Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Relating to the size of solids.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
"Chemical Engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of plants and machinery for large-scale chemical processing of raw materials into finished or partially finished products and for the disposal or recycling of byproducts."
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
The family Lampyidae, which are bioluminescent BEETLES. They contain FIREFLY LUCIFERIN and LUCIFERASES. Oxidation of firefly luciferin results in luminescence.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.

Signaling through Raf-1 in the neovasculature and target validation by nanoparticles. (1/2196)

A recent study demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) activate Raf-1 kinase in an experimental neovasculature system. The study showed that bFGF and VEGF activate p21-activated protein kinase-1 (PAK-1) and Src kinase, respectively. PAK-1 and Src kinases phosphorylate specific serine and tyrosine residues within the activation loop of Raf-1 kinase. Their findings further suggest that phosphorylation at these sites protects endothelial cells from apoptosis induced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The tumor neovasculature provides specific molecular markers or "zip codes". This group of investigators has previously shown that nanosphere-aided targeting of the neovasculature with mutant Raf-1 causes regression of the tumor vasculature. Thus, nanoparticles coated with "zip code"-specific homing biomolecules may be useful for delivering anti-angiogenic molecules that can induce tumor regression.  (+info)

Reducing activity of colloidal platinum nanoparticles for hydrogen peroxide, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. (2/2196)

Shimizu and Tsuji established a method of preparing colloidal platinum nanoparticles, whose average size is 2 nm, by ethanol reduction of H(2)PtCl(6) in the absence of protective agents for the particles. Platinum nanoparticles have negative surface potential and are stably suspended from an electric repulsion between them. The platinum nanoparticles reduced hydrogen peroxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) below 0.1 ppm. It is necessary to use higher concentration of platinum nanoparticles for the reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) than that of hydrogen peroxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, because reoxidation of DCIPH(2) (reduced) by oxygen was not negligible under our experimental conditions. These results indicate that electrons on platinum nanoparticles produced by the method of Shimizu and Tsuji can reduce hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical or DCIP transferring electrons.  (+info)

Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes. (3/2196)

Nucleic acid diagnostics is dominated by fluorescence-based assays that use complex and expensive enzyme-based target or signal-amplification procedures. Many clinical diagnostic applications will require simpler, inexpensive assays that can be done in a screening mode. We have developed a 'spot-and-read' colorimetric detection method for identifying nucleic acid sequences based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles. In this assay, nucleic acid targets are recognized by DNA-modified gold probes, which undergo a color change that is visually detectable when the solutions are spotted onto an illuminated glass waveguide. This scatter-based method enables detection of zeptomole quantities of nucleic acid targets without target or signal amplification when coupled to an improved hybridization method that facilitates probe-target binding in a homogeneous format. In comparison to a previously reported absorbance-based method, this method increases detection sensitivity by over four orders of magnitude. We have applied this method to the rapid detection of mecA in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genomic DNA samples.  (+info)

Oligonucleotide-displaced organic monolayer-protected silver nanoparticles and enhanced luminescence of their salted aggregates. (4/2196)

N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (tiopronin) monolayer-protected silver particles were partially displaced by single-stranded oligonucleotides through ligand exchanges. The oligonucleotide-displaced particles could be hybridized with complementary fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides. Both the oligonucleotide-displaced and hybridized particles could be aggregated by electrostatic interactions with salt in buffer solution, and the aggregates displayed enhanced luminescence from fluorophores. This result suggests the possible application of surface-enhanced fluorescence from metallic nanoparticle aggregation for DNA detection.  (+info)

Nanostructure of cationic lipid-oligonucleotide complexes. (5/2196)

Complexes (lipoplexes) between cationic liposomes and single-strand oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are potential delivery systems for antisense therapy. The nanometer-scale morphology of these assemblies is relevant to their transfection efficiency. In this work the monocationic lipid dioleoyloxytrimethylammoniumpropane, the neutral "helper" lipid cholesterol, and an 18-mer anti-bcl2 ODN were combined at different ratios. The lipoplexes formed were characterized for the quantity of ODN bound, for the degree of lipid mixing, and for their size. The nanostructure of the system was examined by cryogenic-temperature transmission electron microscopy, augmented by small-angle x-ray scattering. Addition of ODN to cationic liposomes induced both liposome aggregation and the formation of a novel condensed lamellar phase. This phase is proposed to be stabilized by anionic single-strand ODN molecules intercalated between cationic bilayers. The proportion of cholesterol present apparently did not affect the nature of lipoplex microstructure, but changed the interlamellar spacing.  (+info)

A nanosensor for transmembrane capture and identification of single nucleic Acid molecules. (6/2196)

We have engineered a nanosensor for sequence-specific detection of single nucleic acid molecules across a lipid bilayer. The sensor is composed of a protein channel nanopore (alpha-hemolysin) housing a DNA probe with an avidin anchor at the 5' end and a nucleotide sequence designed to noncovalently bind a specific single-stranded oligonucleotide at the 3' end. The 3' end of the DNA probe is driven to the opposite side of the pore by an applied electric potential, where it can specifically bind to oligonucleotides. Reversal of the applied potential withdraws the probe from the pore, dissociating it from a bound oligonucleotide. The time required for dissociation of the probe-oligonucleotide duplex under this force yields identifying characteristics of the oligonucleotide. We demonstrate transmembrane detection of individual oligonucleotides, discriminate between molecules differing by a single nucleotide, and investigate the relationship between dissociation time and hybridization energy of the probe and analyte molecules. The detection method presented in this article is a candidate for in vivo single-molecule detection and, through parallelization in a synthetic device, for genotyping and global transcription profiling from small samples.  (+info)

Rapid double 8-nm steps by a kinesin mutant. (7/2196)

The mechanism by which conventional kinesin walks along microtubules is poorly understood, but may involve alternate binding to the microtubule and hydrolysis of ATP by the two heads. Here we report a single amino-acid change that affects stepping by the motor. Under low force or low ATP concentration, the motor moves by successive 8-nm steps in single-motor laser-trap assays, indicating that the mutation does not alter the basic mechanism of kinesin walking. Remarkably, under high force, the mutant motor takes successive 16-nm displacements that can be resolved into rapid double 8-nm steps with a short dwell between steps, followed by a longer dwell. The alternating short and long dwells under high force demonstrate that the motor stepping mechanism is inherently asymmetric, revealing an asymmetric phase in the kinesin walking cycle. Our findings support an asymmetric two-headed walking model for kinesin, with cooperative interactions between the two heads. The sensitivity of the 16-nm displacements to nucleotide and load raises the possibility that ADP release is a force-producing event of the kinesin cycle.  (+info)

Nanometer size diesel exhaust particles are selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons: the role of microglia, phagocytosis, and NADPH oxidase. (8/2196)

The contributing role of environmental factors to the development of Parkinson's disease has become increasingly evident. We report that mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated with diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 0.22 microM) (5-50 microg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, as determined by DA-uptake assay and tyrosine-hydroxylase immunocytochemistry (ICC). The selective toxicity of DEP for DA neurons was demonstrated by the lack of DEP effect on both GABA uptake and Neu-N immunoreactive cell number. The critical role of microglia was demonstrated by the failure of neuron-enriched cultures to exhibit DEP-induced DA neurotoxicity, where DEP-induced DA neuron death was reinstated with the addition of microglia to neuron-enriched cultures. OX-42 ICC staining of DEP treated neuron-glia cultures revealed changes in microglia morphology indicative of activation. Intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide were produced from enriched-microglia cultures in response to DEP. Neuron-glia cultures from NADPH oxidase deficient (PHOX-/-) mice were insensitive to DEP neurotoxicity when compared with control mice (PHOX+/+). Cytochalasin D inhibited DEP-induced superoxide production in enriched-microglia cultures, implying that DEP must be phagocytized by microglia to produce superoxide. Together, these in vitro data indicate that DEP selectively damages DA neurons through the phagocytic activation of microglial NADPH oxidase and consequent oxidative insult.  (+info)

Nanostructures, in the context of medical and biomedical research, refer to materials or devices with structural features that have at least one dimension ranging between 1-100 nanometers (nm). At this size scale, the properties of these structures can differ significantly from bulk materials, exhibiting unique phenomena that are often influenced by quantum effects.

Nanostructures have attracted considerable interest in biomedicine due to their potential applications in various areas such as drug delivery, diagnostics, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. They can be fabricated from a wide range of materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, and carbon-based materials.

