hearings, and take testimony in relation to determination of rights to old-age and survivors insurance benefits (Office of Appeals Council). (ssa.gov)
  • February 13, 1940 An Appeals Council, consisting of three members, was appointed by the Social Security Board to direct and supervise the holding of hearings on claims for old-age and survivors insurance benefits and to review decisions of referees, subject to review by the courts. (ssa.gov)
  • If granted by Judge* Miller, the petition will supercede the ICC proceedings in Which hearings already have been concluded and in which the state must file briefs next mr.rith. (newspapers.com)
  • AHCCCS is Arizona's Medicaid insurance system, which enables low-income residents to receive medical care. (asu.edu)
  • He currently serves on the Colorado's Medical Services Board, which oversees the state's Medicaid and Child Health Plan Plus program. (aafp.org)
  • Although many ACA provisions went into effect with its passage or have been phased in during the past several years, the Medicaid expansion and insurance exchanges went into effect more recently in January 2014. (ahajournals.org)
  • She has no insurance and Medicaid is expected to pay the majority of the expenses (for those of you out of the loop, that means you and me). (cnn.com)
  • For Medicaid and CHIP, which states use to extend insurance to low-income individuals and families via private plans, states would be able to, under an approved rule, to more flexibly determine what criteria determine telehealth access. (telecareaware.com)
  • American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees. (stlouisfed.org)
  • But we were young and healthy and so were our children (one was a home birth whom I "delivered," although Louise would rightly point out that she did most of the work), and so we did take what, in retrospect, seem like pretty dumb risks: for the initial year or two of setting up a business, we would have no health insurance for ourselves or our employees. (truth-out.org)
  • She served as secretary and then president of Local 52 (Detroit), vice-president and member of the Executive Board of Michigan State Employees Union, Council No. 7, and as a delegate to international conventions. (umflint.edu)
  • The National Women's Hall of Fame will celebrate the inclusion of these extraordinary women into the ranks of the inductees at the biennial induction ceremony on September 14, 2019 at the magnificent del Lago Resort & Casino, located outside of Seneca Falls, NY. (windycitymediagroup.com)
  • I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the economic status of registered professional nurses, which was made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in cooperation with the National Nursing Council and the Womens Bureau of the United States Department of Labor. (stlouisfed.org)
  • The study was jointly financed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the National Nursing Council, and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. provided part of the tabulating facilities. (stlouisfed.org)
  • In the course of developing the study, cooperation and advice was received not only from the Women's Bureau (which also participated in the planning of this report) and the National Nursing Council, but from many other governmental and nongovernmental organizations and individuals interested in improvement of the country's nursing standards and service. (stlouisfed.org)
  • U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- merce, Office of Business Economics, National Income Division. (stlouisfed.org)
  • In the early years after the war, attempts to create a national labor agency were unsuccessful, but organized labor's efforts were rewarded with the establishment of the first state Bureau of Labor Statistics in Massachusetts in 1869. (bls.gov)
  • The Bureau soon was effective enough that 12 other states followed Massachusetts' lead and established their own labor bureaus in the next 10 years. (bls.gov)
  • By 1884, congressional support for a national Bureau of Labor was overwhelming, and, on June 27th, it was established as part of the Department of the Interior. (bls.gov)
  • The letter, dated Dec. 19, stated that official clearance of this airport site had been approved by letter from the Public Roads ad ministration, a federal bureau, and the state highway department, ef re utiie. (newspapers.com)
  • In 1870, the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor urged legislation to deal with "the peril to health from lack of ventilation. (dol.gov)
  • some criticisms of "Lessons in community and national life" issued by the United States Bureau of education. (upenn.edu)
  • Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals. (ufl.edu)
  • Under this amendment, the Social Security Board was enabled to continue payment of administrative expenses for unemployment compensation in any State whose highest court had declared unconstitutional State legislation authorizing the transfer of funds. (ssa.gov)
  • His leadership and advocacy efforts have resulted in passage of prosthetic fairness laws in 20 states as well as introduction of bipartisan federal prosthetic insurance legislation. (aafp.org)
  • The labyrinth of State job safety and health legislation covered a wide range of workplace hazards but was badly flawed. (dol.gov)
