Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Rhinometry, Acoustic: Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Ethmoid Sinus: The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Granuloma, Pyogenic: A disorder of the skin, the oral mucosa, and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma often resulting from trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma.Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MAXILLARY SINUS. They represent the majority of paranasal neoplasms.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Rhinitis, Atrophic: A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Rhinoscleroma: A granulomatous disease caused by KLEBSIELLA RHINOSCLEROMATIS infection. Despite its name, this disease is not limited to the nose and NASOPHARYNX but may affect any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, sometimes with extension to the lip and the skin.Papilloma, Inverted: A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Histology, Comparative: The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.Angiomyoma: A benign tumor consisting of vascular and smooth muscle elements.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Angiofibroma: A benign neoplasm of fibrous tissue in which there are numerous small and large, frequently dilated, vascular channels. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Tampons, Surgical: Plugs or cylinders made of cotton, sponge, or other absorbent material. They are used in surgery to absorb fluids such as blood or drainage.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Hemangiopericytoma: A tumor composed of spindle cells with a rich vascular network, which apparently arises from pericytes, cells of smooth muscle origin that lie around small vessels. Benign and malignant hemangiopericytomas exist, and the rarity of these lesions has led to considerable confusion in distinguishing between benign and malignant variants. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1364)Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Frontal Sinus: One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.Palatal Expansion Technique: An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedAir Movements: The motion of air currents.Myiasis: The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsCoronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Methylmethacrylate: The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.Dacryocystorhinostomy: Surgical fistulization of the LACRIMAL SAC for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.Rats, Inbred F344Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Nasal Surgical Procedures: Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Nasal Lavage: Irrigation of the nose with saline or irrigation solutions for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to remove irritants, allergens, or microorganisms from the nose.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell: An extranodal neoplasm, usually possessing an NK-cell phenotype and associated with EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. These lymphomas exhibit a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis, angioinvasion, and most commonly present in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Tracheal NeoplasmsMaxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (1/983)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Nasal nitric oxide concentration in paranasal sinus inflammatory diseases. (2/983)

In normal upper airways, nitric oxide is generated by the paranasal sinus epithelium and then diffuses into the nasal cavities. This study examined whether or not nasal NO concentration is affected by paranasal sinus inflammatory diseases. The influence of obstruction (nasal polyposis) and/or inflammation (allergy or chronic sinusitis) of the paranasal sinuses on nasal NO concentration was evaluated in nasal allergic (n=7 patients) or nonallergic (n=20) polyposis, nonallergic chronic sinusitis (n=10) and Kartagener's syndrome (n=6) and compared with control subjects (n=42). A score of alteration of the paranasal sinus (number of altered and occluded sinuses) was determined by a computed tomography scan. The nasal NO concentration in nasal nonallergic polyposis (150+/-20 parts per billion (ppb)) was significantly decreased compared with both controls (223+/-6 ppb, p=0.01) and polyposis with allergy (272+/-28 ppb, p<0.0001). In each group, the nasal NO concentration was inversely correlated with the extent of tomodensitometric alteration of the paranasal sinuses. In Kartagener's syndrome, the nasal NO concentration (14+/-2 ppb) was drastically decreased compared with all other groups, despite the presence of open paranasal sinuses. Thus, the nasal NO concentration in patients with nasal polyposis appeared to be dependent on both the allergic status and the degree of obstruction of the paranasal sinuses.  (+info)

Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide. (3/983)

Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), p<0.01), whereas no increase was detected in nasal NO levels. Salivary nitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, p<0.05). The nitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (p<0.01) 90 min after nitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (p<0.05). Sodium bicarbonate (10%) also reduced exhaled NO levels, but to a somewhat lesser extent than chlorhexidine acetate. In conclusion, salivary nitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide.  (+info)

Protection against influenza virus infection of mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064. (4/983)

Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats. (5/983)

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath. (6/983)

Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LMRS) is a sensitive and isotope-selective technique for determining low concentrations of gaseous free radicals with high time resolution. We used this technique to analyze the nitric oxide (NO) concentration profile while simultaneously measuring the flow and expired volume during several single breathing cycles. Eight healthy, nonallergic volunteers were investigated. An initial NO peak was found in all breathing cycles before the NO concentration dropped to a relatively stable plateau in the late phase of expiration. The nasal NO peak was significantly higher than the oral NO peak. The nasal NO plateau was always higher than the oral NO plateau. The height of the initial nasal and oral NO peak rose with increasing duration of breath hold, whereas the late expiratory NO plateau changed only little for either the nasal or the oral breathing cycles. Our findings demonstrate, in line with other reports using other techniques, that the nose is the primary source for NO within the airways.  (+info)

Anatomical structure and surface epithelial distribution in the nasal cavity of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). (7/983)