Some examples of nanostructures used in biomedicine include:

1. Nanoparticles: These are tiny particles with at least one dimension in the nanoscale range. They can be made from various materials like metals, polymers, or lipids and have applications in drug delivery, imaging, and diagnostics.
2. Quantum dots: These are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit unique optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. They are used as fluorescent labels for bioimaging and biosensing applications.
3. Carbon nanotubes: These are hollow, cylindrical structures made of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. They have exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability, making them suitable for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biosensors.
4. Nanofibers: These are elongated nanostructures with high aspect ratios (length much greater than width). They can be fabricated from various materials like polymers, ceramics, or composites and have applications in tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery.
5. Dendrimers: These are highly branched, nanoscale polymers with a well-defined structure and narrow size distribution. They can be used as drug carriers, gene delivery vehicles, and diagnostic agents.
6. Nanoshells: These are hollow, spherical nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core covered by a thin metallic shell. They exhibit unique optical properties that make them suitable for applications such as photothermal therapy, biosensing, and imaging.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nanowires" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of materials science and nanotechnology. Nanowires are one-dimensional structures with a diameter of 1-100 nanometers (nm) and an aspect ratio (length/diameter) greater than 1000. They have unique electrical, mechanical, and optical properties that make them useful in various applications such as electronics, sensors, energy storage, and biomedical devices.

Beta-keratins are a type of keratin proteins that are mainly found in the cells of reptiles, birds, and some mammals such as marsupials. These proteins make up the scales, feathers, claws, beaks, and other hard structures of these animals. Beta-keratins have a different molecular structure compared to alpha-keratins, which are the predominant type of keratins found in mammalian skin, hair, and nails.

Nanotubes, in the context of nanotechnology and materials science, refer to hollow cylindrical structures with extremely small diameters, measured in nanometers (nm). They are typically composed of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure, similar to graphene. The most common types of nanotubes are single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).

In the field of medicine, nanotubes have been studied for their potential applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical devices. For example, researchers have explored the use of nanotubes as drug carriers, where drugs can be loaded into the hollow interior of the tube and released in a controlled manner at the target site. Additionally, nanotubes have been used to create conductive scaffolds for tissue engineering, which may help promote nerve regeneration or muscle growth.

However, it's important to note that while nanotubes have shown promise in preclinical studies, their potential use in medical applications is still being researched and developed. There are concerns about the potential toxicity of nanotubes, as well as challenges related to their large-scale production and functionalization for specific medical applications.

Medical definitions generally refer to terms and concepts within the medical field. The term "metal nanoparticles" is more commonly used in materials science, chemistry, and physics. However, I can provide a general scientific definition that could be relevant to medical applications:

Metal nanoparticles are tiny particles with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), composed of metals or metal compounds. They have unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties due to their small size and high surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful in various fields, including medical research. In medicine, metal nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutic applications such as photothermal therapy and radiation therapy. Examples of metals used for nanoparticle synthesis include gold, silver, and iron.

Optical phenomena refer to the various observable patterns and effects that occur due to the interaction of light with the environment or with structures in our eye. These can include natural phenomena such as rainbows, mirages, and halos around the sun or moon, as well as visual artifacts created by the eye itself, such as afterimages, floaters, and flashes of light. Some optical phenomena are caused by the refraction, reflection, or interference of light waves, while others may result from abnormalities in the eye's structure or function. Understanding these phenomena can provide insight into the properties of light and the functioning of the visual system.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. Gold is typically a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions.

However, if you are referring to "Gold" in the context of medical terminology, it may refer to:

1. Gold salts: These are a group of compounds that contain gold and are used in medicine for their anti-inflammatory properties. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, although they have largely been replaced by newer drugs with fewer side effects.
2. Gold implants: In some cases, a small amount of gold may be surgically implanted into the eye to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. The gold helps to hold the retina in place and can improve vision in some patients.
3. Gold thread embedment: This is an alternative therapy used in traditional Chinese medicine, where gold threads are embedded into the skin or acupuncture points for therapeutic purposes. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness.

I hope this information helps! If you have any further questions, please let me know.

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. It exists as a white, odorless, and crystalline powder. In medicine, zinc oxide is used primarily as a topical agent for the treatment of various skin conditions, including diaper rash, minor burns, and irritations caused by eczema or psoriasis.

Zinc oxide has several properties that make it useful in medical applications:

1. Antimicrobial activity: Zinc oxide exhibits antimicrobial properties against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, which can help prevent infection and promote wound healing.
2. Skin protectant: It forms a physical barrier on the skin, protecting it from external irritants, friction, and moisture. This property is particularly useful in products like diaper rash creams and sunscreens.
3. Astringent properties: Zinc oxide can help constrict and tighten tissues, which may reduce inflammation and promote healing.
4. Mineral sunscreen agent: Zinc oxide is a common active ingredient in physical (mineral) sunscreens due to its ability to reflect and scatter UV light, protecting the skin from both UVA and UVB radiation.

Zinc oxide can be found in various medical and skincare products, such as creams, ointments, pastes, lotions, and powders. It is generally considered safe for topical use, but it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of plants and machinery for the large-scale production or processing of chemicals, fuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, and biologicals, as well as the development of new materials and technologies. It involves the application of principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, and economics to optimize chemical processes that convert raw materials into valuable products. Chemical engineers are also involved in developing and improving environmental protection methods, such as pollution control and waste management. They work in a variety of industries, including pharmaceuticals, energy, food processing, and environmental protection.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semiconductors" is a term from the field of materials science and electronics rather than medicine. Semiconductors are materials, often silicon-based, that have properties between conductors and insulators. They are used in various electronic devices due to their unique property of controlling the flow of electrical current. If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine that utilizes nanotechnology, which deals with materials, devices, or systems at the nanometer scale (typically between 1-100 nm), to prevent and treat diseases. It involves the development of novel therapeutics, diagnostics, and medical devices that can interact with biological systems at the molecular level for improved detection, monitoring, and targeted treatment of various diseases and conditions.

Nanomedicine encompasses several areas, including:

1. Drug delivery: Nanocarriers such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drugs, enhancing their solubility, stability, and targeted delivery to specific cells or tissues, thereby reducing side effects.
2. Diagnostics: Nanoscale biosensors and imaging agents can provide early detection and monitoring of diseases with high sensitivity and specificity, enabling personalized medicine and improved patient outcomes.
3. Regenerative medicine: Nanomaterials can be used to create scaffolds and matrices for tissue engineering, promoting cell growth, differentiation, and vascularization in damaged or diseased tissues.
4. Gene therapy: Nanoparticles can be employed to deliver genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or gene-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9) for the targeted correction of genetic disorders or cancer treatment.
5. Medical devices: Nanotechnology can improve the performance and functionality of medical devices by enhancing their biocompatibility, strength, and electrical conductivity, as well as incorporating sensing and drug delivery capabilities.

Overall, nanomedicine holds great promise for addressing unmet medical needs, improving diagnostic accuracy, and developing more effective therapies with reduced side effects. However, it also presents unique challenges related to safety, regulation, and scalability that must be addressed before widespread clinical adoption.

Nanospheres are defined in the medical context as tiny, spherical particles that have a diameter in the nanometer range (typically between 1 to 1000 nm). They can be made up of various materials such as polymers, lipids, metals or ceramics. Nanospheres have unique properties due to their small size and large surface area, making them useful for a variety of medical applications including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and tissue engineering.

In the field of drug delivery, nanospheres can be used to encapsulate drugs and deliver them to specific sites in the body, improving the efficacy and safety of treatments. They can also be designed to target certain cell types or release their cargo in response to specific stimuli. Additionally, nanospheres can be used as contrast agents for medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).

Overall, nanospheres are a promising tool in the development of new medical technologies and therapies.

Feathers are not a medical term, but they are a feature found in birds and some extinct theropod dinosaurs. Feathers are keratinous structures that grow from the skin and are used for various functions such as insulation, flight, waterproofing, and display. They have a complex structure consisting of a central shaft with barbs branching off on either side, which further divide into smaller barbules. The arrangement and modification of these feather structures vary widely among bird species to serve different purposes.

Biomimetics, also known as biomimicry, is the process of mimicking or taking inspiration from nature and biological systems to design materials, structures, or processes that solve human problems. It involves studying the models, systems, and elements of nature and then applying the knowledge gained to create new technologies and solutions.

In a medical context, biomimetics can be used to develop new therapies, medical devices, and diagnostic tools. For example, researchers might look to the structure of a spider's web to design a better surgical mesh or take inspiration from the way a gecko sticks to surfaces to create a new type of adhesive bandage.

Biomimetics is an interdisciplinary field that draws on knowledge from biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and materials science. It has the potential to lead to innovative solutions in healthcare, sustainability, energy, transportation, and other areas.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Biomimetic materials are synthetic or natural substances that mimic the chemical, physical, and biological properties of living systems or tissues. These materials are designed to interact with cells, tissues, and organs in ways that resemble the body's own structures and processes. They can be used in a variety of medical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and medical devices.

Biomimetic materials may be composed of polymers, ceramics, metals, or composites, and they can be designed to have specific properties such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and degradability. They may also incorporate bioactive molecules, such as growth factors or drugs, to promote healing or prevent infection.