  • Under the Constitution of India, labour is a subject in the Concurrent List where both the Central & State Governments are competent to enact legislation subject to certain matters being reserved for the Centre. (iptu.co.uk)
  • In the Senate, McGrath opposed reducing wartime economic controls and taxes, wishing to spend the latter instead on Social Security, national health insurance, and education. (wikipedia.org)
  • During her 12 years as First Lady of Arkansas, she was Chairwoman of the Arkansas Education Standards Committee, co-founded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, and served on the boards of the Arkansas Children's Hospital, and the Children's Defense Fund. (harrywalker.com)
  • National League of Nursing Education. (stlouisfed.org)
  • At the national level, Cain has demonstrated his dedication to public health through his co-founding of the Tar Wars tobacco-free education program that has reached more than 8.5 million children in 50 states and 16 countries. (aafp.org)
  • by New York (State) Division of Vocational and Extension Education. (upenn.edu)
  • Our Achievements: NATIONAL AWARD FOR BEST RESEARCH PROJECT (By Hon. President APJ Abdul Kalam) GOLD MEDAL FOR RESEARCH ON DISABILITY (By Disabled's Club of India) NOMINATED FOR BEST MSME AWARDS 2017 5 STAR RATING ON GOOGLE We have PhD experts from reputed institutions/ organizations like Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Indian Institute of Management (IIM) and many more apex education institutions in India. (scribd.com)
  • The Janus decision overturns a precedent established more than 40 years ago in Abood v. Detroit Board of Education , a ruling that protected the power of states to enact strong public sector bargaining laws that promoted labor peace and prevented "freeriding" by nonmembers of public-sector unions-which happens when nonmembers benefit from union gains without paying for them. (americanprogressaction.org)
  • She was also a member of the Executive Board and of the Education Committee of the Michigan AFL-CIO. (umflint.edu)
  • In the fall of 1983 he was loaned to the United States Fire Administration to coordinate the development and delivery of a national fire prevention and fire safety education grant program on behalf of USFA and the International Society of Fire Service Instructors (ISFSI). (nfsa.org)
  • The core principles of eugenics as they came to be understood by the mid-1930s were summarized in a report, Eugenical Sterilization: A Reorientation of the Problem, published in 1936 by the Committee for the Investigation of Eugenical Sterilization of the American Neurological Association. (encyclopedia.com)
  • October 8, 1940 The Federal Unemployment Tax Act was amended by the Second Revenue Act of 1940 to permit employers to credit, against that tax for 1936, 1937, 1938 or 1939, contributions paid by them under State unemployment compensation laws at any time within 60 days after date of enactment. (ssa.gov)
  • and H. R. 2652, a bill to amend section 222 (E) of subtitle--Insurance of title II of the Merchant marine act, 1936, as amended. (upenn.edu)
  • Jan. 13 --In 2017 the Jacksonville area lost residents who helped shape its schools, government, spiritual lives, landscape, entertainment, transportation and health care. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • On February 6, 2017, the first federal "right-to-try" (1) bill, HR 878, "to authorize the use of unapproved medical products by patients diagnosed with a terminal illness in accordance with State law, and for other purposes" was introduced to the United States House of Representatives. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • He was awarded the David A. Wells Prize in 1941 by Harvard University, and the John Bates Clark Medal by the American Economic Association in 1947, as the living economist under forty "who has made the most distinguished contribution to the main body of economic thought and knowledge. (nobelprize.org)
  • NSW introduced milk for schoolchildren prior to other states in 1941. (pittwateronlinenews.com)
  • On the golf team all four years, he is best remembered for scoring the low score in the 1941 NCAA golf tournament, enabling Princeton to win the national collegiate title over Louisiana State U. at the Ekwanok Golf Club in Manchester, Vt. (princeton.edu)
  • The national debt increased 114 million Pounds between 1941 and 1943, with a total of 392 million Pounds being spent on the war as of 1943. (geocities.ws)
  • In 1941 she began as a registration interviewer for the Illinois State Employment Service in Moline, Illinois. (umflint.edu)
  • Two of Messick's most important accomplishments include challenging the state government's unequal funding of the Consolidated University over the teacher's colleges and fighting for the establishment of a Nursing School. (ecu.edu)
  • A self-made man he captilised on the NSW State Government's failure to provide transport during 1918 when he wanted to link a development of Chullora up to the main railway line with a tram service - the Metropolitan Omnibus Company resulted, of which Mr. Stewart was sole proprietor, and began bringing thousands of pounds annually. (pittwateronlinenews.com)
