Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Relating to the size of solids.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
The family Lampyidae, which are bioluminescent BEETLES. They contain FIREFLY LUCIFERIN and LUCIFERASES. Oxidation of firefly luciferin results in luminescence.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.

Signaling through Raf-1 in the neovasculature and target validation by nanoparticles. (1/2196)

A recent study demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) activate Raf-1 kinase in an experimental neovasculature system. The study showed that bFGF and VEGF activate p21-activated protein kinase-1 (PAK-1) and Src kinase, respectively. PAK-1 and Src kinases phosphorylate specific serine and tyrosine residues within the activation loop of Raf-1 kinase. Their findings further suggest that phosphorylation at these sites protects endothelial cells from apoptosis induced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The tumor neovasculature provides specific molecular markers or "zip codes". This group of investigators has previously shown that nanosphere-aided targeting of the neovasculature with mutant Raf-1 causes regression of the tumor vasculature. Thus, nanoparticles coated with "zip code"-specific homing biomolecules may be useful for delivering anti-angiogenic molecules that can induce tumor regression.  (+info)

Reducing activity of colloidal platinum nanoparticles for hydrogen peroxide, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. (2/2196)

Shimizu and Tsuji established a method of preparing colloidal platinum nanoparticles, whose average size is 2 nm, by ethanol reduction of H(2)PtCl(6) in the absence of protective agents for the particles. Platinum nanoparticles have negative surface potential and are stably suspended from an electric repulsion between them. The platinum nanoparticles reduced hydrogen peroxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) below 0.1 ppm. It is necessary to use higher concentration of platinum nanoparticles for the reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) than that of hydrogen peroxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, because reoxidation of DCIPH(2) (reduced) by oxygen was not negligible under our experimental conditions. These results indicate that electrons on platinum nanoparticles produced by the method of Shimizu and Tsuji can reduce hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical or DCIP transferring electrons.  (+info)

Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes. (3/2196)

Nucleic acid diagnostics is dominated by fluorescence-based assays that use complex and expensive enzyme-based target or signal-amplification procedures. Many clinical diagnostic applications will require simpler, inexpensive assays that can be done in a screening mode. We have developed a 'spot-and-read' colorimetric detection method for identifying nucleic acid sequences based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles. In this assay, nucleic acid targets are recognized by DNA-modified gold probes, which undergo a color change that is visually detectable when the solutions are spotted onto an illuminated glass waveguide. This scatter-based method enables detection of zeptomole quantities of nucleic acid targets without target or signal amplification when coupled to an improved hybridization method that facilitates probe-target binding in a homogeneous format. In comparison to a previously reported absorbance-based method, this method increases detection sensitivity by over four orders of magnitude. We have applied this method to the rapid detection of mecA in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genomic DNA samples.  (+info)

Oligonucleotide-displaced organic monolayer-protected silver nanoparticles and enhanced luminescence of their salted aggregates. (4/2196)

N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (tiopronin) monolayer-protected silver particles were partially displaced by single-stranded oligonucleotides through ligand exchanges. The oligonucleotide-displaced particles could be hybridized with complementary fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides. Both the oligonucleotide-displaced and hybridized particles could be aggregated by electrostatic interactions with salt in buffer solution, and the aggregates displayed enhanced luminescence from fluorophores. This result suggests the possible application of surface-enhanced fluorescence from metallic nanoparticle aggregation for DNA detection.  (+info)

Nanostructure of cationic lipid-oligonucleotide complexes. (5/2196)

Complexes (lipoplexes) between cationic liposomes and single-strand oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are potential delivery systems for antisense therapy. The nanometer-scale morphology of these assemblies is relevant to their transfection efficiency. In this work the monocationic lipid dioleoyloxytrimethylammoniumpropane, the neutral "helper" lipid cholesterol, and an 18-mer anti-bcl2 ODN were combined at different ratios. The lipoplexes formed were characterized for the quantity of ODN bound, for the degree of lipid mixing, and for their size. The nanostructure of the system was examined by cryogenic-temperature transmission electron microscopy, augmented by small-angle x-ray scattering. Addition of ODN to cationic liposomes induced both liposome aggregation and the formation of a novel condensed lamellar phase. This phase is proposed to be stabilized by anionic single-strand ODN molecules intercalated between cationic bilayers. The proportion of cholesterol present apparently did not affect the nature of lipoplex microstructure, but changed the interlamellar spacing.  (+info)

A nanosensor for transmembrane capture and identification of single nucleic Acid molecules. (6/2196)

We have engineered a nanosensor for sequence-specific detection of single nucleic acid molecules across a lipid bilayer. The sensor is composed of a protein channel nanopore (alpha-hemolysin) housing a DNA probe with an avidin anchor at the 5' end and a nucleotide sequence designed to noncovalently bind a specific single-stranded oligonucleotide at the 3' end. The 3' end of the DNA probe is driven to the opposite side of the pore by an applied electric potential, where it can specifically bind to oligonucleotides. Reversal of the applied potential withdraws the probe from the pore, dissociating it from a bound oligonucleotide. The time required for dissociation of the probe-oligonucleotide duplex under this force yields identifying characteristics of the oligonucleotide. We demonstrate transmembrane detection of individual oligonucleotides, discriminate between molecules differing by a single nucleotide, and investigate the relationship between dissociation time and hybridization energy of the probe and analyte molecules. The detection method presented in this article is a candidate for in vivo single-molecule detection and, through parallelization in a synthetic device, for genotyping and global transcription profiling from small samples.  (+info)

Rapid double 8-nm steps by a kinesin mutant. (7/2196)

The mechanism by which conventional kinesin walks along microtubules is poorly understood, but may involve alternate binding to the microtubule and hydrolysis of ATP by the two heads. Here we report a single amino-acid change that affects stepping by the motor. Under low force or low ATP concentration, the motor moves by successive 8-nm steps in single-motor laser-trap assays, indicating that the mutation does not alter the basic mechanism of kinesin walking. Remarkably, under high force, the mutant motor takes successive 16-nm displacements that can be resolved into rapid double 8-nm steps with a short dwell between steps, followed by a longer dwell. The alternating short and long dwells under high force demonstrate that the motor stepping mechanism is inherently asymmetric, revealing an asymmetric phase in the kinesin walking cycle. Our findings support an asymmetric two-headed walking model for kinesin, with cooperative interactions between the two heads. The sensitivity of the 16-nm displacements to nucleotide and load raises the possibility that ADP release is a force-producing event of the kinesin cycle.  (+info)