The goal of using biomimetic materials is to create medical solutions that are more effective, safer, and more compatible with the body than traditional synthetic materials. By mimicking the body's own structures and processes, these materials can help to reduce inflammation, promote tissue regeneration, and improve overall patient outcomes.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a type of microscopy that allows visualization and measurement of surfaces at the atomic level. It works by using a sharp probe, called a tip, that is mounted on a flexible cantilever. The tip is brought very close to the surface of the sample and as the sample is scanned, the forces between the tip and the sample cause the cantilever to deflect. This deflection is measured and used to generate a topographic map of the surface with extremely high resolution, often on the order of fractions of a nanometer. AFM can be used to study both conductive and non-conductive samples, and can operate in various environments, including air and liquid. It has applications in fields such as materials science, biology, and chemistry.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Transistors, Electronic" is not a recognized medical term. Transistors are electronic components used in various devices, including medical equipment, to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. They are crucial for the functioning of numerous technologies, such as computers, smartphones, and other digital devices. However, they are not typically described in the context of medical definitions. If you have any questions related to electronics or technology that you believe could be relevant to a medical context, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silicon" does not have a specific medical definition. Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. In the human body, silicon is not considered an essential nutrient, although it is found in trace amounts in various tissues. Some research suggests that silicon might play a role in collagen synthesis and bone health, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish recommended intake levels.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nanocomposites" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to refer to a type of composite material where at least one of the phases has dimensions in the nanoscale (typically less than 100 nanometers). Nanocomposites can have unique properties that make them useful for various applications, including biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems or tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the term itself is not a medical definition.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are defined in medical literature as hollow, cylindrical structures composed of rolled graphene sheets, with diameters typically measuring on the nanoscale (ranging from 1 to several tens of nanometers) and lengths that can reach several micrometers. They can be single-walled (SWCNTs), consisting of a single layer of graphene, or multi-walled (MWCNTs), composed of multiple concentric layers of graphene.

Carbon nanotubes have unique mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties that make them promising for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, biosensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, their potential toxicity and long-term effects on human health are still under investigation, particularly concerning their ability to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity in certain experimental settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fireflies" is not a term used in medical definitions. Fireflies are actually insects (beetles) that produce a chemical reaction in their bodies to create light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence. There is no medical context or definition associated with the term "fireflies."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "graphite" is not a medical term. It is a mineral form of carbon that is used in various applications, such as pencils, lubricants, and batteries. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Molecular imprinting is a technique used in the production of polymer-based materials that have specific recognition sites for target molecules. It is a type of nanotechnology that involves creating a molecular template within a polymer matrix during its synthesis. The template is introduced into the polymer solution, and when the polymer hardens or sets, it takes on the shape and size of the template. After the template is removed, the resulting material has binding sites that are complementary in shape, size, and chemical functionality to the target molecule. These materials can then be used for various applications such as sensors, separations, drug delivery systems, and diagnostics.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Biosensing techniques refer to the methods and technologies used to detect and measure biological molecules or processes, typically through the use of a physical device or sensor. These techniques often involve the conversion of a biological response into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of biosensing techniques include electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, and piezoelectric biosensors.

Electrochemical biosensors measure the electrical current or potential generated by a biochemical reaction at an electrode surface. This type of biosensor typically consists of a biological recognition element, such as an enzyme or antibody, that is immobilized on the electrode surface and interacts with the target analyte to produce an electrical signal.

Optical biosensors measure changes in light intensity or wavelength that occur when a biochemical reaction takes place. This type of biosensor can be based on various optical principles, such as absorbance, fluorescence, or surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

Piezoelectric biosensors measure changes in mass or frequency that occur when a biomolecule binds to the surface of a piezoelectric crystal. This type of biosensor is based on the principle that piezoelectric materials generate an electrical charge when subjected to mechanical stress, and this charge can be used to detect changes in mass or frequency that are proportional to the amount of biomolecule bound to the surface.

Biosensing techniques have a wide range of applications in fields such as medicine, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biodefense. They can be used to detect and measure a variety of biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and small molecules, as well as to monitor biological processes such as cell growth or metabolism.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Electromagnetic phenomena refer to the interactions and effects that occur due to the combination of electrically charged particles and magnetic fields. These phenomena are described by the principles of electromagnetism, a branch of physics that deals with the fundamental forces between charged particles and their interaction with electromagnetic fields.

Electromagnetic phenomena can be observed in various forms, including:

1. Electric fields: The force that exists between charged particles at rest or in motion. Positive charges create an electric field that points away from them, while negative charges create an electric field that points towards them.
2. Magnetic fields: The force that exists around moving charges or current-carrying wires. Magnets and moving charges produce magnetic fields that exert forces on other moving charges or current-carrying wires.
3. Electromagnetic waves: Self-propagating disturbances in electric and magnetic fields, which can travel through space at the speed of light. Examples include visible light, radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays.
4. Electromagnetic induction: The process by which a changing magnetic field generates an electromotive force (EMF) in a conductor, leading to the flow of electric current.
5. Faraday's law of induction: A fundamental principle that relates the rate of change of magnetic flux through a closed loop to the induced EMF in the loop.
6. Lenz's law: A consequence of conservation of energy, which states that the direction of an induced current is such that it opposes the change in magnetic flux causing it.
7. Electromagnetic radiation: The emission and absorption of electromagnetic waves by charged particles undergoing acceleration or deceleration.
8. Maxwell's equations: A set of four fundamental equations that describe how electric and magnetic fields interact, giving rise to electromagnetic phenomena.

In a medical context, electromagnetic phenomena can be harnessed for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrocardiography (ECG), electromyography (EMG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Nanofibers are defined in the medical field as fibrous structures with extremely small diameters, typically measuring between 100 nanometers to 1 micrometer. They can be made from various materials such as polymers, ceramics, or composites and have a high surface area-to-volume ratio, which makes them useful in a variety of biomedical applications. These include tissue engineering, drug delivery, wound healing, and filtration. Nanofibers can be produced using different techniques such as electrospinning, self-assembly, and phase separation.

Quantum dots are not a medical term per se, but they are often referred to in the field of medical research and technology. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit unique optical properties, making them useful for various applications in biology and medicine. They can range in size from 1 to 10 nanometers in diameter and can be composed of materials such as cadmium selenide (CdSe), indium arsenide (InAs), or lead sulfide (PbS).

In the medical context, quantum dots have been explored for use in bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. Their small size and tunable optical properties make them ideal for tracking cells, proteins, and other biological molecules in real-time with high sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, quantum dots can be functionalized with various biomolecules, such as antibodies or peptides, to target specific cell types or disease markers.

However, it is important to note that the use of quantum dots in medical applications is still largely in the research stage, and there are concerns about their potential toxicity due to the heavy metals used in their composition. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate their safety and efficacy before they can be widely adopted in clinical settings.

Crystallization is a process in which a substance transitions from a liquid or dissolved state to a solid state, forming a crystal lattice. In the medical context, crystallization can refer to the formation of crystals within the body, which can occur under certain conditions such as changes in pH, temperature, or concentration of solutes. These crystals can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of crystal-induced diseases or disorders.

For example, in patients with gout, uric acid crystals can accumulate in joints, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling. Similarly, in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), minerals in the urine can crystallize and form stones that can obstruct the urinary tract. Crystallization can also occur in other medical contexts, such as in the formation of dental calculus or plaque, and in the development of cataracts in the eye.

"Optical processes" is not a specific medical term, but rather a general term that refers to various phenomena and techniques involving the use of light in physics and engineering, which can have applications in medicine. Here are some examples of optical processes that may be relevant to medical fields:

1. Optical imaging: This refers to the use of light to create images of structures within the body. Examples include endoscopy, microscopy, and ophthalmoscopy.
2. Optical spectroscopy: This involves analyzing the interaction between light and matter to identify the chemical composition or physical properties of a sample. It can be used in medical diagnostics to detect abnormalities in tissues or fluids.
3. Laser therapy: Lasers are highly concentrated beams of light that can be used for a variety of medical applications, including surgery, pain relief, and skin treatments.
4. Optogenetics: This is a technique that involves using light to control the activity of specific cells in living organisms. It has potential applications in neuroscience and other fields of medicine.
5. Photodynamic therapy: This is a treatment that uses light to activate a photosensitizing agent, which then produces a chemical reaction that can destroy abnormal cells or tissues.

Overall, optical processes are an important part of many medical technologies and techniques, enabling doctors and researchers to diagnose and treat diseases with greater precision and effectiveness.

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a physical phenomenon that occurs at the interface between a metal and a dielectric material, when electromagnetic radiation (usually light) is shone on it. It involves the collective oscillation of free electrons in the metal, known as surface plasmons, which are excited by the incident light. The resonance condition is met when the momentum and energy of the photons match those of the surface plasmons, leading to a strong absorption of light and an evanescent wave that extends into the dielectric material.

In the context of medical diagnostics and research, SPR is often used as a sensitive and label-free detection technique for biomolecular interactions. By immobilizing one binding partner (e.g., a receptor or antibody) onto the metal surface and flowing the other partner (e.g., a ligand or antigen) over it, changes in the refractive index at the interface can be measured in real-time as the plasmons are disturbed by the presence of bound molecules. This allows for the quantification of binding affinities, kinetics, and specificity with high sensitivity and selectivity.

