Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Neuritis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)Rats, Inbred LewImmune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Mice, Inbred CFTR: A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Nasal Surgical Procedures: Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.Nasal Lavage: Irrigation of the nose with saline or irrigation solutions for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to remove irritants, allergens, or microorganisms from the nose.Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
After nasal administration of microcystin-LR, the epithelium of nasal mucosa of both the olfactory and respiratory zones were ... The LD50 for nasal administration is equal to the intraperitoneal administration. For the assessment of possible chronic human ... Mice showed neoplastic liver nodules after 100 oral administrations at 20 μg/kg bodyweight. The nodules observed were up to 5mm ... However, no mice showed liver nodules after 100 administrations of 80 μg/kg. The IARC committee concluded that microcystin-LR ...
The smaller arteries are also constricted and this causes the colour of the nasal epithelium to be visibly paler after dosage. ... The number of receptors decreases, and when the administration of the drug is ceased, chronic congestion can occur; this is ... It binds to α1 and α2 adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucosa. Due to its sympathomimetic effects, it should not be used by ... "Xylometazoline nasal medical facts from Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 28 ...
The olfactory epithelium is situated in the upper posterior part and covers approximately 10 cm2 of the human nasal cavity. The ... Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either ... Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration of for example tablets and capsules if a ... Nasal administration is primarily suitable for potent drugs since only a limited volume can be sprayed into the nasal cavity. ...
With an active surface area of 160 cm2, the nasal cavity is another noteworthy route of mucoadhesive administration. Due to the ... and the tightness of the corneal epithelium. Estimates put tear turnover rates at 5 minutes, meaning most conventional drugs ... This route of administration is used for the therapy of bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis. The retention of dosage forms ... Consequently, direct administration through the fibrous tunic is common. This is made difficult due to the numerous defense ...
... are epithelium lined, single or loculated cavities filled with fluid or pus. They normally form in the ... The other is via the administration of cytotoxic drugs, to travel through the bloodstream and attack the cancer cells. If the ... since there is a risk that some nasal cysts may be cancerous. In cases where such cancer shows in a removed nasal cyst, ... The clinical signs normally present as nasal discharge, facial swelling and in major cases, partial or total obstruction of the ...
1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor neurons ... Molecules of odorants passing through the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus that lines the ... In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory epithelium is made up ... The proportion of olfactory epithelium compared to respiratory epithelium (not innervated, or supplied with nerves) gives an ...
Nasal administration olfactory transfer. *Olfactory ensheathing glia. *Olfactory fatigue. *Perfume (novel). *Scent transfer ... The proportion of olfactory epithelium compared to respiratory epithelium (not innervated, or supplied with nerves) gives an ... Molecules of odorants passing through the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus that lines the ... Olfaction occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity.[3] Glomeruli ...
Clinical signs of equine influenza include fever (up to 106°F [41.1°C]), nasal discharge, have a dry, hacking cough, depression ... Standard schedules may not maintain absolutely foolproof levels of protection, and more frequent administration is advised in ... resulting in destruction of tracheal and bronchial epithelium and cilia. When a horse contracts the equine influenza virus, ...
DMT1 also transports inhaled manganese across the nasal epithelium. The proposed mechanism for manganese toxicity is that ... Manganese exposure in United States is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). People can be ... "Safety and Health Topics: Manganese Compounds (as Mn)". U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. "NIOSH Pocket Guide ...
... and it is generally a safer alternative than administration via the nasal mucosa.[citation needed] This method is also ... Because the connective tissue beneath the epithelium contains a profusion of capillaries, the substance then diffuses into them ... Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by ...
Although an increase in polymorphonuclear neutrophils are shown in infected nasal epithelium, little or no mucosal damage ... 1976). "Changes in bronchial reactivity after administration of live attenuated influenza virus". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.: 194- ... This may be the major reason why rhinoviruses can replicate better in the nasal passages and upper tracheobronchial tree than ... The optimal temperature for rhinovirus replication is 33-35 °C, which corresponds to the temperature of nasal mucosa. At 37 °C ...
The virus usually affects the nasal epithelium but can cause pneumonia. Signs include anorexia, fever, sneezing, nasal and ... and possibly administration of a hairball remedy as a preventive. Artificial lighting or administration of certain medications ...
... and it is generally a safer alternative than administration via the nasal mucosa.[citation needed] This method is also ... Because the connective tissue beneath the epithelium contains a profusion of capillaries, the substance then diffuses into them ... Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... This may be a preferred method to simple oral administration, because MAO is known to oxidize many drugs (especially the ...
... s are academically prepared to perform activities such as sedation by administration of anesthetic gases ... and most of their activities involved moving cylinders of compressed gas and administering oxygen via nasal catheter or oxygen ... ranging from the anatomy of the respiratory epithelium to the most effective treatment of pulmonary hypertension in pediatrics ... administration of medications, blood and blood products, and maintenance of appropriate anticoagulation therapies for the blood ...
