Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Nanotubes, Peptide: NANOTUBES formed from cyclic peptides (PEPTIDES, CYCLIC). Alternating D and L linkages create planar rings that self assemble by stacking into nanotubes. They can form pores through CELL MEMBRANE causing damage to cells.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Granuloma, Foreign-Body: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Biomedical and Dental Materials: Substances used in biomedicine or dentistry predominantly for their physical, as opposed to chemical, properties.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.DNA, A-Form: An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.Fluorocarbon PolymersDendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Polyacetylenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one triple bond; or an oxidized form of POLYENES. They can react with SULFUR to form THIOPHENES.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles. (1/401)

We describe a new method for selective cell targeting based on the use of light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles that are heated by short laser pulses to create highly localized cell damage. The method is closely related to chromophore-assisted laser inactivation and photodynamic therapy, but is driven solely by light absorption, without the need for photochemical intermediates (particularly singlet oxygen). The mechanism of light-particle interaction was investigated by nanosecond time-resolved microscopy and by thermal modeling. The extent of light-induced damage was investigated by cell lethality, by cell membrane permeability, and by protein inactivation. Strong particle size dependence was found for these interactions. A technique based on light to target endogenous particles is already being exploited to treat pigmented cells in dermatology and ophthalmology. With exogenous particles, phamacokinetics and biodistribution studies are needed before the method can be evaluated against photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment. However, particles are unique, unlike photosensitizers, in that they can remain stable and inert in cells for extended periods. Thus they may be particularly useful for prelabeling cells in engineered tissue before implantation. Subsequent irradiation with laser pulses will allow control of the implanted cells (inactivation or modulation) in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

Self-assembly of single integral membrane proteins into soluble nanoscale phospholipid bilayers. (2/401)

One of the biggest challenges in pharmaceutical research is obtaining integral membrane proteins in a functional, solubilized, and monodisperse state that provides a native-like environment that maintains the spectrum of in vivo activities. Many of these integral membrane proteins are receptors, enzymes, or other macromolecular assemblies that are important drug targets. An example is the general class of proteins composed of seven-transmembrane segments (7-TM) as exemplified by the G-protein-coupled receptors. In this article, we describe a simple system for self-assembling bacteriorhodopsin, as a model protein containing 7-TM helices, with phospholipids to form a nanometer-scale soluble bilayer structure encircled by a 200 amino acid scaffold protein. The result is the single molecule incorporation of an integral membrane protein target into a soluble and monodisperse structure that allows the structural and functional tools of solution biochemistry to be applied.  (+info)

DNA nanotubes self-assembled from triple-crossover tiles as templates for conductive nanowires. (3/401)

DNA-based nanotechnology is currently being developed as a general assembly method for nanopatterned materials that may find use in electronics, sensors, medicine, and many other fields. Here we present results on the construction and characterization of DNA nanotubes, a self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. Triple-crossover tiles modified with thiol-containing double-stranded DNA stems projected out of the tile plane were used as the basic building blocks. Triple-crossover nanotubes display a constant diameter of approximately 25 nm and have been observed with lengths up to 20 microm. We present high-resolution images of the constructs, experimental evidence of their tube-like nature as well as data on metallization of the nanotubes to form nanowires, and electrical conductivity measurements through the nanowires. DNA nanotubes represent a potential breakthrough in the self-assembly of nanometer-scale circuits for electronics layout because they can be targeted to connect at specific locations on larger-scale structures and can subsequently be metallized to form nanometer-scale wires. The dimensions of these nanotubes are also perfectly suited for applications involving interconnection of molecular-scale devices with macroscale components fabricated by conventional photolithographic methods.  (+info)

Self-association process of a peptide in solution: from beta-sheet filaments to large embedded nanotubes. (4/401)

