Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A narcotic antagonist with some agonist properties. It is an antagonist at mu opioid receptors and an agonist at kappa opioid receptors. Given alone it produces a broad spectrum of unpleasant effects and it is considered to be clinically obsolete.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
An opioid analgesic chemically related to and with an action resembling that of MEPERIDINE, but more rapid in onset and of shorter duration. It has been used in obstetrics, as pre-operative medication, for minor surgical procedures, and for dental procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1067)
An analgesic with mixed narcotic agonist-antagonist properties.
Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A narcotic analgesic structurally related to METHADONE. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Pain during the period after surgery.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.
Isonipecotic acids are a group of organic compounds that are structurally similar to nicotinic acid, with a pyridine ring substituted at the 2-position by a carboxylic acid group, and can act as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase enzymes.
A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).
A phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both CHLORPROMAZINE and PROMETHAZINE. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
'Ketones' are organic compounds with a specific structure, characterized by a carbonyl group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen atom) and two carbon atoms, formed as byproducts when the body breaks down fats for energy due to lack of glucose, often seen in diabetes and starvation states.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of corticosteroids. It has been used by mouth in the treatment of all conditions in which corticosteroid therapy is indicated except adrenal-deficiency states for which its lack of sodium-retaining properties makes it less suitable than HYDROCORTISONE with supplementary FLUDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p737)
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
A narcotic analgesic with a long onset and duration of action.
The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.
Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Phenanthrenes are aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of three benzene rings fused together in a linear arrangement, commonly found in various plants and some animals, and can act as precursors for certain steroid hormones or exhibit pharmacological activities with potential therapeutic uses.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A characteristic symptom complex.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.

Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat. (1/1567)

The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination.  (+info)

Presynaptic inhibition of GABA(B)-mediated synaptic potentials in the ventral tegmental area during morphine withdrawal. (2/1567)

Opioids increase the firing of dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area by presynaptic inhibition of GABA release. This report describes an acute presynaptic inhibition of GABAB-mediated IPSPs by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors and the effects of withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment on the release of GABA at this synapse. In slices taken from morphine-treated guinea pigs after washing out the morphine (withdrawn slices), a low concentration of a mu receptor agonist increased, rather than decreased, the amplitude of the GABAB IPSP. In withdrawn slices, after blocking A1-adenosine receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxantine, mu-opioid receptor activation inhibited the IPSP at all concentrations and increased the maximal inhibition. In addition, during withdrawal, there was a tonic increase in adenosine tone that was further increased by forskolin or D1-dopamine receptor activation, suggesting that metabolism of cAMP was the source of adenosine. The results indicate that during acute morphine withdrawal, there was an upregulation of the basal level of an opioid-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. Inhibition of this basal activity by opioids had two effects. First, a decrease in the formation of cAMP that decreased adenosine tone. This effect predominated at low mu receptor occupancy and increased the amplitude of the IPSP. Higher agonist concentrations inhibited transmitter release by both kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. This study indicates that the consequences of the morphine-induced upregulation of the cAMP cascade on synaptic transmission are dependent on the makeup of receptors and second messenger pathways present on any given terminal.  (+info)

Effects and interactions of opioids on plasma exudation induced by cigarette smoke in guinea pig bronchi. (3/1567)

The effects of opioids on cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation were investigated in vivo in the main bronchi of anesthetized guinea pigs, with Evans blue dye as a plasma marker. Acute inhalation of cigarette smoke increased plasma exudation by 216% above air control values. Morphine, 0.1-10 mg/kg but not 30 mg/kg, inhibited the exudation but had no significant effect on substance P-induced exudation. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg of morphine increased exudation in air control animals, an effect inhibited by antihistamines but not by a tachykinin neurokinin type 1-receptor antagonist. Naloxone inhibited all morphine responses. Cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation was inhibited by a mu-opioid-receptor agonist (DAMGO) but not by agonists at delta (DPDPE)- or kappa (U-50488H)-receptors. None of these agonists affected exudation in air control animals. DPDPE prevented the inhibition by DAMGO of cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation, and the combination of DAMGO and DPDPE increased exudation in air control animals. Prevention of inhibition and the combination-induced increase were inhibited by antihistamines or the mast cell-stabilizing drug sodium cromoglycate. U-50488H did not alter the response to either DAMGO or DPDPE. We conclude that, in guinea pig main bronchi in vivo, mu-opioid-receptor agonists inhibit cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation via a prejunctional mechanism. Plasma exudation induced by mu- and delta-receptor interactions is due to endogenous histamine release from mast cells.  (+info)

Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. (4/1567)

Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection.  (+info)

Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics. (5/1567)

Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex. The hierarchical model was the basis of the single intervention session, tested among 63 volunteers. This model requires the educator to discuss and demonstrate a full range of barriers that women might use for protection, ranking these in the order of their known efficacy. The model stresses that no one should go without protection. Two objections, both untested, have been voiced against the model. One is that, because of its complexity, women will have difficulty comprehending the message. The second is that, by demonstrating alternative strategies to the male condom, the educator is offering women a way out from persisting with the male condom, so that instead they will use an easier, but less effective, method of protection. The present research aimed at testing both objections in a high-risk and disadvantaged group of women. By comparing before and after performance on a knowledge test, it was established that, at least among these women, the complex message was well understood. By comparing baseline and follow-up reports of barriers used by sexually active women before and after intervention, a reduction in reports of unsafe sexual encounters was demonstrated. The reduction could be attributed directly to adoption of the female condom. Although some women who had used male condoms previously adopted the female condom, most of those who did so had not used the male condom previously. Since neither theoretical objection to the hierarchical model is sustained in this population, fresh weight is given to emphasizing choice of barriers, especially to women who are at high risk and relatively disempowered. As experience with the female condom grows and its unfamiliarity decreases, it would seem appropriate to encourage women who do not succeed with the male condom to try to use the female condom, over which they have more control.  (+info)

Methadone treatment by general practitioners in Amsterdam. (6/1567)

In Amsterdam, a three-tiered program exists to deal with drug use and addiction. General practitioners form the backbone of the system, helping to deal with the majority of addicts, who are not criminals and many of whom desire to be free of addiction. Distinctions are made between drugs with "acceptable" and "unacceptable" risks, and between drug use and drug-related crime; patients who fall into the former categories are treated in a nonconfrontational, nonstigmatizing manner; such a system helps prevent the majority of patients from passing into unacceptable, criminalized categories. The overall program has demonstrated harm reduction both for patients and for the city of Amsterdam.  (+info)

Recent developments in maintenance prescribing and monitoring in the United Kingdom. (7/1567)

After a brief historical review of British drug legislation and public and governmental attitudes, this paper describes the wide range of policies and practices that have appeared since the explosion of illicit drug abuse in the 1960s. The spectrum goes from a reluctance to prescribe at all to maintenance on injectable opiates. Comparisons are made with differing attitudes to the availability of abortion in public health services. Compared with 5 years ago, about three times more methadone is being prescribed. There is a steady increase in prescriptions for injectable methadone but heroin maintenance is still rare. The "British System" permits great flexibility in the choice of opiates for maintenance. Some amphetamine-prescribing programmes also exist. Hair analysis for drugs to monitor levels of both prescribed and unprescribed drugs is a welcome and promising alternative to undignified and often misleading urine tests.  (+info)

Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance. (8/1567)

In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials.  (+info)

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

Nalorphine is defined as a morphine derivative that antagonizes the effects of opiate agonists, such as morphine and heroin, by competing for binding sites in the central nervous system. It was initially used as an analgesic but has since been replaced by other drugs due to its potential for abuse and adverse psychological effects. Currently, it is primarily used in research and to reverse opioid overdose.

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

Levorphanol is a potent opioid analgesic medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is a synthetic compound with a chemical structure similar to that of morphine, but it has more potent analgesic and sedative effects. Levorphanol works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which reduces the perception of pain and produces a sense of well-being or euphoria.

Levorphanol is available in oral tablet form and is typically used for short-term pain management in patients who are not able to take other opioid medications or who have developed tolerance to them. It has a long duration of action, with effects lasting up to 24 hours after a single dose.

Like all opioids, levorphanol carries a risk of dependence and addiction, as well as serious side effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and constipation. It should be used with caution in patients with a history of substance abuse or mental illness, and it is not recommended for use in pregnant women or children.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

Levallorphan is a opioid antagonist and agonist, often used as an analgesic (pain reliever) and antitussive (cough suppressant). It works by binding to the opioid receptors in the brain, blocking the effects of certain opioid agonists such as morphine while also acting as a weak agonist itself. This means that it can both block the pain-relieving effects and produce some of the unwanted side effects of opioids, such as respiratory depression. It is used in clinical settings to reverse or reduce the effects of opioid overdose, and also for the treatment of severe cough.

It's important to note that Levallorphan has a complex pharmacology and its use should be restricted to medical professionals due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

Narcotic antagonists are a class of medications that block the effects of opioids, a type of narcotic pain reliever, by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking the activation of these receptors by opioids. This results in the prevention or reversal of opioid-induced effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and euphoria. Narcotic antagonists are used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of opioid overdose, the management of opioid dependence, and the prevention of opioid-induced side effects in certain clinical situations. Examples of narcotic antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, and methylnaltrexone.