The buildup of fluid seems to occur because of small breaks in the retinal pigment epithelium. CSR is sometimes called ... It is important to check current medication, including nasal sprays and creams, for ingredients of corticosteroids, if found ... "Central serous chorioretinopathy associated with administration of sympathomimetic agents". American Journal of Ophthalmology. ... This exhibits diffuse rather than focalized abnormality of the pigment epithelium, producing a persistent subretinal fluid. The ...
Inhalation Detection dog Electronic nose History of perfume Machine olfaction Nasal administration Odor Olfactometer Olfactory ... Placement of these sensors close to the olfactory epithelium of animals allows measures of odorized air transients as they ... As a consequence, when the air being breathed is odorized, odors can enter and leave the nasal cavity with each sniff. The same ... Sniffing is quantified by measuring intra-nasal pressure or flow or air or, while less accurate, through a strain gauge on the ...
... intestinal mucosal epithelia at the apex of crypts; myometrium (stromal cells, endothelial cells, and, in pregnancy, placenta, ... responses to acetic acid administration; acute but not chronic Herpes simplex infection-induced pain; and HIV-1 Envelope ... "Prostaglandin E2 receptors in asthma and in chronic rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps with and without aspirin hypersensitivity". ... ciliary epithelium, and conjunctival and iridal stroma cells, and retinal Müller cells). Standard prostanoids have the ...
... and administration of epinephrine using an EpiPen for immediate administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) to reverse swelling ... The oral cavity is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium containing about three layers of cells.[citation needed] They line ... The respiratory system involving the head and neck includes: the nasal cavity for filtering, moistening, and warming the air ... The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium and is divided into the following five sublayers or strata, listed ...
The nasal epithelium, located on the inner surface of the nasal cavity and in the Jacobson's organ, is thicker than in other ... collecting is possible only for research purposes by permission of the National Administration for Nature and Environment ... The taste buds are in the mucous epithelium of the mouth, most of them on the upper side of the tongue and on the entrance to ... The sensory epithelia of the inner ear are very specifically differentiated, enabling the olm to receive sound waves in the ...
The development of nasal polyps or other chronic changes within the nasal passages may severely limit airflow through the nose ... Transferring the normal CFTR gene into the affected epithelium cells would result in the production of functional CFTR protein ... growth may be avoided by insertion of a feeding tube for increasing food energy through supplemental feeds or by administration ... Nasal steroids such as fluticasone are used to decrease nasal inflammation. Female infertility may be overcome by assisted ...
On the other hand, I shudder to think what a dessicant does to one's nasal membranes... --AK7 06:28, 6 March 2006 (UTC). Error ... Furthermore, the rxlist.com monograph for cocaine says the following: "Cocaine causes sloughing of the corneal epithelium, ... The Bush administration, hoping to someday broaden the government's knowledge of illegal drug use, is probing the mysteries of ... This makes sense for the same reason that the drug is insufflated: both the large intestine/rectum and the nasal passages are ...
In certain area, the tip of the nose, and the nasal ala, Mohs surgery can result in significant deformity, and might require ... 3-6. ISBN 978-0-398-03725-3. "This Week in FDA History". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 8 ... However, some surgeons will make an exception for some missing epithelium at the apices of an elliptical excision around the ...
Following systemic administration of amphetamine to rats, POH has been found in urine and in plasma. The observed lack of a ... Table 2. Decongestants Causing Rhinitis Medicamentosa - Nasal decongestants: - Sympathomimetic: • Amphetamine "FDA Drug Safety ... and more is absorbed through the lipid-rich cell membranes of the gut epithelium. Conversely, an acidic pH means the drug is ... Following oral administration, amphetamine appears in urine within 3 hours. Roughly 90% of ingested amphetamine is eliminated 3 ...
... of innate immunity by a nasal carriage strain of Staphylococcus aureus increases its colonization on nasal epithelium". ... Pfizer's S. aureus four-antigen vaccine SA4Ag was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in ... Nasal carriage is also implicated in the occurrence of staph infections. Spread of S. aureus (including MRSA) generally is ... The ability of the nasal passages to harbour S. aureus results from a combination of a weakened or defective host immunity and ...
Following systemic administration of amphetamine to rats, POH has been found in urine and in plasma. The observed lack of a ... Table 2. Decongestants Causing Rhinitis Medicamentosa - Nasal decongestants: - Sympathomimetic: • Amphetamine "FDA Drug Safety ... and more is absorbed through the lipid-rich cell membranes of the gut epithelium. Conversely, an acidic pH means the drug is ... Administration of D-amphetamine and methylphenidate resulted in a markedly increased urinary excretion of PEA,20,60 suggesting ...
... is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as decongestants for cold and allergy treatment, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs available as nasal sprays are migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments. The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly across the single epithelial cell layer directly to the systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. The effect is often reached within 5 min for smaller drug molecules. ...
