The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Dibenzoxepins are heterocyclic compounds consisting of a seven-membered oxepin ring fused with two benzene rings, which have been used as building blocks in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical agents, including some antidepressants and antipsychotics.
Asthmatic adverse reaction (e.g., BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional NSAIDS including aspirin use.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A form of non-allergic rhinitis that is characterized by nasal congestion and posterior pharyngeal drainage.
A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.
Irrigation of the nose with saline or irrigation solutions for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to remove irritants, allergens, or microorganisms from the nose.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Modified oligonucleotides in which one of the oxygens of the phosphate group is replaced with a sulfur atom.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
A disease characterized by the chronic, progressive spread of lesions from New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by species of the L. braziliensis complex to the nasal, pharyngeal, and buccal mucosa some time after the appearance of the initial cutaneous lesion. Nasal obstruction and epistaxis are frequent presenting symptoms.

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (1/1918)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog. (2/1918)

Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (3/1918)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (4/1918)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Glycoconjugate expression in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in specific pathogen-free and conventional rats. (5/1918)

We examined lectin-histochemically the glycoconjugate expression in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in the rat under specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional (CV) conditions and compared the results for SPF and CV rats as well as for membranous (M) cells and adjacent ciliated respiratory epithelial (CRE) cells in FAE. N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Glycine max (SBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), and alpha-L-fucose-specific lectin, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), preferentially bound to M cells mainly in the luminal surface compared with CRE cells in SPF rats, whereas DBA and UEA-I showed signs of preferential binding to the apical and basolateral cytoplasm as well as to the luminal surface of M cells in CV rats. In addition, HPA, SBA and VVA more frequently and extensively labeled M cells than CRE cells in CV rats with the same subcellular staining pattern as DBA and UEA-I. On the whole, the changes in lectin binding frequency and strength were more prominent in M cells than in CRE cells in both SPF and CV rats. The present results indicate that DBA and UEA-I are useful as markers of M cells in NALT. Furthermore, the pattern of expression of carbohydrate residues recognized by such lectins in SPF and CV rats suggests that M cells are highly sensitive to environmental changes.  (+info)

Anatomical structure and surface epithelial distribution in the nasal cavity of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). (6/1918)

To validate use of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in inhalation toxicity studies, its nasal morphology was examined. The nasal turbinates each consisted of one maxilloturbinate and one ethmoturbinate: these were more planar in structure than the comparable structures of rodents or dogs. The nasal cavity epithelia comprised squamous epithelium (SE), nasal transitional epithelium (NTE), respiratory epithelium (RE) and olfactory epithelium (OE), listed in order of occurrence from anterior to posterior positions. NTE was distributed as a narrow band lying between SE and RE. OE was limited to the dorsal part of the cavity, which was structurally similar to that of the macaque or man. Overall, this study revealed structural the similarity of the whole nasal cavity in the marmoset to that of macaques or humans. Prediction of nasal cavity changes in man based on extrapolation from experimentally induced changes in the common marmoset therefore seems likely to be feasible, making it a useful animal model for inhalation studies.  (+info)

Nitric oxide-mediated regulation of transepithelial sodium and chloride transport in murine nasal epithelium. (7/1918)

Transepithelial ion transport is regulated by a variety of cellular factors. In light of recent evidence that nitric oxide (NO) production is decreased in cystic fibrosis airways, we examined the role of NO in regulating sodium and chloride transport in murine nasal epithelium. Acute intervention with the inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-selective inhibitor S-methylisothiourea resulted in an increase of amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption observed as a hyperpolarization of nasal transepithelial potential difference. Inhibition of iNOS expression with dexamethasone also hyperpolarized transepithelial potential difference, but only a portion of this increase proved to be amiloride sensitive. Chloride secretion was significantly inhibited in C57BL/6J mice by the addition of both S-methylisothiourea and dexamethasone. Mice lacking iNOS expression [NOS2(-/-)] also had a decreased chloride-secretory response compared with control mice. These data suggest that constitutive NO production likely plays some role in the downregulation of sodium absorption and leads to an increase in transepithelial chloride secretion.  (+info)

The rostral ventrolateral medulla mediates the sympathoactivation produced by chemical stimulation of the rat nasal mucosa. (8/1918)

1. We sought to outline the brainstem circuit responsible for the increase in sympathetic tone caused by chemical stimulation of the nasal passages with ammonia vapour. Experiments were performed in alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. 2. Stimulation of the nasal mucosa increased splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND), elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP), raised heart rate slightly and inhibited phrenic nerve discharge. 3. Bilateral injections of the broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenate (Kyn) into the rostral part of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; rostral C1 area) greatly reduced the effects of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND (-80 %). These injections had no effect on resting ABP, resting SND or the sympathetic baroreflex. 4. Bilateral injections of Kyn into the ventrolateral medulla at the level of the obex (caudal C1 area) or into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) greatly attenuated the baroreflex and significantly increased the baseline levels of both SND and ABP. However they did not reduce the effect of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND. 5. Single-unit recordings were made from 39 putative sympathoexcitatory neurons within the rostral C1 area. Most neurons (24 of 39) were activated by nasal mucosa stimulation (+65.8 % rise in discharge rate). Responding neurons had a wide range of conduction velocities and included slow-conducting neurons identified previously as C1 cells. The remaining putative sympathoexcitatory neurons were either unaffected (n = 8 neurons) or inhibited (n = 7) during nasal stimulation. We also recorded from ten respiratory-related neurons, all of which were silenced by nasal stimulation. 6. In conclusion, the sympathoexcitatory response to nasal stimulation is largely due to activation of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons within the RVLM. We suggest that these neurons receive convergent and directionally opposite polysynaptic inputs from arterial baroreceptors and trigeminal afferents. These inputs are integrated within the rostral C1 area as opposed to the NTS or the caudal C1 area.  (+info)

Nasal mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity. It is a delicate, moist, and specialized tissue that contains various types of cells including epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands. The primary function of the nasal mucosa is to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air before it reaches the lungs.

The nasal mucosa produces mucus, which traps dust, allergens, and microorganisms, preventing them from entering the respiratory system. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures on the surface of the epithelial cells, help move the mucus towards the back of the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled.

The nasal mucosa also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and immune cells that help protect against infections and inflammation. It plays an essential role in the body's defense system by producing antibodies, secreting antimicrobial substances, and initiating local immune responses.

Nasal polyps are benign (noncancerous) growths that originate from the lining of your nasal passages or sinuses. They most often occur in the area where the sinuses open into the nasal cavity. Small nasal polyps may not cause any problems. But if they grow large enough, they can block your nasal passages and lead to breathing issues, frequent infections and loss of smell.

Nasal polyps are associated with chronic inflammation due to conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis or chronic sinusitis. Treatment typically includes medication to reduce the size of the polyps or surgery to remove them. Even after successful treatment, nasal polyps often return.

In medical terms, turbinates refer to the curled bone shelves that are present inside the nasal passages. They are covered by a mucous membrane and are responsible for warming, humidifying, and filtering the air that we breathe in through our nose. There are three pairs of turbinates in each nasal passage: inferior, middle, and superior turbinates. The inferior turbinate is the largest and most significant contributor to nasal airflow resistance. Inflammation or enlargement of the turbinates can lead to nasal congestion and difficulty breathing through the nose.

Allergic rhinitis, perennial type, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergic response to environmental allergens that are present throughout the year. Unlike seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is triggered by specific pollens or molds during certain times of the year, perennial allergic rhinitis is a persistent condition that occurs year-round.

Common allergens responsible for perennial allergic rhinitis include dust mites, cockroaches, pet dander, and indoor mold spores. Symptoms may include sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, ears, throat, or roof of the mouth. Treatment options typically involve avoiding exposure to the offending allergens, if possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists to manage symptoms. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended for long-term management in some cases.

Nasal lavage fluid refers to the fluid that is obtained through a process called nasal lavage or nasal washing. This procedure involves instilling a saline solution into the nose and then allowing it to drain out, taking with it any mucus, debris, or other particles present in the nasal passages. The resulting fluid can be collected and analyzed for various purposes, such as diagnosing sinus infections, allergies, or other conditions affecting the nasal cavity and surrounding areas.

It is important to note that the term "nasal lavage fluid" may also be used interchangeably with "nasal wash fluid," "nasal irrigation fluid," or "sinus rinse fluid." These terms all refer to the same basic concept of using a saline solution to clean out the nasal passages and collect the resulting fluid for analysis.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

Nose diseases, also known as rhinologic disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the nose and its surrounding structures. These may include:

1. Nasal Allergies (Allergic Rhinitis): An inflammation of the inner lining of the nose caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or mold.