Small angle scattering (SAS) in the context of medical physics refers to a technique used to study the structure of non-crystalline materials at the nanoscale. It is called "small angle" because the scattering angles are very small, typically less than a few degrees. This occurs when X-rays, neutrons, or electrons interact with a sample and are scattered in various directions. The intensity of the scattered radiation is measured as a function of the scattering angle, which provides information about the size, shape, and spatial distribution of the nanostructures within the sample. SAS can be used to study a wide range of biological and materials science samples, including proteins, polymers, colloids, and porous materials.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Electronics" is not a medical term, but rather a branch of physics and engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of electronic devices and systems. It involves the study and application of electrical properties of materials, components, and systems, and how they can be used to process, transmit, and store information and energy.

However, electronics have numerous applications in the medical field, such as in diagnostic equipment, monitoring devices, surgical tools, and prosthetics. In these contexts, "electronics" refers to the specific electronic components or systems that are used for medical purposes.

Catenated DNA refers to the linking or interlocking of two or more DNA molecules in a circular form, where the circles are topologically entangled. This occurs during DNA replication when the sister chromatids (identical copies of DNA) are formed and remain interlinked before they are separated during cell division. The term "catenane" is used to describe this interlocking structure. It is important to note that in linear DNA, the term "catenated" does not apply since there is no circular formation.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

In the context of medical terminology, 'color' is not defined specifically with a unique meaning. Instead, it generally refers to the characteristic or appearance of something, particularly in relation to the color that a person may observe visually. For instance, doctors may describe the color of a patient's skin, eyes, hair, or bodily fluids to help diagnose medical conditions or monitor their progression.

For example, jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes that can indicate liver problems, while cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood. Similarly, doctors may describe the color of stool or urine to help diagnose digestive or kidney issues.

Therefore, 'color' is not a medical term with a specific definition but rather a general term used to describe various visual characteristics of the body and bodily fluids that can provide important diagnostic clues for healthcare professionals.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

A photon is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a fundamental concept in physics. Photons are elementary particles that carry electromagnetic energy, such as light. They have no mass or electric charge and exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties. In the context of medicine, photons are often discussed in relation to various medical imaging techniques (e.g., X-ray imaging, CT scans, and PET scans) and therapeutic interventions like laser therapy and radiation therapy, where photons are used to diagnose or treat medical conditions.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tin" does not have a medical definition. Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a malleable, ductile, silvery-white post-transition metal. It is found in nature mainly as tin oxides and is obtained from the mineral cassiterite through mining and processing.

Tin has no known biological role in humans, animals, or plants, and it is not considered an essential nutrient. Small amounts of tin can be found in some foods and drinking water, but these levels are generally low and not considered harmful. High levels of tin can be toxic to the human body, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

Calixarenes are a type of macrocyclic compound, which are formed by the condensation of certain phenolic compounds. The name "calixarene" comes from the Latin word "calyx," meaning "cup-shaped structure," and "arene," referring to the aromatic components of the molecule.

Calixarenes have a cup-like shape, with a hydrophobic cavity that can bind to various guest molecules through non-covalent interactions such as van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, and π-π stacking. The size and functionality of the cavity can be modified by changing the number and type of aromatic rings and substituents, making calixarenes useful in a variety of applications, including molecular recognition, catalysis, and drug delivery.

In medical contexts, calixarenes have been explored for their potential as drug delivery vehicles, due to their ability to encapsulate drugs within their hydrophobic cavities and release them in response to specific stimuli. They have also been studied for their potential use in diagnostic imaging, as they can be functionalized with radioactive isotopes or other contrast agents. However, further research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using calixarenes in medical applications.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

A Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is a type of physical analysis technique that uses the vibrations of a quartz crystal to measure changes in mass at a molecular or nanoscale level. When an alternating electrical field is applied to a quartz crystal, it causes the crystal to vibrate at a specific frequency. This phenomenon is known as the piezoelectric effect.

In QCM techniques, a thin film or material is deposited onto the surface of the quartz crystal, which changes its mass and therefore affects its vibrational frequency. By measuring the change in frequency before and after the deposition of the material, researchers can calculate the mass of the material that was added to the crystal's surface with high precision.

QCM techniques have a wide range of applications in research and industry, including the study of thin films, self-assembled monolayers, biosensors, and environmental monitoring. They are particularly useful for measuring changes in mass that occur on a very small scale, such as those associated with chemical reactions or biological interactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Optics and Photonics" is a broad field that encompasses various scientific and engineering disciplines. It doesn't have a specific medical definition, as it's not a term typically used in a medical context.

However, I can provide a general definition:

Optics is the study of light and its interactions with matter. This includes how light is produced, controlled, transmitted, and detected. It involves phenomena such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.

Photonics, on the other hand, is a branch of optics that deals with the generation, detection, and manipulation of individual photons, the basic units of light. Photonics is often applied to technologies such as lasers, fiber optics, and optical communications.

In a medical context, these fields might be used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as endoscopes, ophthalmic devices, laser surgery, and imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans. But the terms "Optics" and "Photonics" themselves are not medical conditions or treatments.

Silver nitrate is defined as an inorganic compound with the chemical formula AgNO3. It is a white or colorless crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. Silver nitrate is commonly used in medicine as a topical antiseptic and caustic, particularly for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, and warts. When applied to skin or mucous membranes, it can help to destroy bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and promote healing. However, it can also cause irritation and tissue damage if used inappropriately, so it should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Fullerene is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of materials science and nanotechnology. Fullerene refers to a specific type of carbon molecule that forms a hollow cage-like structure. The most common fullerene is buckminsterfullerene (C60), which has a soccer ball shape with 60 carbon atoms.

While fullerene itself is not a medical term, it has been studied in various medical and biomedical research contexts due to its unique chemical and physical properties. For example, fullerenes have been explored for their potential use as drug delivery vehicles, antioxidants, and imaging agents. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using fullerene-based materials in medical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Solar Energy" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Solar energy refers to the energy that comes from the sun and can be captured and converted into thermal or electrical energy. It is not a medical concept or treatment. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microtechnology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Microtechnology generally refers to the development and application of technologies on a microscopic or tiny scale. It is used in various fields including engineering, physics, electronics, and materials science.

In the context of medicine, microtechnologies can be used in the development of medical devices, diagnostic tools, drug delivery systems, and other healthcare applications. For example, microfabrication techniques are used to create microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications, which can perform complex biochemical analyses for disease diagnosis or drug screening.

However, it's important to note that the application of microtechnologies in medicine is constantly evolving, and new developments and techniques are being explored all the time.

Bioengineering, also known as biological engineering, is defined as the application of principles and methods from engineering to study, modify, and control biological systems, often with the goal of creating new technologies or improving existing ones. This field combines knowledge and expertise from various disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and computer science, to solve complex problems related to health, medicine, agriculture, and the environment.

Bioengineers may work on a wide range of projects, such as developing new medical devices or therapies, designing synthetic biological systems for industrial applications, creating biosensors for environmental monitoring, or engineering tissues and organs for transplantation. They use a variety of tools and techniques, including genetic engineering, biomaterials, computational modeling, and nanotechnology, to design and build novel biological systems that can perform specific functions or solve practical problems.

Bioengineering has the potential to transform many areas of science and technology, with significant implications for human health, sustainability, and innovation. As such, it is an exciting and rapidly growing field that offers many opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and discovery.

"Melopsittacus" is the genus name for the species of bird commonly known as the Budgerigar or Parakeet. It is the only species in its genus and belongs to the Psittacidae family, which includes parrots. The Melopsittacus undulatus is a small, long-tailed parrot native to Australia, known for its bright green, yellow, or blue feathers and sociable behavior. They are popular pets due to their ease of care, playful personalities, and ability to mimic human speech.

Photochemical processes refer to chemical reactions that are initiated or driven by the absorption of light. In these reactions, photons (light particles) interact with molecules, causing electrons in the molecules to become excited and leading to the formation of new chemical bonds or the breaking of existing ones. This results in the creation of different molecular structures or products.

In the context of human health and medicine, photochemical processes can occur both naturally and artificially. For instance, the body uses light-dependent reactions in the process of vision, where light is absorbed by rhodopsin in the retina, triggering a series of chemical events that ultimately lead to visual perception.

Additionally, photochemotherapy is a medical treatment that utilizes photochemical processes to achieve therapeutic effects. In this approach, a photosensitizing agent is administered to a patient, and then exposed to specific wavelengths of light. The light causes the photosensitizer to react with oxygen, generating reactive oxygen species that can destroy targeted cells or tissues, such as cancer cells or bacteria.

Overall, photochemical processes play an essential role in various biological and medical contexts, enabling critical functions like vision and offering promising therapeutic avenues for a range of conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tellurium" is not a medical term. Tellurium is a chemical element with the symbol "Te" and atomic number 52. It is a rare, silver-white metalloid that is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It is not used in medicine or healthcare. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Spectrum analysis in the context of Raman spectroscopy refers to the measurement and interpretation of the Raman scattering spectrum of a material or sample. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that uses the inelastic scattering of light to examine the vibrational modes of molecules.