... (BC 2627) is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist-antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers. Brand name Stadol was recently discontinued by the manufacturer. It is now only available in its generic formulations, manufactured by Novex, Mylan, Apotex and Ben Venue Laboratories. Butorphanol is most closely structurally related to levorphanol. Butorphanol is available as the tartrate salt in injectable, tablet, and intranasal spray formulations. The tablet form is only used in dogs and cats due to low bioavailability in humans. The most common indication for butorphanol is management of migraine using the intranasal spray formulation. It may also be used parenterally for management of moderate-to-severe pain, as a supplement for balanced general anesthesia, and management of pain during labor. Butorphanol is also quite effective at reducing post-operative shivering (owing to its Kappa agonist activity). Butorphanol is more ...
... is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as decongestants for cold and allergy treatment, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs available as nasal sprays are migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments. The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly across the single epithelial cell layer directly to the systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. The effect is often reached within 5 min for smaller drug molecules. ...
The nasal cycle is the often unnoticed alternating partial congestion and decongestion of the nasal cavities in humans and other animals. It is a physiological congestion of the nasal concha, also called the nasal turbinate, due to selective activation of one half of the autonomic nervous system by the hypothalamus. It should not be confused with pathological nasal congestion. The nasal cycle was studied and discussed in the ancient yoga literature of pranayama. In the modern western literature, it was first described by the German physician Richard Kayser in 1895. In 1927 Heetderks spoke about the alternating turgescence of the inferior turbinates in 80% of a normal population. The cycle is the result of alternating congestion and decongestion of the nasal conchae or ...
In anatomy, a nasal concha (/ˈkɒnkə/), plural conchae (/ˈkɒnki/), also called a turbinate or turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans and various animals. The conchae are shaped like an elongated seashell, which gave them their name (Latin concha from Greek κόγχη). A turbinate bone is any of the scrolled spongy bones of the nasal passages in vertebrates. In humans, the turbinates divide the nasal airway into 4 groove-like air passages, and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface area of nasal mucosa, which, as a ciliated mucous membrane with shallow blood supply, cleans and warms the inhaled air in preparation for the lungs. A rapidly dilating arteriolar circulation to these bones may lead to a sharp increase in the pressure ...
... or nose hair is the hair in the nose. Adult humans have hair in the interior nasal passage. Nasal hair functions include filtering foreign particles from entering the nasal cavity and collecting moisture.[1] In support of the first function, the results of a 2010 study indicated that increased nasal hair density decreases development of asthma in those who have seasonal rhinitis, possibly due to an increased capacity of the faces to filter out pollen and other allergens.[2] Nasal hair should not be confused with cilia of the nasal cavity, which are the microscopic cellular strands that, unlike macroscopic nasal hair, draw mucus up toward the pharynx via their coordinated, back-and-forth beating.[citation needed] ...
The nose cavity is divided into a right and left passageway. The tissue that covers the wall of your nasal cavity contains many blood vessels. Heat from the blood in the vessels helps warm the air as you breathe. Moisture (small amount of water) is added to the air you breath by special cells in the walls of the nasal cavity. The air is warmed and moistened before it reaches your lungs. Cilia (small hairs) and mucus along the inside wall of the nasal cavity trap and remove dust and germs from the air as it flows through the nasal cavity. The cilia move the mucus down the nasal cavity to the pharynx, where it can be swallowed. ...
... s are due to the rupture of a blood vessel within the richly perfused nasal mucosa. Rupture may be spontaneous or initiated by trauma. Nosebleeds are reported in up to 60% of the population with peak incidences in those under the age of ten and over the age of 50 and appear to occur in males more than females.[6] An increase in blood pressure (e.g. due to general hypertension) tends to increase the duration of spontaneous epistaxis.[7] Anticoagulant medication and disorders of blood clotting can promote and prolong bleeding. Spontaneous epistaxis is more common in the elderly as the nasal mucosa (lining) becomes dry and thin and blood pressure tends to be higher. The elderly are also more prone to prolonged nose bleeds as their blood vessels are less able to constrict and control the bleeding.. The vast majority of nose bleeds occur in the anterior (front) part of the nose from the nasal septum. This ...
... is especially common during winter months and certain low temperature seasons. Cold-induced rhinorrhea occurs due to a combination of thermodynamics and the body's natural reactions to cold weather stimuli. One of the purposes of nasal mucus is to warm inhaled air to body temperature as it enters the body. In order for this to happen, the nasal cavities must be constantly coated with liquid mucus. During cold, dry seasons, the mucus lining nasal passages tends to dry out, meaning that mucous membranes must work harder, producing more mucus to keep the cavity lined. As a result, the nasal cavity can fill up with mucus. At the same time, when air is exhaled, water vapor in breath condenses as the warm air meets the colder outside temperature near the nostrils. This causes an excess amount of water to build up inside nasal cavities. In ...
... s (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses. Symptoms include trouble breathing through the nose, loss of smell, decreased taste, post nasal drip, and a runny nose. The growths are sac-like, movable, and nontender, though face pain may occasionally occur. They typically occur in both nostrils in those who are affected. Complications may include sinusitis and broadening of the nose. The exact cause is unclear. They may be related to chronic inflammation of the lining of the sinuses. They occur more commonly among people who have allergies, cystic fibrosis, aspirin sensitivity, or certain infections. The polyp itself represents an overgrowth of the mucous membranes. Diagnosis may occur by looking up the nose. A CT scan may be used to determine the number of polyps and help plan surgery. Treatment is typically with steroids, often in the form of a nasal spray. If this is not effective surgery may be considered. The condition ...