2. Sinusitis: Inflammation or infection of the sinuses, which are air-filled cavities in the skull that surround the nasal cavity.

3. Nasal Polyps: Soft, fleshy growths that develop on the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses.

4. Deviated Septum: A condition where the thin wall (septum) between the two nostrils is displaced to one side, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.

5. Rhinitis Medicamentosa: Nasal congestion caused by overuse of decongestant nasal sprays.

6. Nosebleeds (Epistaxis): Bleeding from the nostrils, which can be caused by a variety of factors including dryness, trauma, or underlying medical conditions.

7. Nasal Fractures: Breaks in the bone structure of the nose, often caused by trauma.

8. Tumors: Abnormal growths that can occur in the nasal passages or sinuses. These can be benign or malignant.

9. Choanal Atresia: A congenital condition where the back of the nasal passage is blocked, often by a thin membrane or bony partition.

10. Nasal Valve Collapse: A condition where the side walls of the nose collapse inward during breathing, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.

These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can affect the nose.

The nasal septum is the thin, flat wall of bone and cartilage that separates the two sides (nostrils) of the nose. Its primary function is to support the structures of the nose, divide the nostrils, and regulate airflow into the nasal passages. The nasal septum should be relatively centered, but it's not uncommon for a deviated septum to occur, where the septum is displaced to one side, which can sometimes cause blockage or breathing difficulties in the more affected nostril.

Rhinitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the nasal passages, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, and postnasal drip. It can be caused by various factors, including allergies (such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander), infections (viral or bacterial), environmental irritants (such as smoke or pollution), and hormonal changes. Depending on the cause, rhinitis can be classified as allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis, infectious rhinitis, or hormonal rhinitis. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, nasal sprays, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

Nose neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and have the potential to metastasize.

Nose neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing through the nose, loss of smell, facial pain or numbness, and visual changes if they affect the eye. The diagnosis of nose neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Nasal decongestants are medications that are used to relieve nasal congestion, or a "stuffy nose," by narrowing the blood vessels in the lining of the nose, which helps to reduce swelling and inflammation. This can help to make breathing easier and can also help to alleviate other symptoms associated with nasal congestion, such as sinus pressure and headache.

There are several different types of nasal decongestants available, including over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription options. Some common OTC nasal decongestants include pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) and phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine), which are available in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, and nasal sprays. Prescription nasal decongestants may be stronger than OTC options and may be prescribed for longer periods of time.

It is important to follow the instructions on the label when using nasal decongestants, as they can have side effects if not used properly. Some potential side effects of nasal decongestants include increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It is also important to note that nasal decongestants should not be used for longer than a few days at a time, as prolonged use can actually make nasal congestion worse (this is known as "rebound congestion"). If you have any questions about using nasal decongestants or if your symptoms persist, it is best to speak with a healthcare provider.

Sneezing is an involuntary, forceful expulsion of air through the nose and mouth, often triggered by irritation or inflammation in the nasal passages. It is a protective reflex that helps to clear the upper respiratory tract of irritants such as dust, pollen, or foreign particles. The sneeze begins with a deep inspiration of air, followed by closure of the glottis (the opening between the vocal cords) and contraction of the chest and abdominal muscles. This builds up pressure in the lungs, which is then suddenly released through the nose and mouth as the glottis opens and the velum (the soft tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth) rises to block the nasal passage. The result is a powerful burst of air that can travel at speeds of up to 100 miles per hour, expelling mucus and any trapped irritants along with it.

Nasal provocation tests are a type of diagnostic procedure used in allergy testing to determine the specific allergens that cause a person's nasal symptoms. In this test, a small amount of an allergen is introduced into the patient's nostril using a spray or drops. The patient's response is then observed and measured for any signs of an allergic reaction, such as sneezing, runny nose, or congestion.

The test may be performed with a single allergen or with a series of allergens to identify which specific substances the patient is allergic to. The results of the test can help guide treatment decisions and management strategies for allergies, including immunotherapy (allergy shots) and avoidance measures.

It's important to note that nasal provocation tests should only be performed under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as there is a small risk of inducing a severe allergic reaction.

Allergic rhinitis, seasonal (also known as hay fever) is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when an individual breathes in allergens such as pollen or mold spores. The immune system identifies these substances as harmful and releases histamine and other chemicals, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, red, watery, and itchy eyes, cough, and fatigue. Unlike perennial allergic rhinitis, seasonal allergic rhinitis is worse during specific times of the year when certain plants pollinate.

The olfactory mucosa is a specialized mucous membrane that is located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, near the septum and the superior turbinate. It contains the olfactory receptor neurons, which are responsible for the sense of smell. These neurons have hair-like projections called cilia that are covered in a mucus layer, which helps to trap and identify odor molecules present in the air we breathe. The olfactory mucosa also contains supporting cells, blood vessels, and nerve fibers that help to maintain the health and function of the olfactory receptor neurons. Damage to the olfactory mucosa can result in a loss of smell or anosmia.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull near the nose. The inflammation can be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, as well as allergies, structural issues, or autoimmune disorders.

In sinusitis, the mucous membranes lining the sinuses become swollen and may produce excess mucus, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, thick green or yellow nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, reduced sense of smell, cough, fatigue, and fever.

Sinusitis can be classified into acute (lasting less than 4 weeks), subacute (lasting 4-12 weeks), chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks), or recurrent (multiple episodes within a year). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms, and may include antibiotics, nasal corticosteroids, decongestants, saline irrigation, and in some cases, surgery.

Nasal obstruction is a medical condition that refers to any blockage or restriction in the normal flow of air through the nasal passages. This can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, swelling, or physical abnormalities in the nasal cavity. Common causes of nasal obstruction include allergies, sinusitis, deviated septum, enlarged turbinates, and nasal polyps. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing through the nose, nasal congestion, and nasal discharge. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is not a medical term itself, but it is an important chemical in the industrial field, particularly in the production of polyurethane products. Therefore, I will provide a general definition of this compound.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic chemical compound with the formula (CH3C6H3NCO)2. It is a colorless to light yellow liquid with a pungent odor and is highly reactive due to the presence of two isocyanate functional groups (-N=C=O). TDI is primarily used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, coatings, and adhesives. Exposure to TDI can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract and may pose potential health hazards if not handled properly.

The ethmoid bone is a paired, thin, and lightweight bone that forms part of the skull's anterior cranial fossa and contributes to the formation of the orbit and nasal cavity. It is located between the frontal bone above and the maxilla and palatine bones below. The ethmoid bone has several important features:

1. Cribriform plate: This is the horizontal, sieve-like portion that forms part of the anterior cranial fossa and serves as the roof of the nasal cavity. It contains small openings (foramina) through which olfactory nerves pass.
2. Perpendicular plate: The perpendicular plate is a vertical structure that projects downward from the cribriform plate, forming part of the nasal septum and separating the left and right nasal cavities.
3. Superior and middle nasal conchae: These are curved bony projections within the lateral walls of the nasal cavity that help to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air.
4. Lacrimal bone: The ethmoid bone articulates with the lacrimal bone, forming part of the medial wall of the orbit.
5. Frontal process: This is a thin, vertical plate that articulates with the frontal bone above the orbit.
6. Sphenoidal process: The sphenoidal process connects the ethmoid bone to the sphenoid bone posteriorly.

The ethmoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting the brain and providing structural support for the eyes, as well as facilitating respiration by warming, humidifying, and filtering incoming air.

Rhinomanometry is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the pressure and flow of air through the nasal passages. It is used to assess the nasal airway resistance and function, and can help diagnose and monitor conditions such as nasal congestion, deviated septum, sinusitis, and other disorders that affect nasal breathing.

During the procedure, a small catheter or mask is placed over the nose, and the patient is asked to breathe normally while the pressure and airflow are measured. The data is then analyzed to determine any abnormalities in nasal function, such as increased resistance or asymmetry between the two sides of the nose.

Rhinomanometry can be performed using either anterior or posterior methods, depending on whether the measurement is taken at the entrance or exit of the nasal passages. The results of the test can help guide treatment decisions and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as medications or surgery.

The nasal bones are a pair of small, thin bones located in the upper part of the face, specifically in the middle of the nose. They articulate with each other at the nasal bridge and with the frontal bone above, the maxillae (upper jaw bones) on either side, and the septal cartilage inside the nose. The main function of the nasal bones is to form the bridge of the nose and protect the nasal cavity. Any damage to these bones can result in a fracture or broken nose.

Paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities in the skull that surround the nasal cavity. There are four pairs of paranasal sinuses, including the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. These sinuses help to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe. They also contribute to our voice resonance and provide a slight cushioning effect for the skull. The openings of the paranasal sinuses lead directly into the nasal cavity, allowing mucus produced in the sinuses to drain into the nose. Infections or inflammation of the paranasal sinuses can result in conditions such as sinusitis.

Atrophic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal passages and sinuses characterized by the atrophy (wasting away) of the nasal mucous membranes. This results in decreased mucus production, crusting, and eventually, shrinkage of the nasal structures. The symptoms may include a stuffy or runny nose, loss of smell, and crusting inside the nose. Atrophic rhinitis can be caused by various factors such as infection, trauma, radiation therapy, or surgery. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. It is often difficult to treat, and treatment typically aims to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

A nasal spray is a medication delivery device that delivers a liquid formulation directly into the nostrils, where it can then be absorbed through the nasal mucosa and into the bloodstream. Nasal sprays are commonly used to administer medications for local effects in the nose, such as decongestants, corticosteroids, and antihistamines, as well as for systemic absorption of drugs like vaccines and pain relievers.

The medication is typically contained in a small bottle or container that is pressurized or uses a pump mechanism to create a fine mist or spray. This allows the medication to be easily and precisely administered in a controlled dose, reducing the risk of overdose or incorrect dosing. Nasal sprays are generally easy to use, non-invasive, and can provide rapid onset of action for certain medications.

'Ambrosia' is a term that does not have a specific medical definition. In general, it refers to the food or drink of the Greek gods, said to confer immortality upon them. It has been used in various contexts outside of its mythological origins, such as in botany to refer to certain types of plants, and in popular culture to name a genus of weed pollen that can cause severe allergic reactions. However, it does not have a technical medical meaning.

Anti-allergic agents, also known as antihistamines, are a class of medications used to treat allergies. They work by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that is released during an allergic reaction and causes symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.

There are two main types of antihistamines: first-generation and second-generation. First-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), can cause drowsiness and other side effects, such as dry mouth and blurred vision. They are typically used for the treatment of short-term symptoms, such as those caused by seasonal allergies or a mild reaction to an insect bite.

Second-generation antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec), are less likely to cause drowsiness and other side effects. They are often used for the long-term treatment of chronic allergies, such as those caused by dust mites or pet dander.

In addition to their use in treating allergies, antihistamines may also be used to treat symptoms of motion sickness, insomnia, and anxiety. It is important to follow the instructions on the label when taking antihistamines and to talk to a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using these medications.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Nitrosamines are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the reaction between nitrous acid (or any nitrogen oxide) and secondary amines. They are often found in certain types of food, such as cured meats and cheeses, as well as in tobacco products and cosmetics.

Nitrosamines have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of nitrosamines has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract. They can also cause DNA damage and interfere with the normal functioning of cells.

In the medical field, nitrosamines have been a topic of concern due to their potential presence as contaminants in certain medications. For example, some drugs that contain nitrofurantoin, a medication used to treat urinary tract infections, have been found to contain low levels of nitrosamines. While the risk associated with these low levels is not well understood, efforts are underway to minimize the presence of nitrosamines in medications and other products.

Nasal cartilages are the flexible, supportive structures in the nose that contribute to its shape and structure. They are made up of tough, but elastic tissue called cartilage. There are several nasal cartilages, including:

1. The septal cartilage, which is a thin, flat strip that forms the dividing wall between the two sides of the nose.
2. The upper and lower lateral cartilages, which are located on either side of the nostrils and help to shape them.
3. The sesamoid cartilages, which are small, round pieces of cartilage that can be found near the nasal opening.

These cartilages work together to provide support and flexibility to the nose, allowing it to withstand the forces of breathing and other facial movements while maintaining its shape.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Glycoconjugates are a type of complex molecule that form when a carbohydrate (sugar) becomes chemically linked to a protein or lipid (fat) molecule. This linkage, known as a glycosidic bond, results in the formation of a new molecule that combines the properties and functions of both the carbohydrate and the protein or lipid component.

Glycoconjugates can be classified into several categories based on the type of linkage and the nature of the components involved. For example, glycoproteins are glycoconjugates that consist of a protein backbone with one or more carbohydrate chains attached to it. Similarly, glycolipids are molecules that contain a lipid anchor linked to one or more carbohydrate residues.

Glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and communication. They are also involved in the immune response, inflammation, and the development of certain diseases such as cancer and infectious disorders. As a result, understanding the structure and function of glycoconjugates is an active area of research in biochemistry, cell biology, and medical science.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Dibenzoxepins are a class of organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring consisting of two benzene rings fused to an oxygen atom. This structure is a heterocyclic compound, and dibenzoxepins are aromatic in nature. They can be found in some natural sources, but many dibenzoxepin derivatives are synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals and other applications.

In the medical field, certain dibenzoxepin derivatives have been explored for their potential therapeutic benefits. For instance, some of these compounds have shown promise as anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and antipyretic (fever-reducing) agents. Additionally, some dibenzoxepin derivatives are being investigated for their potential use in treating neurological disorders such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia due to their ability to interact with various neurotransmitter systems in the brain.

It is important to note that while these compounds have shown promise in preclinical studies, further research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy in humans before they can be approved as medications. Additionally, individual dibenzoxepin derivatives may have different properties, indications, and side effects, so it's essential to consult medical literature or healthcare professionals for specific information on each compound.

Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is a specific form of asthma that is characterized by the worsening of respiratory symptoms after ingesting aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). AIA is also known as NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) or aspirin-sensitive asthma.

People with AIA typically experience bronchoconstriction, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). These symptoms can range from mild to severe and may occur within a few minutes to several hours after ingesting the medication.

In addition to respiratory symptoms, some people with AIA may also develop skin reactions, such as hives or angioedema, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain or diarrhea. The exact mechanism by which aspirin and other NSAIDs trigger these symptoms in people with AIA is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, two types of lipid mediators that play a role in inflammation.

Avoiding aspirin and other NSAIDs is the primary treatment for AIA. In some cases, medications such as corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, or antihistamines may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Desensitization therapy, which involves gradually increasing the dose of aspirin under medical supervision, may also be an option for some people with AIA who are unable to avoid NSAIDs altogether.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Acoustic rhinometry is a diagnostic technique used to measure the cross-sectional area and volume of the nasal cavity. It utilizes sound waves to create a visual representation of the nasal passages' shape and size. By measuring the reflection of sound waves as they travel through the nasal cavity, acoustic rhinometry can help identify any abnormalities or obstructions in the nasal passage that may be causing difficulty breathing through the nose. This technique is non-invasive and quick, making it a useful tool for evaluating nasal airflow and diagnosing conditions such as nasal congestion, sinusitis, and nasal polyps.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Vasomotor rhinitis is a type of non-allergic rhinitis, which is a chronic inflammation of the nasal passages characterized by symptoms similar to those of allergies, such as runny nose, congestion, and sneezing. However, in vasomotor rhinitis, these symptoms are not caused by an allergic reaction but rather by abnormal regulation of blood vessels in the nose.

The blood vessels in the nasal passages can dilate (widen) or constrict (narrow) due to various factors such as changes in temperature, humidity, strong odors, smoke, or even emotional stress. In vasomotor rhinitis, the blood vessels overreact to these triggers, leading to nasal congestion and other symptoms.

The exact cause of vasomotor rhinitis is not fully understood, but it may be related to abnormal nerve function or sensitivity in the nose. Treatment typically involves avoiding triggers and using medications such as decongestants, antihistamines, or nasal sprays containing steroids to manage symptoms.

Erythema multiforme is a skin condition that typically presents as symmetric, red, raised spots or bumps on the skin and mucous membranes. The rash can vary in appearance, but it often has a target-like or irregular shape with central dusky or necrotic areas surrounded by pale rings and red flares. The rash usually begins on the extremities, such as the hands and feet, and then spreads to involve other parts of the body, including the trunk and face.

Erythema multiforme can be caused by various triggers, including infections (most commonly herpes simplex virus), medications, and other medical conditions. The condition is thought to represent a hypersensitivity reaction, where the immune system attacks the skin and mucous membranes.

The severity of erythema multiforme can range from mild to severe, with some cases causing significant pain and discomfort. In more severe cases, the rash may be accompanied by fever, mouth sores, and other systemic symptoms. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, if known, as well as providing supportive care for the skin lesions. Topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and pain relievers may be used to help manage symptoms.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Eosinophil granule proteins are a group of biologically active molecules that are stored within the granules of eosinophils, which are types of white blood cells. These proteins include:

1. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP): A protein with potent ribonuclease activity and the ability to disrupt cell membranes. It is involved in the immune response against parasites and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and allergies.
2. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO): An enzyme that generates hypohalous acids, which can cause oxidative damage to cells and tissues. It contributes to the microbicidal activity of eosinophils and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases.
3. Major basic protein (MBP): A highly cationic protein that can disrupt cell membranes, leading to cell lysis. MBP is involved in the immune response against parasites and has been linked to tissue damage in several inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis.
4. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN): A protein with ribonuclease activity that can induce histamine release from mast cells and contribute to the inflammatory response. EDN is also involved in the immune response against parasites and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory diseases.