Pentazocine is a synthetic opioid analgesic, chemically unrelated to other opiates or opioids. It acts as an agonist at the kappa-opioid receptor and as an antagonist at the mu-opioid receptor, which means it can produce pain relief but block the effects of full agonists such as heroin or morphine. Pentazocine is used for the management of moderate to severe pain and is available in oral, intramuscular, and intravenous formulations. Common side effects include dizziness, lightheadedness, sedation, nausea, and vomiting.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Opium is defined as the dried latex obtained from incisions made in the unripe seedpods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). It contains a number of alkaloids, including morphine, codeine, and thebaine. Opium has been used for its pain-relieving, euphoric, and sedative effects since ancient times. However, its use is highly regulated due to the risk of addiction and other serious side effects.

Alphaprodine is a synthetic opioid medication that is primarily used for its analgesic (pain-relieving) effects. It belongs to the class of drugs known as narcotic analgesics, which work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord to reduce the perception of pain.

Alphaprodine is a controlled substance due to its potential for abuse and dependence. It can produce euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, and constipation, among other side effects. Long-term use or misuse of alphaprodine can lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Alphaprodine is not commonly used in clinical practice today due to the availability of safer and more effective pain medications. It is also not available as a generic medication, and only one branded formulation (Nisentil) was approved by the FDA for use in the United States, but it has been discontinued from the market.

Cyclazocine is a synthetic opioid drug that acts as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors, and as an antagonist at delta opioid receptors. It has analgesic (pain-relieving) effects, but its use as an analgesic is limited due to its potential for abuse and the occurrence of unpleasant psychotomimetic side effects such as dysphoria, delusions, and hallucinations.

Cyclazocine was first synthesized in 1957 and has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of opioid addiction, but it is not currently approved for medical use in many countries, including the United States. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the US, indicating that it has a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use.

Morphinans are a class of organic compounds that share a common skeletal structure, which is based on the morphine molecule. The morphinan structure consists of a tetracyclic ring system made up of three six-membered benzene rings (A, C, and D) fused to a five-membered dihydrofuran ring (B).

Morphinans are important in medicinal chemistry because many opioid analgesics, such as morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and levorphanol, are derived from or structurally related to morphinans. These compounds exert their pharmacological effects by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which are involved in pain perception, reward, and addictive behaviors.

It is worth noting that while all opiates (drugs derived from the opium poppy) are morphinans, not all morphinans are opiates. Some synthetic or semi-synthetic morphinans, such as fentanyl and methadone, do not have a natural origin but still share the same basic structure and pharmacological properties.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

Dextropropoxyphene is a mild narcotic analgesic (pain reliever) that is prescribed for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain. It is a synthetic opioid and works by binding to opiate receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body to reduce the perception of pain. Dextropropoxyphene is available in immediate-release and extended-release tablets, usually in combination with acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol).

Dextropropoxyphene has a narrow therapeutic index, which means that there is only a small range between the effective dose and a potentially toxic dose. It also has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use has been associated with serious side effects such as respiratory depression, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) withdrew approval for all dextropropoxyphene-containing products due to these safety concerns.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, which is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent. It is a schedule II prescription drug, typically used to treat patients with severe pain or to manage pain after surgery. It works by binding to the body's opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body.

Fentanyl can be administered in several forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, injectable solutions, and tablets that dissolve in the mouth. Illegally manufactured and distributed fentanyl has also become a major public health concern, as it is often mixed with other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, leading to an increase in overdose deaths.

Like all opioids, fentanyl carries a risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose, especially when used outside of medical supervision or in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. It is important to use fentanyl only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Oxymorphone is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which is a strong painkiller. It is derived from thebaine, a constituent of opium. Medically, it is used to treat moderate to severe pain and is available under various brand names such as Opana and Numorphan.

Oxymorphone works by binding to the mu-opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which results in pain relief, relaxation, and sedation. It has a high potential for abuse and addiction due to its euphoric effects, and its use should be closely monitored and controlled.

Like other opioids, oxymorphone can cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after prolonged use. Common side effects of oxymorphone include dizziness, lightheadedness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and sweating. Serious side effects may include respiratory depression, low blood pressure, and decreased heart rate.

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking oxymorphone and to report any bothersome or worsening side effects promptly.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Codeine is a opiate analgesic, commonly used for its pain-relieving and cough suppressant properties. It is typically prescribed for mild to moderately severe pain, and is also found in some over-the-counter cold and cough medications. Codeine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which helps to reduce the perception of pain. Like other opiates, codeine can produce side effects such as drowsiness, constipation, and respiratory depression, and it carries a risk of dependence and addiction with long-term use. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking codeine, and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you may have.

Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. It is a "downer" or depressant that affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain.

Heroin can be injected, smoked, or snorted. It is sold as a white or brownish powder or as a black, sticky substance known as "black tar heroin." Regardless of how it is taken, heroin enters the brain rapidly and is highly addictive.

The use of heroin can lead to serious health problems, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Long-term use of heroin can lead to physical dependence and addiction, a chronic disease that can be difficult to treat.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Preanesthetic medication, also known as premedication, refers to the administration of medications before anesthesia to help prepare the patient for the upcoming procedure. These medications can serve various purposes, such as:

1. Anxiolysis: Reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation in patients before surgery.
2. Amnesia: Causing temporary memory loss to help patients forget the events leading up to the surgery.
3. Analgesia: Providing pain relief to minimize discomfort during and after the procedure.
4. Antisialagogue: Decreasing saliva production to reduce the risk of aspiration during intubation.
5. Bronchodilation: Relaxing bronchial smooth muscles, which can help improve respiratory function in patients with obstructive lung diseases.
6. Antiemetic: Preventing or reducing the likelihood of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
7. Sedation: Inducing a state of calmness and drowsiness to facilitate a smooth induction of anesthesia.

Common preanesthetic medications include benzodiazepines (e.g., midazolam), opioids (e.g., fentanyl), anticholinergics (e.g., glycopyrrolate), and H1-antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine). The choice of preanesthetic medication depends on the patient's medical history, comorbidities, and the type of anesthesia to be administered.

Hydrocodone is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain. Medically, it's defined as a semisynthetic opioid analgesic, synthesized from codeine, one of the natural opiates found in the resin of the poppy seed pod.

Hydrocodone is available only in combination with other drugs, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, which are added to enhance its pain-relieving effects and/or to prevent abuse and overdose. Common brand names include Vicodin, Lortab, and Norco.

Like all opioids, hydrocodone carries a risk of addiction and dependence, and it should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider. It's also important to note that misuse or abuse of hydrocodone can lead to overdose and death.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Inert Gas Narcosis (IGN), also known as nitrogen narcosis or raptores narcosis, is a reversible alteration in consciousness, perception, and behavior that can occur in divers who breathe gas mixtures with high partial pressures of inert gases, such as nitrogen or helium, at depth. It is caused by the anesthetic effect of these gases on the central nervous system and is often described as feeling drunk or euphoric. The symptoms typically occur at depths greater than 30 meters (100 feet) and can include impaired judgment, memory, and coordination, which can increase the risk of accidents and injuries underwater. IGN is managed by ascending to shallower depths, where the partial pressure of the inert gas decreases, and by using gas mixtures with lower fractions of inert gases.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a international fellowship of individuals who have had a drinking problem and wish to do something about it. AA is nonprofessional, self-supporting, multiracial, apolitical, and available almost everywhere. There are no age or education requirements, and membership is open to anyone who wants to do something about their drinking problem.

AA's primary purpose is to help alcoholics stop drinking, though the organization also aims to inspire personal growth and improve the quality of life for its members. AA's program of recovery is based on the Twelve Steps, a set of principles that, when practiced as a way of life, can expel the obsession to drink and enable the sufferer to become happily and usefully whole.

The organization holds regular meetings where members share their experiences, strength, and hope to help one another recover from alcoholism. AA also offers sponsorship, where more experienced members work with newer members to guide them through the Twelve Step program.

It's important to note that while AA has helped many people achieve and maintain sobriety, it is not the only path to recovery from alcoholism. Other evidence-based treatments, such as medication-assisted treatment and behavioral therapy, are also effective for some individuals.

Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which means it's a painkiller that's synthesized from thebaine, an alkaloid found in the poppy plant. It's a strong pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe pain and is often prescribed for around-the-clock treatment of chronic pain. Oxycodone can be found in various forms, such as immediate-release tablets, extended-release tablets, capsules, and solutions.

Common brand names for oxycodone include OxyContin (extended-release), Percocet (oxycodone + acetaminophen), and Roxicodone (immediate-release). As an opioid, oxycodone works by binding to specific receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and gut, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain.

However, it's important to note that oxycodone has a high potential for abuse and addiction due to its euphoric effects. Misuse or prolonged use can lead to physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation. Therefore, it should be taken exactly as prescribed by a healthcare professional and used with caution.

"Mitragyna" is a genus of plants in the coffee family (Rubiaceae). The most well-known species within this genus is "Mitragyna speciosa," also known as kratom. Kratom is a tropical evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia, including countries like Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

The leaves of the kratom tree contain various alkaloids, with mitragynine being the most abundant. Mitragynine has psychoactive properties and can have stimulant-like effects at low doses and opioid-like pain-relieving effects at higher doses. Kratom is often used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to manage pain, fatigue, and opioid withdrawal symptoms. However, its legal status and safety profile are controversial in many other parts of the world.