When a monochromatic light source, typically a laser, illuminates a sample, a small fraction of the scattered light undergoes a shift in frequency due to interactions with the molecular vibrations of the sample. This shift in frequency is known as the Raman shift and is unique to each chemical bond or functional group within a molecule.

In a Raman spectrum, the intensity of the scattered light is plotted against the Raman shift, which is expressed in wavenumbers (cm-1). The resulting spectrum provides a "fingerprint" of the sample's molecular structure and composition, allowing for the identification and characterization of various chemical components within the sample.

Spectrum analysis in Raman spectroscopy can reveal valuable information about the sample's crystallinity, phase transitions, polymorphism, molecular orientation, and other properties. This technique is widely used across various fields, including materials science, chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and forensics, to analyze a diverse range of samples, from simple liquids and solids to complex biological tissues and nanomaterials.

Streptavidin is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term used in the field of medicine and laboratory research. Streptavidin is a protein that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii. It has a unique ability to bind very strongly and specifically to another molecule called biotin, with an association constant that is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions known in nature.

This property makes streptavidin a valuable tool in various medical and research applications such as immunoassays, histology, molecular biology, and drug delivery systems. For example, biotinylated molecules (such as antibodies, DNA, or enzymes) can be linked to streptavidin for detection, purification, or targeting purposes.

In summary, streptavidin is a bacterial protein that binds strongly and specifically to biotin, which is used in various medical and research applications as a tool for detection, purification, or targeting purposes.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Dendrimers are a type of synthetic, nanoscale polymer structures with a well-defined, highly branched, and regularly repeating architecture. They consist of a central core, an inner layer of repetitive branches, and an outer surface that can be functionalized with various groups. Dendrimers have unique properties such as monodispersity, a high degree of symmetry, and the ability to encapsulate or conjugate drugs, genes, and imaging agents, making them useful in drug delivery, gene therapy, diagnostics, and other biomedical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Azasteroids" is not a medical term or concept. The term "azasteroids" is used in the field of chemistry to refer to a class of compounds that are structurally similar to steroids but have an aziridine ring (a three-membered ring containing two carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom) instead of the usual four-membered ring in the steroid structure.

These compounds may have potential applications in various fields, including medicinal chemistry, but they are not a medical concept or diagnosis. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help you with those!

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

Drug delivery systems (DDS) refer to techniques or technologies that are designed to improve the administration of a pharmaceutical compound in terms of its efficiency, safety, and efficacy. A DDS can modify the drug release profile, target the drug to specific cells or tissues, protect the drug from degradation, and reduce side effects.

The goal of a DDS is to optimize the bioavailability of a drug, which is the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available at the site of action. This can be achieved through various approaches, such as encapsulating the drug in a nanoparticle or attaching it to a biomolecule that targets specific cells or tissues.

Some examples of DDS include:

1. Controlled release systems: These systems are designed to release the drug at a controlled rate over an extended period, reducing the frequency of dosing and improving patient compliance.
2. Targeted delivery systems: These systems use biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands to target the drug to specific cells or tissues, increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects.
3. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems: These systems use nanoparticles made of polymers, lipids, or inorganic materials to encapsulate the drug and protect it from degradation, improve its solubility, and target it to specific cells or tissues.
4. Biodegradable implants: These are small devices that can be implanted under the skin or into body cavities to deliver drugs over an extended period. They can be made of biodegradable materials that gradually break down and release the drug.
5. Inhalation delivery systems: These systems use inhalers or nebulizers to deliver drugs directly to the lungs, bypassing the digestive system and improving bioavailability.

Overall, DDS play a critical role in modern pharmaceutical research and development, enabling the creation of new drugs with improved efficacy, safety, and patient compliance.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

"Soot" is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine due to its potential health effects. Soot is a general term for the fine black or brown particles that are produced when materials burn, such as in fires, industrial processes, or vehicle emissions. It is made up of a complex mixture of substances, including carbon, metals, and other organic compounds.

Inhaling soot can lead to respiratory problems, cardiovascular issues, and cancer. This is because the tiny particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream, causing inflammation and damage to tissues. Prolonged exposure or high concentrations of soot can have more severe health effects, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, and those with pre-existing medical conditions.

"Wettability" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of chemistry, physics, and materials science to describe how well a liquid spreads on a solid surface. In other words, it refers to the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, which can have implications for various medical applications such as the design of medical devices or the study of biological surfaces. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a clinical medical context.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

'Animal structures' is a broad term that refers to the various physical parts and organs that make up animals. These structures can include everything from the external features, such as skin, hair, and scales, to the internal organs and systems, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and digestive system.

Animal structures are designed to perform specific functions that enable the animal to survive, grow, and reproduce. For example, the heart pumps blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells, while the lungs facilitate gas exchange between the animal and its environment. The brain serves as the control center of the nervous system, processing sensory information and coordinating motor responses.

Animal structures can be categorized into different systems based on their function, such as the circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, and reproductive system. Each system is made up of various structures that work together to perform a specific function.

Understanding animal structures and how they function is essential for understanding animal biology and behavior. It also has important implications for human health, as many animals serve as models for studying human disease and developing new treatments.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

Surfactants, also known as surface-active agents, are amphiphilic compounds that reduce the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. They contain both hydrophilic (water-soluble) and hydrophobic (water-insoluble) components in their molecular structure. This unique property allows them to interact with and stabilize interfaces, making them useful in various medical and healthcare applications.

In the medical field, surfactants are commonly used in pulmonary medicine, particularly for treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. The lungs of premature infants often lack sufficient amounts of natural lung surfactant, which can lead to RDS and other complications. Exogenous surfactants, derived from animal sources or synthetically produced, are administered to replace the missing or dysfunctional lung surfactant, improving lung compliance and gas exchange.

Surfactants also have applications in topical formulations for dermatology, as they can enhance drug penetration into the skin, reduce irritation, and improve the spreadability of creams and ointments. Additionally, they are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance contrast between tissues and improve visualization during procedures such as ultrasound and X-ray examinations.

Biological pigments are substances produced by living organisms that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect others, resulting in the perception of color. These pigments play crucial roles in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, vision, and protection against harmful radiation. Some examples of biological pigments include melanin, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids.

Melanin is a pigment responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in animals, including humans. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that contains a porphyrin ring with an iron atom at its center, which gives blood its red color and facilitates oxygen transport. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria that absorbs light during photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Carotenoids are orange, yellow, or red pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and some animals that protect against oxidative stress and help maintain membrane fluidity. Flavonoids are a class of plant pigments with antioxidant properties that have been linked to various health benefits.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Pigmentation, in a medical context, refers to the coloring of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a pigment called melanin, which determines the color of our skin, hair, and eyes.

There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue. The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes can vary from person to person, leading to differences in skin color and hair color.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors such as genetics, exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. For example, hyperpigmentation refers to an excess production of melanin that results in darkened patches on the skin, while hypopigmentation is a condition where there is a decreased production of melanin leading to lighter or white patches on the skin.

Hydrophobic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between non-polar molecules or groups of atoms in an aqueous environment, leading to their association or aggregation. The term "hydrophobic" means "water-fearing" and describes the tendency of non-polar substances to repel water. When non-polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they tend to clump together to minimize contact with the polar water molecules. These interactions are primarily driven by the entropy increase of the system as a whole, rather than energy minimization. Hydrophobic interactions play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as protein folding, membrane formation, and molecular self-assembly.

Hydrophilic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between polar molecules or groups of atoms and water molecules. The term "hydrophilic" means "water-loving" and describes the attraction of polar substances to water. When polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which helps solvate them. Hydrophilic interactions contribute to the stability and functionality of various biological systems, such as protein structure, ion transport across membranes, and enzyme catalysis.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "oxides" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Oxides are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one oxygen atom and one other element. They can be formed through the process of oxidation, which involves the combination of oxygen with another substance.

In a broader sense, you might encounter the term "oxide" in a medical context when discussing various materials or substances used in medical devices, treatments, or research. For instance, titanium dioxide is a common ingredient in medical-grade sunscreens due to its ability to block and scatter UV light. However, it's important to note that the term "oxides" itself doesn't have a direct connection to medicine or human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Platinum" is not a medical term. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.

However, in the field of oncology, platinum-based compounds are used as chemotherapeutic drugs. These include:

1. Cisplatin: This is a platinum-containing drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, and others. It works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, which disrupts their function and leads to cell death.

2. Carboplatin: This is another platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and others. It is less toxic than cisplatin but has similar mechanisms of action.

3. Oxaliplatin: This is a third platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer. Like the other two drugs, it forms crosslinks with DNA and disrupts cell function leading to cell death.

These drugs are not made of pure platinum but contain platinum compounds that have been synthesized for medical use.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Colloids are a type of mixture that contains particles that are intermediate in size between those found in solutions and suspensions. These particles range in size from about 1 to 1000 nanometers in diameter, which is smaller than what can be seen with the naked eye, but larger than the molecules in a solution.

Colloids are created when one substance, called the dispersed phase, is dispersed in another substance, called the continuous phase. The dispersed phase can consist of particles such as proteins, emulsified fats, or finely divided solids, while the continuous phase is usually a liquid, but can also be a gas or a solid.