These eosinophil granule proteins are released during eosinophil activation and degranulation, which can occur in response to various stimuli, such as immune complexes, cytokines, and infectious agents. Their release contributes to the inflammatory response and can lead to tissue damage in various diseases.

"Bordetella" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. The most well-known species within this genus is Bordetella pertussis, which is the primary causative agent of whooping cough (pertussis) in humans.

Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is characterized by severe coughing fits, followed by a high-pitched "whoop" sound upon inhalation. The bacteria attach to the cilia lining the respiratory tract and release toxins that damage the cilia and cause inflammation, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.

Other species within the Bordetella genus include Bordetella parapertussis, which can also cause a milder form of whooping cough, and Bordetella bronchiseptica, which is associated with respiratory infections in animals but can occasionally infect humans as well.

Prevention of Bordetella infections typically involves vaccination, with vaccines available for both infants and adults to protect against B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. Good hygiene practices, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, can also help prevent the spread of these bacteria.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Nasal surgical procedures, also known as nasal surgery or rhinoplasty, refer to various surgical operations performed on the nose. These procedures can be either functional (to improve breathing) or cosmetic (to change the appearance of the nose). Some common nasal surgical procedures include:

1. Septoplasty: a surgical procedure to correct a deviated septum, which is the partition between the two nostrils. This procedure helps to improve airflow through the nose and alleviate breathing difficulties.
2. Turbinate reduction: a procedure that reduces the size of the turbinates (structures inside the nasal passages that help warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe) to improve nasal breathing.
3. Rhinoplasty: a cosmetic procedure that reshapes or resizes the nose to achieve a more desirable appearance. This can involve changing the shape of the cartilage, bone, or soft tissue in the nose.
4. Nasal polyp removal: a procedure to remove nasal polyps, which are non-cancerous growths that can obstruct the nasal passages and cause breathing difficulties.
5. Sinus surgery: a procedure to open up blocked sinuses and improve drainage. This can be done through various techniques, including endoscopic sinus surgery, balloon sinuplasty, or traditional sinus surgery.
6. Nose reconstruction: a procedure to repair or reconstruct the nose after trauma, cancer, or other medical conditions that have caused damage to the nose.

These are just a few examples of nasal surgical procedures. The specific type of procedure will depend on the individual patient's needs and goals.

Nasal lavage, also known as nasal washing or saline irrigation, is a procedure in which a saline solution is used to flush out the nasal passages. This is often done to help relieve symptoms associated with nasal congestion, allergies, sinusitis, and other respiratory conditions. The process involves instilling the saline solution into one nostril and allowing it to flow out through the other, taking with it any mucus, debris, or irritants that may be present in the nasal passages. This can help promote better breathing, reduce inflammation, and alleviate symptoms such as sinus pressure, headaches, and sneezing. Nasal lavage can be performed using a variety of devices, including bulb syringes, neti pots, or specialized squeeze bottles designed specifically for this purpose.

The common cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract. It primarily affects the nose, throat, sinuses, and upper airways. The main symptoms include sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, cough, and fatigue. The common cold is often caused by rhinoviruses and can also be caused by other viruses like coronaviruses, coxsackieviruses, and adenoviruses. It is usually spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. The common cold is self-limiting and typically resolves within 7-10 days, although some symptoms may last up to three weeks. There is no specific treatment for the common cold, and management focuses on relieving symptoms with over-the-counter medications, rest, and hydration. Preventive measures include frequent hand washing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not touching the face with unwashed hands.

Carnivora is an order of mammals that consists of animals whose primary diet consists of flesh. The term "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words "caro", meaning flesh, and "vorare", meaning to devour. This order includes a wide variety of species, ranging from large predators such as lions, tigers, and bears, to smaller animals such as weasels, otters, and raccoons.

While members of the Carnivora order are often referred to as "carnivores," it is important to note that not all members exclusively eat meat. Some species, such as raccoons and bears, have an omnivorous diet that includes both plants and animals. Additionally, some species within this order have evolved specialized adaptations for their specific diets, such as the elongated canines and carnassial teeth of felids (cats) and canids (dogs), which are adapted for tearing and shearing meat.

Overall, the medical definition of Carnivora refers to an order of mammals that have a diet primarily consisting of flesh, although not all members exclusively eat meat.

Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides are a type of synthetic oligonucleotide (a short chain of nucleotides) in which one of the non-bridging oxygen atoms in the phosphate group is replaced by a sulfur atom. This modification, known as phosphorothioation, confers increased resistance to degradation by endonucleases and exonucleases, thereby increasing the stability and half-life of the oligonucleotide in biological systems.

Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides have been widely used as antisense molecules, which can bind to complementary RNA sequences and inhibit gene expression through various mechanisms, such as RNase H-mediated degradation or steric hindrance of translation. They have also been explored for use in other applications, including aptamer development, vaccine adjuvants, and drug delivery systems.

However, it is important to note that phosphorothioate oligonucleotides can exhibit off-target effects, such as binding to proteins and activating the immune system, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Therefore, their use must be carefully evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies to ensure safety and efficacy.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Histamine H1 antagonists, also known as H1 blockers or antihistamines, are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of histamine at the H1 receptor. Histamine is a chemical mediator released by mast cells and basophils in response to an allergic reaction or injury. It causes various symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheal and flare reactions (hives).

H1 antagonists prevent the binding of histamine to its receptor, thereby alleviating these symptoms. They are commonly used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever, hives, and eczema, as well as motion sickness and insomnia. Examples of H1 antagonists include diphenhydramine (Benadryl), loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec), and doxylamine (Unisom).

Mucociliary clearance is a vital defense mechanism of the respiratory system that involves the coordinated movement of tiny hair-like structures called cilia, which are present on the surface of the respiratory epithelium, and the mucus layer. This mechanism helps to trap inhaled particles, microorganisms, and other harmful substances and move them away from the lungs towards the upper airways, where they can be swallowed or coughed out.

The cilia beat in a coordinated manner, moving in a wave-like motion to propel the mucus layer upwards. This continuous movement helps to clear the airways of any debris and maintain a clean and healthy respiratory system. Mucociliary clearance plays an essential role in preventing respiratory infections and maintaining lung function. Any impairment in this mechanism, such as due to smoking or certain respiratory conditions, can increase the risk of respiratory infections and other related health issues.

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL) is a chronic, granulomatous disease caused by an infection with Leishmania species, primarily L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. It affects both the mucous membranes (such as those of the nose, mouth, and throat) and the skin.

The initial infection often occurs through the bite of an infected female sandfly, which transmits the parasitic protozoa into the host's skin. After a variable incubation period, the disease can manifest in different clinical forms, including localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

MCL is characterized by progressive destruction of the mucous membranes, leading to deformities and functional impairments. The infection typically starts as a cutaneous lesion at the site of the sandfly bite, which heals spontaneously within several months. However, in some cases, the parasites disseminate to the mucous membranes, causing severe inflammation, ulceration, and tissue necrosis.

Symptoms of MCL include:

1. Destruction of nasal septum, leading to a saddle-nose deformity
2. Perforation of the palate or septum
3. Hoarseness or loss of voice due to laryngeal involvement
4. Difficulty swallowing and speaking
5. Chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, or otitis media
6. Severe disfigurement and functional impairments in advanced cases

Diagnosis is usually made by identifying the parasites in tissue samples (such as biopsies) using microscopy, culture, or PCR-based methods. Treatment typically involves systemic antiparasitic drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, miltefosine, or combination therapies, along with surgical interventions to reconstruct damaged tissues in advanced cases.