Nanometer size diesel exhaust particles are selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons: the role of microglia, phagocytosis, and NADPH oxidase. (8/2196)

The contributing role of environmental factors to the development of Parkinson's disease has become increasingly evident. We report that mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated with diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 0.22 microM) (5-50 microg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, as determined by DA-uptake assay and tyrosine-hydroxylase immunocytochemistry (ICC). The selective toxicity of DEP for DA neurons was demonstrated by the lack of DEP effect on both GABA uptake and Neu-N immunoreactive cell number. The critical role of microglia was demonstrated by the failure of neuron-enriched cultures to exhibit DEP-induced DA neurotoxicity, where DEP-induced DA neuron death was reinstated with the addition of microglia to neuron-enriched cultures. OX-42 ICC staining of DEP treated neuron-glia cultures revealed changes in microglia morphology indicative of activation. Intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide were produced from enriched-microglia cultures in response to DEP. Neuron-glia cultures from NADPH oxidase deficient (PHOX-/-) mice were insensitive to DEP neurotoxicity when compared with control mice (PHOX+/+). Cytochalasin D inhibited DEP-induced superoxide production in enriched-microglia cultures, implying that DEP must be phagocytized by microglia to produce superoxide. Together, these in vitro data indicate that DEP selectively damages DA neurons through the phagocytic activation of microglial NADPH oxidase and consequent oxidative insult.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A study of DNA tube formation mechanisms using 4-, 8-, and 12-helix DNA nanostructures. AU - Ke, Yonggang. AU - Liu, Yan. AU - Zhang, Junping. AU - Yan, Hao. PY - 2006/4/5. Y1 - 2006/4/5. N2 - This paper describes the design and characterization of a new family of rectangular-shaped DNA nanostructures (DNA tiles) containing 4, 8, and 12 helices. The self-assembled morphologies of the three tiles were also investigated. The motivation for designing this set of DNA nanostructures originated from the desire to produce DNA lattices containing periodic cavities of programmable dimensions and to investigate the mechanism of DNA tube formation. Nine assembly scenarios have been investigated through the combination of the three different tiles and three sticky end association strategies. Imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed self-assembled structures with varied cavity sizes, lattice morphologies, and orientations. Six samples show only tube formation, two samples show both ...
Nanopillars is an emerging technology within the field of nanostructures. Nanopillars are pillar shaped nanostructures approximately 10 nanometers in diameter that can be grouped together in lattice like arrays. They are a type of metamaterial, which means that nanopillars get their attributes from being grouped into artificially designed structures and not their natural properties. Nanopillars set themselves apart from other nanostructures due to their unique shape. Each nanopillar has a pillar shape at the bottom and a tapered pointy end on top. This shape in combination with nanopillars ability to be grouped together exhibits many useful properties. Nanopillars have many applications including efficient solar panels, high resolution analysis, and antibacterial surfaces. Due to their tapered ends, nanopillars are very efficient at capturing light. Solar collector surfaces coated with nanopillars are three times as efficient as nanowire solar cells. Less material is needed to build a solar ...
Molecular self-assembly is the process by which molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source. There are two types of self-assembly. These are intramolecular self-assembly and intermolecular self-assembly. Commonly, the term molecular self-assembly refers to intermolecular self-assembly, while the intramolecular analog is more commonly called folding. Molecular self-assembly is a key concept in supramolecular chemistry. This is because assembly of molecules in such systems is directed through noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, π-π interactions, and/or electrostatic) as well as electromagnetic interactions. Common examples include the formation of micelles, vesicles, liquid crystal phases, and Langmuir monolayers by surfactant molecules. Further examples of supramolecular assemblies demonstrate that a variety of different shapes and sizes can be obtained using molecular ...
The scope of this thesis is the synthesis of nanostructured materials, their functionalization and use for optical lactate biosensing applications. Rapid detection of L-lactate is important in many applications in the clinical sector, in the food industry, or in biotechnology. The formation of enzyme loaded nanostructured materials is a promising approach to obtain performing, reliable and stable enzyme-based optical biosensors. Two different sensing schemes are proposed: the development of lactate-responsive films (pathches) and the development of a microparticle based lactate detection system. The content of this work can be divided in three main tasks: (i) the synthesis of nanostructured support materials for enzyme immobilization, (ii) the functionalization of these materials towards lactate detection, and (iii) the assessment of the performance and sensitivity of these enzyme-loaded films and particles for biosensor applications. The design of porous supports aims at providing large surface ...
Modification of carbon nanostructures by different chemical elements opens an opportunity for synthesis of materials of a new generation for different applications. Filling carbon nanotubes with one or other element will allow for conferring different mechanical, electrical, magnetic and other physical and chemical properties on the nanotubes. This work demonstrates a possibility to produce such materials by the new proposed by authors method for synthesis of carbon nanostructures using arc evaporation of materials in liquid medium. The possibility to produce chlorine-filled nanostructures is illustrated by the example of synthesis in chlorine-containing media. The possibility to produce chlorine-filled carbon nanostructures by the arc synthesis of nanostructures in the liquid phase has been demonstrated. The proposed method may be one of the most efficient methods for synthesis of carbon nanostructures.
Modification of carbon nanostructures by different chemical elements opens an opportunity for synthesis of materials of a new generation for different applications. Filling carbon nanotubes with one or other element will allow for conferring different mechanical, electrical, magnetic and other physical and chemical properties on the nanotubes. This work demonstrates a possibility to produce such materials by the new proposed by authors method for synthesis of carbon nanostructures using arc evaporation of materials in liquid medium. The possibility to produce chlorine-filled nanostructures is illustrated by the example of synthesis in chlorine-containing media. The possibility to produce chlorine-filled carbon nanostructures by the arc synthesis of nanostructures in the liquid phase has been demonstrated. The proposed method may be one of the most efficient methods for synthesis of carbon nanostructures.