Ang uhog o sipon (Ingles: mucus, bigkas: myu-kus; nasal mucus o "uhog sa ilong" o "sipon sa ilong") ay ang malapot na bagay na binubuo ng mga musino (o mucin), selula, asin, at tubig na pantakip sa at pampadulas sa lamad na mukosa o membrano ng mukosa (membranong mukosal, Ingles: nasal mucosa).[1] Ito ang madulas at mamasa-masang dumi na nagiging kulangot o ang tumigas at natuyong uhog (Ingles: booger) na natatagpuan sa kahabaan ng lamad na mukosa ng ilong.[1] Sa larangan ng medisina, mas malawak ang kahulugan ng uhog sapagkat ito ang malinaw at madikit na sustansiyang gawa ng mga membrano ng mukosa, na gumuguhit o nakalinya sa mga bukasan ng katawang katulad ng ilong, bibig, at ilang mga partikular na organong kagaya ng tiyan at mga bituka. Pinananatili ng uhog o mukus at myukus (mula sa Ingles na mucus) ang pagiging mamasa-masa ng mga nabanggit na bahagi o pook ng katawan, at nagsisilbing pamprotekta o pananggalang na pambalot ng mga ...
Ang uhog o sipon (Ingles: mucus, bigkas: myu-kus; nasal mucus o "uhog sa ilong" o "sipon sa ilong") ay ang malapot na bagay na binubuo ng mga musino (o mucin), selula, asin, at tubig na pantakip sa at pampadulas sa lamad na mukosa o membrano ng mukosa (membranong mukosal, Ingles: nasal mucosa).[1] Ito ang madulas at mamasa-masang dumi na nagiging kulangot o ang tumigas at natuyong uhog (Ingles: booger) na natatagpuan sa kahabaan ng lamad na mukosa ng ilong.[1] Sa larangan ng medisina, mas malawak ang kahulugan ng uhog sapagkat ito ang malinaw at madikit na sustansiyang gawa ng mga membrano ng mukosa, na gumuguhit o nakalinya sa mga bukasan ng katawang katulad ng ilong, bibig, at ilang mga partikular na organong kagaya ng tiyan at mga bituka. Pinananatili ng uhog o mukus at myukus (mula sa Ingles na mucus) ang pagiging mamasa-masa ng mga nabanggit na bahagi o pook ng katawan, at nagsisilbing pamprotekta o pananggalang na pambalot ng mga ...
Palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone protein (PLUNC) is a gene encoding a secretory protein. It is also called Secretory protein in upper respiratory tracts (SPURT). In humans, it is encoded by the BPIFA1 gene, previously called PLUNC. This gene is the human homolog of murine plunc, and like the mouse gene, is specifically expressed in the airways and nasopharyngeal regions. Plunc inhibits the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), and also has anti-microbial functions. As such, plunc is believed to play a role in innate immune defense in the airways. PLUNC's ability to regulate ENaC is pH-sensitive and fails in acidic cystic fibrosis airways. Thus, defective PLUNC1 function is thought to contribute to the development of lung pathology in cystic fibrosis patients. It may also serve as a potential molecular marker for detection of micrometastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198183 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...
Nasal epithelial cells were collected 4 days after each dose for a series of efficacy assays including quantitation of vector- ... undertaken a double-blinded study in which multiple doses of a DNA/liposome formulation were delivered to the nasal epithelium ... Clinical studies in which the CFTR cDNA was delivered to the respiratory epithelia of CF patients have resulted in modest, ... It seems likely that repeated administration of the gene transfer vector will be required for long-term gene expression. We ...
... and necrosis and inflammation of the nasal olfactory and respiratory epithelium.. Groups of 20 male and 20 female mice received ... Administration of 1,2,3-trichloropropane to rats induced benign and malignant neoplasms of the oral mucosa (pharynx and tongue ... Squamous cell papillomas of the oral mucosa may have been related to chemical administration. There was clear evidence of ... Adenocarcinomas of the intestine may have been related to chemical administration.. There was clear evidence of carcinogenic ...
2000) Repeat administration of DNA/liposomes to the nasal epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis. Gene Therapy 7(13): 1156 ... 2000) Safety and biological efficacy of a lipid‐CFTR complex for gene transfer in the nasal epithelium of adult patients with ... 1996) Repeat administration of an adenovirus vector encoding cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to the nasal ... Sinn PL, Arias AC, Brogden KA and McCray PB Jr (2008) Lentivirus vector can be readministered to nasal epithelia without ...
0.6 mg/ml nasal spray, solution - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare ... Nasal administration reduces the nasal secretion through competitive inhibition of cholinergic receptors situated around the ... nasal epithelium. An effect is usually obtained within 15 minutes and lasts for 6 hours on an average. ... The absorption being very small after nasal or oral administration, an acute overdose after intranasal ipratropium bromide is ...