The nasal mucosa lines the nasal cavity. It is part of the respiratory mucosa, the mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract ... The nasal mucosa is intimately adherent to the periosteum or perichondrium of the nasal conchae. It is continuous with the skin ... The epithelium of the nasal mucosa is of two types - respiratory epithelium, and olfactory epithelium differing according to ... It is also thick over the nasal septum where increased numbers of goblet cells produce a greater amount of nasal mucus. It is ...
... s affect domestic cats via nasal mucosa. Oral ingestion has no effects. They induce noticeable behavioral effects ...
Meyer JE, Harder J, Görögh T, Schröder JM, Maune S (July 2000). "[hBD-2 gene expression in nasal mucosa]". Laryngo- Rhino- ... "Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by the oral mucosa and salivary glands". Infection and Immunity. 67 (6): ... "Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by maxillary sinus mucosa". American Journal of Rhinology. 15 (3): 175-179. ... "Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization". Nature. 465 (7296): ...
For nasal mucosa, sinuses, bronchi, and lungs. This group includes: Flunisolide Fluticasone furoate Fluticasone propionate ... A variety of steroid medications, from anti-allergy nasal sprays (Nasonex, Flonase) to topical skin creams, to eye drops ( ... Allergic rhinitis Atopic dermatitis Hives Angioedema Anaphylaxis Food allergies Drug allergies Nasal polyps Hypersensitivity ...
The drug was also astringent on nasal mucosa. In man, an oral dose of 50 mg produced no effects on blood pressure, but this is ...
The anterior nasal glands help moisturize the nasal mucosa. The seromucous glands are found primarily in the anterior nasal ... The nasal glands are the seromucous glands in the respiratory region of the nasal mucous membrane. The three major types of ... cavity, and they are also found within the nasal cavity. The Bowman glands are serous glands that help the olfactory region ... nasal glands are anterior serous glands, seromucous glands, and Bowman glands. ...
Shirasaki H, Kanaizumi E, Himi T (2016). "Expression and localization of GPR99 in human nasal mucosa". Auris, Nasus, Larynx. 44 ... and nasal mucosa, particularly the vascular smooth muscle in the latter tissue. In mice, Gpr99 mRNA is expressed in kidneys, ... of LTE4 but not LTD4 by asthmatic subjects caused the accumulation of eosinophils and basophils in their bronchial mucosa; d) ...
Bende M, Löth S (March 1986). "Vascular effects of topical oxymetazoline on human nasal mucosa". The Journal of Laryngology and ... It can reduce nasal airway resistance (NAR) up to 35.7% and reduce nasal mucosal blood flow up to 50%. Since imidazolines are ... It is available over-the-counter as a nasal spray to treat nasal congestion and nosebleeds, as eyedrops to treat eye redness ... Vasoconstriction of vessels results in relief of nasal congestion in two ways: first, it increases the diameter of the airway ...
Temperature gradient along the nasal mucosa is under physiological control. Incoming cold air is warmed by body heat before ... They include a broad, high muzzle to increase the volume of the nasal cavity to warm and moisten the air before it enters the ... Like moose, caribou have specialized noses featuring nasal turbinate bones that dramatically increase the surface area within ... Reindeer have specialized counter-current vascular heat exchange in their nasal passages. ...
Adhesions and synechiae between septal mucosa and lateral nasal wall. Saddle nose due to over-resection of the dorsal wall of ... the nasal septum being the partition between the two nasal cavities. Ideally, the septum should run down the center of the nose ... Deviated nasal septum or "crooked" internal nose can occur at childbirth or as the result of an injury or other trauma. If the ... The nasal tissues should mostly stabilize within 3-6 months post-surgery, although shifting is still possible for up to and ...
"Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal mucosa". Chem. Senses. 28 (7): 621-629. doi:10.1093/chemse/ ... in normal mucosa of large intestine and in colorectal tumors". Dig. Dis. Sci. 46 (10): 2179-2186. doi:10.1023/A:1011910931210. ... Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor and tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal and neoplastic colorectal mucosa ...
"A preliminary study of cocaine absorption from the nasal mucosa". Laryngoscope. 109 (1): 98-102. doi:10.1097/00005537-199901000 ... Absorption of coca from the leaf is less rapid than nasal application of purified forms of the alkaloid (almost all of the coca ... alkaloid is absorbed within 20 minutes of nasal application, while it takes 2-12 hours after ingestion of the raw leaf for ...
2003). "Nicotinic cholinergic receptor expression in the human nasal mucosa". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 112 (1): 77-84. doi: ...
It is found in large quantities in bronchial, cervical, and nasal mucosa, saliva, and seminal fluids. SLPI inhibits human ... SLPI is also one of the dominantly present proteins in nasal epithelial lining fluid and other nasal secretions. Tissue SLPI ... "Localisation of secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor mRNA in nasal mucosa". Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 114 (2): 199-202. doi: ... Increased levels of SLPI in nasal secretions and bronchoalveolar fluids may be denotive of inflammatory lung conditions or ...
The eponym "Schneiderian membrane" is another name for the nasal mucosa. Liber de osse cribriformi, 1655. De catarrhis, 1660. ... In 1660-62 he published "De catarrhis", a multi-volume work in which he refuted the long-held belief that nasal mucus was a ...
Its postsynaptic axons project to the lacrimal glands and nasal mucosa. The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular ... The pterygopalatine ganglion supplies the lacrimal gland, paranasal sinuses, glands of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and ... The nasal glands are innervated with secretomotor fibers from the nasal branches. Likewise, the palatine glands are innervated ... The pterygopalatine ganglion (aka Meckel's ganglion, nasal ganglion, or sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion ...
1991). "The cyanide-metabolizing enzyme rhodanese in human nasal respiratory mucosa". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 108 (1): 114-20 ... Malliopoulou VA, Rakitzis ET, Malliopoulou TB (1989). "Inactivation of rhodanese from human gastric mucosa and stomach ...
2004). "Gene expression for carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in human nasal mucosa". Chem. Senses. 28 (7): 621-9. doi:10.1093/ ...
"Acanthamoeba from human nasal mucosa infected with an obligate intracellular parasite". European Journal of Protistology. 30 (1 ... Using a nasal swab from volunteers, they were able to isolate coccoid-shaped bacteria that were present among other naturally- ...
... can also dry out the nasal mucosa without humidification. In most conditions, an oxygen saturation of 94-96% is ... A nasal cannula (NC) is a thin tube with two small nozzles inserted into a person's nostrils. It can provide oxygen at low flow ... Another type of device is a humidified high flow nasal cannula which enables flows exceeding a person's peak inspiratory flow ... Veenstra P, Veeger NJ, Koppers RJ, Duiverman ML, van Geffen WH (2022-10-05). "High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy for ...
They may cause pressure necrosis of the nasal septum or lateral wall of nose. Rhinoliths can cause nasal obstruction, epistaxis ... Nosebleed and pain may occur due to the ulceration of surrounding mucosa.[citation needed] They are removed under general ... A rhinolith is a stone present in the nasal cavity. The word is derived from the roots rhino- and -lith, literally meaning " ... They can be diagnosed from the history with unilateral foul-smelling blood-stained nasal discharge or by anterior rhinoscopy. ...
Adult flukes mate in a nasal mucosa of anatid birds (e.g. Anas platyrhynchos, Spatula clypeata or Cairina moschata) and produce ... adults laying eggs in the nasal mucosa (only in avian hosts). Although mice are accidental hosts, most of the studies dealing ... In avian hosts, T. regenti reaches the nasal tissue where it mates and lay eggs. The gross pathology at this site consists of ... Neither the presence of worms has been detected in a nasal cavity nor has their maturation been noticed in the nervous tissue. ...
Kittens acquired massive lesions in the lungs, nasal and tracheal mucosa epitheliums. Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in cats ...
It binds to α1 and α2 adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucosa. Due to its sympathomimetic effects, it should not be used by ... "Xylometazoline nasal medical facts from". Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 28 ... The smaller arteries are also constricted and this causes the colour of the nasal epithelium to be visibly paler after dosage. ... "Xylometazoline nasal Uses, Side Effects & Warnings". Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015 ...
The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly ... Upper airway infections may increase the variability as may the extent of sensory irritation of the nasal mucosa, differences ... Nasal administration is primarily suitable for potent drugs since only a limited volume can be sprayed into the nasal cavity. ... Dihydroergotamine and the OTC nasal spray Sinol-M; are also currently administered by nasal administration because a fast ...
Airway passage difficulties, mucosal crusts, dry mucosa, and difficulties with smelling are uncommon. A minority of the ... The goal of nasal reconstruction is to look as normal as possible after reconstruction. The results of nasal reconstruction ... Lateral nasal defects are usually closed with an ipsilateral paramedian forehead flap. Central nasal defects can be ... If more than 50% of a convex nasal subunit (tip, ala nasi) is missing, resurfacing the entire nasal subunit is better than only ...
"Expression and localization of the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor in human nasal mucosa". Clinical and Experimental Allergy. ... interstitial cells of the nasal mucosa, airway smooth muscle cells, bronchial fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. ...