  • The Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women's Health collected binational, standardized data from 947 postpartum women in Cameron County (Texas) and Matamoros (Tamaulipas, Mexico) hospitals from August through November 2005. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous newspaper articles and editorials recently have carried the statement that the old-age and survivors insurance trust fund has a shortage of $300 billion. (ssa.gov)
  • The Federal old-age and survivors insurance program is in approximate actuarial balance when evaluated in terms appropriate to such a program: over the long-range operation of this program, the scheduled contribution rates, according to actuarial estimates, will, along with interest receipts, produce roughly sufficient income to meet the benefits provided and the administrative expenses. (ssa.gov)
  • The Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund was established as a separate account in the United States Treasury to hold the amounts accumulated under the old-age and survivors insurance program. (ssa.gov)
  • The staff of the Appeals Council included a Consulting Referee for the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance program as a whole and a Hearing Referee for each of the twelve regions. (ssa.gov)
  • Given this profile, the need for effective family planning and reproductive health services in the border region is apparent. (cdc.gov)
  • On 26 May 1994, US President Bill Clinton signed the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act in to law, which federally criminalized acts of obstruction and violence towards reproductive health clinics. (asu.edu)
  • It grew from one small clinic, founded in North London in 1921, into an international provider of reproductive health care and information that operates in almost forty countries. (asu.edu)
  • Published and distributed by the National Chiropractic Association, Dr. Anderson's booklet "Chiropractic in California - and the Nation" is designed to combat the unfavorable conclusions of the Haynes-Stanford Report (Chiropractic in California) regarding the practice and the future of the chiropractic profession. (quackwatch.org)
  • National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses. (stlouisfed.org)
  • Albert C.Adams, then vice-president of the National Association of Life Underwriters, in a speech in 1957 (1) stated that 'The social security trust fund has a shortage of $300 billion and it is increasing year after year. (ssa.gov)
  • The British United Provident Association - Bupa - was founded in 1947, and it currently has about 15.5 million health insurance customers and 14.5 million people in its private clinics and hospitals. (thecommunists.org)
  • Mr. Stewart is president of the 'bus proprietors' section of the Motor Traders' Association, and a member of the Conciliation Committee of the Metropolitan Transport Group. (pittwateronlinenews.com)
  • As past American Public Health Association President Dr. Camara Jones has said, we must first put racism on the agenda in order to work to eliminate it, which seems to be the intention with this area of inquiry. (hmprg.org)
  • The history begins with the development of devices to measure blood pressure, early descriptions of the variability of blood pressure, and recognition by the life insurance industry of the association between blood pressure level and subsequent cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • He was former president of the New York and national turf writers associations and a lifetime member of the Baseball Writers Association. (brownalumnimagazine.com)
  • The National Fire Sprinkler Association introduced the Fire Sprinkler Hall of Fame in 1989 as a way of remembering those who have contributed substantially to the fire sprinkler industry or to the efforts of the Association on behalf of the industry. (nfsa.org)
  • Officially named the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro 1 Male, the study sought to discover how syphilis-the sexually transmitted disease that had spread in an epidemic affecting Black people and White people throughout the United States during the late 1920s and early 1930s-ravaged the human body. (aacu.org)
  • The million pages of internal memos, correspondence, lab reports, and private studies made public through these lawsuits show that three of the largest corporations in the United States have known since the 1930s about many of the horrible health effects associated with PCBs - and yet concealed this information from the government, the media, the public, and their own customers. (planetwaves.net)
  • Department of State (RG 59, 131 cubic feet). (archives.gov)
  • the Harraisburg-Raleifih Airport bl?7i!S and t\\o men losl j authority has been officially ap- jt Harco when their j p r0 ved by the state department j of aeronautics, it was revealed last Continued lague Community ng March '47 ,-OLOCy FOR MARCH 'c» continued to plague ts during March and al ,erc \eie no big uptown tions. (newspapers.com)
  • The site was chosen 'by the state department of aeronautics and the Civil Aeronautics authority following an inspection of five proposed sites. (newspapers.com)
  • The laws required most abortion providers to be licensed with the Arizona Department of Health Services and to submit to all the regulations the Department established for abortion clinics. (asu.edu)