Re-administration to nasal epithelium and lung is feasible. *The SIV-F/HN vector can transduce human air-liquid interface (ALI ... was inefficient at transducing the airway epithelium, unless the epithelium had been deliberately damaged, or had the ... The SIV-F/HN vector can transduce the respiratory epithelium of the murine airways via the apical membrane in -vivo at levels ... to increase the efficiency of airway transduction without the need for pre-conditioning agents to damage the epithelium. In ...
The administration of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine induces changes in the nasal microbiota and nasal epithelium ... Microbes on the human vaginal epithelium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 7952-7957. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0503236102 ... nasopharynx and nasal cavity and Lower Respiratory Tract (LRT) containing lungs. LRT were traditionally assumed to be sterile, ...
A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas- ... Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery ... The extensive distribution of olfactory and trigeminal nerves in the nasal epithelium allows uptake and direct transport to ... Intranasal administration as a route for drug delivery to the brain: evidence for a unique pathway for albumin. Journal of ...
In patients with lung cancer, investigators have detected transcriptional signatures of disease in airway and nasal epithelial ... the feasibility of distinguishing patients with IPF from age-matched controls through transcriptomic profiling of nasal ... support the concept that fibrosis is associated with upregulation of inflammatory pathways across the respiratory epithelium ... G.R.S. Budinger is supported by NIH grants ES013995 and HL071643, Veterans Administration grant BX000201, and Office of the ...
Nanoemulsion Mucosal Adjuvant Uniquely Activates Cytokine Production by Nasal Ciliated Epithelium and Induces Dendritic Cell ... Safe mucosal adjuvants that activate protective immunity via mucosal administration are highly dependent on barrier antigen ... Jun, 2012 , Pubmed ID: 22653620 While the nasal mucosa is a potentially useful site for human immunization, toxin-based nasal ... This is the first observation of a nasal adjuvant that activates calreticulin-associated apoptosis of ciliated nasal epithelial ...
While the nasal and bronchial mucosa have some evident similarities such as a pseudostratified epithelium and the presence of ... in the nose is likely to produce plasma concentrations of medications close to direct intravenous administration. The mucosal ... Expression of c-erbB receptors and ligands in human nasal epithelium. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:1124-31. ... Cultured nasal epithelial cells have been shown to generate SCF in vitro, and elevated levels of SCF have been found in nasal ...
Repeat administration of DNA/liposomes to the nasal epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis.. Hyde SC et al., Gene Ther. ... Topical Delivery of mRNA to the Murine Lung and Nasal Epithelium.. Painter H et al.,The American Society of Gene Therapy Annual ... A placebo-controlled study of liposome-mediated gene transfer to the nasal epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis.. Gill ... Detection of CFTR transgene mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium isolated from the murine nasal cavity.. Holder E et al., ...
... nasal formulation, buccal formulation or occular formulation. The administration can, however, be, via any conventional route, ... Because the mucosal epithelium is rich in immune-system cells, the invention is particularly useful in delivering genes which ... A particularly important embodiment involves a formulation for oral administration or administration by inhalation. ... 4. The method of anyone of claims 1-3, wherein the gene is delivered to a cell of the respiratory epithelium. ...
Degeneration of the olfactory epithelium and hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium were induced in the nasal cavities of ... Oral Administration. Dunkelberg [1982] administered 15 or 60 mg of propylene oxide (99% pure) per kg of body weight in salad ... In both rats and mice, the primary tissue affected by inhalation of propylene oxide was the respiratory epithelium of the nasal ... Papillary adenoma of the nasal turbinate epithelium and underlying submucosal glands were observed in 3/50 female rats and 2/50 ...
After nasal administration of microcystin-LR, the epithelium of nasal mucosa of both the olfactory and respiratory zones were ... The LD50 for nasal administration is equal to the intraperitoneal administration. For the assessment of possible chronic human ... Mice showed neoplastic liver nodules after 100 oral administrations at 20 μg/kg bodyweight. The nodules observed were up to 5mm ... However, no mice showed liver nodules after 100 administrations of 80 μg/kg. The IARC committee concluded that microcystin-LR ...
... found focal hyperplasia of the nasal turbinates and degenerative changes and proliferative hyperplasia of the nasal epithelium ... Subcutaneous administration of propylene oxide to mice produced local sarcomas; the study in rats was inadequate for evaluation ... And as described above, the primary local target in rats and mice for propylene oxide is the nasal epithelium in which tumors ... And as described above, the primary local target in rats and mice for propylene oxide is the nasal epithelium in which tumors ...
The olfactory epithelium is situated in the upper posterior part and covers approximately 10 cm2 of the human nasal cavity. The ... Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either ... Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration of for example tablets and capsules if a ... Nasal administration is primarily suitable for potent drugs since only a limited volume can be sprayed into the nasal cavity. ...