"Allergen drives class switching to IgE in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis". Journal of Immunology. 174 (8): 5024-32. doi: ...
April 2005). "Allergen drives class switching to IgE in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis". Journal of Immunology. 174 (8 ... with normal IgE levels in their blood-recent research has shown that IgE production can occur locally in the nasal mucosa. IgE ...
"Median cleft of upper lip with polyps of facial skin and nasal mucosa". Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - ... "Cleft, Median, of Upper Lip With Polyps of Facial Skin and Nasal Mucosa". Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). 155145. ... List of common symptoms: Depressed nasal bridge Median cleft lip Central nervous system lipomas. Nasal polyposis Presence of ... nasal and bucal anomalies with facial dysmorphisms. ...
The nasal mucosa lines the nasal cavity. It is part of the respiratory mucosa, the mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract ... The nasal mucosa is intimately adherent to the periosteum or perichondrium of the nasal conchae. It is continuous with the skin ... The epithelium of the nasal mucosa is of two types - respiratory epithelium, and olfactory epithelium differing according to ... It is also thick over the nasal septum where increased numbers of goblet cells produce a greater amount of nasal mucus. It is ...
... is a type of tissue that lines the nasal cavity. Mucous membranes are usually moist tissues that are bathed by secretions such ... The mucosa, or mucous membrane, is a type of tissue that lines the nasal cavity. Mucous membranes are usually moist tissues ...
... é uma doença inflamatória da mucosa nasal, e pouco tem sido relacionada à exposição no ambiente de trabalho, em especial ao ... A rinossinusite crônica (RSC) é uma doença inflamatória da mucosa nasal, e pouco tem sido relacionada à exposição no ambiente ... The chronic rhinusinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa, and has been little related to exposure in the ... Padrão imuno-histoquímico da mucosa nasal de portadores de rinossinusite crônica com e sem exposição a fibras do algodão e ...
Correlation Between Headaches and Septum and Nasal Mucosa Contact ... Correlation Between Headaches and Septum and Nasal Mucosa ... Official title: Correlation Between Headaches and Septum and Nasal Mucosa Contact. Study design: Observational Model: Cohort, ... With the major use of CT scans, the contact between nasal mucosa and septum is daily observed in many patients without ... The purpose of this study is to determine if there is any correlation between nasal and septum mucosa contact and the ...
Nasal patency augmented and no adverse consequences were observed. After 4 months the nasal mucosa showed normal ... It has been proved that the basal cells of the nasal mucosa are able to proliferate and to repair after cold-knife incision. ... The total removal of the nasal mucosa with cold techniques results in a complete restoration of the normal structure and ... The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the healing process after removal of the inferior turbinate mucosa with cold ...
Nasal mucosa. 0/20. N/A. N/A. Skeletal muscle (biceps brachii + vastus lateralis). 0/19d. N/A. N/A. ...
SARS-CoV-2: different immune responses observed in nasal mucosa and blood. ... In COVID-19 patients, the immune responses in the mucosa and the blood are regulated differently and independently. A ... disruption of the nasal microbiota is also observed, encouraging the development of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. ...
Nasal foreign bodies (NFBs) are commonly encountered in emergency departments. Although more frequently seen in the pediatric ... Organic foreign bodies may include food, rubber, wood, and sponges and tend to be more irritating to the nasal mucosa; thus, ... This can lead to the destruction of the nasal mucosa and subsequent necrosis of septal cartilage and turbinates and can spread ... However, this technique should be performed only in patients who can fully cooperate, as the nasal mucosa can be easily injured ...
... boggy nasal mucosa; nasal obstruction; and conjunctival redness. Examination of nasal scrapings or secretions indicates ... Symptoms of allergic rhinitis include sneezing; itching of the nose, eyes, mouth, or throat; nasal stuffiness; clear rhinorrhea ... nasal congestion, sneezing, runny or itchy nose, and throat irritation) to damp indoor environments and mold (with exposure to ... have nasal polyps (47). Invasive fungal sinusitis can occur in patients who are immunocompromised with illnesses such as ...
The nasal potential difference in the 24 patients with cystic fibros … ... we measured the transepithelial electrical potential difference across the upper and lower respiratory mucosa in patients with ... we measured the transepithelial electrical potential difference across the upper and lower respiratory mucosa in patients with ... The nasal potential difference in the 24 patients with cystic fibrosis exceeded by more than 3 standard deviations the mean ...
... that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. ... chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. These findings suggest ... that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. ... Results: Pendrin and periostin production was significantly higher in patients with nasal disorders than in controls. Further ...
In the nasal mucosa of pheasant, a protein immunorelated to P450 2A and some monooxygenase activities (i.e., 7-ethoxycoumarin O ... In the nasal mucosa of pheasant, a protein immunorelated to P450 2A and some monooxygenase activities (i.e., 7-ethoxycoumarin O ... KIDNEY AND NASAL MUCOSA OF MALE ADULT RING-NECKED PHEASANTS. GIORGI, MARIO;S. MARINI;V. LONGO;G. AMATO AND P. G. GERVASI 2000- ... In this study, several P450-dependent monoxygenase activities in the liver, kidney, and nasal mucosa of ring-necked pheasants ...
... the lining and helps with the mucociliary clearance of minute aerosolized particles that become trapped in the nasal mucosa. ... The secretions from these sinuses drain into the nasal cavity via the thin-walled ostia. Like the nasal cavity, the wall lining ... The cilia on the surface sweep the mucus in a carpet like fashion and move them towards the nasal ostia. The hard palate lines ... The nasal cavity also functions to facilitate drainage for the secretions from the adjacent paranasal sinuses. It also captures ...
Oro-otolaryngeal: Dryness of the nasal mucosa. Ophthalmological: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, burning of the eyes, ...
In these studies in vitro permeability of porcine cornea and bovine nasal mucosa was investigated and compared to each other ... nasal mucosa : cornea : Nephrophan(r)). Furthermore, two water-continuous, non-ionic microemulsions (ME) and their isolated ... For characterizing systemical availability of AD after nasal administration and improving the results of the permeability and ... using the lipophilic drug androstenedione (AD), which is of interest for ocular use as well as nasal, systemical administration ...
... and narrowing of nasal passages, causing obstructive symptoms. Bradykinin and lysyl-bradykinin are generated in the nasal ... The virus does not invade the pharyngeal mucosa. Transmission occurs by large particle aerosols or fomites. [2, 3] ... These viruses enter the body through the ciliated epithelium that lines the nose, causing edema and hyperemia of the nasal ... This condition leads to increased secretory activity of the mucous glands; swelling of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity ...
Breathlessness, Inspiratory neural drive, Nasal mucosa, Olfactory nerve, Trigeminal nerve, TRPM8 channels. in Respiratory ... Nasal mucosa; Olfactory nerve; Trigeminal nerve; TRPM8 channels}}, language = {{eng}}, publisher = {{Elsevier}}, series = {{ ...
Categories: Nasal Mucosa Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Gently insert the short wide nasal speculum of the otoscope. Inspect mucosa, septum and turbinates for abnormalities. Recording ... Nasal polyps are soft, smooth, pale, movable tumors, usually multiple. * Check additional boxes Right and/or Left as ... Describe other findings under Other such as abnormality of tongue, buccal mucosa, uvula or parotid glands. External Eyes ...
Membranas mucosas; Cavidad nasal; Cavidad oral; Humanos; Regulaciones; Control de infección; Enfermedades infecciosas; Control ... para proteger la zona facial y las membranas mucosas asociadas (ojos, nariz, boca) de salpicaduras, rociadas y aspersiones de ...
Nose problems (eg, blockage, nasal mucosa atrophy, rhinitis) or. *Nose surgery (eg, transsphenoidal hypophysectomy)-Use with ... For nasal dosage form (nasal spray): *For treatment of central diabetes insipidus: *DDAVP®: *Adults-10 micrograms (mcg) given ... To use the nasal spray:. *When used for the first time, the spray must be primed. Press the pump down 4 times. If the spray is ... Stimate (Nasal). Generic name: desmopressin [ des-moe-PRES-in ]. Drug class: Antidiuretic hormones ...
The long-term effects of capsaicin aqueous spray on the nasal mucosa. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1351-8. View abstract. ... Beneficial effect of capsaicin application to the nasal mucosa in cluster headache. Clin J Pain 1989;5:49-53. View abstract. ... Capsaicin-desensitization to the human nasal mucosa selectively reduces pain evoked by citric acid. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993;35 ... Baraniuk, J. N. Sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic neural influences in the nasal mucosa. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992; ...
... whole-genome phylogenetic analysis and immunovirological profiling of nasal mucosa by digital nCounter transcriptomics. ... nasal mucosa) in PCR-positive residents. (c) LAIR1 expression correlates negatively with IRF3 expression (nasal mucosa) in ... 2: Differentially expressed genes in nasal mucosa of fatal COVID-19 outbreak cases as compared to matched PCR-positive ... Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in nasal mucosa of fatal (n = 20) versus age-matched, sex-matched and outbreak- ...