  • Additionally, Cain serves as an associate professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. (aafp.org)
  • This paper was prepared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (hhs.gov)
  • The contraception mandate, issued in 2012 by the US Department of Health and Human Services, required that employer-provided health insurance plans offer their beneficiaries certain contraceptive methods free of charge. (asu.edu)
  • and Department of Health Management and Policy (D.K.J.) and Department of Epidemiology (L.D.L.), University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor. (ahajournals.org)
  • On September 7, 2016, Health & Medicine Policy Research Group staff attended a meeting jointly hosted by the Center for Community Health Equity (a joint DePaul-Rush center) and Health & Medicine's Health Equity Initiative, to help advise the Chicago Department of Public Health's (CDPH) Department of Epidemiology on how to both accurately and reliably measure experiences of racism in Chicago. (hmprg.org)
  • She found part-time work as a survey worker for the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan and for the Department of Sociology of the University of Chicago, as well as an admissions counselor at Wayne State University. (umflint.edu)
  • In response to a request from the Subcommittee on Social Security of the House Ways and Means Committee, this study looks at how the incomes and wealth of baby boomers compare with those of their parents as young adults, assesses the financial health of current retirees as a basis for comparison, and discusses factors that will influence the financial well-being of baby boomers in retirement. (stlouisfed.org)
  • ESSAYS Susan Reverby and David Rosner, Medical Culture and Historical Practice Charles E. Rosenberg, Medicine's Institutional History and Its Policy Implications James T. Patterson, Disease in the History of Medicine and Public Health 2. (powells.com)
  • The therapy is named for its developer, Max Gerson, a German physician who emigrated to the United States and started a medical practice in New York City in 1938. (cigna.com)
  • As a result of these studies, brought to light during the Nuremberg trials as evidence that the United States had also performed atrocious medical studies on prisoners, the Governor of Illinois (Dwight Herbert Green) convened a committee (dubbed the Green Committee) to determine the conditions under which prisoners could serve as subjects in medical experiments and whether a reduction in sentence could be offered as a reward for such service. (jaapl.org)
  • From 1932 to 1972, medical researchers from the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) in Washington, DC, developed and conducted an unethical clinical study in Tuskegee and other locations in Macon County, Alabama. (aacu.org)
  • Three years after the Great Depression started, the medical investigators recruited more than six hundred Black men-descendants of slaves in the Deep South-at their churches, places of employment, and homes, and offered them the opportunity to receive free health care for themselves and their families, as well as free meals and burial insurance. (aacu.org)
  • By the time the study ended, a total of 623 men had been subjected to this public health medical mistreatment. (aacu.org)
  • In response to this injustice and the need to begin holistically restoring a stigmatized community, physician and medical historian Vanessa Northington Gamble chaired the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee in 1996. (aacu.org)
  • The committee declared that the unconscionable medical study should be referred to as the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee (USPHSSS), underscoring the fact that the federal government constructed the study. (aacu.org)
  • He earned his medical degree from the Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, Ore., and completed his family medicine residency at the Mercy Family Medicine Residency program in Denver, Colo., where he was chief resident. (aafp.org)
  • Founded in 1947, the American Academy of Family Physicians represents 131,400 physicians and medical students nationwide, and it is the only medical society devoted solely to primary care. (aafp.org)
  • Family physicians conduct approximately one in five of the total medical office visits in the United States per year - more than any other specialty. (aafp.org)
  • Others include not just tobacco's natural ideological allies, but such liberal social scientists as Theodore R. Marmor, a Yale-based advocate of universal health insurance (and occasional writer for this magazine), and the distinguished medical historian Kenneth M. Ludmerer of Washington University in St. Louis. (prospect.org)
  • The presence of well-known proponents of eugenics on the MOD's original Board of Directors and Medical and Research Committees including Jeremiah Milbank, and AES members Professors Anton Julius Carlson and Clair E. Turner, would also contribute to the MOD's decent into the eugenic maelstrom two decades later. (all.org)
  • I hope he is not assuming because the children are Af-Am they don't have medical insurance. (cnn.com)