Nanosponges are a novel class of hyper-crosslinked polymer based colloidal structures consisting of solid nanoparticles with colloidal sizes and nanosized cavities. These nano-sized colloidal carriers have been recently developed and proposed for drug delivery, since their use can solubilize poorly water-soluble drugs and provide prolonged release as well as improve a drugs bioavailability by modifying the pharmacokinetic parameters of actives. Development of nanosponges as drug delivery systems, with special reference to cyclodextrin based nanosponges, is presented in this article. In the current review, attempts have been made to illustrate the features of cyclodextrin based nanosponges and their applications in pharmaceutical formulations. Special emphasis has been placed on discussing the methods of preparation, characterization techniques and applications of these novel drug delivery carriers for therapeutic purposes. Nanosponges can be referred to as solid porous particles having a ...
In this study, double-sided polymer surface nanostructures are fabricated using twice nanoimprint lithography and metal deposition technique. We perform electrical property measurement on these double-sided surface nanostructures. Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the as-prepared samples with double-sided surface nanostructures and conductive electrode are recorded using an oscilloscope with applying different external force. The measurements are carried out at room temperature. We find that the intensity of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current for the double-sided surface nanostructures depends strongly on the sizes, shapes, and arrangements of nanostructures and pressure force. The strongest electrical property can be observed in the hexagon nanopillar arrays with the diameter of about 400 nm containing sub-50-nm resolution sharp structures at the force of about 40 N. We discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for these interesting research findings. The experimental
The nanosponges look like red blood cells, and therefore serve as red blood cell decoys that collect the toxins. The nanosponges absorb damaging toxins and divert them away from their cellular targets. The nanosponges had a half-life of 40 hours in the researchers experiments in mice. Eventually the liver safely metabolized both the nanosponges and the sequestered toxins, with the liver incurring no discernible damage.. Each nanosponge has a diameter of approximately 85 nanometers and is made of a biocompatible polymer core wrapped in segments of red blood cells membranes.. Zhangs team separates the red blood cells from a small sample of blood using a centrifuge and then puts the cells into a solution that causes them to swell and burst, releasing hemoglobin and leaving RBC skins behind. The skins are then mixed with the ball-shaped nanoparticles until they are coated with a red blood cell membrane.. Just one red blood cell membrane can make thousands of nanosponges, which are 3,000 times ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formation and helicity control of ssDNA templated porphyrin nanoassemblies. AU - Sargsyan, Gevorg. AU - Schatz, Alexandra A.. AU - Kubelka, Jan. AU - Balaz, Milan. PY - 2013/1/3. Y1 - 2013/1/3. N2 - We report the formation of left- (M-helix) and right-handed (P-helix) nanoassemblies of a porphyrin-diaminopurine conjugate (Por-DAP) templated by a single stranded oligodeoxythymidine (dT40) via directional hydrogen bonding. The supramolecular helicity can be controlled by the ionic strength, Por-DAP: dT40 ratio, and annealing rate.. AB - We report the formation of left- (M-helix) and right-handed (P-helix) nanoassemblies of a porphyrin-diaminopurine conjugate (Por-DAP) templated by a single stranded oligodeoxythymidine (dT40) via directional hydrogen bonding. The supramolecular helicity can be controlled by the ionic strength, Por-DAP: dT40 ratio, and annealing rate.. UR - UR - ...
In this work, we report the optical and thermal properties of Cu(BTC)·3H2O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) and Zn(ADC)·DMSO (ADC = 9,10- anthracenedicarboxylic acid, DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) micro/nanopillars. The morphologies of MOFs on surfaces are most in the form of micro/nanopillars that were vertically oriented on the surface. The size and morphology of the pillars depend on the evaporation time, concentration, solvent, substrate, and starting volume of solutions. The crystal structures of the nanopillars and micropillars are the same, confirmed by powder XRD. Zn(ADC)·DMSO pillars have a strong blue fluorescence. Most of ADC in the pillars are in the form of monomers, which is different from ADC in the solid powder.
The formation of GaSb nanopillars by low energy ion sputtering is studied in real-time by spectroscopic Mueller matrix ellipsometry, from the initial formation in the smooth substrate until nanopillars with a height of 200 - 300 nm are formed. As the nanopillar height increased above 100 nm, coupling between orthogonal polarization modes was observed. Ex situ angle resolved Mueller polarimetry measurements revealed a 180° azimuth rotation symmetry in the off-diagonal Mueller elements, which can be explained by a biaxial material with different dielectric functions εx and εy in a plane parallel to the substrate. This polarization coupling can be caused by a tendency for local direction dependent alignment of the pillars, and such a tendency is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Such observations have not been made for GaSb nanopillars shorter than 100 nm, which have optical properties that can be modeled as a uniaxial effective medium.. ©2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Design, simulation, and experimental demonstration of self-assembled DNA nanostructures and motors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
2017 Wiley-Blackwell. This is the final published version of the following article: Auvinen, Henni & Zhang, Hongbo & Nonappa & Kopilow, Alisa & Niemelä, Elina H. & Nummelin, Sami & Correia, Alexandra & Santos, Hélder A. & Linko, Veikko & Kostiainen, Mauri A. 2017. Protein Coating of DNA Nanostructures for Enhanced Stability and Immunocompatibility. Advanced Healthcare Materials. Volume 6, Issue 18. 1700692. ISSN 2192-2640 (printed). DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201700692, which has been published in final form at This version is published with permission from Wiley under CC BY-NC 3.0 license ...
The tantalizing prospect of harnessing the unique properties of graphene crumpled nanostructures continues to fuel tremendous interest in energy storage and harvesting applications. However, the paper ball-like, hard texture, and closed-sphere morphology of current 3D graphitic nanostructure production not only constricts the conductive pathways but also limits the accessible surface area. Here, we report new insights into electrohydrodynamically-generated droplets as colloidal nanoreactors in that the stimuli-responsive nature of reduced graphene oxide can lead to the formation of crumpled nanostructures with a combination of open structures and doubly curved, saddle-shaped edges. In particular, the crumpled nanostructures dynamically adapt to non-spherical, polyhedral shapes under continuous deposition, ultimately assembling into foam-like microstructures with a highly accessible surface area and spatially interconnected transport pathways. The implementation of such crumpled nanostructures as three
This book displays fundamental aspects of the various ranges of nanostructured materials for energy applications. Topics include recent trends in nanomaterials for sustainable energy, advances in flexible supercapacitors, biomass-derived nanomaterials, and more.
In previous chapters, the different types of nanoparticles, selection of resin matrix and nanoparticles, processing of nanomaterials, and morphological characterization of polymer nanostructured materials were discussed. In this chapter, the properties ...