C. Localized nasal mucosa trauma Explanation. Anterior epistaxis refers to nosebleeds that occur in the front part of the nose ... The most common cause of anterior epistaxis is localized nasal mucosa trauma, which can result from activities such as nose ... It may also involve the use of decongestants or nasal sprays to relieve nasal congestion and improve Eustachian tube function. ... This technique, known as the "pinch and blow" method, involves pinching the soft part of the nose just below the nasal bone and ...
SARS-CoV-2: different immune responses observed in nasal mucosa and blood ...
In the male and female rats slight hyperemia of the nasal mucosa, edema and dysplasia of the epithelial mucosa was observed. In ... In the male and female rats slight hyperemia of the nasal mucosa, edema and dysplasia of the epithelial mucosa was observed. In ... For these histological changes of the nasal mucosa no NOAEC could be derived. The LOAEC is 15 ppm (0.086 mg/L). Examinations of ... Other dose groups: Slight edema and erosions of the nasal mucosa were found in only 2 male animals of the 211 ppm dose group ...
  • The nasal mucosa lines the nasal cavity. (
  • The mucosa, or mucous membrane, is a type of tissue that lines the nasal cavity. (
  • The enlarged nasal cavity resulting from turbinate resection was believed to increase nasal airflow and reduce the humidifying capabilities of the nasal mucosa, resulting in drying, crusting, and mucosal atrophy. (
  • The objective of this research was to design and fabricate a nose-on-chip device and bi-directional airflow system that models flow within the nasal cavity to investigate how airflow induced mechanical stresses impact nasal secretion rates and cytoskeletal remodeling. (
  • The keratin-filled cyst is distorting normal architecture, including that of the nasal cavity. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Nasal cavity" applicable to this article? (
  • The nasal cavity is well-equipped with sticky mucus that traps pathogens and serves as an important site for immune cell surveillance and signaling. (
  • A new study by researchers in the UNC School of Medicine, including Meghan Rebuli, PhD, Ilona Jaspers, PhD, and Kevin T. Cao, lead author, has found that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces an immune response in the mucosal lining of the nasal cavity, offering new insights into potential vaccine strategies in the future. (
  • Intrigued by other research findings on mucosal immunity in the nasal cavity, Rebuli and colleagues wanted to know if antibody production induced by the mRNA vaccines resulted in antibody levels that promote neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal cavities of vaccinated individuals. (
  • But the study team went on to find that the vaccine-induced antibodies within the nasal cavity were able to better neutralize the virus compared to antibodies that were in the blood. (
  • However, an emerging target for nasal drug product development is nose-to-brain delivery via a variety of pathways in the nasal cavity. (
  • Most of the time, treatment of nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer is based on where it is and its stage (how far it has spread). (
  • The staging of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer is very complex. (
  • At this time, staging systems have only created for the most common cancers - maxillary sinus and nasal cavity/ethmoid sinus cancers. (
  • Treatment choices for less common cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are tailored to each patient depending on the tumor type, size, location, and the patient's general medical condition and wishes. (
  • Because nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers are rare, they've been hard to study well. (
  • Most experts agree that treatment in a clinical trial should be considered for any type or stage of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer. (
  • Metallothionein-3 (MT3) is an intracellular zinc chelator and previous data showed MT3 mRNA levels to be reduced in CRS patients with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). (
  • MT3 expression and tissue zinc fluorescence intensity were measured at different areas within the mucosa (surface epithelium and lamina propria) and compared between controls, CRSwNP and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) patients. (
  • sIgD levels and numbers of IgD + cells were significantly increased in uncinate tissue (UT) of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) compared with that of control subjects (4-fold, P (
  • 2. Plasminogen activators and tumor development in the human colon: activity levels in normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps, and adenocarcinomas. (
  • 12. Plasminogen activators in human nasal polyps and mucosa. (
  • Nasal polyps are benign tumors in the nasal mucosa. (
  • Depending on the size of the tumor or the number of these polyps growing in the sinuses, nasal breathing can be severely restricted. (
  • Nasal polyps often cause headaches and a feeling of pressure in the middle of the face. (
  • It is part of the respiratory mucosa, the mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract. (
  • It is continuous with the skin through the nostrils, and with the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx through the choanae. (
  • The mucous membrane is thickest, and most vascular, over the nasal conchae. (
  • The mucous blanket serves to humidify and clean the inspired air and eliminate debris from the nasal airway. (
  • Resistance is important in nasal function and turbulence optimizes inspiratory air contact with the mucous membrane. (
  • Researchers also found that IgA concentrations in the blood samples and IgG concentrations in the nasal mucus samples were greater in Spikevax™ vaccinated individuals compared to Comirnaty® in both blood and nasal mucous samples. (
  • Objective: Recently, depleted tissue zinc levels were found in nasal mucosa from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in correlation with tissue eosinophilia, however, no clinical biomarkers for tissue zinc levels have been identified. (
  • Evidence for altered levels of IgD in the nasal airway mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. (
  • We assessed whether levels of sIgD and IgD + B cell counts are altered in nasal tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). (
  • CA enzymatic activity has been demonstrated in the human nasal mucosa using enzyme histochemical methods, but no systematic study of nasal mucosal CA isoenzyme gene expression has been published. (
  • More commonly, the problem is mucosal hypertrophy causing impingement on the nasal valve, increased nasal resistance, and nasal obstruction. (
  • As IgA demonstrated increased neutralization over IgG in the nose, this may suggest that to increase nasal mucosal levels of IgA and viral neutralization, future work on intranasal vaccines may benefit from targeting the S2 region. (
  • The degrees of overall improvement, usefulness, improvement of nasal symptoms (sneezing, nasal discharge, nasal blockage) and improvement of rhinoscopical findings (mucosal swelling and nasal secretion) were found to be dose-dependent. (
  • The disease is characterized by purulent nasal discharge, nasal mucosal ulceration, lung lesions, and ulcerating nodules along the subcutaneous lymphatics. (
  • Initial general examination should note "allergic shiners" or a facial appearance that may indicate signs of chronic nasal obstruction. (
  • Oral mucosa - Hyperplasia, Cystic, Keratinizing in a male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. (
  • Despite their frequent use in the treatment of chronic lung disease, the effect of antibiotics on the airway mucosa has not been defined. (
  • Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) ( 1 ). (
  • Four men had perforated nasal septa and 2 others to have some degree of septal ulceration. (
  • As evidence of this, are the five individuals in whom injected nasal mucosa were noted and the 2 men with active septal ulceration. (
  • This leads to unnecessary and often ineffective surgery for severe cases, such as nasal septal corrections and/or inferior turbinate reductions. (
  • It is also thick over the nasal septum where increased numbers of goblet cells produce a greater amount of nasal mucus. (
  • The nasal valve is formed medially by the septum and laterally by the caudal edge of the upper lateral cartilage and it accounts for approximately 50% of total upper airway resistance. (
  • The erectile tissue of the nasal septum and inferior turbinate can impinge on the nasal valve and increase resistance. (
  • Nasal obstruction after rhinoplasty can result from alteration of the nasal valve or nasal vault narrowing as a result of osteotomies. (
  • It is further suggested that pre-seasonal prophylactic administration of INCS suppresses both basal and pollen-induced upregulation of H1R gene expression in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis, leading to prevention of the exacerbation of nasal symptoms during peak pollen season. (
  • Nasal symptoms of sneezing and stuffiness decreased significantly for flunisolide treated patients during treatment. (
  • Previous diagnostic criteria for acute bacterial sinusitis in children were acute upper respiratory tract infection (URI) with either nasal discharge and/or daytime cough for longer than 10 days or severe onset of fever, purulent nasal discharge, and other respiratory symptoms for 3 or more consecutive days. (
  • A third criterion added to the updated guideline is URI with worsening symptoms such as nasal discharge, cough, and fever after initial improvement. (
  • NASONEX ® Nasal Spray 50 mcg is indicated for the treatment of the nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic and perennial allergic rhinitis, in adults and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older. (
  • Nasal symptoms increase the risk of snoring and snoring increases the risk of nasal symptoms. (
  • Idiopathic rhinitis is a medical disorder characterized by a collection of nasal symptoms that resemble nasal allergies and hay fever (allergic rhinitis) but are not caused by a known cause like allergens or infectious triggers. (