Colloids are important in many areas of medicine and biology, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and tissue engineering. They are also found in nature, such as in milk, blood, and fog. The properties of colloids can be affected by factors such as pH, temperature, and the presence of other substances, which can influence their stability and behavior.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly basic anhydrous metal hydroxide with the chemical formula NaOH. It is a white solid that is available in pellets, flakes, granules, or as a 50% saturated solution. Sodium hydroxide is produced in large quantities, primarily for the manufacture of pulp and paper, alcohols, textiles, soaps, detergents, and drain cleaners. It is used in many chemical reactions to neutralize acids and it is a strong bases that can cause severe burns and eye damage.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glass" is not a medical term. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has various uses in everyday life, including medical devices and equipment. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please provide them, and I'll be happy to help.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

Ferric compounds are inorganic compounds that contain the iron(III) cation, Fe3+. Iron(III) is a transition metal and can form stable compounds with various anions. Ferric compounds are often colored due to the d-d transitions of the iron ion. Examples of ferric compounds include ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Ferric compounds have a variety of uses, including as catalysts, in dye production, and in medical applications.

Fluorescence is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field, particularly in diagnostic tests, medical devices, and research. Fluorescence is a physical phenomenon where a substance absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then emits light at a longer wavelength. This process, often referred to as fluorescing, results in the emission of visible light that can be detected and measured.

In medical terms, fluorescence is used in various applications such as:

1. In-vivo imaging: Fluorescent dyes or probes are introduced into the body to highlight specific structures, cells, or molecules during imaging procedures. This technique can help doctors detect and diagnose diseases such as cancer, inflammation, or infection.
2. Microscopy: Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing biological samples at the cellular and molecular level. By labeling specific proteins, nucleic acids, or other molecules with fluorescent dyes, researchers can observe their distribution, interactions, and dynamics within cells and tissues.
3. Surgical guidance: Fluorescence-guided surgery is a technique where surgeons use fluorescent markers to identify critical structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or tumors during surgical procedures. This helps ensure precise and safe surgical interventions.
4. Diagnostic tests: Fluorescence-based assays are used in various diagnostic tests to detect and quantify specific biomarkers or analytes. These assays can be performed using techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or flow cytometry.

In summary, fluorescence is a physical process where a substance absorbs and emits light at different wavelengths. In the medical field, this phenomenon is harnessed for various applications such as in-vivo imaging, microscopy, surgical guidance, and diagnostic tests.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