Nanoscale topographies and chemical patterns can be used as synthetic cell interfaces with a range of applications including study and control of cellular processes. Herein, we describe the fabrication of high aspect ratio nanostructures using electron beam lithography in the epoxy-based polymer SU-8. We show how nanostructure geometry, position and fluorescent properties can be tuned, allowing flexible device design. Further, thiol-epoxide reactions were developed to give effective and specific modification of SU-8 surface chemistry. SU-8 nanostructures were made directly on glass cover slips, enabling the use of high resolution optical techniques such as live-cell confocal, total internal reflection and 3D structured illumination microscopy to investigate cell interactions with the nanostructures. Details of cell adherence and spreading, plasma membrane conformation and actin organization in response to high aspect ratio nanopillars and nanolines were investigated. The versatile structural and ...
University of Crete. E-Locus Institutional Repository.PhD thesis.2015 . Creators: Μανιαδάκη, Αριστέα Ε.. Contributors: Κοπιδάκης, Γεώργιος.Τα νανοδομημένα υλικά με βάση τον άνθρακα (Carbon-based Nanostructured Materials - CNMs) παρουσιάζουν θεμελιώδες ενδιαφέρον και είναι καλοί υποψήφιοι για πολυάριθμες εφαρμογές στην παραγωγή, αποθήκευση και χρήση του υδρογόνου σε εφαρμογές καθαρής ενέργειας. Εκτεταμένες έρευνες στους νανοσωλήνες άνθρακα, στα φουλερένια και στο γραφένιο έχουν βελτιώσει δραματικά τις γνώσεις μας σχετικά με τα υλικά αυτά. Ωστόσο, μια πληθώρα απο άλλα CNMs προσφέρουν ευκαιρίες για τεχνολογική
Purchase Micro and Nanofabrication Using Self-Assembled Biological Nanostructures - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780323296427, 9780323296526
Block Copolymer Crosslinked Nanoassemblies Co-entrapping Hydrophobic Drugs and Lipophilic Polymer Additives Block copolymer crosslinked nanoassemblies (CNAs) were synth..
Listings in Nanostructured Materials, Microscopy Services, Sensors, Precision Manipulators, Adhesives, Instrument Design / Development and Laser-Beam...
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Page contains details about silicon-tin-cerium-iron-aluminum-titanium alloy nanofibers-filled-carbon black loaded PVDF nanostructured material . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
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Biology serves as a major inspiration for the assembly of ordered structures at the nanoscale. Two main directions for the development of bio-inspired nanomaterials are based either on the use of protein and peptide building blocks or, alternatively, on the use of DNA. Polypeptide structures have the advantage of structural integrity and robustness while nucleic acids have the advantage of specific molecular recognition between complementary bases.. Our group has been extensively involved in the study of molecular self-assembly by extremely short peptide fragments. We demonstrated in 2003 that simple dipeptides contain all the molecular information needed to form ordered nanostructures [1]. Furthermore, peptide assemblies have been shown to exhibit remarkable physical properties including high mechanical rigidity, luminescence, piezoelectricity, and semiconductivity [2]. The dipeptide assemblies act as supramolecular polymers including a clear phase transition governed by Ostwalds rule of ...
Nanostructuring surfaces in order to improve the quality of determinations, in terms of detection limit and signal-to-noise ratio, had received a great attention in the last years. At this effect, a potentiometric for the determination of lactate, based on a nanostructured (ND) Si4N3 surface, is presented here. The potentiometric sensor developed is an electrolyte¿membrane¿insulator¿semiconductor (EMIS). The surface was first modified by a polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer, deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), that can covalently link to the NH2 groups of the lactate dehydrogenase. Secondly, the nanostructures were formed on the surface by colloidal lithography. The obtained nanostructured surface was characterized. The stability of the biosensor in aqueous media was investigated obtaining a sensitivity of 49.7mV per decade. The detection limit for the determination of lactate was 2×10-7 M, with a linear range up to 10-5 M. The intra- and inter-electrode standard ...
Nanostructured materials are promising compounds that offer new opportunities as sensing platforms for the detection of biomolecules. Having micrometer-scale length and nanometer-scale diameters, nanomaterials can be manipulated with current nanofabrication methods, as well as self-assembly techniques, to fabricate nanoscale bio-sensing devices. Nanostructured materials possess extraordinary physical, mechanical, electrical, thermal and multifunctional properties. Such unique properties advocate their use as biomimetic membranes to immobilize and modify biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. Alignment, uniform dispersion, selective growth and diameter control are general parameters which play critical roles in the successful integration of nanostructures for the fabrication of bioelectronic sensing devices. In this review, we focus on different types and aspects of nanomaterials, including their synthesis, properties, conjugation with biomolecules and their application in the construction of
Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon onions and carbon nanotubes, have attracted tremendous research interest for the last decade due to their superior physical and chemical properties and promising applications. But most of the current fabrication processes require high temperature, which causes problems like long cycle time, non-cost effective and substrate melting temperature restriction. Therefore developing low temperature synthesis of carbon nanostructures is of great scientific and practical significance. This report focuses on the low temperature fabrication and characterization of carbon nanostructures such as onion-like carbon and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Onion-like carbons were grown on different substrates at room temperature using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Aligned CNT forest was synthesized using a water-assisted PECVD process ...
Discovering new anticancer drugs and screening their efficacy requires a huge amount of resources and time-consuming processes. The development of fast, sensitive, and nondestructive methods for the in vitro and in vivo detection of anticancer drugs effects and action mechanisms have been done to reduce the time and resources required to discover new anticancer drugs. For the in vitro and in vivo detection of the efficiency, distribution, and action mechanism of anticancer drugs, the applications of electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical cell chips and optical techniques such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) have been developed based on the nanostructured surface. Research focused on electrochemical cell chips and the SERS technique have been reviewed here; electrochemical cell chips based on nanostructured surfaces have been developed for the in vitro detection of cell viability and the evaluation of the effects of anticancer drugs, which showed the high capability to evaluate
The study reports the synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures and their application in enzyme free electrochemical sensing of glucose. The synthesized nanostructures were elaborately characterized via number of analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The as-synthesized nanostructures of Co3O4 were found to exhibited nanodisc like morphology with the size dimension in range of 300-500 nm. The obtained morphological features were evaluated for their electrochemical potential towards oxidation of glucose which enabled development of sensitive (27.33 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)), and stable enzyme free glucose sensor. In addition, the developed sensor showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), wide detection range (0.5-5.0 mM), lower detection limit (0.8 mu M) and extreme selectivity towards glucose in the presence of common interferents like dopamine (DP), ...