Lanreotide is a synthetic octapeptide used in the therapy against acromegaly. When mixed with pure water at 10% (w/w), Lanreotide (acetate salt) forms liquid crystalline and monodisperse nanotubes with a radius of 120 A. The molecular and supramolecular organization of these structures has been determined in a previous work as relying on the lateral association of 26 beta-sheet filaments made of peptide noncovalent dimers, the basic building blocks. The work presented here has been devoted to the corresponding self-association mechanisms, through the characterization of the Lanreotide structures formed in water, as a function of peptide (acetate salt) concentration (from 2% to 70% (w/w)) and temperature (from 15 degrees C to 70 degrees C). The corresponding states of water were also identified and quantified from the thermal behavior of water in the Lanreotide mixtures. At room temperature and below 3% (w/w) Lanreotide acetate in water, soluble aggregates were detected. From 3% to 20% (w/w) long individual and monodisperse nanotubes crystallized in a hexagonal lattice were evidenced. Their molecular and supramolecular organizations are identical to the ones characterized for the 10% (w/w) sample. Heating induces the dissolution of the nanotubes into soluble aggregates of the same structural characteristics as the room temperature ones. The solubilization temperature increases from 20 degrees C to 70 degrees C with the peptide concentration and reaches a plateau between 15% and 25% (w/w) in peptide. These aggregates are proposed to be the beta-sheet filaments that self-associate to build the walls of the nanotubes. Above 20% (w/w) of Lanreotide acetate in water, polydisperse embedded nanotubes are formed and the hexagonal lattice is lost. These embedded nanotubes exhibit the same molecular and supramolecular organizations as the individual monodisperse nanotubes formed at lower peptide concentration. The embedded nanotubes do not melt in the range of temperature studied indicating a higher thermodynamic stability than individual nanotubes. In parallel, the thermal behaviors of water in mixtures containing 2-80% (w/w) in peptide have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, and three different types of water were characterized: 1), bulk water melting at 0 degrees C, 2), nonfreezing water, and 3), interfacial water melting below 0 degrees C. The domains of existence and coexistence of these different water states are related to the different Lanreotide supramolecular structures. All these results were compiled into a binary Lanreotide-water phase diagram and allowed to propose a self-association mechanism of Lanreotide filaments into monodisperse individual nanotubes and embedded nanotubes.  (+info)

RNA-mediated metal-metal bond formation in the synthesis of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles. (5/401)

RNA sequences have been discovered that mediate the growth of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles. In vitro selection techniques were used to evolve an initial library of approximately 10(14) unique RNA sequences through eight cycles of selection to yield several active sequence families. Of the five families, all representative members could form crystalline hexagonal palladium platelets. The palladium particle growth occurred in aqueous solution at ambient temperature, without any endogenous reducing agent, and at low concentrations of metal precursor (100 micromolar). Relative to metal precursor, the RNA concentration was significantly lower (1 micromolar), yet micrometer-size crystalline hexagonal palladium particles were formed rapidly (7.5 to 1 minutes).  (+info)

Tracking the recruitment of diabetogenic CD8+ T-cells to the pancreas in real time. (6/401)

Development of autoimmune diabetes in both humans and mice is preceded by a prolonged period of inflammation of pancreatic islets by autoreactive T-cells. Noninvasive imaging techniques, including positron-emission tomography and optical or magnetic resonance imaging, have been used to track the recruitment of lymphocytes to sites of inflammation. These techniques, however, rely on labeling strategies that are non-antigen specific and do not allow specific tracking of the recruitment of autoreactive lymphocytes. Here we describe an antigen-specific magnetic label to selectively target a prevalent population of diabetogenic CD8(+) T-cells that contribute to the progression of insulitis to overt diabetes in NOD mice. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles coated with multiple copies of a high-avidity peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand of these T-cells (NRP-V7/K(d)) are endocytosed by CD8(+) T-cells in an antigen-specific manner. Using these T-cells as probes, we show that inflammation of pancreatic islets by autoreactive T-cells can be detected in real time by magnetic resonance imaging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of visualizing the presence of ongoing autoimmune responses noninvasively.  (+info)

Preparation of DNA-modified nanoparticles and preliminary study for colorimetric SNP analysis using their selective aggregations. (7/401)