The composition may be administered to the nasal cavity in the form of a spray by using an atomizer, nebulizer, spayer, dropper ... in an amount effective for enhancing permeation of the active substance across the nasal membrane, and a basic salt of an amino ... A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. ... or other device which ensures contact of the composition with the nasal mucus membrane. ...
... nebulisation and bolus administration of TCHD to the mouse lung, as well as perfusion of TCHD to the nasal epithelium, which ... Assessment of the nuclear pore dilating agent trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diol in differentiated airway epithelium.. [Uta Griesenbach ... Although TCHD significantly increases gene transfer in cell lines and differentiated airway epithelium ex vivo, this effect is ... we assessed the effects of TCHD on transfection efficiency in differentiated airway epithelium ex vivo and in mouse lung in ...
This application significantly reduced the basal potential difference of nasal epithelium in both homozygous and heterozygous ... Ivacaftor (VX-770) was the first of these genetic modulators to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for ... In 2003, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial12 evaluated the use of topical nasal drops (gentamicin dose, 900 µg/d) to ... Gentamicin was the first aminoglycoside investigated for this function.14,15 Ex vivo administration of gentamicin was shown to ...
... administration of an adenovirus vector encoding cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to the nasal epithelium of ... Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer transiently corrects the chloride transport defect in nasal epithelia of patients with cystic ... Importantly, CFTR gene transfer to the alveolar epithelium of β1AR−/−/β2AR−/− mice had no effect on AFC measured 7 days after ... Overexpression of a human β2AR in the alveolar epithelium significantly increased AFC in normal mice but had no effect in mice ...
Repeat administration of DNA/liposomes to the nasal epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis. Gene Ther 7:1156-1165CrossRef ... 1995) Liposome-mediated CFTR gene transfer to the nasal epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis. Nat Med 1:39-46PubMed ... Safety and biological efficacy of a lipid-CFTR complex for gene transfer in the nasal epithelium of adult patients with cystic ... A placebo-controlled study of liposome-mediated gene transfer to the nasal epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis. Gene ...
Specific sites of administration of the compositions of the subject invention include, but are not limited to, ocular, nasal, ... including surfaces such as human mucosa and keratinized and non-keratinized epithelium. Such topical administration techniques ... Formulation 3-Nasal Solution for the Symptomatic Relief of Chronic Sin θ-nasal Congestion 10 mls nonsterile or sterile manuka ... This technique reduces or eliminates systemic toxicity, because the administration is localized (skin medicament, nasal spray, ...
... be more likely if the corneal epithelium is damaged or if an excessive amount of drug is swallowed during nasal administration ... Benzedrex (propylhexedrine nasal)" Menley and James Laboratories Inc, Horsham, PA. *"Product Information. Privine (naphazoline ... These agents stimulate both alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, thus topical administration can induce transient ... Vicks Vapor Inhaler (desoxyephedrine nasal)" Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH. *"Product Information. Otriviv ...
Caffeine molecules could easily cross the nasal epithelium and ultimately affect the CNS through nasal spray delivery since ... The nasal epithelium is an extremely permeable membrane that allows molecules with a mass cut off lower than 1000 Da to rapidly ... It has been reported that nasal administration of drugs may affect the brain through several mechanisms. First, it is possible ... There was no significant increase in blood caffeine concentrations 20 s after administration of the nasal caffeine spray, and ...
Alternatively, administration of much higher doses of AAV vector could also increase transduction in the lung epithelium (15). ... how a vector delivered by nasal aspiration can circumvent physical barriers imposed by the basement membrane of the epithelium. ... prior administration of an AAV6 vector only partially inhibited transduction by a second administration of an AAV6 pseudotype ... Bronchoscopic administration of an AAV vector containing the human CFTR cDNA resulted in localized gene transfer and expression ...