DNA nanostructures and hybrid DNA-protein materials are attractive solutions to many applications in biotechnology and material science because of their controllable molecule-level features. Critical to a complete description and characterization of these technologies is the quantification of binding affinity between DNA nanostructures and small molecules relevant to the application at hand. This protocols chapter described a series of experimental and in silico analyses that can be used to described and quantify ligand binding interactions between DNA nanostructures (DNA DX tiles), short double stranded DNA fragments, and arbitrary small molecules. The described methods include microscale thermophoresis, ligand completion assays, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and AutoDock simulations. The protocols use organophosphates and model chemical nerve agents as examples, but the methods described here are broadly applicable. ...
Journal of Nanomaterials is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to bring science and applications together on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications of materials containing true nanosize dimensions or nanostructures that enable novel/enhanced properties or functions. It is directed at both academic researchers and practicing engineers. Journal of Nanomaterials will highlight the continued growth and new challenges in nanomaterials science, engineering, and nanotechnology, both for application development and for basic research. All papers should emphasize original results relating to experimental, theoretical, computational, and/or applications of nanomaterials ranging from hard (inorganic) materials, through soft (polymeric and biological) materials, to hybrid materials or nanocomposites.
Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions across the membranes of living cells. As a result, there is substantial interest in creating nanostructured materials that control transport of these charged species across biomembranes. The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. Moreover, this body of work highlights the promise such nanostructures hold for directing transmembrane transport of charged species as well as challenges that must be overcome to realize that potential. ...
The development of bio-based nanostructures as nanocarriers of bioactive compounds to specific body sites has been presented as a hot topic in food, pharmaceutical and nanotechnology fields. Food and pharmaceutical industries seek to explore the huge potential of these nanostructures, once they can be entirely composed of biocompatible and non-toxic materials. At the same time, they allow the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds protecting them against degradation, maintaining its active and functional performance. Nevertheless, the physicochemical properties of such structures (e.g., size and charge) could change significantly their behavior in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The main challenges in the development of these nanostructures are the proper characterization and understanding of the processes occurring at their surface, when in contact with living systems. This is crucial to understand their delivery and absorption behavior as well as to recognize ...
Surface plasmon is the quantized collective oscillation of the free electron gas in a metallic material. By coupling surface plasmons with photons in different nanostructures, researchers have found surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), which are widely adopted in biosensing, single molecule sensing and detection via surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS), photothermal ablation treatments for cancer, optical tagging and detection, strain sensing, metamaterials, and other applications. The overall objective of this dissertation is to investigate both how mechanics impacts the optical properties, and also how optics impacts the mechanical properties of metal nanostructures reversely. Mechanically engineering individual nanostructures(forward coupling) offers the freedom to alter the optical properties with more flexibility and tunability. It is shown that elastic strain can be applied to gold nanowires to reduce the intrinsic losses for subwavelength ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. AU - Christiansen, Alexander Bruun. AU - Caringal, Gideon Peter. AU - Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik. AU - Grajower, Meir. AU - Taha, Hesham. AU - Levy, Uriel. AU - Mortensen, N. Asger. AU - Kristensen, Anders. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial frequency in the range 5-7 mu m(-1). A reflectance in the visible spectrum as low as 6%, and an absorbance of 90% was observed for an Al film of 100 nm thickness. Corresponding experiments on a planar film yielded 80% reflectance and 20% absorbance. The observed absorbance enhancement is attributed to a gradient effect causing the metal film to be antireflective, analogous to ...
We present results on the single step fabrication of autocentered nanopillars with surrounding circular rim. This particular 3-dimensional shape is created by the energy density distribution of incident and backscattered electrons and reflects the dual behavior of PMMA as positive and negative e-beam resist. Structures with 80 nm rim diameter and 20 nm wide nanopillars could be realized. We could show that the characteristic dimensions of the structures can be varied almost independently by playing with the exposure parameters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the structure shapes are described and several fields of application are proposed.. Keywords: e-Beam ; Nanopillars ; Autocentered ; Pmma ; Nanostructures ; Field Emitters. ...
The project concerns the study of organic nanostructures formed though on-surface synthesis. On-surface synthesis is becoming an increasingly popular approach for creating atomically precise organic nanostructures, through the coupling of molecular building blocks on surfaces, with great relevance and prospects in for example organic electronics. However, very little is known about the on-surface reactions, which makes them arduous to control. Fundamental understanding of the underlying on-surface reactions is therefore of great interest. Furthermore, knowledge is needed for how the structures of the formed materials govern their electronic properties and how the electronic properties of the materials are affected by defects. Such understanding would guide the development of materials with specific electronic properties. The proposed project is divided into two parts. In the first part of the project we will investigate the formation mechanisms of organic nanostructures from molecular building ...
The study describes the application of oxidation resistant copper nanostructures as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the treatment of organic dye containing waste waters. Copper nanostructures were synthesized in an aqueous environment using modified surfactant assisted chemical reduction route. The synthesized nanostructures have been characterized by UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). These surfactant capped Cu nanostructures have been used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the comparative reductive degradation of methyl orange (MO) in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH|sub|4|/sub|) used as a potential reductant. Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were found to be more efficient compared to copper nanorods (Cu NRds) with the degradation reaction obeying pseudofirst order reaction kinetics. Shape dependent catalytic efficiency was further evaluated from activation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nano-Structuring by Molecular Self-Assembly. AU - Minelli, Caterina. AU - Blondiaux, Nicolas. AU - Losson, Myriam. AU - Liley, Martha. AU - Jeney, Sylvia. AU - Hinderling, Christian. AU - Pugin, Raphaël. AU - Joester, Derk. AU - Diederich, François. AU - Vancso, Julius. AU - Hempenius, Mark. AU - Heinzelmann, Harry. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - In contrast to conventional lithography techniques which will soon hit their limits in terms of feature size and fabrication cost, recent years have seen considerable progress in the development of self-assembling nano-structured surfaces. In the work reported here, surface structures on the submicron scale have been created from polymer, copolymer, nanoparticle, and dendrimer building blocks by employing phenomena such as self-assembly, self-organization and non-equilibrium processes. This low-cost approach is expected to result in a new generation of surfaces with novel physical and chemical properties.. AB - In contrast to ...