DNA-modified nanospheres were prepared by anchoring amino-terminated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) with carboxylates onto a colored polystyrene sphere surface through amido bonds. About 220 ODN molecules were immobilized onto a nanosphere 40 nm in diameter. Preliminary studies using the microspheres with 1 microm diameter reveal that the specificity of hybridization was retained after modification. Three kinds of differently colored (RGB, red/green/blue) nanospheres bearing unique ODNs on their surface were prepared for detecting the p53 gene. Each ODN is complementary to a different part in the 45mer sample that is a part of a conservative region of the p53 gene containing one of the hot spots. In a binary system using spheres R and G, the wild-type 45mer made the aggregates with yellow emission as the result of mixing both colors. The mutant 45mer containing one nucleotide displacement did not give such aggregates with distinct colors. The study of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed that spheres R and G directly contact each other in the aggregates with the wild type. The RGB ternary system gave aggregates with specific colors corresponding to the added ODN samples, wild type or mutant. In addition, in the presence of both samples, all of the spheres formed aggregates with white emission as a consequence of mixing three primary colors of light. This means that the present technique should allow us to conduct an allele analysis.  (+info)

Energetic clues to pathways to biomineralization: precursors, clusters, and nanoparticles. (8/401)

Nanoparticle and nanocluster precursors may play a major role in biomineralization. The small differences in enthalpy and free energy among metastable nanoscale phases offer controlled thermodynamic and mechanistic pathways. Clusters and nanoparticles offer concentration and controlled transport of reactants. Control of polymorphism, surface energy, and surface charge on nanoparticles can lead to morphological control and appropriate growth rates of biominerals. Rather than conventional nucleation and growth, assembly of nanoparticles may provide alternative mechanisms for crystal growth. The Ostwald step rule, based on a thermodynamic view of nucleation and growth, is supported by the observation that more metastable phases tend to have lower surface energies. Examples from nonbiological systems, stressing the interplay of thermodynamic and kinetic factors, illustrate features potentially important to biomineralization.  (+info)