  • The Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) provides the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) with ongoing and timely medical, scientific, and public health advice relating to tropical infectious disease and health risks associated with international travel. (canada.ca)
  • Touch and manipulation with the hands have been in use in health and medical practice since the beginning of medical care. (chiro.org)
  • Today the medical and health practitioner retreats further and further from physical contact with the patient, ever more distanced by banks of diagnostic equipment, legal constraints, and time factors. (chiro.org)
  • In 1911, the medical director of the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company wrote, "The sphygmomanometer is indispensable in life insurance examinations, and the time is not far distant when all progressive life insurance companies will require its use in all examinations of applicants for life insurance. (ahajournals.org)
  • People coming from United Kingdom need to apply for a Visa to go to India, both for tourism and for business reasons. (iptu.co.uk)
  • Large multi-nationals increasingly operate in India and many large Indian businesses compete on the global stage, so formal graduate recruitment is taking place on Indian university campuses as well as in the job market generally. (iptu.co.uk)
  • Generally speaking, the best advice for British nationals is to train in the UK first with a company that operates in India, and then move with the company. (iptu.co.uk)
  • In 1954 the industry put out its now infamous "Frank Statement," an advertisement in hundreds of newspapers, in which the industry vowed to get to the bottom of the cancer question, establishing a committee to sponsor research. (prospect.org)
  • In 1954, the Heller Research Committee of the University of California concluded that an adequate urban family budget should be no less than $5,353. (commentarymagazine.com)
  • In 1942, the United States Supreme Court Case of Skinner v. Oklahoma ruled that states could not legally sterilize those inmates of prisons deemed habitual criminals. (asu.edu)
  • The case, decided on 1 June 1942, determined that state laws were unconstitutional if those laws enabled states to forcibly sterilize inmates deemed to be habitual criminals. (asu.edu)
  • One amendment was extended to July 1, 1942, the final date on which action could be taken by certain States to transfer from their accounts in unemployment trust fund to railroad unemployment insurance account amounts provided under Section 13(d) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act. (ssa.gov)
  • In 1908, U.S. Steel formed a safety committee with instructions from the company president, Judge Elbert Gary, to cut the accident rate as much as possible. (dol.gov)
  • Eugenics movements did not begin to arise in Europe or the United States until the first decade of the twentieth century, and they did not become generally effective in promoting social and political programs nationally or internationally until after 1910. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By 1910, all but one state has criminalized abortion except where necessary, in a doctor's judgment, to save the woman's life. (historycommons.org)
  • The reports of State labor bureaus in the 1870's and 1880's were full of tragedies that too often struck the unwary or the unlucky. (dol.gov)
  • These tragedies and the industrial accident statistics that State labor bureaus collected, spurred social reformers and the budding labor movement to call for State factory safety and health laws. (dol.gov)
  • T he Secretary of L abor : SCH W ELLENBACH, n PREFACE This study of earnings and working conditions of registered professional nurses was prompted by the critical postwar shortage of nursing care in the United States. (stlouisfed.org)
  • The National Democratic Convention was held in Houston in 1928, and Oveta Culp was released from her work as secretary of the Democratic Club to help with convention plans. (tshaonline.org)
  • Christopher Taylor Buckley , Skull & Bones 1975 - Author of the novel, "Thank You For Smoking" (1994), disinformation which purveys health fascist pseudoscience and anti-smoker stereotypes about tobacco industry lobbyists. (smokershistory.com)
  • Albert Lasker's wife, Mary Woodard Lasker , was the head of the ACS who began its persecution of tobacco, and the most powerful health lobbyist in Washington, until her death in 1994. (smokershistory.com)
  • The text of the bill below is as of Jun 21, 1994 (Reported by House Committee). (govtrack.us)
  • While health services research is increasingly concerned about the way HSs can adopt innovations, little is known about the system-level challenges that innovations should address in the first place. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When Culp was elected to the state legislature in 1919, he took the fourteen-year-old Oveta with him to Austin, and she became a serious and interested observer of each day's sessions. (tshaonline.org)
  • Cain also served on the national board of directors of the Amputee Coalition as chair of their Advocacy Committee from 2003 to 2011. (aafp.org)