We present a strategy to produce porous NiTiO3/TiO2 nanostructures with excellent photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen generation. In a first step, nickel-doped TiO2 needle bundles were synthesized by a hydrothermal procedure. Through the sintering in air of these nanostructures, porous NiTiO3/TiO2 heterostructured rods were obtained. Alternatively, the annealing in argon of the nickel-doped TiO2 needle bundles resulted in NiOx/TiO2 elongated nanostructures. Porous NiTiO3/TiO2 structures were tested for hydrogen evolution in the presence of ethanol. Such porous heterostructures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen generation, with hydrogen production rates up to 11.5 mmol h-1 g-1 at room temperature. This excellent performance is related here to the optoelectronic properties and geometric parameters of the material ...
Welcome to Lab. of Multiferroic and Photovoltaic Nanostructures at POSTECH. We are actively doing research in a variety of different topics that involve functional oxides. More specifically, we focus our research activity on the following three major areas: (i) predicting electronic structures and materials properties from first-principles quantum mechanical calculations, (ii) fundamental study of multiferroic materials and their applications to design and fabrication of functional nanostructures, and (iii) solar cells (photo-voltaic) nanostructures. The unique feature and the excellence of our research stem from the fact that Prof. Hyun M. Jang, a group leader, is very strong in fundamental theory (both quantum and statistical mechanics). In Research Page, we will outline three main areas of research which typically represent our ongoing research activities.. ...
As a result of this study, several fabrication methods were developed. One of them utilizes focused ion beam lithography for nanofabrication on multilevel and strongly corrugated surfaces. This process has a great potential for general 3D integration and for micro- and nanofluidics. The same approach enables the fabrication of suspended nanostructures and gives a platform for accurate measurement of material properties and realization of lab-on-a-chip concepts. Another separately developed process is a grayscale lithography that provides a control over the height of patterned features at nanometer scale. It gives an effective way to fabricate miniature diffractive optics components for extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation. It also allows for new designs and improved performance of photonic grating couplers. Finally, the work shows how atomic layer deposition can be used to tune the operational parameters of photonic components. In particular, the dispersion properties of photonic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation kinetics of plasmonic Ag particles in SiO2 nanofilms. T2 - Interlinking particle size to atmosphere-film-substrate system properties. AU - Jiménez, José A.. AU - Sendova, Mariana. AU - Puga-Lambers, Margarida. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Marushka Sendova-Vassileva for thin film deposition, Jean C. Pivin for Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy analyses and Kerry N. Siebein for TEM. Financial support from ARL-W911NF-09-2-0004 is gratefully acknowledged.. PY - 2013/10. Y1 - 2013/10. N2 - A quantitative real-time assessment of the oxidation kinetics of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in nano-thin SiO2 films deposited on soda-lime glass has been carried out by a process-selective refinement of in situ optical microspectroscopy under ambient conditions. The temperature dependence of Ag NPs oxidation in the nanocomposite films was studied during thermal processing in air in the 673-773 K temperature range. An Arrhenius-type analysis of the exponential decay of the ...
Nanostructures and Nanomaterials: Characterization and Properties will provide an overview of nanostructures evincing their fascinating properties (mechanical, optical, electromagnetic, chemical, and biological) unseen otherwise. The hierarchical development from nano to macro length scale, and its adoption in nature (biomimicking) will also be discussed. Understanding the change in crystal structure and defects therein as one goes from bulk to nano length scale will be utilized to construct structure-mechanism-property-performance maps. Thermodynamics resulting from the size effects at nano-length scales will also be considered. Structural, phase, microstructural and mechanical characterization techniques will be dealt in detail.. ...
Nanotechnology has been developed for decades and many interesting optical properties have been demonstrated. However, the major hurdle for the further development of nanotechnology depends on finding economic ways to fabricate such nanostructures in large-scale. Here, we demonstrate how to achieve low-cost fabrication using nanosphere-related techniques, such as Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) and Nanospherical-Lens Lithography (NLL). NSL is a low-cost nano-fabrication technique that has the ability to fabricate nano-triangle arrays that cover a very large area. NLL is a very similar technique that uses polystyrene nanospheres to focus the incoming ultraviolet light and exposure the underlying photoresist (PR) layer. PR hole arrays form after developing. Metal nanodisk arrays can be fabricated following metal evaporation and lifting-off processes. Nanodisk or nano-ellipse arrays with various sizes and aspect ratios are routinely fabricated in our research group. We also demonstrate we can ...
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Due to high biocompatibility and tailorable properties, DNA-based nanostructures are widely studied in biosensor and nanomedicine applications. The restriction for using DNA-based nanostructures lie in the purification processes which have low product yield and tedious steps involved. MoS2 nanosheets are chosen to test for its purification efficiency as MoS2 is shown to have discriminating properties between single stranded DNA and double stranded DNA. Adsorption studies of different DNA nanostructures are tested to see the adsorption capacity of MoS2. From the adsorption studies, it has been observed that MoS2 has high affinity to plasmid DNA, so the use of MoS2 as a gene carrier is tested for its delivery performance ...
Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu*, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc: Prevention of Microbial Biofilms - the Contribution of Micro and Nanostructured Materials, Current Medicinal Chemistry, accepted, 2014.. EDITORIAL. Microbial biofilms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents and with frequent treatment failures, generating the search for novel strategies which can eradicate infections by preventing the persistent colonization of the hospital environment, medical devices or human tissues. Some of the current approaches for fighting biofilms are represented by the development of novel biomaterials with increased resistance to microbial colonization and by the improvement of the current therapeutic solutions with the aid of nano(bio)technology. This special issues includes papers describing the applications of nanotechnology and biomaterials science for the development of improved drug delivery systems and nanostructured surfaces for the prevention and treatment of ...