  • The study of the effect of voltage and duration time was carried out to understand the mechanism of nanotube formation, through morphological observation on the surface and cross-section area of nanotubes using SEM and characterization of elements using EDS, diameter, and length of highly ordered nanotubes was observed. (
  • This study aims to increase the tendency of osteoblast's cell attachment to the surface of implant Ti-6Al-4V by fabricating nanotube structure on the surface by anodization. (
  • The fluoride ions incorporated at the tube surfaces formed fluoride-titanium oxide cubic agglomerates, and the whole nanotube surface was oxide. (
  • For more than forty years, the world has been aware of the potential of carbon nanotubes as a base material. (
  • PASADENA, Calif.- The potential of carbon nanotubes to diagnose and treat brain tumors is being explored through a partnership between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., and City of Hope, a leading cancer research and treatment center in Duarte, Calif. (
  • A new study has shown that adding boron-nitride nanotubes to the surface of cancer cells can double the effectiveness of Irreversible Electroporation, a minimally invasive treatment for soft tissue tumors in the liver, lung, prostate, head and neck, kidney and pancreas. (
  • The Nano and Micro Systems Group at JPL, which has been researching nanotubes since about 2000, creates these tiny, cylindrical multi-walled carbon tubes for City of Hope. (
  • When they gave their consideration to the whole event they discovered that the narrow, cylindrical structure of the carbon nanotube forced the electrons to be neatly squeezed through one by one. (
  • Critically important for field emission, these small diameter nanotubes, consisting of only a few concentric graphene cylindrical walls, do not show the presence of a poorly-conductive sheath material. (
  • Six years later, in 1991, Sumio Iijima - a Japanese physicist at the NEC Corporation - who, while at Arizona State University, prior to the buckyball discovery had reported the same structure that had gone unnoticed at the time, was originally credited with the discovery of the carbon nanotube, a hollow, cylindrical fullerene that resembled needles of carbon under the high resolution electron microscope. (
  • A new method for purifying carbon nanotubes could make them a plausible vehicle for semiconductor advances - but only if the technique can scale up to commercial manufacturing and compete against cutting-edge CMOS technology. (
  • This text is an introduction to the physical concepts needed for investigating carbon nanotubes and other one-dimensional solid-state systems. (
  • They've tried attaching organic molecules to the nanotubes' surfaces to add functionality as well as solubility. (
  • Nanotubes develop on the cooler surfaces of the reactor as the vaporized carbon condenses. (
  • They then either heated the nanotubes in a vacuum or bombarded them with argon ions to clean their surfaces. (
  • However, the dynamic equilibrium nature of polymers on nanotube surfaces can be a hurdle for some applications, such as target-specific binding and drug delivery. (
  • Frank Ogletree, a physicist with Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division, led a study in which organic molecules were used to form strong covalent bonds between carbon nanotubes and metal surfaces. (
  • From left, Brett Helms, Frank Ogletree and Sumanjeet Kaur at the Molecular Foundry used organic molecules to form strong covalent bonds between carbon nanotubes and metal surfaces, improving by six-fold the flow of heat from the metal to the carbon nanotubes. (
  • Working with Nachiket Raravikar and Ravi Prasher, who were both Intel engineers when the project was initiated, we were able to increase and strengthen the contact between carbon nanotubes and the surfaces of other materials. (
  • Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. (
  • The synthesis of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition on catalyst arrays leads to nanotube models grown from specific sites on surfaces. (
  • Enzyme Nanoarchitectures built with Carbon Nanotubes, Volume 630, the latest volume in the Methods in Enzymology series continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. (
  • They crafted complex molecular dynamics simulations using an array of supercomputers to tease out what caused the carbon nanotubes to break. (
  • Here's a concise reminder about the important discovery of carbon nanotubes in WTC dust, 9/11 first responder lung tissue, and nanothermite ignition residues. (
  • They have been identified as promising candidates for various applications.High-temperature preparation techniques are conventional techniques for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes using arc discharge or laser ablation, but today these methods are being replaced by low-tem. (
  • They have been identified as promising candidates for various applications.High-temperature preparation techniques are conventional techniques for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes using arc discharge or laser ablation, but today these methods are being replaced by low-temperature vapor deposition techniques, since orientation, alignment, nanotube length, diameter, purity, and density of carbon nanotubes can be precisely controlled. (
  • Anyone who knows anything about carbon nanotubes will be incredibly excited by this development and will immediately understand what it means for a huge range of medical and technological applications. (