Depending on the nanostructure size, the phonon mean free path values (Λ) may be comparable or larger than the object size, L ... In nanostructures phonons usually dominate and the phonon properties of the structure become of a particular importance for ... Display of great potential by nanostructures for thermoelectric applications also motivates the studies of thermal transport in ... The measurements employed suspended nanostructures coupled to sensitive dc SQUID measurement devices. In 2008, a colorized ...
"Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects , Journal , ScienceDirect.com by Elsevier". www.sciencedirect.com. "Nano-Structures & Nano- ... Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed scientific journal devoted to all aspects of the synthesis ... Sabu Thomas is the current Editor-in-Chief of the Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. The journal is indexed in the Scopus, INSPEC ... using Nanostructures and Nano-objects are considered in this journal. The journal is published by Elsevier and publishes four ...
In describing nanostructures, it is necessary to differentiate between the number of dimensions in the volume of an object ... The term nanostructure is often used when referring to magnetic technology. Nanoscale structure in biology is often called ... A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures. Nanostructural detail is ... Science portal Technology portal Nanomaterials Nanotechnology Tube-based nanostructures List of software for nanostructures ...
This is a list of computer programs that are used to model nanostructures at the levels of classical mechanics and quantum ... nanostructures, polymers, surfaces...), set up and analyze ab-initio (Quantum Espresso, VASP, Abinit, NWChem...) or classical ( ... a finite element analysis software for simulating optical properties of nanostructures LAMMPS - Open source molecular dynamics ... electronic properties and electrical transport phenomena in various nanostructures Ninithi - carbon nanotube, graphene, and ...
This system is for an ultrafast control of electron states in semiconductor nanostructures. A dc magnetic field Hdc is applied ... MODULATION OF THz RADIATION BY SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES As a result of increased demand for bandwidth, wireless short-range ... Optical modulators can be implemented using Semiconductor Nano-structures to increase the performance like high operation, high ... in semiconductor nanostructures Acoustic solitons strongly influence the electron states in a semiconductor nanostructure. The ...
"Abstracting and Indexing". Photonics and Nanostructures: Fundamentals and Applications. Elsevier. "Photonics and Nanostructures ... Photonics and Nanostructures: Fundamentals and Applications is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published quarterly by ... cite web}}: Missing or empty ,url= (help) "Photonics and Nanostructures: Fundamentals and Applications". 2020 Journal Citation ...
Dopants can diffuse into the nanostructure during synthesis. Alternatively, the nanostructures can be treated after synthesis ... which affect the properties of the resultant nanostructure . To directly create ZnO nanostructures, one can decompose zinc ... The nanostructure develops as the ZnO solidifies and grows outwards from the gold seed. This reaction can be highly controlled ... ZnO nanostructures can be used for many different applications. Here are a few examples. Dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) are ...
Tube-based nanostructures are nanolattices made of connected tubes and exhibit nanoscale organization above the molecular level ... Ceramic lattice nanostructures have been formed using hollow tubes of titanium nitride (TiN). Using vertex-connected, ... Nanolattice Superlattice Nanostructure (Condensed matter physics, Ceramic materials, Nanomaterials). ... "Fabrication and deformation of three-dimensional hollow ceramic nanostructures" (PDF). Nature Materials. 12 (10): 893-898. ...
to form precise nanostructures which have many applications. In the process and application of peptide self-assembly into nano ... "High-rate, Directed Assembly of Nanostructures Promises Big Changes in Electronics." N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016. Babak Amir ... Directed assembly using the acoustic methods manipulate waves in order to allow non-invasive assembling of micro and nano structures ... Directed assembly of micro- and nano-structures are methods of mass-producing micro to nano devices and materials. Directed ...
This is due to the lower Vo defect formation energies in the interior of the nanostructures as compared to their surfaces. ... Most of the synthesized Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures in different geometric configurations such as nanowires, nanorods, ... indicate that the concentration of the Vo is the highest near the surfaces as compared to the inner parts of the nanostructures ...
The International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures (PLMCN) is a yearly academic conference on ... Quantum information science The International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures started in 2000 ... progress in the development of epitaxial and processing technologies of wide-bandgap semiconductors and organic nanostructures ... Semiconductors Twitter account Media related to International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures ...
The discovered nanostructure is a multilayer system of parallel hollow nanochannels located along the surface and having ... "Carbon nanostructures include various low-dimensional allotropes of carbon including carbon black (CB), carbon fiber, carbon ... This is true of some single-walled nanostructures. However, unlayered graphene with only (hk0) rings has been found in the core ... Kamali, A.R.; Fray, D.J. (2013). "Molten salt corrosion of graphite as a possible way to make carbon nanostructures". Carbon. ...
Fu, A; Micheel, CM; Cha, J; Chang, H; Yang, H; Alivisatos, AP (2004). "Discrete nanostructures of quantum dots/Au with DNA". ... Another technique is in situ TEM, which provides real-time, high resolution imaging of nanostructure response to a stimulus. ... "Anisotropic Nanostructures". Mirkin. Retrieved 22 August 2021. Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; ... 1991). "Molecular Self-Assembly and Nanochemistry: A Chemical Strategy for the Synthesis of Nanostructures". Science. 254 (5036 ...
ISBN 0-521-58099-4. Bimberg, Dieter (2008). Semiconductor Nanostructures. Springer. pp. 243-245. ISBN 978-3-540-77898-1. ...
His studies on the self-assembly of chiral nanostructures have led to the development of nanoparticle assemblies with ... Kotov extended the concept of biomimetic nanostructures to inorganic nanoparticles. He established that, similarly to many ... and chiral nanostructures. Utilizing layer-by-layer assembly (LbL), Kotov prepared a wide spectrum of nacre-like nanocomposites ... "Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures". Chemical Reviews. 117 (12): 8041-8093. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00755. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID ...
"Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures". Chemical Reviews. 117 (12): 8041-8093. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00755. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID ...
The Center for Nanostructures (CNS) conducts activities in the interdisciplinary research and education of nanoscience and ... "Center for Nanostructures". www.scu.edu. Retrieved August 26, 2020. University, Santa Clara. "Student Organizations - Center ...
Alexandru Balaban; Douglas J. Klein (2009). "Claromatic Carbon Nanostructures". The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (113): ...
Efforts to achieve attosecond temporal resolution and with that directly record optical fields around nanostructures with so ... Magnetic Microscopy of Nanostructures. Hopster, H. (Herbert), Oepen, H. P. (1st ed.). Berlin: Springer. 2004. ISBN 3-540-40186- ... information about the instantaneous electronic distribution in a nanostructure can be extracted with high spatial and temporal ...
"Resistance of molecular nanostructures". Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures. 1 (1-4): 304-309. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Crystallization in Carbon Nanostructures". Communications in Mathematical Physics. 328 (2): 545-571. Bibcode:2014CMaPh.328.. ...
Ward, M.D. (2008). "Polynuclear Coordination Cages". Organic Nanostructures: 223-250. doi:10.1002/9783527622504.ch9. ISBN ...
Bengu, E.; Marks, L. D. (12 March 2001). "Single-Walled BN Nanostructures". Physical Review Letters. 86 (11): 2385-2387. doi: ...
"Diatoms: More on Morphology". Parker, Andrew R.; Townley, Helen E. (3 June 2007). "Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures". ...
... (born 22 February 1970 in Dachau, Bavaria, Germany) is a German Professor at the Institute for Nanostructure and ... Wolfgang Parak : Nanostructure and Solid State Physics : Universität Hamburg". Fachbereich Physik. 18 September 2020. Retrieved ... Wolfgang Parak publications indexed by Google Scholar "CHyN Center - Hybrid Nanostructures". CHyN Center - Hybrid ... Nanostructures. 12 February 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022. "Biophotonik". Fachbereich Physik (in German). Retrieved 13 ...
... nanostructures and functional materials; and soft matter, biological physics and interdisciplinary physics. v t e (Articles ...
Protein-based Engineered Nanostructures. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 940. pp. 83-120. doi:10.1007/978-3 ...
Wang, Yao; Hu, Jiamian; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen (2010). "Multiferroic magnetoelectric composite nanostructures". NPG Asia ...
Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. 15: 40-47. doi:10.1016/j.nanoso.2018.03.007. ISSN 2352-507X. S2CID 139265717. Göransson, Jenny ... "Magnetic Assembly Route to Colloidal Responsive Photonic Nanostructures". Accounts of Chemical Research. 45 (9): 1431-1440. doi ...
Delerue, C.; Lannoo, M. (2004). Nanostructures: Theory and Modelling. Springer. p. 47. ISBN 978-3-540-20694-1.. Methods to ... onto the metal which is then used as a mask for mesa-etching these nanostructures on a chosen substrate.[citation needed] ... "Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures". Reviews of Modern Physics. 87 (2): 347-400. ... by causing an ionic reaction at an electrolyte-metal interface which results in the spontaneous assembly of nanostructures, ...
... multi-layered nanostructures (MLNs) to achieve a giant electrocaloric effect (ECE) and enhanced pyroelectric energy harvesting ... This work examines the potential of PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3/CoFe2O4 (PZT/CFO) multi-layered nanostructures (MLNs) to achieve a giant ... Giant pyroelectric energy harvesting and a negative electrocaloric effect in multilayered nanostructures G. Vats, A. Kumar, N. ... Giant pyroelectric energy harvesting and a negative electrocaloric effect in multilayered nanostructures† ...
Depending on the nanostructure size, the phonon mean free path values (Λ) may be comparable or larger than the object size, L ... In nanostructures phonons usually dominate and the phonon properties of the structure become of a particular importance for ... Display of great potential by nanostructures for thermoelectric applications also motivates the studies of thermal transport in ... The measurements employed suspended nanostructures coupled to sensitive dc SQUID measurement devices. In 2008, a colorized ...
Semiconductor nanostructures enabled by aerosol technology. *Mark. Magnusson, Martin LU ; Ohlsson, Jonas LU ; Bjork, Mikael T. ... This review provides an overview of methods and results obtained by using aerosol technology for producing nanostructures for a ... This review provides an overview of methods and results obtained by using aerosol technology for producing nanostructures for a ... Semiconductor nanostructures enabled by aerosol technology}}, url = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11467-013-0405-x}}, doi = {{ ...
Semiconductor nanostructures. Summary We develop and use methods for analysis of nanostructures with highest possible spatial ... X-ray-based spectroscopy of nanostructure devices X-ray photoelectron spectra and image taken along a pin-junction InP nanowire ... A nanostructure only becomes relevant through its function -inherently a dynamic process. Light travels the typical distance ... Probing even down to individual atoms on functional nanostructure materials is relevant as just one impurity in one specific ...
research on nanostructures. Mesoscopic physics deals with materials and devices from the size of some atoms up to lengths in ... Several applications of attocubes customers show how nanostructures are created, characterized and used in quantum information ...
Interacting low dimensional nanostructures within a porous silicon template. Klemens Rumpf, Petra Granitzer, G. Hilscher, Peter ... Interacting low dimensional nanostructures within a porous silicon template. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2011 ; ... Interacting low dimensional nanostructures within a porous silicon template. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2011;303(1 ... Interacting low dimensional nanostructures within a porous silicon template. / Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra; Hilscher, G. ...
Hayles, A., Bright, R., Wood, J., Palms, D., Zilm, P., Brown, T., Barker, D., & Vasilev, K. (2022). Spiked Nanostructures ... Hayles, A, Bright, R, Wood, J, Palms, D, Zilm, P, Brown, T, Barker, D & Vasilev, K 2022, Spiked Nanostructures Disrupt Fungal ... Spiked Nanostructures Disrupt Fungal Biofilm and Impart Increased Sensitivity to Antifungal Treatment. / Hayles, Andrew; Bright ... Spiked Nanostructures Disrupt Fungal Biofilm and Impart Increased Sensitivity to Antifungal Treatment. In: Advanced Materials ...
We establish the basis for ALD tuning of plasmonic nanostructures.",. author = "Willis, {B. G.} and J. Qi and X. Jiang and J. ... Selective-area atomic layer deposition of copper nanostructures for direct electro-optical solar energy conversion. In: ECS ... Selective-area atomic layer deposition of copper nanostructures for direct electro-optical solar energy conversion. / Willis, B ... We establish the basis for ALD tuning of plasmonic nanostructures.. AB - We investigate selective-area atomic layer deposition ...