These revision notes on nanochemistry should prove useful for the new AQA, Edexcel and OCR GCSE (9 1) chemistry science courses. Keywords: uses applications nanomaterials * nanoparticles * nanoscale * nanoscience * nanosize-nanosized particles * nanostructures * nanotechnology * nanotubes * These revision notes on nanoscience should prove useful for the new AQA, Edexcel and OCR GCSE (9 1) chemistry science courses. for chemistry & science IGCSE chemistry revision notes on introduction to nanoscience explained KS4 GCSE Science revision notes on introduction to nanoscience explained GCSE chemistry guide notes on introduction to nanoscience explained for schools colleges academies science course tutors images pictures diagrams for introduction to nanoscience explained science chemistry revision notes on introduction to nanoscience explained for revising chemistry module topics notes to help on understanding of introduction to nanoscience explained university courses in science careers in science ...
Highlights from research on different nanocomposites and nanostructures for sensing and other energy related applications will be presented. The synthesized nanostructures and nanocomposites presented here were all obtained using the low temperature (, 100 °C) chemical approach. Nanostructures featured by small foot-print and synthesized by the low temperature aqueous chemical approach allows the utilization of non-conventional solid and soft substrates like e.g. glass, plastic, textile and paper. We here present results from different metal oxide nanostructures employed for chemical sensing and some innovative energy related applications. Efficient sensitive and selective sensing of dopamine, melamine, and glucose are presented as some examples of self-powered sensors utilizing the electrochemical phenomenon i.e. transferring chemical energy into electrical signal. Further the use of nanomaterials for developing selfpowered devices utilizing mechanical ambient energy is presented via ...
Nanotechnology - Nanofabrication: Two very different paths are pursued. One is a top-down strategy of miniaturizing current technologies, while the other is a bottom-up strategy of building ever-more-complex molecular devices atom by atom. Top-down approaches are good for producing structures with long-range order and for making macroscopic connections, while bottom-up approaches are best suited for assembly and establishing short-range order at nanoscale dimensions. The integration of top-down and bottom-up techniques is expected to eventually provide the best combination of tools for nanofabrication. Nanotechnology requires new tools for fabrication and measurement. The most common top-down approach to fabrication involves lithographic patterning techniques using short-wavelength
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are stable colloidal formulations with notable advantages for drug delivery systems. Thanks to their physicochemical stability, biocompatibility, biodegradability and controlled drug release, they have received increasing attention for the last several years. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Both, the effect of the process parameters and the effect of the preemulsion composition on the NLC properties were investigated. In the work, different type of surfactants (i.e. decyl glucoside, Poloxamer188, Tween 80, sodium cholate) and their combinations were used to stabilize NLC dispersions. Moreover, several kinds of solid lipids (modified beeswax, gliceryl behenate, cetyl palmitate and berry wax) and liquid lipids (caprilic/capric triglyceride and decyl oleate) were applied. An ultrasonication method using a probe type sonicator was used to obtain NLC, and the time and energy of the process were modified ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical Whittling of Organic Nanostructures. AU - Zhang, Yi. AU - Salaita, Khalid. AU - Lim, Jung Hyurk. AU - Mirkin, Chad A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002/12. Y1 - 2002/12. N2 - A strategy for reducing the feature size of organic structures on metal surfaces is presented. The approach works by the electrochemical desorption of the peripheries of organic nanostructures (SAMs of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA)) generated by dip-pen nanolithography. By holding the potential of a gold substrate at -750 mV vs Ag/AgCI for designated periods of time in 0.5 M aqueous KOH solution, the size of the MHA nanostructures on the substrate could be reduced in a controlled fashion. It is proposed that the free volume surrounding the nanostructures and the greater ion accessibility to edge sites facilitate this process. Structures as small as 30 nm could be generated on polycrystalline gold substrates.. AB - A strategy for reducing the ...
Nanostructures on silicon. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nanostructures formed on a silicon surface by a laser beam. This research involves the use of lasers to etch and ablate metal and semiconductor surfaces. The resulting nanostructures can have applications in various forms of electronics and nanotechnology. - Stock Image F016/7927
Increasing interest in commercializing functional nanostructured devices heightened the need for cost effective scale-up manufacturing approaches for nanostructures. Diamond turning using multi-tip single crystal diamond tools is a new promising approach to the fabrication of micro/nano structures. In this paper, a serial of nanometric face cutting trails on copper using multi-tip nanoscale diamond tools has been carried out to indentify the nanomanufacturing capacity of this technique under different cutting conditions. The dependency between processing parameters and the surface integrity of the machined nanostructures are discussed. Moreover, large scale molecular dynamics (MD) nanometric cutting model is developed to simulate the nanostructures generation process. The simulation results well reveals the material removal mechanism and explains why structure defects are more likely to be formed in the cases of large depth of cut and high cutting speed observed in experiments.. ...
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The objectives of this work were to develop versatile and non-destructive fabrication methods for organometallic polymer nanostructures and to explore their properties and potential applications. The system of focus was metal tetraaminophthalocyanine (MTAPc) polymeric nanostructures in the form of ordered nanowires, nanotubes and b nanoflowersb . Template-assisted electropolymerization was adopted as the major preparation protocol for these nanostructures.,br,,br,In the first part of this thesis, organometallic polymer nanowires and nanotubes were fabricated through cyclic voltammetry (CV) electropolymerization on Pt-coated anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The spectral and elemental information, obtained from studies using UV-vis, Raman and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopies, confirmed the presence of the phthalocyanine frame with the amino substituted structure and the polymeric form. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the transmission electron ...