  • In order to attain biological functionalization of carbon nanotubes, two main methods (covalent and noncovalent functionalization) are generally employed. (
  • Materials scientists initially thought the super-hot temperatures caused the nanotubes to tear. (
  • By exposing a glass plate placed inside a vacuum chamber to the correct amount of heat and carbon mixed gas, scientists can cause forests of carbon nanotubes to grow on its surface. (
  • According to two reports published in the November 2 issue of the journal Nature , scientists have discovered the smallest stable carbon nanotubes known. (
  • Keeping carbon nanotubes from clumping in aqueous solutions and combining them with molecules that add novel abilities have been flies in the ointment for scientists exploring the use of these highly versatile materials. (
  • The scientists determined that when they exposed their altered nanotubes to light in the visible range, carbon atoms in the walls of the tubes accept the electrons originally associated with the ferrocene molecules. (
  • Scientists first wanted to see how easily they could slip nanotubes into chloroplasts, the cellular factories that turn sunlight and carbon dioxide into energy and sugars. (
  • This is what the scientists saw when they looked at plants that had been transformed with carbon nanotubes. (
  • Scientists at Rice and Swansea universities have demonstrated that heating carbon nanotubes at high temperatures eliminates contaminants that make nanotubes difficult to test for conductivity. (
  • Carbon nanotubes bound for electronics need to be as clean as possible to maximize their utility in next-generation nanoscale devices, and scientists at Rice and Swansea universities have found a way to remove contaminants from the nanotubes. (
  • Scientists at MIT built a 16-bit microprocessor out of carbon nanotubes and even ran a program on it, a new paper reports. (
  • Far stronger than any known filament, carbon nanotubes are manufactured by scientists who roll a single-atom-thick stretch of carbon, in the form of graphite, into tiny tubes. (
  • It's been a long time coming, but scientists are at the cusp of realizing the dream of carbon nanotubes. (
  • Carbon nanotubes are like a materials scientists' dream come true -- superior heat and electrical conduction , high strength to weight ratio , and flame resistance orders of magnitude higher than many commonly used materials. (
  • For well over a decade, scientists have used ultrasonic vibrations to separate and prepare nanotubes in the lab. (
  • Scientists input the sonication power and the amount of time the sample will be sonicated, and the power law tells them the average length of the nanotubes that will be produced. (
  • Scientists created carbon nanotube yarn that generates power when it's tugged. (
  • A team of scientists at MIT have discovered a phenomenon that can cause powerful waves of energy to shoot through minuscule wires known as carbon nanotubes. (
  • However, preceding discoveries of nanotubes, notably in 1952 by Russian scientists L.V. Radushkevich and V.M. Lukyanovich, were known to the West only much later. (
  • An separate SWCNT reference material, RM 8281 (Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (Dispersed, Three Length-Resolved Populations)) based on purified nanotube populations was released in 2013. (
  • Where the aerogel and the nanotubes meet, tubes catch on the aerogel and are pulled from the substrate. (
  • Baughman's team then layered several ribbons atop one another in a crosswise pattern and dissolved the aerogel substrate, leaving a membrane or thin sheet of nanotubes held together by atomic forces. (
  • Based on electron beam-induced deposition (EBID), the work is believed to be the first to connect multiple shells of a multi-walled carbon nanotube to metal terminals on a semiconducting substrate, which is relevant to integrated circuit fabrication. (
  • In both cases the mechanical adhesion improved so that surface bonds were strong enough to pull a carbon nanotube array off of its growth substrate and significantly improve the transport of heat across the interface. (
  • The usual random sized lengths of entangled carbon nanotube created by other methods have so far allowed only relatively crude applications and constrained their use in drug delivery and complex electronics because of the resulting inability to guarantee consistent properties. (
  • 9. The nanotube of claim 5 wherein the semiconducting section and the electrically-conducting section comprise carbon pentagon-heptagon pairs distributed approximately uniformly throughout their lengths, the conducting section having a higher concentration of pentagon-heptagon pairs than the semiconducting section. (
  • 1. An augmented synthetic resin, comprising carbon nanotubes thoroughly disaggregated and uniformly dispersed in a polymethylmethacrylate matrix, said nanotubes having lengths between substantially 10-1000 nanometers and diameters between substantially 10-50 nanometers. (
  • Finally, we demonstrate the performance of a nanotube transistor with channel and contact lengths of 20 nm, an on-current of 10 µA, an on/off current ratio of 1 x 10⁵, and peak transconductance of 20 µS. (
  • The effective equation for few cycle optical pulse dynamics was obtained by virtue of the Boltzmann collision-less equation solution for conduction band electrons of semiconductor carbon nanotubes in the case when medium with carbon nanotubes has spatially-modulated refractive index. (