  • 3 HEALTH INSURANCE AND VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: RACIAL AND ETHNIC MINORITIES, IMMIGRANTS, AND PEOPLE WITH CHRONIC MENTAL ILLNESS I. PURPOSE/OVERVIEW This document provides background information for a one-day workshop focused on health insurance and selected vulnerable populations (identified for our immediate purposes as racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, and people with mental illness) sponsored by the Economic Research Initiative on the Uninsured (ERIU) and its Task Force on Vulnerable Populations. (docplayer.net)
  • Specifically, it determines the kind of research conducted on HS challenges, where it was performed, in which health sectors and on which populations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • From 1955 to 1957 she was in charge of the "Freedom Agenda" program, a project organized by the National League of Women Voters to promote discussion about civil liberties. (umflint.edu)
  • However, it was in the United States, Britain, and Germany that eugenics as an intellectual and social movement made its greatest strides and, from eugenicists' point of view, achieved its greatest ideological and political effects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because eugenics developed in a variety of national contexts with a wide range of ideological and political programs, its content and style varied from one country to another and over time, from the early 1900s until just before the onset of World War II . (encyclopedia.com)
  • German eugenicists were also particularly interested in increasing the number of "fitter" elements in society (positive eugenics) - where prior to the National Socialist takeover in 1933, "fitness" was understood more in terms of class than of race. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the United States as in Europe, eugenics had become fused with the tenets of Social Darwinism and Racial Hygiene. (all.org)
  • Though in the mid-1960s some states will begin liberalizing their abortion laws, it will not be until 1973 that abortion becomes legal throughout the United States (see January 22, 1973 ). (historycommons.org)
  • New technological developments in human genetics including cytogenics, cell culture, and prenatal diagnosis, combined with changes in state abortion laws to accommodate eugenic killing now made such a campaign both possible and practical. (all.org)
  • Baby boomers, 78 million strong, are turning 65 at a rate of 4 million per year in the United States. (osu.edu)
  • The following are the top 10 news stories of the year, as selected by Insurance Journal's editors. (insurancejournal.com)
  • Commercial premium rates declined 11.8 percent on average for all sizes of accounts, while personal auto insurance increased just 0.4 percent during the first-half 2007 compared with its level a year earlier. (insurancejournal.com)
  • Seneca Falls, NY: - In celebration of the 100th year anniversary of Women's Right to Vote in NY, The National Women's Hall of Fame will host a weekend celebrating the achievements of American Women in the birthplace of the Women's Rights movement in the U.S. The highlight of the weekend is the induction of ten women into the Hall of Fame for their historic achievements. (windycitymediagroup.com)
  • His father-in-law, Donald Phinney Gregg, was a 31-year veteran of the C.I.A. who was assistant to Vice President George H.W. Bush for national security affairs. (smokershistory.com)
  • October 10, 1940 The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act was amended to change the benefit structure, definitions of employment and benefit year, disqualification provisions, and administrative procedures. (ssa.gov)
  • Every year, delegates to the Washington State Labor Council convention discuss, deliberate and act on resolutions submitted by the affiliated union locals and councils. (wslc.org)
  • An original concurrent resolution setting forth the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014, revising the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal year 2013, and setting forth the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023. (opensecrets.org)
  • Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023. (opensecrets.org)
  • Each year we put out $1.2 million in salary support alone" for 200 missionary couples in the United States and another 35 in Canada, executive director Brian Wechsler said. (thegospelcoalition.org)
  • By 1937, the year that the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (later renamed the National Foundation/March of Dimes) was established to eradicate polio, the Eugenic Establishment was already an important but not as yet permanent or popular feature of the American scene. (all.org)
  • Diabetes, both juvenile-onset (Type I) and adult-onset (Type II), is a major health problem in the United States, and the number of diabetics is increasing every year. (energywave.com)
  • Later that year, Warren W. Wilentz makes an unsuccessful run against incumbent Republican Clifford P. Case for the New Jersey seat in the United States Senate. (wilentz.com)
  • Later that year, as the Commission formed regional offices in the state, Beasley was appointed District Executive of the Commission's office in Flint. (umflint.edu)
  • In the past year we have advanced from a state of emergency into the plenitude of constitutional normalcy. (wikisource.org)