Khan MN, Tjong V, Chilkoti A, Zharnikov M. Fabrication of ssDNA/oligo(ethylene glycol) monolayers and complex nanostructures by ... Khan MN, Tjong V, Chilkoti A, Zharnikov M. Fabrication of ssDNA/oligo(ethylene glycol) monolayers and complex nanostructures by ... " " monolayers and complex nanostructures by an irradiation-promoted exchange reaction. Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in ...
... ... Facilitating ZnO nanostructure growths by making seeds for self-catalytic reactions Academic Article * ... We also compared the nanowires synthesized from Zn foils with tetrapod ZnO nanostructures synthesized from Zn powders at ...
Unleashing the Power of Electron Beams for Unprecedented Chemical Transformations and Nanostructure Fabrication. Visualization ... Unleashing the Power of Electron Beams for Unprecedented Chemical Transformations and Nanostructure Fabrication. Visualization ... chemists to harness the expanding repertoire of electron beam-induced reactions in the design of novel carbon nanostructures. ... for harnessing the focused electron beams potential in precisely transforming and fabricating novel carbon nanostructures from ...
JKU Researchers Extend the Storage Time of Quantum Information in Semiconductor Nanostructures All over the world, governments ...
New nanostructure could be the key to quantum electronics. A novel electronic component from TU Wien (Vienna) could be an ...
Dysprosium Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source For Magnetic Nanostructures. L. Bischoff, N. Klingner, P. Mazarov, K. Lenz, R. ... Direct magnetic manipulation of a permalloy nanostructure by a focused cobalt ion beam. J. Pablo-Navarro, N. Klingner, G. ... the polymorphism may turn into a significant advantage if one can gain control over the polymorph multilayer and nanostructure ...
Nanostructure and strain in InGaN/GaN superlattices grown in GaN nanowires Th. Kehagias, G. P. Dimitrakopulos, P. Becker, J. ... The Role of Polarity in Nonplanar Semiconductor Nanostructures. María de la Mata, Reza R. Zamani, Sara Martí-Sánchez, Martin ... Origin of the spectral red-shift and polarization pattersn of self-assembled InGaN nanostructures on GaN nanowires ...
X-ray-based spectroscopy of nanostructure devices. We apply X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to obtain chemical ... We are developing novel methods for X-ray analysis of nanostructures, in close collaboration with the MAX IV synchrotron ... therefore we study individual nanostructure devices during operation, and we follow chemical surface reactions in-situ. These ... information from nanostructure surfaces and interfaces and correlate it with atomic-scale structural and electronic properties ...
Nanostructures. Natural Products. Neural Nets. NIKON. NORSK HYDRO. NOVARTIS. Nuclear Reactor. OLYMPUS. Optics. Organic. Organic ... This volume contains many important new topics, including combinatorial chemistry, nanostructures and technology, biomaterials ...
We report the development of dendritic siRNA nanostructures that are able to penetrate even difficult to transfect cells such ...
Editor & science writer: Bodil Malmström [email protected]. Science writer: Pia Romare [email protected]. Illustrations & photo: Catrin Jacobsson [email protected]. ...
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We carry out investigations of ultrafast charge carrier dynamics within single nanostructures on their natural time scale. In ... Our ongoing research focuses on ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in semiconductor nanostructures and their ... Time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy of nanostructures ...
This schematic shows how a single strand of DNA can be programmed to self-fold into a large nanostructure, like, for example, ... In this animation, a long single-strand of DNA is self-folding into a highly programmable and complex origami nanostructure ... In contrast to the synthesis of multi-stranded nanostructures, these entirely new types of origami are folded from one single ... The Wyss Institute researchers used atomic force microscopy to visualize the heart-shaped and a variety of other nanostructures ...
With the Humidity Stage you can monitor the influence of humidity on your samples nanostructure:. *under defined humid ... For temperature- and humidity-dependent SAXS and WAXS studies of nanostructures. *Ideal for investigating the influence of ...
... develops and manufactures microscopes and scientific instruments for the analysis of microstructures and nanostructures. Ever ... Nanostructures, Ophthalmology, Sample Preparation, Software, Surgery, Technology ...
3. 10th International Symposium on Nanostructures: Physics and Technology (Proceedings of Spie). ...
Research Area: CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES. University Complutense of Madrid,SPAIN. Date of election 2018. Member of section CHEMICAL ...
Kalaee, A. A. S. (2021). The Struggles of Light Bound in Matter: Modelling Optical Excitations in Nanostructures (1 uppl.). [ ... The Struggles of Light Bound in Matter: Modelling Optical Excitations in Nanostructures. / Kalaee, Alex Arash Sand. 1 uppl. ... The Struggles of Light Bound in Matter: Modelling Optical Excitations in Nanostructures. 1 uppl. Lund: Media-Tryck, Lund ... The Struggles of Light Bound in Matter : Modelling Optical Excitations in Nanostructures. 1 uppl. Lund : Media-Tryck, Lund ...
Evaluation of cellular behavior depending on different micro/nanostructure of 3D printed titanium alloy surface KRCHOVÁ ...
  • We want to bridge the gap between surface characterization (typically done on ideal model surfaces) and device processing, by investigating semiconductor nanostructures during device operation at the atomic scale. (lu.se)
  • Our ongoing research focuses on ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in semiconductor nanostructures and their correlation with local structure and composition. (lu.se)
  • We develop and use methods for analysis of nanostructures with highest possible spatial and temporal resolution. (lu.se)
  • We are developing novel methods for X-ray analysis of nanostructures, in close collaboration with the MAX IV synchrotron facility. (lu.se)
  • When L {\displaystyle L} is comparable to or smaller than the mean free path (which is of the order 1 µm for carbon nanostructures), the continuous energy model used for bulk materials no longer applies and nonlocal and nonequilibrium aspects to heat transfer also need to be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even at a plasma bombardment that is 10,000 times more intense than the standard production method, carbon nanostructures such as these can develop. (phys.org)
  • In the scientific journal Carbon , FOM PhD researcher Kirill Bystrov shows that carbon nanostructures can also develop under far extremer conditions than those normally used for this purpose. (phys.org)
  • However, limited progress has been made to synthesize such porous metallic nanostructures with large mesopores (≥25 nm). (nsf.gov)
  • Here, a green yet facile synthesis strategy using biocompatible liposomes as templates to mediate the formation of mesoporous metallic nanostructures in a controllable fashion is reported. (nsf.gov)
  • These mesoporous metallic nanostructures exhibit a strong photothermal effect in the near‐infrared region, effective catalytic activities in hydrogen peroxide decomposition reaction, and high drug loading capacity. (nsf.gov)
  • Plasmonics, a crucial subfield of nanophotonics, deals with the interaction between light and free electrons in metallic nanostructures. (easychair.org)
  • Phys.org) -Nanostructures, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, can develop under far extremer plasma conditions than was previously thought. (phys.org)
  • This Special Issue aims to collect state-of-the-art contributions in a broad range of subjects related to preparation approaches and characterization techniques of (multi)functional ceramics and nanostructures in the field of energy harvesting and storage. (mdpi.com)
  • Enzymatic Biofuel Cells on Porous Nanostructures. (bvsalud.org)
  • We carry out investigations of ultrafast charge carrier dynamics within single nanostructures on their natural time scale. (lu.se)
  • In this activity magnetic nanostructures that consist of two or more different constituents which can be of ferromagnetic (Co, Fe), antiferromagnetic (CoO, Mn) , ferrimagnetic (spinel ferrites) or spin-glass like phases with an extra unidirectional anisotropy along the interface of the magnetic materials are investigated. (demokritos.gr)
  • These nanostructures can combine very small size of their constituents and enhanced macroscopic magnetic properties as such they find a variety of technological applications as sensors, biosensors, microwave devices, magnetic recording devices. (demokritos.gr)
  • The particular attention is paid to the spin waves in magnonic nanostructures and magnetic nanotextures, as well as surface acoustic waves on periodically decorated surfaces. (edu.pl)
  • Electron irradiation produces light- emitting materials from non-luminescent polymers while simultaneously patterning the polymer to form nanostructures. (nanowerk.com)
  • The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. (who.int)
  • While several methods to prepare organic, inorganic, and polymeric light-emitting nanostructures have been developed, the fabrication of luminescent nanoarchitectures with a tailored morphology and pattern is still challenging. (nanowerk.com)
  • Because the synthetic method requires no organic solvent and because of the distinct hierarchical nanostructure, protein-inorganic nanoflowers display enhanced catalytic activity and stability and would be a promising tool in biocatalytical processes and biological and biomedical fields. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Jakob Schwiedrzik is group leader for Architectured Materials at the Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures. (empa.ch)
  • Probing even down to individual atoms on functional nanostructure materials is relevant as just one impurity in one specific location can have significant influence on physical properties. (lu.se)
  • The study of new semiconducting materials, high temperature superconductors, photovoltaic devices, and organic electronic materials typically requires low-level sourcing and measurement because the materials are often nanostructures. (lakeshore.com)
  • We want to know how local surface and interface composition influences device performance, therefore we study individual nanostructure devices during operation, and we follow chemical surface reactions in-situ. (lu.se)
  • This review provides an overview of methods and results obtained by using aerosol technology for producing nanostructures for a variety of applications in semiconductor physics and device technology. (lu.se)
  • Display of great potential by nanostructures for thermoelectric applications also motivates the studies of thermal transport in such devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the liposome‐templated method provides an inspiring and robust avenue to synthesize mesoporous noble metal‐based nanostructures for versatile biomedical applications. (nsf.gov)
  • Several applications of attocube's customers show how nanostructures are created, characterized and used in quantum information processing (QIP). (attocube.com)
  • In nanostructures phonons usually dominate and the phonon properties of the structure become of a particular importance for thermal conductivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the nanostructure size, the phonon mean free path values (Λ) may be comparable or larger than the object size, L {\displaystyle L} . When L {\displaystyle L} is larger than the phonon mean free path, Umklapp scattering process limits thermal conductivity (regime of diffusive thermal conductivity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our research spans from insect communication to vision evolution, and the impact of nanostructures on nerve cells. (lu.se)
  • This work examines the potential of PbZr 0.53 Ti 0.47 O 3 /CoFe 2 O 4 (PZT/CFO) multi-layered nanostructures (MLNs) to achieve a giant electrocaloric effect (ECE) and enhanced pyroelectric energy harvesting. (rsc.org)
  • Along with a successful demonstration of its effectiveness in synthesis of various mesoporous nanostructures, the possible mechanism of liposome‐guided formation of such nanostructures via time sectioning of the synthesis process (monitoring time‐resolved growth of mesoporous structures) and computational quantum molecular modeling (analyzing chemical interaction energy between metallic cations and liposomes at the enthalpy level) is also revealed. (nsf.gov)
  • Our new technical note, " A New Approach to Improving Confidence in Low-Level Measurements of Nanostructures " examines existing methods and how well they address the challenge of noise in the measurement. (lakeshore.com)
  • In addition, the top-down irradiation approach in conjunction with self-assembled polystyrene nanostructures allows fabrication of diverse and complex luminescent nanoarchitectures. (nanowerk.com)
  • We use scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy in different newly developed setups for operando surface studies of technologically relevant nanostructure devices. (lu.se)
  • Gold‐based nanostructures with tunable wavelength of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the second near‐infrared (NIR‐II) biowindow receive increasing attention in phototheranostics. (nsf.gov)
  • In the widely used technique of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) the plasma density and the quantity of material supplied (carbon) determine which nanostructures develop. (phys.org)
  • Third, it has enhanced enzymatic stability compared to the free form of enzyme due to the unique hierarchical nanostructure. (cdc.gov)
  • Nanowerk Spotlight ) Light-emitting nanostructures are widely used for optical, photonic, chemical, and biological devices. (nanowerk.com)
  • In view of limited progress on NIR‐II gold nanostructures, a particular liposome template‐guided route is explored to synthesize novel gold nanoframeworks (AuNFs) with large mesopores (≈40 nm) for multimodal imaging along with therapeutic robustness. (nsf.gov)
  • We apply X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to obtain chemical information from nanostructure surfaces and interfaces and correlate it with atomic-scale structural and electronic properties. (lu.se)

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