To validate use of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in inhalation toxicity studies, its nasal morphology was examined. The nasal turbinates each consisted of one maxilloturbinate and one ethmoturbinate: these were more planar in structure than the comparable structures of rodents or dogs. The nasal cavity epithelia comprised squamous epithelium (SE), nasal transitional epithelium (NTE), respiratory epithelium (RE) and olfactory epithelium (OE), listed in order of occurrence from anterior to posterior positions. NTE was distributed as a narrow band lying between SE and RE. OE was limited to the dorsal part of the cavity, which was structurally similar to that of the macaque or man. Overall, this study revealed structural the similarity of the whole nasal cavity in the marmoset to that of macaques or humans. Prediction of nasal cavity changes in man based on extrapolation from experimentally induced changes in the common marmoset therefore seems likely to be feasible, making it a useful animal model for inhalation studies.  (+info)

Evidence for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci colonizing intravascular devices. (8/983)

Nasal surveillance cultures were performed for 54 patients exhibiting >/=10(3) CFU of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci per ml in central venous catheter (CVC) rinse cultures over a 6-month period. Forty-two of the nasal cultures yielded growth of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 33 of the 42 cultures contained organisms that belonged to the same species as the CVC isolates. Of the 33 same-species isolates, 20 appeared to be identical strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. These data suggest that measures should be taken to reduce cross-contamination between the respiratory tract and intravascular devices. However, the potential interest in detecting methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus carriage in high-risk patients is hampered by the lack of sensitivity of nasal surveillance cultures.  (+info)

  • To investigate a possible peroral route of infective endocarditis (IE), the occurrence of staphylococci in the oral cavity was examined using saliva and supragingival plaque specimens from 56 systemically and periodontally healthy adults aged 22-43 years old (27.1+/-5.3). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Since the provision of micro-organisms from the nasal cavity was shown and occurrence rates in the oral cavity were adequate, these results suggest a possible peroral route of staphylococcal IE, as in cases of viridans streptococcal IE. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Head and neck cancer - The common carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx as well as other tumors that affect the head and neck. (enacademic.com)
  • The incisive canal is a root way between the nasal pit and the incisive fossa of the oral cavity. (healthdivinetips.com)
  • Airflow and deposition of nano-particles in a human nasal cavity. (cdc.gov)
  • Human nasal cavity. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Developments in the field of CFD and high-performance computing (HPC) allow us to individually predict the flow in a patient's human nasal cavity by means of numerical simulations, thereby enabling us to identify anatomical locations of pathologies. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Inspiratory flow in the human nasal cavity. (fz-juelich.de)
  • To better understand mucus flow behaviour on the human nasal cavity wall, we present computational model development, and evaluation of mucus motion on a realistic nasal cavity model reconstructed from CT-scans. (edu.au)
  • As a first step towards mucus motion modelling this study provides important information that accurately simulates a mucus velocity field on a human nasal cavity wall, for assessment of toxicology and efficacy of intranasal drug delivery. (edu.au)
  • The cilia move the mucus down the nasal cavity to the pharynx, where it can be swallowed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • How would infection in nasal passages and pharynx spread? (healthtap.com)
  • Infections of the nasal passages, sinuses and pharynx can spread to other areas of the body when the germs find their way into the blood stream (mostly) or though the lymphatic system . (healthtap.com)
  • Air is breathed in through the nasal cavity and/or mouth and down through the throat (the pharynx). (edoctoronline.com)
  • This is an article covering the histology of the upper respiratory tract - nasal cavity, pharynx and epiglottis. (kenhub.com)
  • Moisture (small amount of water) is added to the air you breath by special cells in the walls of the nasal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Which specific nerve innervates the anterior and upper regions of the medial and lateral walls of the nasal cavity? (studystack.com)
  • Which two general vessels supply the walls of the nasal cavity with blood? (studystack.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid drains from the brain and into the nasal cavity through a bony plate known as the cribriform plate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Connective tissue and skin cover the bony and cartilaginous components of the nasal dorsum. (orange.com)
  • It is a conduct that link the lungs with the nasal cavity and it divides in two parts one for each lung. (thinglink.com)
  • The nasal cavity microanatomy of farmed fingerlings of African catfish, Clarias gariepunus was investigated to fill existing knowledge gap on its histology from available literatures. (ajol.info)
  • Temperature values were related to nasal airway resistance data. (wiley.com)
  • The scientists also found that ACE2 - the cell surface receptor that the virus uses to get into cells - was more abundant on nasal-lining cells and less abundant on the surface of lower airway cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • This difference could explain, at least in part, why upper airway nasal-lining cells were more susceptible to infection. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The floor of the nasal cavity is formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae. (anatomynext.com)
  • Although rare, the imaging characteristics of GCRGs should be recognized, and this entity should be suggested when the clinical information, CT, and MR features suggest a fibrous-osseous lesion in the nasal cavity. (ajnr.org)
  • Understanding the anatomy of the nasal cavity and its anomalies is important because it leads to an understanding of imaging anatomy, which is needed to plan the surgical approach. (medscape.com)
  • With the development of endonasal flaps, an understanding of the arterial anatomy of the nasal cavity has become increasingly important for clinicians. (springer.com)
  • Having a fundamental knowledge of the anatomy of the nasal cavity is vital in understanding its functions. (statpearls.com)