  • However, previously it had been shown that the traditionally used Lentivirus envelope (VSVG-pseudotype) was inefficient at transducing the airway epithelium, unless the epithelium had been deliberately damaged, or had the epithelial tight junctions opened to provide access to the virus. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Assessment of the nuclear pore dilating agent trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diol in differentiated airway epithelium. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although TCHD significantly increases gene transfer in cell lines and differentiated airway epithelium ex vivo, this effect is lost in vivo and further highlights that promising in vitro findings often cannot be translated into in vivo applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sendai virus-mediated CFTR gene transfer to the airway epithelium. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results indicate that the efficiency of AAV transduction in the normal lung epithelium is low but might be enhanced by cell proliferation, tissue injury, or adenovirus helper functions. (asm.org)
  • Alternatively, administration of much higher doses of AAV vector could also increase transduction in the lung epithelium ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Although AAV vector expression can persist in the liver and muscle of animals, its persistence in the lung epithelium is more complex. (asm.org)
  • Aggregated AgNP were found in spleen, lung, kidney, and nasal airway by routine light microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • AstraZeneca's research is focused on addressing underlying disease drivers focusing on the lung epithelium, lung immunity and lung regeneration. (astrazeneca.se)
  • The relative accessibility of the pulmonary epithelium makes aerosol delivery of gene therapy formulations an attractive possibility, allowing non-invasive application to target cells within the lung whilst minimising the risks associated with systemic delivery. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is an abundant multi-functional protein in the airway. (unc.edu)
  • Here, we sought to establish a model for evaluating delivery of exogenous SPLUNC1 in acute lung infection and provide evidence that preemptive administration of SPLUNC1 may decrease bacterial burden. (unc.edu)
  • Lastly, we suggest that the administration of SPLUNC1 which we propose for asthma and lung infection results in SPLUNC1 mediated SPLUNC1 release in the lungs, effectively increasing the local protein concentration. (unc.edu)
  • However, the results of studies in animals fulfill the criteria in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Cancer Policy [Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations , Section 1990.for classifying a substance as a potential occupational carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Although epidemiologic data are not available from workers exposed to propylene oxide, the findings of cancer and other tumors in both rats and mice treated with propylene oxide meet the criteria established in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Cancer Policy [Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations , Section 1990.for regarding propylene oxide as a potential occupational carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure limit of 5 micrograms of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m³). (cdc.gov)
  • The main adverse findings related to irritant/corrosive effects on the nasal turbinates in mice, which was observed with a LOAEC of 10 ppm. (europa.eu)
  • AAV6 pseudotype vector transduction was unaffected by prior administration of an AAV2 or AAV3 vector, and transduction by an AAV2 pseudotype vector was unaffected by prior AAV6 vector administration, showing that cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against AAV2 and AAV6 are not generated in mice. (asm.org)
  • These results show that rPA can be encapsulated and surface bound to polymeric microspheres without impairing its immunogenicity and also that mucosal or parenteral administration of microspheric formulations of rPA efficiently protects mice against both injected and aerosol challenges with B. anthracis spores. (asm.org)
  • Targeted deletion of GDF-11, in mice, results in a spectrum of abnormalities including palatal malformation, vertebral defects, elongated trunks with a reduced or absent tail, missing or malformed kidneys, and an increased number of neurons in the olfactory epithelium (2-5). (rndsystems.com)
  • In ovariectomized, ZnSO 4 -treated females a significant, though attenuated, AOB Fos response occurred after direct nasal exposure to male urine plus soiled bedding, suggesting that VNO signaling remained partially functional in these mice. (wiley.com)
  • We demonstrate that administration of SPLUNC1 to mice decreases their AHR and show that the molecular basis for this effect involves the coordination of the N-terminus with an electrostatic patch on the protein's body. (unc.edu)
  • 1951). Single i.p. administration to male mice produced a non-related proteinurea but no glycosurea (Plaa & Larson, 1965). (inchem.org)
  • Our results indicate that mice do not provide an adequate model for nasal tumor induction by ENTV despite our ability to express genes in the nasal epithelium. (fredhutch.org)
  • Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain. (nature.com)
  • A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis leading to decreased infarct volumes, reduced neurologic deficit scores and recovery from cerebral ischemia. (nature.com)
  • 1. A method of reducing food intake of a subject, comprising intranasal administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of diltiazem to a subject in need of such treatment. (google.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 1 , comprising intranasal administration of the pharmaceutical composition at least once daily for at least 2 days. (google.com)
  • 12. The method of claim 11 , comprising intranasal administration of the pharmaceutical composition twice daily. (google.com)
  • 13. A method of treating or preventing obesity, comprising intranasal administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of diltiazem to a subject suffering from or at risk for obesity. (google.com)
  • Intranasal administration of ZnSO 4 , intended to disrupt MOE function, eliminated the ability of volatile urinary odours to stimulate Fos in both the MOB and AOB. (wiley.com)
  • In the present study, bioadhesive chitosan nanoparticles of topiramate for intranasal administration were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using chitosan as bioadhesive polymer and sodium tripolyphosphate as the crosslinking agent. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Nanoparticles obtained were discrete in nature (size 313.5 nm) and appropriate for intranasal administration. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Hence, the intranasal administration of topiramate using chitosan can be a promising alternative for brain targeting and the treatment of epilepsy. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Intranasal administration of M2e-MAP without adjuvant engendered no response but coadministration with infectious IAV slightly enhanced the M2e(pep-nat) Ab response and protection compared to vaccination with IAV or adjuvanted M2e-MAP alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, intranasal administration of AAV vectors containing any combination of ENTV or JSRV LTRs and Env proteins induced tumors only in the lower airway. (fredhutch.org)