Iso Nipecotic Acids are a type of organic compound that are structurally related to nipecotic acid, which is a GABAergic agent. Iso Nipecotic Acids have a similar chemical structure to nipecotic acid, but with the position of the amino group and the carboxylic acid group reversed.

These compounds are known to act as potent and selective antagonists at certain subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are important targets for the development of drugs for various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.

Iso Nipecotic Acids have been used in research to study the role of nAChRs in the brain and to investigate their potential as therapeutic agents for various neurological disorders. However, it is important to note that these compounds are not approved for use in humans and should only be used in a controlled laboratory setting under the guidance of trained researchers.

Dibenzocycloheptenes are a class of chemical compounds that contain a dibenzocycloheptene moiety, which is a seven-membered ring with two benzene rings fused on either side. This structure gives the molecule a unique set of physical and chemical properties, including its aromaticity and reactivity.

In medical terms, dibenzocycloheptenes are not commonly used as therapeutic agents themselves. However, some derivatives of this class of compounds have been investigated for their potential medicinal properties. For example, certain dibenzocycloheptene derivatives have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects, making them potentially useful as drugs for treating pain and inflammation.

It's important to note that while some dibenzocycloheptene derivatives may have potential therapeutic uses, they can also have side effects and risks, just like any other medication. Therefore, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medication containing this or any other active ingredient.

Methotrimeprazine is a phenothiazine derivative with antiemetic, antipsychotic, and sedative properties. It works as a dopamine receptor antagonist and has been used in the management of various conditions such as nausea and vomiting, schizophrenia, anxiety, and agitation.

It is important to note that Methotrimeprazine can have significant side effects, including sedation, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms (such as involuntary movements), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially life-threatening reaction). Its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it is important to follow their instructions carefully.

Morphine dependence is a medical condition characterized by a physical and psychological dependency on morphine, a potent opioid analgesic. This dependence develops as a result of repeated use or abuse of morphine, leading to changes in the brain's reward and pleasure pathways. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) outlines the following criteria for diagnosing opioid dependence, which includes morphine:

A. A problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Opioids are often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the opioid, use the opioid, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use opioids.
5. Recurrent opioid use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued opioid use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of opioids.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of opioid use.
8. Recurrent opioid use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued opioid use despite knowing that a physical or psychological problem is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by opioids.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of opioids to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of an opioid.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a. The characteristic opioid withdrawal syndrome.
b. The same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Additionally, it's important to note that if someone has been using opioids for an extended period and suddenly stops taking them, they may experience withdrawal symptoms. These can include:

- Anxiety
- Muscle aches
- Insomnia
- Runny nose
- Sweating
- Diarrhea
- Nausea or vomiting
- Abdominal cramping
- Dilated pupils

If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it's essential to seek professional help. There are many resources available, including inpatient and outpatient treatment programs, support groups, and medications that can help manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Hydromorphone is a potent semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which is chemically related to morphine but is approximately 8 times more potent. It is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain and is available in various forms such as tablets, extended-release tablets, solutions, and injectable formulations. Common brand names include Dilaudid and Exalgo. Hydromorphone works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain. As with other opioids, hydromorphone carries a risk for dependence, addiction, and abuse.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Ketones are organic compounds that contain a carbon atom bound to two oxygen atoms and a central carbon atom bonded to two additional carbon groups through single bonds. In the context of human physiology, ketones are primarily produced as byproducts when the body breaks down fat for energy in a process called ketosis.

Specifically, under conditions of low carbohydrate availability or prolonged fasting, the liver converts fatty acids into ketone bodies, which can then be used as an alternative fuel source for the brain and other organs. The three main types of ketones produced in the human body are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone.

Elevated levels of ketones in the blood, known as ketonemia, can occur in various medical conditions such as diabetes, starvation, alcoholism, and high-fat/low-carbohydrate diets. While moderate levels of ketosis are generally considered safe, severe ketosis can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in people with diabetes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paramethasone" does not appear to be a recognized medication or substance in modern medical practice. It's possible that there may be a spelling error or it could be an outdated or less-known term.

If you meant "DEXAMETHASONE," however, I can provide a definition. Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. It's often used in the treatment of various conditions such as allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin diseases. It can also be used to treat cancer and to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Please confirm if this is the medication you intended to inquire about.

Bridged compounds are a type of organic compound where two parts of the molecule are connected by a chain of atoms, known as a bridge. This bridge can consist of one or more atoms and can be made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, or other elements. The bridge can be located between two carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon, for example, creating a bridged bicyclic structure. These types of compounds are important in organic chemistry and can have unique chemical and physical properties compared to non-bridged compounds.

Analgesia is defined as the absence or relief of pain in a patient, achieved through various medical means. It is derived from the Greek word "an-" meaning without and "algein" meaning to feel pain. Analgesics are medications that are used to reduce pain without causing loss of consciousness, and they work by blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

Examples of analgesics include over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Prescription opioid painkillers, such as oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet) and hydrocodone (Vicodin), are also used for pain relief but carry a higher risk of addiction and abuse.

Analgesia can also be achieved through non-pharmacological means, such as through nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, acupuncture, and other complementary therapies. The choice of analgesic therapy depends on the type and severity of pain, as well as the patient's medical history and individual needs.

"Papaver" is the genus name for the poppy plant family, which includes several species of plants that are known for their showy flowers and often contain medicinal alkaloids. The most well-known member of this family is probably Papaver somniferum, also known as the opium poppy. This particular species contains a number of pharmacologically active compounds, including morphine, codeine, and papaverine, which have been used in various medical contexts for their analgesic, sedative, and vasodilatory effects. However, it's worth noting that the use of Papaver somniferum and its derivatives is tightly regulated due to their potential for abuse and addiction.

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Methadyl Acetate doesn't seem to be a recognized medical term. However, Methadone Hydrochloride and Methadone Acetate are both used in medical contexts. I'll provide information on Methadone Hydrochloride as it's more commonly used.

Methadone Hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) that is primarily used to treat moderate to severe pain. It's also widely known for its use in medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder, such as heroin addiction. In this context, it helps to reduce withdrawal symptoms and cravings, while also blocking the euphoric effects of other opioids.

Methadone Acetate, on the other hand, is an ester of methadone that can be used as a local anesthetic in some cases. However, it's not as commonly used or recognized as Methadone Hydrochloride.

Pharmacy, as defined by the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, is: "a place or store where drugs, medicines, and other similar items are prepared, compounded, dispensed, or sold." It can also refer to the art, science, or practice of preparing, compounding, and dispensing medicinal preparations.

Pharmacists are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, and they are responsible for ensuring that the medications prescribed to patients are appropriate, safe, and effective. They also provide advice on the proper use of medications, monitor patient health and drug therapies, and offer specialized services to help patients manage their medications.

Pharmacies can be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, retail stores, and online platforms. Regardless of where they are located, pharmacies must adhere to strict regulations and standards to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they dispense.

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome that occurs in newborns who were exposed to opioids or other addictive substances while in the mother's womb. It happens when a pregnant woman uses drugs such as heroin, oxycodone, methadone, or buprenorphine. After birth, when the baby is no longer receiving the drug through the placenta, withdrawal symptoms can occur.

NAS symptoms may include:

* Tremors, seizures, or muscle stiffness
* Excessive crying or high-pitched crying
* Sleep disturbances, poor feeding, and poor growth
* Fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and sneezing
* Rapid breathing or breath-holding
* Increased sweating, yawning, or stuffiness

The severity of NAS can vary depending on the type and amount of drug used during pregnancy, the timing and length of exposure, and the newborn's individual characteristics. Treatment typically involves a slow and careful weaning from the drug using medication such as morphine or methadone, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and promote healthy development.

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Alfentanil is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug that is chemically related to fentanyl. It is used for the provision of sedation and pain relief, particularly in critical care settings and during surgical procedures.

The medical definition of Alfentanil is as follows:

Alfentanil is a potent, short-acting opioid analgesic with a rapid onset of action. It is approximately 10 times more potent than morphine and has a rapid clearance rate due to its short elimination half-life of 1-2 hours. Alfentanil is used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia, as well as for sedation and pain relief in critically ill patients. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which inhibits the transmission of pain signals and produces analgesia, sedation, and respiratory depression.

Like all opioids, Alfentanil carries a risk of dependence, tolerance, and respiratory depression, and should be used with caution in patients with respiratory or cardiovascular disease. It is typically administered by healthcare professionals in a controlled setting due to its potency and potential for adverse effects.

Perphenazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking. Perphenazine is used to treat various mental disorders, including schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and severe agitation or aggression in people with developmental disabilities. It may also be used for the short-term treatment of severe anxiety or depression that does not respond to other treatments.

Perphenazine can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, restlessness, dry mouth, constipation, and weight gain. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and uncontrolled muscle movements, which may indicate a condition called tardive dyskinesia. Perphenazine can also cause cardiovascular side effects such as low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and increased heart rate. It is important to monitor patients taking perphenazine for these and other potential side effects.

It's worth noting that the use of antipsychotic medications like perphenazine should be based on a thorough evaluation of the patient's symptoms, medical history, and other factors. The decision to prescribe this medication should be made carefully, taking into account its benefits and risks, as well as any alternative treatment options.

Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by binding to the opiate receptors in the brain, which reduces the perception of pain. Butorphanol is available as an injectable solution and a nasal spray.

The medical definition of 'Butorphanol' is:

A synthetic opioid analgesic with agonist-antagonist properties. It is used in the management of moderate to severe pain, as a veterinary analgesic, and for obstetrical analgesia. Butorphanol has a high affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor, a lower affinity for the mu-opioid receptor, and little or no affinity for the delta-opioid receptor. Its actions at the mu-opioid receptor are antagonistic to those of morphine and other mu-opioid agonists, while its actions at the kappa-opioid receptor are similar to those of other opioids.

Butorphanol has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect. It may cause respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and other side effects common to opioid analgesics. Butorphanol is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Morphine derivatives are substances that are synthesized from or structurally similar to morphine, a natural opiate alkaloid found in the opium poppy. These compounds share many of the same pharmacological properties as morphine and are often used for their analgesic (pain-relieving), sedative, and anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) effects.

Examples of morphine derivatives include:

1. Hydrocodone: A semi-synthetic opioid that is often combined with acetaminophen for the treatment of moderate to severe pain.
2. Oxycodone: A synthetic opioid that is used for the management of moderate to severe pain, either alone or in combination with other medications.
3. Hydromorphone: A potent semi-synthetic opioid that is used for the treatment of severe pain, typically in a hospital setting.
4. Oxymorphone: A synthetic opioid that is similar to hydromorphone in its potency and use for managing severe pain.
5. Codeine: A naturally occurring opiate alkaloid that is less potent than morphine but still has analgesic, cough suppressant, and antidiarrheal properties. It is often combined with other medications for various therapeutic purposes.
6. Fentanyl: A synthetic opioid that is significantly more potent than morphine and is used for the management of severe pain, typically in a hospital or clinical setting.

It's important to note that while these derivatives can be beneficial for managing pain and other symptoms, they also carry a risk of dependence, addiction, and potentially life-threatening side effects such as respiratory depression. As a result, their use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals and prescribed cautiously.

An infusion pump is a medical device used to deliver fluids, such as medications, nutrients, or supplements, into a patient's body in a controlled and precise manner. These pumps can be programmed to deliver specific amounts of fluid over set periods, allowing for accurate and consistent administration. They are often used in hospitals, clinics, and home care settings to administer various types of therapies, including pain management, chemotherapy, antibiotic treatment, and parenteral nutrition.

Infusion pumps come in different sizes and configurations, with some being portable and battery-operated for use outside of a medical facility. They typically consist of a reservoir for the fluid, a pumping mechanism to move the fluid through tubing and into the patient's body, and a control system that allows healthcare professionals to program the desired flow rate and volume. Some advanced infusion pumps also include safety features such as alarms to alert healthcare providers if there are any issues with the pump's operation or if the patient's condition changes unexpectedly.

Phenanthrenes are not typically defined in a medical context, but they are a class of organic compounds that have a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon structure consisting of three benzene rings fused together. They can be found in some natural products and have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties. Some phenanthrenes have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities, among others. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profile.

A drug overdose occurs when a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs through the skin a toxic amount of a drug or combination of drugs. This can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the type of drug involved. In some cases, an overdose can be fatal.

An overdose can occur accidentally, for example if a person mistakenly takes too much of a medication or if a child accidentally ingests a medication that was left within their reach. An overdose can also occur intentionally, such as when a person takes too much of a drug to attempt suicide or to achieve a desired high.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary widely depending on the type of drug involved. Some common symptoms of a drug overdose may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Dizziness or confusion
* Difficulty breathing
* Seizures
* Unconsciousness
* Rapid heart rate or low blood pressure

If you suspect that someone has overdosed on a drug, it is important to seek medical help immediately. Call your local poison control center or emergency number (such as 911 in the United States) for assistance. If possible, try to provide the medical personnel with as much information as you can about the person and the drug(s) involved. This can help them to provide appropriate treatment more quickly.

Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a colorless and non-flammable gas with a slightly sweet odor and taste. In medicine, it's commonly used for its anesthetic and pain reducing effects. It is often used in dental procedures, surgery, and childbirth to help reduce anxiety and provide mild sedation. Nitrous oxide works by binding to the hemoglobin in red blood cells, which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, but this effect is usually not significant at the low concentrations used for analgesia and anxiolysis. It's also considered relatively safe when administered by a trained medical professional because it does not cause depression of the respiratory system or cardiovascular function.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Furans are not a medical term, but a class of organic compounds that contain a four-membered ring with four atoms, usually carbon and oxygen. They can be found in some foods and have been used in the production of certain industrial chemicals. Some furan derivatives have been identified as potentially toxic or carcinogenic, but the effects of exposure to these substances depend on various factors such as the level and duration of exposure.

In a medical context, furans may be mentioned in relation to environmental exposures, food safety, or occupational health. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of exposure to certain furan compounds may increase the risk of liver damage or cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health effects of these substances.

It's worth noting that furans are not a specific medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a class of chemical compounds with potential health implications. If you have concerns about exposure to furans or other environmental chemicals, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and recommendations.

Endorphins are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the nervous system and brain. The term "endorphin" comes from "endogenous morphine," reflecting the fact that these substances are produced naturally within the body and have effects similar to opiate drugs like morphine.

Endorphins are released in response to stress or pain, but they also occur naturally during exercise, excitement, laughter, love, and orgasm. They work by interacting with the opiate receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain and promote feelings of pleasure and well-being. Endorphins also play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, mood, and sleep.

In summary, endorphins are natural painkillers and mood elevators produced by the body in response to stress, pain, or enjoyable activities.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

Opioid receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in the cell membranes of certain neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. They bind to opioids, which are chemicals that can block pain signals and produce a sense of well-being. There are four main types of opioid receptors: mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin. These receptors play a role in the regulation of pain, reward, addiction, and other physiological functions. Activation of opioid receptors can lead to both therapeutic effects (such as pain relief) and adverse effects (such as respiratory depression and constipation).

Doping in sports is the use of prohibited substances or methods to improve athletic performance. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) defines doping as "the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations":

1. Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete's sample
2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
3. Evading, refusing, or failing to submit to sample collection
4. Whereabouts failures (three missed tests or filing failures within a 12-month period)
5. Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of the doping control process
6. Possession, trafficking, or administration of a prohibited substance or method
7. Complicity in an anti-doping rule violation
8. Prohibited association with a person who has been serving a period of ineligibility for an anti-doping rule violation

Doping is considered unethical and harmful to the integrity of sports, as it provides an unfair advantage to those who engage in it. It can also have serious health consequences for athletes. Various international and national organizations, including WADA and the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), work to prevent doping in sports through education, testing, and enforcement of anti-doping rules.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Anesthetics are medications that are used to block or reduce feelings of pain and sensation, either locally in a specific area of the body or generally throughout the body. They work by depressing the nervous system, interrupting the communication between nerves and the brain. Anesthetics can be administered through various routes such as injection, inhalation, or topical application, depending on the type and the desired effect. There are several classes of anesthetics, including:

1. Local anesthetics: These numb a specific area of the body and are commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or to relieve pain from injuries. Examples include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.
2. Regional anesthetics: These block nerve impulses in a larger area of the body, such as an arm or leg, and can be used for more extensive surgical procedures. They are often administered through a catheter to provide continuous pain relief over a longer period. Examples include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and peripheral nerve blocks.
3. General anesthetics: These cause a state of unconsciousness and are used for major surgical procedures or when the patient needs to be completely immobile during a procedure. They can be administered through inhalation or injection and affect the entire body. Examples include propofol, sevoflurane, and isoflurane.

Anesthetics are typically safe when used appropriately and under medical supervision. However, they can have side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression. Proper dosing and monitoring by a healthcare professional are essential to minimize the risks associated with anesthesia.

Naltrexone is a medication that is primarily used to manage alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. It works by blocking the effects of opioids and alcohol on the brain, reducing the euphoric feelings and cravings associated with their use. Naltrexone comes in the form of a tablet that is taken orally, and it has no potential for abuse or dependence.

Medically, naltrexone is classified as an opioid antagonist, which means that it binds to opioid receptors in the brain without activating them, thereby blocking the effects of opioids such as heroin, morphine, and oxycodone. It also reduces the rewarding effects of alcohol by blocking the release of endorphins, which are natural chemicals in the brain that produce feelings of pleasure.

Naltrexone is often used as part of a comprehensive treatment program for addiction, along with counseling, behavioral therapy, and support groups. It can help individuals maintain abstinence from opioids or alcohol by reducing cravings and preventing relapse. Naltrexone is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it may cause side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, and fatigue in some people.

It's important to note that naltrexone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and it is not recommended for individuals who are currently taking opioids or who have recently stopped using them, as it can cause withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, naltrexone may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting naltrexone therapy.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Heroin dependence, also known as opioid use disorder related to heroin, is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by the compulsive seeking and use of heroin despite harmful consequences. It involves a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms including a strong desire or craving to take the drug, difficulty in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, tolerance (needing to take more to achieve the same effect), and withdrawal symptoms when not taking it. Heroin dependence can cause significant impairment in personal relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It is considered a complex medical disorder that requires professional treatment and long-term management.

Palliative care is a type of medical care that focuses on relieving the pain, symptoms, and stress of serious illnesses. The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and their family. It is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work together to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of the patient. Palliative care can be provided at any stage of an illness, alongside curative treatments, and is not dependent on prognosis.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as: "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychological and spiritual."