  • Rhinitis is defined as the presence of at least one of the following symptoms for more than 1 hour per day: nasal congestion/obstruction, rhinorrhoea, sneezing, and nasal itching. (
  • In this study, we examined the correlation between MT3 expression and zinc levels in nasal mucosa and primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) to investigate whether MT3 could be a clinical biomarker for tissue zinc levels. (
  • A cyclic alteration of constriction and dilation of the inferior turbinates, known as the nasal cycle, occurs approximately every 2-7 hours. (
  • This research hypothesizes that the airflow induced shear stresses on the nasal mucosa will influence mucus production and the cytoskeleton of the cells. (
  • It is very thin in the meatuses on the floor of the nasal cavities, and in the various sinuses. (
  • Flunisolide nasal spray 0.025% in the prophylactic treatment of nasal polyposis after polypectomy. (
  • A strain of S. gordonii expressing on its surface a model vaccine antigen fused to the ovalbumin (OVA) peptide from position 323 to 339 was constructed and used to study the OVA-specific T-cell activation in nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), lymph nodes, and spleens of mice immunized by the intranasal route. (
  • Virus was recovered from nasal mucosa, oropharyngeal lymph nodes, and spleen earlier in CB challenged animals (day 4) than WA challenged animals (day 6). (
  • Idiopathic rhinitis features an overexpression of TRPV1 in the nasal mucosa giving rise to nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea (colloquially: a runny nose), and/or sneezing. (
  • If such changes occur, discontinue NASONEX Nasal Spray slowly. (
  • Monitor growth routinely in pediatric patients receiving NASONEX Nasal Spray. (
  • Eight of the 20 participants reported feeling complete relief from the ketamine nasal spray, while 6 participants reported feeling no effects. (
  • sIgD levels were measured by means of ELISA in nasal tissues , nasal lavage fluid , sera, and supernatants of dissociated nasal tissues . (
  • Following the nasal stimulation with LTD4, the concentration of dye in the nasal lavage fluid rapidly increased. (
  • In OA-sensitized guinea pigs, the excretions of dye into nasal lavage fluid were recognized soon after the topical antigenic stimulation and continued for over 60 minutes. (
  • The in vivo model of nasal microvascular leakage was used for the nasal allergic challenge in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs, or nasal stimulation with leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in non-sensitized animals. (
  • Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Innate Immunity Physiology of the Human Nasal Mucosa In Vivo. (
  • Some of these lesions occur in isolation, whereas others occur in association with diffuse hyperplastic lesions of the mucosa. (
  • It also affects the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and produces skin lesions (Ryan et al. (
  • The epithelium of the nasal mucosa is of two types - respiratory epithelium, and olfactory epithelium differing according to its functions. (
  • Squamous cysts and periodontal pockets tend to be unilocular structures lined by a fairly thin, benign-appearing squamous epithelium and do not appear to be arising from a hyperplastic gingival mucosa. (
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) administration on histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene expression in the nasal mucosa of healthy participants and the effects of dexamethasone on basal and histamine-induced H1R mRNA expression, and histamine-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in HeLa cells. (
  • Intranasal delivery has been chosen since the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract are the immune system's primary line of defense. (
  • Biotransformation enzymes in the rodent nasal mucosa: the value of a histochemical approach. (
  • However, currently available nasal PBPK models do not include pathways for nose-to-brain drug delivery. (
  • The purpose of this funding opportunity is to fund the development of a nasal PBPK model that includes at least one pathway for nose-to-brain drug delivery and links with a full body PBPK model that includes, at least, a brain compartment. (
  • Nose-to-brain drug delivery is an emerging application for nasal drug products. (
  • Parenteral vaccination against influenza does not induce a local antigen specific immune response in the nasal mucosa, pp. 878-884. (
  • However, increased soluble IgD (sIgD) levels and increased IgD + IgM - B- cell populations have been described in the human upper respiratory mucosa . (
  • Long-term inhalation studies of acetaldehyde produced laryngeal cancers in hamsters and nasal cancers in rats. (
  • 6. Comparative study of plasminogen activators in cancers and normal mucosae of human urinary bladder. (
  • Such strong chemical irritants can damage the sensitive cells in our olfactory mucosa so badly that they die and cannot regenerate. (
  • If the olfactory mucosa is chronically irritated by these substances, there is a risk of loss of nasal sense. (
  • Avoid use in patients with recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma. (
  • Diagnosis is based on presence of nasal ulcers, complement fixation test reaction, positive mallein test, and culture and PCR. (
  • Monitor patients periodically for signs of adverse effects on the nasal mucosa. (
  • The efficacy, safety and optimal dose of TL-102, a powder mixture of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and hydroxypropylcellulose (HCP) were studied in 250 patients with perennial nasal allergy in an intergroup comparative double-blind manner. (
  • Beekhuis concluded that nasal obstruction postrhinoplasty resulted primarily from inferior turbinate hypertrophy. (
  • 1] Changes in nasal airflow as a result of rhinoplasty may unmask inferior turbinate hypertrophy and obstruction that were not clinically significant or evident preoperatively. (
  • Nasal obstruction may be produced by overactivity of the parasympathetic innervation or underactivity of the sympathetic innervation. (
  • Nasal obstruction is a common complaint. (
  • sIgD levels and IgD +CD19+CD38bright plasmablast counts were increased in nasal tissue of patients with CRSsNP. (
  • The anterior tip of the inferior turbinate is found in the nasal valve region, and hypertrophy of this structure can cause exponential increases in airway resistance. (
  • The nasal valve is the region of the nasal airway extending from the caudal end of the upper lateral cartilages and including the anterior end of the inferior turbinate. (
  • Because the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve is small, minor changes in inferior turbinate congestion can have marked effects on resistance. (
  • While the presence of antibodies in the nasal mucosa is promising, the detection alone did not confirm the function of the antibodies or neutralization of the virus. (
  • 16. Plasminogen activator content of human colon tumors and normal mucosae: separation of enzymes and partial purification. (
  • High prevalence of influenza specific antibody secreting cells in nasal mucosa, pp. 243-247. (
  • Antigen provocation reaction and nasal eosinophil count were both inhibited as compared with the TL 1.5 g group. (
  • Conclusions: MT3 expression reflects intramucosal zinc levels in both nasal mucosa and HNECs indicating MT3 could be used as a clinical biomarker for monitoring intracellular zinc levels in the nasal mucosa. (
  • Burkholderia mallei , a clonal gram-negative facultative intracellular obligate pathogen, is present in nasal exudates and discharges from ulcerated skin. (
  • As airflow enters this constricted segment, it accelerates and the pressure drops (per Bernoulli principle), which can result in nasal valve collapse if the upper lateral cartilages are anatomically weak. (
  • A major determinant of resistance to airflow is the radius of the nasal vault. (
  • To conduct their study, researchers collected blood and nasal epithelial lining fluid samples from healthy human volunteers. (
  • Adjunctive therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. (
  • Nasal high flow confers benefits that conventional oxygen therapies cannot. (
  • There was a significant positive correlation between tissue zinc levels and MT3 expression in nasal mucosa (r = 0.45, p = 0.007). (
  • Levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of healthy participants receiving INCS was significantly decreased. (
  • Generally, a connection can be seen between the cystic structure and the overlying gingival oral mucosa, suggesting the cystic keratinizing hyperplasia may have arisen from squamous hyperplasia. (
  • Oral administration of ONO-1078 (pranlukast) (3-30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the LTD4-induced nasal microvascular leakage. (
  • Results of recent studies in animals indicate an increased incidence of laryngeal cancer in hamsters and nasal cancer in rats following exposure to acetaldehyde. (
  • Alternate methods of nasal epithelial cell sampling for airway genomic studies. (
  • In healthy human volunteers, trimethoprim and tetracycline induced a rapid decrease in nasal potential difference, which was attenuated by amiloride pretreatment. (
  • Expression and localization of GPR99 in human nasal mucosa. (
  • Nasal indices of eosinophilic and exudative inflammation in bakery-workers. (
  • Cytological evaluation of the nasal mucosa in neonates exposed to tobacco smoke during fetal life. (
  • Krol M, Tupieka-Kolodziejska A, Tarchalska-Krynska B, Florek E, Wilczynski J, Borszewska-Kornacka M, Bokiniec R. Cytological evaluation of the nasal mucosa in neonates exposed to tobacco smoke during fetal life. (
  • A strong nasal T cell effector and memory response is claimed to fight viral replication, colonization of the lung and thus disease. (
  • The observations of work practices, including the use of personal protective equipment, the presence of characteristic orange chromate stains on workers' skin and the results of spot tests in the work area suggest that much of the nasal and cutaneous pathology that have occurred and continue to occur within this plant probably result from direct contact with the hexavalent chromate ion rather than through airborne exposure. (