  • A key result of our work is that if contacts on a nanotube are less than 1 micron apart, the electronic properties of the nanotube change from conductor to semiconductor, due to the presence of overlapping depletion zones, which shrink but are still present even in clean nanotubes," Barron said. (
  • Further research is needed to determine whether carbon nanotubes will eventually serve as a replacement for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor manufacturing techniques used today, but the discovery of the material's high mobility shows that it could work as a semiconductor. (
  • Nanotube memory may one day supercede semiconductor flash memory due to its potential cheapness, reduced component size and favorable electrical characteristics. (
  • The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. (
  • Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. (
  • 6. The nanotube of claim 5 further comprising a junction having at least one pentagon-heptagon pair, adjoined on one side to the electrically conducting section and on the other side to the semiconductor section. (
  • This breakthrough in carbon nanotube transistor performance is a critical advance toward exploiting carbon nanotubes in logic, high-speed communications, and other semiconductor electronics technologies. (
  • Conductive and high-strength composite materials, energy saving and energy conversion devices, sensors, visualization of field emissions and sources of radiation, means for storing hydrogen, and nanoscale semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnections are some of the many applications of carbon nanotubes. (
  • Newly grown nanotubes can be a thousand times longer than they are wide, and although sonication is very effective at breaking up the clumps, it also makes the nanotubes shorter. (
Carbon Nanotubes in Cancer Therapy and Drug Delivery : Figure 4
Carbon Nanotubes in Cancer Therapy and Drug Delivery : Figure 4 (
Relatively Low Temperature Growth of Carbon Nanotubes by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition using Novel Catalysts | MRS Online...
Relatively Low Temperature Growth of Carbon Nanotubes by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition using Novel Catalysts | MRS Online... (
Recent Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes and Their...
Recent Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes and Their... (
Robotics - Wikipedia
Robotics - Wikipedia (
Carbon (Element) - Facts, Discovery, Atomic Structure & Uses | Live Science
Carbon (Element) - Facts, Discovery, Atomic Structure & Uses | Live Science (
Very long carbon nanotubes | Nature
Very long carbon nanotubes | Nature (
University of Leeds | News > Science > Tiny golden bullets could help tackle asbestos-related cancers
University of Leeds | News > Science > Tiny golden bullets could help tackle asbestos-related cancers (
Nanotubes tagged stories - MIT Technology Review
Nanotubes tagged stories - MIT Technology Review (
Johannes Schöneberg
Johannes Schöneberg (
Potential applications of carbon nanotubes - Wikipedia
Potential applications of carbon nanotubes - Wikipedia (
Sequential growth of long DNA strands with user-defined patterns for nanostructures and scaffolds | Nature Communications
Sequential growth of long DNA strands with user-defined patterns for nanostructures and scaffolds | Nature Communications (
Search Results
Search Results (
Carbon Nanotubes versus HIV - MIT Technology Review
Carbon Nanotubes versus HIV - MIT Technology Review (
Research | Research groups | Imperial College London
Research | Research groups | Imperial College London (
European Commission - Science for Environment Policy - News Alert - Archive - Environment and Health
European Commission - Science for Environment Policy - News Alert - Archive - Environment and Health (
Nanotubes and related nanostructures 2014 volume 1700 | Materials science | Cambridge University Press
Nanotubes and related nanostructures 2014 volume 1700 | Materials science | Cambridge University Press (
Earth Times: show/169286.html
Earth Times: show/169286.html (
Electricity - MIT Technology Review
Electricity - MIT Technology Review (
Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications | Rüdiger Klingeler | Springer
Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications | Rüdiger Klingeler | Springer (
Carbon Nanotubes for Solar Cells - Scientific American
Carbon Nanotubes for Solar Cells - Scientific American (
Live-cell Lattice Light-sheet Microscopy (LLSM) Applications
Live-cell Lattice Light-sheet Microscopy (LLSM) Applications (
CDC - NIOSH Research Rounds - Volume 1, Issue 11, May 2016
CDC - NIOSH Research Rounds - Volume 1, Issue 11, May 2016 (
Carbon Nanotube SuperFabric
Carbon Nanotube SuperFabric (
Henk Postma homepage V2.7
Henk Postma homepage V2.7 (
Carbon Nanotube Super Springs
Carbon Nanotube Super Springs (
Nanotube Fibers - MIT Technology Review
Nanotube Fibers - MIT Technology Review (
Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames | EurekAlert! Science News
Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames | EurekAlert! Science News (
How scientists and supercomputers could make oceans drinkable | Google
How scientists and supercomputers could make oceans drinkable | Google (
IBM spins nanotubes, wire and graphene | ZDNet
IBM spins nanotubes, wire and graphene | ZDNet (
Touchy nanotubes work better when clean | EurekAlert! Science News
Touchy nanotubes work better when clean | EurekAlert! Science News (
Carbon Nanotubes for Targeted Drug Delivery | Md Saquib Hasnain | Springer
Carbon Nanotubes for Targeted Drug Delivery | Md Saquib Hasnain | Springer (
IBM claims breakthrough on carbon nanotubes | ZDNet
IBM claims breakthrough on carbon nanotubes | ZDNet (