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Opioid mu receptors, also known as mu-opioid receptors (MORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to opioids, a class of chemicals that include both natural and synthetic painkillers. These receptors are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract, and play a key role in mediating the effects of opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone.

MORs are involved in pain modulation, reward processing, respiratory depression, and physical dependence. Activation of MORs can lead to feelings of euphoria, decreased perception of pain, and slowed breathing. Prolonged activation of these receptors can also result in tolerance, where higher doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect, and dependence, where withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug is discontinued.

MORs have three main subtypes: MOR-1, MOR-2, and MOR-3, with MOR-1 being the most widely studied and clinically relevant. Selective agonists for MOR-1, such as fentanyl and sufentanil, are commonly used in anesthesia and pain management. However, the abuse potential and risk of overdose associated with these drugs make them a significant public health concern.

Metabolic detoxification, in the context of drugs, refers to the series of biochemical processes that the body undergoes to transform drugs or other xenobiotics into water-soluble compounds so they can be excreted. This process typically involves two phases:

1. Phase I Detoxification: In this phase, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce functional groups into the drug molecule, making it more polar and reactive. This can result in the formation of metabolites that are less active than the parent compound or, in some cases, more toxic.

2. Phase II Detoxification: In this phase, enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and sulfotransferases conjugate these polar and reactive metabolites with endogenous molecules like glutathione, glucuronic acid, or sulfate. This further increases the water solubility of the compound, allowing it to be excreted by the kidneys or bile.

It's important to note that while these processes are essential for eliminating drugs and other harmful substances from the body, they can also produce reactive metabolites that may cause damage to cells and tissues if not properly regulated. Therefore, maintaining a balance in the activity of these detoxification enzymes is crucial for overall health and well-being.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a method of pain management that allows patients to self-administer doses of analgesic medication through a controlled pump system. With PCA, the patient can press a button to deliver a predetermined dose of pain medication, usually an opioid, directly into their intravenous (IV) line.

The dosage and frequency of the medication are set by the healthcare provider based on the patient's individual needs and medical condition. The PCA pump is designed to prevent overinfusion by limiting the amount of medication that can be delivered within a specific time frame.

PCA provides several benefits, including improved pain control, increased patient satisfaction, and reduced sedation compared to traditional methods of opioid administration. It also allows patients to take an active role in managing their pain and provides them with a sense of control during their hospital stay. However, it is essential to monitor patients closely while using PCA to ensure safe and effective use.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A drug prescription is a written or electronic order provided by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician, dentist, or advanced practice nurse, to a pharmacist that authorizes the preparation and dispensing of a specific medication for a patient. The prescription typically includes important information such as the patient's name and date of birth, the name and strength of the medication, the dosage regimen, the duration of treatment, and any special instructions or precautions.

Prescriptions serve several purposes, including ensuring that patients receive the appropriate medication for their medical condition, preventing medication errors, and promoting safe and effective use of medications. They also provide a legal record of the medical provider's authorization for the pharmacist to dispense the medication to the patient.

There are two main types of prescriptions: written prescriptions and electronic prescriptions. Written prescriptions are handwritten or printed on paper, while electronic prescriptions are transmitted electronically from the medical provider to the pharmacy. Electronic prescriptions are becoming increasingly common due to their convenience, accuracy, and security.

It is important for patients to follow the instructions provided on their prescription carefully and to ask their healthcare provider or pharmacist any questions they may have about their medication. Failure to follow a drug prescription can result in improper use of the medication, which can lead to adverse effects, treatment failure, or even life-threatening situations.

Enkephalins are naturally occurring opioid peptides that bind to opiate receptors in the brain and other organs, producing pain-relieving and other effects. They are derived from the precursor protein proenkephalin and consist of two main types: Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin. Enkephalins play a role in pain modulation, stress response, mood regulation, and addictive behaviors. They are also involved in the body's reward system and have been implicated in various physiological processes such as respiration, gastrointestinal motility, and hormone release.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Analgesics, non-narcotic are a class of medications used to relieve pain that do not contain narcotics or opioids. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system or by reducing inflammation and swelling. Examples of non-narcotic analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. These medications are often used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and arthritis symptoms. They can be obtained over-the-counter or by prescription, depending on the dosage and formulation. It is important to follow the recommended dosages and usage instructions carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Chlorpromazine is a type of antipsychotic medication, also known as a phenothiazine. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Chlorpromazine is used to treat various mental health conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. It may also be used for the short-term management of severe anxiety or agitation, and to control nausea and vomiting.

Like all medications, chlorpromazine can have side effects, which can include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, or abnormal movements, as well as cardiovascular problems such as low blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms. It is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking chlorpromazine, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "oxides" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Oxides are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one oxygen atom and one other element. They can be formed through the process of oxidation, which involves the combination of oxygen with another substance.

In a broader sense, you might encounter the term "oxide" in a medical context when discussing various materials or substances used in medical devices, treatments, or research. For instance, titanium dioxide is a common ingredient in medical-grade sunscreens due to its ability to block and scatter UV light. However, it's important to note that the term "oxides" itself doesn't have a direct connection to medicine or human health.

Drug receptors are specific protein molecules found on the surface of cells, to which drugs can bind. These receptors are part of the cell's communication system and are responsible for responding to neurotransmitters, hormones, and other signaling molecules in the body. When a drug binds to its corresponding receptor, it can alter the receptor's function and trigger a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a biological response.

Drug receptors can be classified into several types based on their function, including:

1. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are the largest family of drug receptors and are involved in various physiological processes such as vision, olfaction, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. They activate intracellular signaling pathways through heterotrimeric G proteins.
2. Ion channel receptors: These receptors form ion channels that allow the flow of ions across the cell membrane when activated. They are involved in rapid signal transduction and can be directly gated by ligands or indirectly through G protein-coupled receptors.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors have an intracellular domain that functions as an enzyme, activating intracellular signaling pathways when bound to a ligand. Examples include receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor serine/threonine kinases.
4. Nuclear receptors: These receptors are located in the nucleus and function as transcription factors, regulating gene expression upon binding to their ligands.

Understanding drug receptors is crucial for developing new drugs and predicting their potential therapeutic and adverse effects. By targeting specific receptors, drugs can modulate cellular responses and produce desired pharmacological actions.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. The symptoms can vary from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it's thought to involve a combination of factors such as muscle contractions in the intestine, abnormalities in the nervous system, inflammation in the intestines, severe infection, or changes in bacteria in the gut.

It's important to note that while IBS can cause great discomfort and distress, it does not lead to serious complications such as changes in bowel tissue or increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, it can significantly affect a person's quality of life and daily activities.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Quinones are a class of organic compounds that contain a fully conjugated diketone structure. This structure consists of two carbonyl groups (C=O) separated by a double bond (C=C). Quinones can be found in various biological systems and synthetic compounds. They play important roles in many biochemical processes, such as electron transport chains and redox reactions. Some quinones are also known for their antimicrobial and anticancer properties. However, some quinones can be toxic or mutagenic at high concentrations.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