  • Our recent study of the biodistribution of replicating Ad in the macaque showed that regardless of administration route, it is broadly distributed and elicits comparable levels of mucosal IgA in rectal, vaginal, and nasal secretions. (cancer.gov)
  • UTP and UDP promote chloride secretion in mouse jejuna and gallbladder epithelia, respectively, and these responses were unaffected by P2Y 2 receptor gene disruption. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, long-term overdosing can cause degenerative changes in nasal mucous membranes that pose another health problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also observed histological changes in nasal tissues of AR guinea pigs by staining with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. (springer.com)
  • The human nasal mucous membrane during chronic inflammation, before and after muco-active therapy: a study using scanning electron microscopy. (unifi.it)
  • Nasal spray, solution. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The bioavailability of the commercial tablet is 0.1% while that of the nasal spray is 3-5% according to the SPC (Summary of Product Characteristics). (wikipedia.org)
  • Syntocinon nasal spray containing oxytocin is used to increase duration and strength of contractions during labour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intranasal Calcitonin, calcitonin-salmon is used to treat Hypercalcaemia arising out of malignancy, Paget's disease of bone, post menopausal and steroid induced osteoporosis, Phantom limb pain and other metabolic bone abnormalities, available as Rockbone, Fortical and Miacalcin Nasal Spray. (wikipedia.org)
  • and acanthosis (hyperplasia) and hyperkeratosis of the forestomach epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Given the interest in these so-called "alternate forms of delivery," this paper aims to examine (1) how they affect the rate of caffeine entry into the blood versus traditional tablet or coffee administration, (2) if they stimulate direct connections between caffeine sensors in the oral and nasal cavities and the brain, and (3) if they are ergogenic in training and competition situations. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have focused particularly on the nasal application of HMW therapeutic agents such as peptide-protein drugs and vaccines intended for systemic effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Routes of drug administration and the corresponding physicochemical characteristics of a given route play significant roles in therapeutic efficacy and short term/long term biological effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Among various routes, oral delivery has been recognized as the most attractive method, mainly due to its potential for solid formulations with long shelf life, sustained delivery, ease of administration and intensified immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • For instance, IM and ID administration are usually the preferred vaccination routes, depending upon the desired immune response mechanisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Vaccination involves the administration of antigen to stimulate the immune system to produce specific antibodies against viral, vacterial, and protozoal disease. (pakissan.com)
  • In the follow-up CT four months later, a pathological mass was observed in the area of the nasal septum, and a signal void was present on all sequences in the densely sclerotic areas. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. (google.com.au)
  • Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. (springer.com)
  • Lastly, manufacturers are also suggesting that the delivery of caffeine in mouth and nasal aerosol sprays may activate sensors with neural links in the nose and provide a direct route for absorption in the lungs, although no research has examined this possibility. (springer.com)
  • 2. BIOLOGICAL DATA 2.1 Biochemical aspects 2.1.1 Absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion Laboratory animals Furfural is well absorbed after administration by any route. (inchem.org)
  • In IV administration, the drug is rapidly injected into blood vessels through needles, and a high concentration of the drug is able to bypass the physiological barriers against drug absorption, providing the highest bioavailability and the fastest effect among all delivery routes. (mdpi.com)
  • For the treatment of epilepsy, oral route of administration is most convenient but shows delayed absorption. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Cp(t) plasma concentration at time t statr oral administration, Switching from alesse to mirena oral dose, ka absorption rate constant, k elimination rate constant. (a-megagame.ru)
  • It seems safe to assume that CSF-nasal lymphatic absorption is a characteristic feature of mammalian systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2000) Phase I study of adenoviral delivery of the HSV-tk gene and ganciclovir administration in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors. (springer.com)
  • In an earlier assessment, the U.S. EPA IRIS program determined that formaldehyde was a probable human carcinogen, based on limited evidence for cancer in formaldehyde-exposed workers and evidence of nasal tumors in laboratory animals. (healthjade.com)
  • Nasal tissue damage and nose tumors were found in laboratory animals who breathed in moderate concentrations of formaldehyde in air for 6 hours per day for most of their lives. (healthjade.com)
  • Elevated tissue GSH levels was observed in nasal epithelia (both doses at 1 day, 500 mg/kg at 7 days) and blood (500 mg/kg at 7 days). (cdc.gov)
  • Palpitations, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hypertension, reflex bradycardia, and coronary occlusion have been reported rarely during the use of ophthalmic and nasal sympathomimetic agents, but may be more likely if the corneal epithelium is damaged or if an excessive amount of drug is swallowed during nasal administration. (drugs.com)
  • As detected by in situ hybridization, GDF-11 is expressed in diverse regions of the mouse embryo: tailbud, somitic precursors, limbs, mandibular and branchial arches, dorsal neural tube, odontoblasts, nasal epithelium, and particular regions of the brain (1, 2). (rndsystems.com)
  • High protein-loading efficiency was obtained by testing with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova), and the Ova adsorbed onto the cationic CS/ O -HTCC complexes was taken up easily by the epithelium. (dovepress.com)
  • Transmucosal delivery of tocotrienol Field of the invention The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions including tocotrienols and derivatives thereof, for transmucosal (such as buccal, sublingual and nasal) administration. (google.com)
  • The composition comprises an effective amount of the pharmaceutically active substance, glycyrrhetinic acid, in an amount effective for enhancing permeation of the active substance across the nasal membrane, and a basic salt of an amino acid as an adjuvant. (google.com.au)
  • Adjuvants for administration, particularly for mucosal administration, of an antigen, are described, as well as compositions comprising the described adjuvant in combination with an antigen and a physiologicially acceptable vehicle. (freepatentsonline.com)