"What is the Narcotics Anonymous Program?" (PDF). Narcotics Anonymous World Services, Inc. Retrieved June 8, 2013. Narcotics ... "WCNA37 Program" (PDF). Narcotics Anonymous World Services. Narcotics Anonymous (Basic Text) (5th ed.). Narcotics Anonymous ... Narcotics Anonymous (2008). Narcotics Anonymous 6th edition (PDF). Chatsworth, California: Narcotics Anonymous World Services. ... "Narcotics Anonymous Basic Text, Sixth Edition" (PDF). Van Nuys, CA: Narcotics Anonymous World Services Inc.[dead link] "It ...
Narcotics (French: Stupéfiants) is a 1932 German drama film directed by Kurt Gerron and Roger Le Bon and starring Jean Murat, ... ISBN 978-0-8131-7185-2. Narcotics at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata ...
... at IMDb The Narcotics Story is available for free viewing and download at the Internet Archive v t e ( ... The Narcotics Story is a 1958 American film directed by Robert W. Larsen. The film is also known as Goofballs and Tea (American ... As it follows one young woman neglected by her parents, the film also shows the underlying causes of narcotics use, with these ... It shows how to identify certain narcotics, identify the signs that someone is using, identify the signs of where drug deals ...
All Narcotics Officers are defined as an "officer of the Bureau" under the Misuse of Drugs Act. This empowers them to enter and ... All new Narcotics Officers must under go a period of residential training in the Home Team Academy (HTA) and pass all required ... The Central Narcotics Bureau (CNB) is a department under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) tasked to combat drug trafficking ... "The Anti-Narcotics Special Task Force - A higher calling (Part 1)". Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 17 ...
Data and Information Center Human Resource Development Center Narcotics Laboratory Narcotics Board Regional Office (Province ... The National Narcotics Board (Indonesian: Badan Narkotika Nasional, abbreviated BNN) is a government agency of Indonesia. BNN ... Indonesia portal Politics portal National Narcotics Board (in Indonesian) v t e (CS1 Indonesian-language sources (id), EngvarB ... level) Narcotics Board Regional Office (City/Regency level) BNN officers are trained in the use of firearms. CZ P-07 - standard ...
The Narcotics Control Bureau was created on 17 March 1986 to enable the full implementation of The Narcotic Drugs and ... The Narcotics Control Bureau (abbr. NCB) is an Indian central law enforcement and intelligence agency under the Ministry of ... The Narcotics Control Bureau's national headquarters is located in Delhi, the national capital. Its field units and offices are ... The chief purpose of the Narcotics Control Bureau is to fight drug trafficking on an all-India level. It works in close ...
... , South America, is a subject that primarily involves the coca crop, used in the production of the drug, ... Bolivia's anti-narcotics units apprehended several prominent traffickers in 1988. At the same time that the 1988 Antinarcotics ... A total of thirteen Special Narcotics-Control Courts were supposed to be operating by mid-1989, with two in each of the ... Narcotics traffickers routinely tried to bribe judicial and other officials in exchange for releasing suspected smugglers, ...
The Bulletin on Narcotics is a publication of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. First published in 1981, the ... Bulletin on Narcotics Index of Issues. (Drug control treaties). ... The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs The 1971 ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and ...
Narcotics Control Division (NCD) was declared Ministry of Narcotics Control in 2001 but it was reverted to NCD under Ministry ... Ministry of Narcotics Control (MNC) Ministry of Narcotics Control was established in August 2017. There are distinct stages for ... Narcotics Control Division (NCD) was established in 1989 and the Board became its attached department. Anti Narcotics Task ... the Anti-Narcotics Force under the insight of the Ministry of Narcotics Control is works in co-ordination with other Law ...
The Narcotics Rewards Program is a program of the United States Department of State that offers rewards for information leading ... Narcotics Rewards Program - State Department site (Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2021, All articles ... The Department of State's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) manages the program in close ... Overseas, individuals wishing to provide information on major narcotics traffickers may contact the nearest U.S. embassy or ...
Narcotics Enforcement Division, Hawaii Mississippi Bureau of Narcotics Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Control ... Some states have a state bureau of narcotics but some do not. Some states let state police have state narcotics units or ... "About Narcotics Enforcement Division". Department of Public Safety. "Bureau of Narcotics , MS.GOV". www.mississippi.gov. (Drug ... New York State Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement Iowa Division of Narcotics Enforcement Kentucky East/West Drug Enforcement Maine ...
The Mid-Iowa Narcotics Enforcement (MINE) Task Force is a federally funded undercover drug enforcement task force, coordinated ... "Polk County Iowa Sheriff's Office Mid-iowa Narcotics Task Force". v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... MINE is part of the Iowa Division of Narcotics Enforcement and is charged with aggressively combating street level drug dealers ...
The Narcotics Commissioner is assisted by two Deputy Narcotics Commissioners (DNCs) and two Assistant Narcotics Commissioners ( ... The Narcotics Commissioner of India is assisted by three Deputy Narcotics Commissioners (DNC), who are in charge of units in ... The Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN) is headed by the Narcotics Commissioner of India, who belongs to the Indian Revenue ... The Central Bureau of Narcotics headquarters is located at Gwalior. The incumbent Commissioner of Central Bureau of Narcotics ...
Commission on Narcotic Drugs Official links: Official website of the International Narcotics Control Board INCB's Yellow list ( ... "The International Narcotics Control Board on human rights: A critique of the report for 2019". idpc.net. Archived from the ... The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is an independent treaty body, one of the four treaty-mandated bodies under ... "UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1968 Issue 2 - 007". United Nations : Office on Drugs and Crime. Archived from the original on ...
Anti-Narcotics Police of FARAJA (Persian: پلیس مبارزه با مواد مخدر فراجا, Pelis-e Mebarzh-e Ba Mivâd-e Mixedâr-e Baja) is a law ... "Dehqani: Iran pays high cost in anti-narcotics campaign". IRNA. 9 October 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015. v t e (Articles ... "Iran, Afghanistan to boost anti-narcotics cooperation". Tehran Times. 9 August 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015. " ...
Enforcement and control of narcotic control laws in the country Education and prevention of the use of narcotics Treatment, ... The Narcotics Control Board (NACOB) is a Ghanaian agency under the Ministry of Interior. It is the agency concerned with the ... The narcotic product confiscated is then burned to prevent redistribution of the product. One such burning was done in June ... "Narcotics control board burns 167 kilos of cocaine". news.myjoyonline.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. ...
"Department of Narcotics Control". www.dnc.gov.bd. Retrieved 26 June 2023. "Department of Narcotics Control, DNC Teletalk". Bd ... is the main government agency responsible for narcotics control in Bangladesh. The Department of Narcotics Control was ... Abdul Wahab Bhuiyan is the Director-General of the Department of Narcotics Control. They do not have sufficient personnel to ... "Welcome to Department of Narcotics Control Webpage..." dnc.gov.bd. Retrieved 20 April 2017. "Origins of the global anti-drug ...
The Ministry of Counter Narcotics (Pashto: د مخدره موادو پر ضد وزارت; Persian: وزارت مبارزه عليه مواد مخدر) is a ministry ... The ministry leads the coordination, policy-making, monitoring and evaluation of all counter-narcotics activities and efforts. ... The role of Minister of Counter Narcotics has been described as the world's toughest job. Opium production in Afghanistan ...
The Narcotics Control Act 1990 is a Bangladeshi law that regulates all aspects of narcotics and alcohol within the country, ... "Abuse of Narcotics Drugsshould be controlled". The Daily Sun. Retrieved 3 June 2018. "Stricter narcotics control law on the ... The Narcotics Control Act was passed in 1990 by the Parliament of Bangladesh. It replaced previous laws including the Opium Act ... The act came into force on 2 January 1990 and brought into life the Department of Narcotics Control as the central agency ...
... consolidating the functions of the Federal Narcotics Control Board and the Narcotic Division. These older bureaus were ... The Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) was an agency of the United States Department of the Treasury, established in the ... "Webster BIVENS, Petitioner, v. SIX UNKNOWN NAMED AGENTS OF FEDERAL BUREAU OF NARCOTICS. , Supreme Court , US Law , LII / Legal ... Anslinger, Harry Jacob; Tompkins, William F. (1 January 1980). The Traffic in Narcotics. Arno Press. ISBN 9780405135675 - via ...
Origins of Narcotic Control (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512509-6. "The Harrison Narcotics Act (1914)". ... The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (Ch. 1, 38 Stat. 785) was a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production, ... For this reason, however, 'narcotic' has come to mean any illegally used drug, but it is useful as a shorthand for referring to ... "The drafters of the Harrison Act of 1914, the first federal ban on non-medical narcotics, played on fears of "drug-crazed, sex- ...
There are two main types: non-narcotic analgesics for mild pain, and narcotic analgesics for severe pain. Narcotic analgesics ... If it is on some of the Schedules, it is narcotic. The term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic ... There are many different types of narcotics. The two most common forms of narcotic drugs are morphine and codeine. Both are ... "List of Narcotic Drugs - Illegal and Prescription Narcotics Drugs Effects". Retrieved 18 March 2017. General Drug Categories. ...
The National Narcotics Control Board was formed through the passage of the Narcotics Control Act in 1990. The board is headed ... "Laws on Narcotics control". Law and Our Rights. The Daily Star. Retrieved 20 April 2017. International Narcotics Control Board ... "Inaction on narcotics". The Daily Star (Editorial). Retrieved 20 April 2017. "Narcotics guardians go into long hibernation". ... "Welcome to Department of Narcotics Control Webpage..." Department of Narcotics Control. Archived from the original on 21 April ...
... the international narcotics trafficking activities of a significant foreign narcotics trafficker so identified in the report" " ... Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Sanctions Regulations. 31 CFR 598 "SANCTIONS PURSUANT TO THE FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN DESIGNATION ... The Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act, better known as the Kingpin Act, is landmark federal legislation in the United ... "Drug Control: Narcotics Threat From Colombia Continues to Grow" (PDF). U.S. GAO ~ NSIAD-99-136. U.S. Government Accountability ...
The Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) was a specialist force under the command of the Afghan National Police to ... Candidates for the 5-week long Counter Narcotics Course must have completed an 8-week basic police course and are carefully ... conduct investigations and operations in Afghanistan related to narcotics. The CNPA was assisted by American/British police ...
The Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law (麻薬及び向精神薬取締法 Mayaku oyobi kouseishin'yaku torishimari hō) is a law enacted in Japan ... It was enacted in 1953 under the name of Narcotics Control Law (麻薬取締法 Mayaku torishimari hō) and was renamed current title in ... "narcotics and psychotropics." All of these laws were written in the 1950s, although some were revised in the Heisei period in ... accordance with the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Marijuana ...
Its sole agency or unit is the Anti-Narcotics Force. "Ministry, IIU agree on joint efforts for narcotics control". The News ... The Ministry of Narcotics Control (Urdu: وزارتِ سدِّ بابِ منشیات ، پاکستان wazarat-e- sad bab-e manshiat, Pakistan) is the ... The ministry was created out of the Ministry of Interior and Narcotics Control (now just Ministry of Interior). ...
It analyzed illegal drug use and was tasked to develop a National Narcotics Intelligence System, conducting analysis only with ... The Office of National Narcotics Intelligence (ONNI) was a United States federal law enforcement agency under the Justice ... along with the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement, and some Customs officers). ...
1946 Lake Success Protocol Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act Narcotic Farms Act of 1929 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs ... Modification of List of Basic Narcotic Drugs Restrictions on the Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs Licenses to Manufacture Narcotic ... 513-517 Amendment to Law with Respect to Exportation of Narcotic Drugs Authorizing Importation of Narcotic Drugs as to Certain ... Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960 is a federal declaration affirming the United States commitment to international convention ...
Narcotic or Narcotics may also refer to: Narcotic, album by Muslimgauze "Narcotic", song by Liquido "Narcotic" (Younotus, ... Narcotic, refers to medical or psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties. In the United States it has since become ... 1932 German drama film directed by Kurt Gerron and Roger Le Bon Narcotics Anonymous or NA, nonprofit fellowship or society of ... Janieck and Senex song), 2019 song, that remixes Liquido's song Narcotics (film), ...
Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. They are only used for pain that is severe and is not helped by other types of ... Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. They are only used for pain that is severe and is not helped by other types of ... SIDE EFFECTS OF NARCOTICS. Drowsiness and impaired judgment often occur with these medicines. When taking a narcotic, do not ... Opioid overdose is a major risk if you take a narcotic drug for a long time. Before you are prescribed a narcotic, your ...
Narcotic and psychotropic drugs : achieving balance in national opioids control policy : guidelines for assessment  ... Joint UNDCP-WHO Technical Consultation Meeting on Parallel Distribution Systems for Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances ... Joint UNDCP-WHO Technical Consultation Meeting on Parallel Distribution Systems for Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances ...
Narcotic misuse can be better prevented with collaboration among prescribers, pharmacies, and law enforcement. ... and law enforcement to stop the substantial flow of prescription narcotics into the community? ...
Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND). *Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized ... The same year, he was secretary-general of the Conference for the Limitation of the Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs. This ... The Editors of the Bulletin on Narcotics extend their sincere sympathy to Mr. Ekstrands family. ... He was one of the pioneers in the field of international narcotics control. ...
Kenya Airways crew arrested over narcotics Source: Xinhua, 2017-11-02 18:50:08,Editor: liuxin ... It is suspected that a cartel comprising airport staff and in-flight attendants has been receiving narcotic drugs from a yet-to ... The two were nabbed after a tip off from friendly foreign security agencies who had observed an influx of narcotics emanating ... "We have not established the value of the narcotics but investigation is underway," the police officer told Xinhua by telephone. ...
Topic: " Management of Ocular Pain/Narcotics". Speaker: Steven Sorkin, OD., Dipl-ABO. Credits: 2 Oral. Printer-Friendly Version ... Management of Ocular Pain/Narcotics" ---- Credits: 2 Oral ...
Detectives recover over Ksh.13M in anti-narcotics operation. Christine Muchira - August 15, 2023. 0 ...
The Porta-Pac Drug Kit is recommended for narcotics identification operations where portability and ease-of-use are prime ... NIK Narcotics ID Porta-Pac. The Porta-Pac® Drug Kit is recommended for narcotics identification operations where portability ...
... is a semisynthetic narcotic derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. It was first synthesized in 1874 and was ... In suspected narcotic overdose, small increments (, 0.1 mg) may be used IV until the desired effect is obtained or until 10 mg ... Small increments are used rather than a large bolus injection in order to prevent narcotic withdrawal in the patient who is ...
Narcotic and psychotropic drugs : achieving balance in national opioids control policy : guidelines for assessment  ... Joint UNDCP-WHO Technical Consultation Meeting on Parallel Distribution Systems for Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances ... Joint UNDCP-WHO Technical Consultation Meeting on Parallel Distribution Systems for Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances ...
Popes Address to Seminar on Narcotics: Problems and Solutions "The neediest of our brothers, who seemingly has nothing to ... "Narcotics: Problems and Solutions for This Worldwide Plague.". Here is a ZENIT translation of the Popes address.. __. ...
... citizens on Thursday after they picked up multiple packages of narcotics that were dropped by a drone coming from Mexico. ... The Yuma County Narcotics Task Force served a search warrant on the residence and a subsequent search resulted in the seizure ... up narcotics dropped by a drone from. Mexico.. Yuma Station agents detected a small-unmanned aircraft system making multiple ... Yuma Sector agents assisted in the arrest of two U.S. citizens on Thursday after they picked up multiple packages of narcotics ...
On June 7th 2019, Detectives from the Ventura County Sheriffs Gang Unit concluded a month long narcotic investigation into ... Detectives seized approximately a quarter-pound of methamphetamine, additional paraphernalia indicative of narcotic sales, and ...
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Mountain High Area of Narcotics Anonymous - Includes NA meetings in Craig, Granby, Meeker & Steamboat Springs. Colorado.. ... Mountain High Area of Narcotics Anonymous - Includes NA meetings in Craig, Granby, Meeker & Steamboat Springs. Colorado.. ... Southern Area of Narcotics Anonymous - Includes NA meetings in Alamosa, Canon City, Crestone, Florence, La Junta, Las Animas, ... Southern Area of Narcotics Anonymous - Includes NA meetings in Alamosa, Canon City, Crestone, Florence, La Junta, Las Animas, ...
Narcotic Scent LSD formulation powder; find Supelco-P1334 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... Substitute for controlled substances in the training of narcotics detector dogs. Mimics the odor of LSD. ...
Detectives assigned to Narcotics Division, Illicit Lab Squad, are conducting the investigation.. This press release was ...
Drugs or narcotics have ruined a lot of lives. Youve certainly seen or heard of many people who used to be normal but ended up ... Drugs or narcotics have ruined a lot of lives. Youve certainly seen or heard of many people who used to be normal but ended up ... The term "narcotic" refers to a substance that can cause a numbing or sedating effect on the body and mind. It can produce a ... It is very important to know how narcotics could effect people in the long and short run, as they have a substantial effect on ...
As a result of this investigation, 19 individuals have been charged in federal court with various narcotics and firearms ... The investigation revealed that, in addition to narcotics trafficking, WINSTON was involved in the straw purchase of two ... His criminal history includes multiple convictions for sale and possession of narcotics and possession of weapons. ... On multiple occasions, gang members were intercepted over court-authorized wiretaps discussing their narcotics trafficking ...
NARCOTICS ANONYMOUS-WORCESTER: Back to Basics Narcotics Anonymous Support group for those attempting to recover from drugs ...
An updated version of this document is available. Please see the following link ...
Narcotic addiction and BFP reactions in tests for syphilis Cite CITE. Title : Narcotic addiction and BFP reactions in tests for ... Title : Addiction liability and narcotics control Personal Author(s) : Eddy, Nathan B.;Isbell, Harris; Published Date : Sep ...
... has to be taken against narcotics traders to eradicate the menace of drugs in the country and asked all state governments to ... Strict action will be taken against people who sell drugs: Amit Shah at anti-narcotics conference. Mirror Now , 19 Apr 2023, ... Union Home Minister Amit Shah on Wednesday said a "ruthless approach" has to be taken against narcotics traders to eradicate ... Strict action will be taken against people who sell drugs: Amit Shah at anti-narcotics conference. ...
Also know that narcotic pain meds can cause constipation and curb your appetite. During the healing process you need to eat a ... Also know that narcotic pain meds can cause constipation and curb your appetite. During the healing process you need to eat a ... Im ready to see a pain specialist for something better as I dont wish to go back to narcotics. ...
The actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to ... Joseph R. Biden, Notice-Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in ... Notice-Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia. ... and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the ...
IDT Workshop - DRT/MAT As It Relates to Narcotics Anonymous "Helping Members Take Root." Join us as our RD team shares this ... A closed Narcotics Anonymous Womens Event • NA speaker meetings • Excellent Food • Huge Raffle • Drum Circle • Comfortable ... "A Fresh Start Group" of Narcotics Anonymous Join us once again for our Anniversary Meeting" Breakfast " Celebrating over 30 ... Copyright © , 2024 Connecticut Region of Narcotics Anonymous , PO Box 1817 Meriden, CT 06450 , 800-627-3543 ...
  • LONDON , Oct. 29, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Explosives and Narcotics Trace Detection (ETD) is a key modality within the transportation security infrastructure. (prnewswire.com)
  • Rapid screening for chemical traces of explosives and narcotics is widely used to support homeland security and law enforcement. (nist.gov)
  • Narcotics Anonymous (NA), founded in 1953, describes itself as a "nonprofit fellowship or society of men and women for whom drugs had become a major problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to the vigilance of its officers and to its third consecutive participation in INTERPOL's operations against illicit drugs, the UAE is taking concrete steps to overcome the threat of drug trafficking on its soil and towards other destinations," said Colonel Abdulla Alshamsi of the UAE's Federal General Department of Anti-Narcotics. (interpol.int)
  • While inaugurating a two-day workshop on 'Narcotics law enforcement' at a city hotel, the home adviser said though Bangladesh does not produce any narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances illegally, it is used as a transit country for drugs produced in the Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent. (thedailystar.net)
  • VIENNA, 9 February (UN Information Service) - During the 139th session, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) continued its work to ensure the functioning of the international drug control system, focusing on the availability of controlled medicines and the prevention of drug diversion and misuse, as well as INCB's contributions to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs' (CND) mid-term review to take place in March 2024. (incb.org)
  • INCB is the independent, quasi-judicial body charged with promoting and monitoring Government compliance with the three international drug control conventions: the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. (incb.org)
  • Established by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the thirteen members of the Board are elected in a personal capacity by the Economic and Social Council for terms of five years. (incb.org)
  • DA Flynn says the new Narcotics Bureau will expand the amount of cases it investigates by taking on those that involve lower amounts of drugs. (wkbw.com)
  • Division of Narcotic Drugs. (who.int)
  • Narcotics and drugs in Sri Lanka : socio-legal dimensions / by D. C. Jayasuriya. (who.int)
  • The results presented are based on questions asked in the national public health survey: Have you ever used prescription drugs classified as narcotics (such as Tramadol or benzodiazepines) in a way other than as prescribed by a doctor? (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • With this in mind, there is a zero-tolerance against drugs and narcotics within AF, recognised student associations and cooperative associations and rented (or in other ways connected) premises. (lu.se)
  • Quoting the annual report of International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) published in March this year, MA Matin said, "Bangladesh has become the prime transit route for trafficking heroin to Europe from South East Asia and heroin consignments destined for Europe are increasingly passing through Bangladesh. (thedailystar.net)
  • The Narcotics Unit is committed to aggressively target narcotics sales and help combat opiate overdoses in Ventura County through aggressive narcotic enforcement. (nixle.com)
  • Home Secretary Md Abdul Karim, IGP Nur Mohammad and Director General (DG) of the Department of Narcotics Control (DNC) Md Humayun Kabir spoke at the inaugural function as the special guests while Wanchai Disates, assistant director of Narcotics Law Enforcement, office of the Narcotics Control Board Thailand, presented a keynote paper. (thedailystar.net)
  • According to court documents and statements made in court, this matter stems from a year-long joint law enforcement investigation headed by the FBI's Northern Connecticut Violent Crimes Task Force into narcotics trafficking by members and associates of West Hell street gang, and gang-related violent activity. (fbi.gov)
  • This draft memorandum, following coordination with the intelligence components of the law enforcement community, will be sent to the Attorney General to satisfy Section 2014 of the International Narcotics Control Act of 1986, Public Law No. 99-570. (cia.gov)
  • HHE Report No. HETA-99-0252-2831, State of Iowa Division of Narcotics Enforcement, Des Moines, IA. (cdc.gov)
  • Copies of this report have been sent to employee and management representatives at State of Iowa Division of Narcotic Enforcement and the OSHA Regional Office. (cdc.gov)
  • RNU detectives, in partnership with all local law enforcement agencies, are diligently working on reducing this public safety threat by investigating these recent deaths, and by targeting individuals responsible for the distribution of fentanyl laced narcotics. (lassennews.com)
  • I have testified 20 times on topics such as narcotics, law enforcement and law enforcement ethics. (roundtablegroup.com)
  • On April 7, 2020, detectives with the Ventura County Sheriff's Office Narcotics Unit and Fillmore Patrol Station concluded a narcotics sales investigation and arrested three Fillmore residents for various narcotics and firearms violations. (nixle.com)
  • During the month of March 2020, detectives began an investigation involving Cary Roberts who was suspected of selling narcotics to residents in Ventura County. (nixle.com)
  • Detectives searched the residence and found methamphetamine, money, scales and packaging consistent with narcotics sales. (nixle.com)
  • Truckee Meadows has recently experienced an increase in fentanyl related overdoses and overdose deaths of people believing they were using cocaine and/or methamphetamine, according to Regional Narcotics Unit detectives with the Washoe County Sheriff's Office. (lassennews.com)
  • Narcotic analgesics may be appropriate to treat more severe pain, eg, acetaminophen 300 mg with codeine 30 mg (Tylenol #3) 1-2 tablets PO q4-6h. (medscape.com)
  • Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Opioid overdose is a major risk if you take a narcotic drug for a long time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While Lassen County Sheriff Dean Growdon said his office is not a part of the Regional Narcotics Unit, fentanyl poses risks for local residents. (lassennews.com)
  • Narcotics work by binding to receptors in the brain, which blocks the feeling of pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • District Attorney John Flynn announced a new Narcotics Bureau to help fight the opiate epidemic in Erie County. (wkbw.com)
  • The Global Explosives & Narcotics Trace Detection (ETD): Technologies & Market - 2015-2020 - Focus on (Air, Maritime & Land) Transportation report is a valuable resource for executives with interests in the industry. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Global Explosives & Narcotics Trace Detection (ETD): Technologies & Market - 2015-2020 - Focus on (Air, Maritime & Land) Transportation report presents in 477 pages, 90 tables and 65 figures, analysis of current and pipeline technologies and 24 leading vendors. (prnewswire.com)
  • In this proof of concept study, we investigated the trace detection of wipe-based (i.e., common swipe sampling collection method) explosives, oxidizers, and narcotics using an OPSI source and compact single quadrupole mass analyzer. (nist.gov)
  • You should not use a narcotic drug for more than 3 to 4 months, unless your provider instructs you otherwise. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may be prescribed and instructed how to use a drug called naloxone in case you have an overdose of your narcotic drug. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Data from the regional narcotics center indicated that there were 530 registered drug addicts in the Osh region and 1,400 in the city in 2012. (rferl.org)
  • Home Adviser Maj Gen (retd) MA Matin yesterday said Bangladesh is critically vulnerable to narcotics-induced hazards and the number of drug users is increasing in the country leading to a great concern to the government. (thedailystar.net)
  • The speakers also said drug trafficking and smuggling are also a political threat as funds from trafficking in narcotics are extensively used to fund terrorist outfits. (thedailystar.net)
  • Erie County officials hope a stand-alone Narcotics Bureau will help with these drug cases. (wkbw.com)
  • Cannabis is the most common narcotic drug in Sweden. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Use of narcotic drug for medical use other than as prescribed (self-reported) by region, sex and year. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Taking narcotics to control the pain of cancer or other medical problems does not itself lead to addiction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Withdrawal symptoms are common when you stop taking a narcotic. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hyderabad: For the first time in the state, the city police, in collaboration with the narcotics bureau, will subject. (deccanchronicle.com)
  • Hyderabad: The TS Narcotics Bureau (TS NAB) has submitted a detailed report to Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB), the nodal. (deccanchronicle.com)
  • William R. Kotapish Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/06/11 : CIA-RDP91 B00776R000300050012-1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/06/11 : CIA-RDP91 B00776R000300050012-1 0 SECRETI 4 25X1 National Intelligence Officer for Narcotics Intelligence Coordination and Strategy Meeting 19 March 1987 Narco-Terrorism 1. (cia.gov)
  • We also provide financial support to various projects aiming to build and disseminate knowledge of preventative work within the alcohol, narcotics, doping, tobacco and gambling areas. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Treatment of acute episodes addresses symptoms and includes parenteral narcotics for pain. (medscape.com)
  • The question of forming a Narcotics Board, as had been suggested by the League of Nations, as a central authority for the control of the opium traffic was considered, and a decision was postponed till the major administrative difficulties of setting up an opium department were settled. (unodc.org)
  • The investigation, which included the use of court-authorized wiretaps, controlled purchases of narcotics and physical surveillance, identified Melkuan Scott, also known as "Young God," "Mel," "Young" and "YG," as the leader of the West Hell street gang who, along with RIVERA and other associates distributed crack cocaine in the Westland Street area of Hartford. (fbi.gov)
  • Following are comments from representatives of the narcotics intelligence community: o State reported on the certification process, noting that certification was withheld from Iran, Afghanistan and Syria. (cia.gov)
  • These teams are trained in the basic areas of narcotic recognition in the areas of mass transit, vehicles, infrastructures, persons, etc. (ct.gov)
  • The proportion of school pupils who report that they have used narcotics over the past 12 months has varied over time. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • The Hartford Police Department's Vice and Narcotics Squad, Major Crimes Unit and Shooting Task Force are providing valuable assistance to the investigation, and the Capitol Region Emergency Response Team (CREST) assisted with the arrest of certain defendants. (fbi.gov)
  • The Connecticut State Police Canine Training Unit announces the graduation ceremony of the 119th Narcotic Canine Training Troop, to be held Friday, December 23rd, 2005 at 10:00 am . (ct.gov)
  • Narcotics Anonymous uses a 12-step model developed for people with varied substance use disorders and is the second-largest 12-step organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • All facts and quotes presented in "The Narcotics Anonymous program" section, unless otherwise sourced, come from the Narcotics Anonymous (Basic Text). (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundation of the Narcotics Anonymous program is the Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Narcotics Anonymous uses a slight variation of wording in both the Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions when compared to other Twelve Step groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Basic Text, Narcotics Anonymous "has no opinion on outside issues," including those of politics, science or medicine, and does not endorse any outside organization or institution. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. In meeting the recommendation advocated in the draft paper discussed above, the NIO/Narcotics and NIO/Counterterrorism will jointly form an ad hoc task force to access the current state of intelligence collection, analysis, data retention and data retrieval on the narco-terrorism target. (cia.gov)
  • Of special note was the equally severe intrauterine growth retardation of infants of former heroin addicts who were free of narcotic use during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • One of my campaign promises was to put more of a focus on narcotics cases with the hope of stemming the tide of heroin-related overdose deaths," said DA Flynn. (wkbw.com)
  • In the same age group, 3.8 percent of men and 2.8 percent of women had used other narcotics than cannabis over the past 12 months. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • There are special requirements concerning import, export, handling, and storing certain substances, which may be used to manufacture narcotics. (lu.se)