Optical characterization of anisotropic multicomponent nanostructures is generally not a trivial task, since the relation between a materials structural properties and its permittivity tensor is nonlinear. In this regard, an array of slanted cobalt nanopillars that are conformally coated with few-layer graphene is a particularly challenging object for optical characterization, as it has a complex anisotropic geometry and comprises several materials with different topologies and filling fractions. Normally, a detailed characterization of such complex nanostructures would require a combination of several microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. In this letter, we demonstrate that the important structural parameters of these graphene-coated sculptured thin films can be determined using a fast and simple generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry test combined with an anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The graphene coverage as well as structural parameters of nanostructured thin films agree
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To overcome this deficiency, a team led by cfaed Research Group Leader Dr. Thorsten L. Schmidt (Technische Universit t Dresden / Germany) coated several different DNA origami structures with a synthetic polymer. This polymer consists of two segments, a short positively charged segment which electrostatically glues the polymer to the negatively charged DNA nanostructure and a long uncharged polymer chain that covers the entire nanostructure resembling a fur. In their study Block Copolymer Micellization as a Protection Strategy for DNA Origami published in Angewandte Chemie [DOI: 10.1002/anie.201608873] they showed that such DNA nanostructures covered with the polymers were protected against nuclease digestion and low salt conditions. Furthermore they showed that structures functionalized with nanoparticles can be protected by the same mechanism ...
Small metal nanostructures, especially gold and silver nanoparticles, are known for their interesting optical properties caused by plasmonic effects. Molecular plasmonics, a combination of these optically active nanostructures with the molecular world, opens new possibilities for bioanalytics and (bio-) nanophotonics. Isotropic or anisotropic, homogeneous or heterogeneous metal nanoparticles provide a platform for different, highly defined functional units with interesting optical properties such as plasmon waveguides or molecular beacons. Nanohole arrays in metal layers are another promising component for nanophotonics. New photonic materials were realized from combinations of single metal nanoparticles with individual nanoholes in metals. Atomic force microscopic imaging was used to determine the particle location as well as the lateral dimensions and the topography of the resulting structures. Besides ultramicroscopic characterization of the nanoarrangements, such as nanoparticles positioned ...
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are drug-delivery systems and they are made out of solid and fluid lipids as a core matrix. It was demonstrated that NLCs uncover a f..
The April 20-24, 2009 Foundations of Nanoscience conference at Snowbird UT provided an interesting look at the wide variety of subfields and applications for nanoscience in thirteen tracks roughly organized into five areas: principles, materials, nanostructures, components and processes (Taxonomy, Quick Reference Guide to Current Research). Many of the nanoscience subfields have been in existence for five to ten years, however the different nanotechnology science and commerical efforts are still fairly isolated (for example, there could be an NNI roadmapping initiative). Nanoscience is largely still at the stage of experimental demos rather than quick advances to commercialization. The diversity of approaches demonstrates creativity and the increasing complexity, refinement and sophistication signals that nanoscience could be moving into a more mature era ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide. T2 - Assembly of the exfoliated nanosheet/polyanion composite films and magneto-optical studies. AU - Liu, Zhaoping. AU - Ma, Renzhi. AU - Osada, Minoru. AU - Iyi, Nobuo. AU - Ebina, Yasuo. AU - Takada, Kazunori. AU - Sasaki, Takayoshi. PY - 2006/4/12. Y1 - 2006/4/12. N2 - This paper describes a systematic study on the synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), with the aim of achieving fabrication and clarifying the properties of LDH nanosheet/polyanion composite films. Co-Al-CO3 LDH hexagonal platelets of 4 μm in lateral size were synthesized by the urea method under optimized reaction conditions. The as-prepared CO3 2--LDH was converted to Cl-LDH by treating with a NaCl-HCl mixed solution, retaining its high crystallinity and hexagonal platelike morphology. LDHs intercalated with a variety of anions (such as NO3 -, ClO4 -, acetate, lactate, dodecyl sulfate, ...
Abstract. The field of single nanoparticle plasmonics has grown enormously. There is no doubt that a wide diversity of the nanoplasmonic techniques and nanostructures represents a tremendous opportunity for fundamental biomedical studies as well as sensing and imaging applications. Single nanoparticle plasmonic biosensors are efficient in label-free single-molecule detection, as well as in monitoring real-time binding events of even several biomolecules. In the present review, we have discussed the prominent advantages and advances in single particle characterization and synthesis as well as new insight into and information on biomedical diagnosis uniquely obtained using single particle approaches. The approaches include the fundamental studies of nanoplasmonic behavior, two typical methods based on refractive index change and characteristic light intensity change, exciting innovations of synthetic strategies for new plasmonic nanostructures, and practical applications using single particle ...
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) composed of solid and liquid lipids, and surfactants are potentially good colloidal drug carriers. Before NLC can be us
Article Self-organised hybrid nanostructures composed of the array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and planar graphene multi-layer. The hybrid carbon nanostructures composed of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a self-...
Electrodeposited Au/CoAu multilayered nanowires are materials with alternating layers of Au and CoAu in a wire where the layer thickness and wire diameter are nanometer size. They can be used for different applications. For example, the wires may exhibit giant magnetoresistance (GMR), a change in the materials resistance with a magnetic field, having applications as a sensor material for microdevices. If Co is etched from CoAu nanowires, rough, porous gold nanostructures will be left behind, which could be used as novel catalysts. In this study, the electrodeposition of Au/CoAu multilayered nanowires and nanotubes in nanoporous templates was explored from a non-cyanide electrolyte. The multilayers were deposited with a pulse current control and the template pore size played an important role in determining whether nanowires or nanotubes were formed. The magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of Au/CoAu multilayered nanostructures were examined. Au/CoAu multilayered thin films exhibited both normal and
The BNC facility comprises one of the largest and cleanest university cleanrooms in the world. The nanofabrication cleanroom consists of 25,000 sq. ft. of bay-chase cleanroom, with 20% of the bays operating at ISO 3 (Class 1), 50% operating at ISO 4 (Class 10), 15% operating at ISO 5 (Class 100), and the remaining 15% operating at ISO 6 (Class 1000). The three-level structure consists of a full subfab, the cleanroom level, and an air-handling level above the cleanroom. A perforated raised floor ensures unidirectional airflow and bulkhead-mounted equipment separates operational functions from maintenance functions. A combination of careful control of the airflow path, multiple stages of filtration, careful choice of materials, and non-ionic-steam humidification ensure the control of both particulate and molecular contamination. A very tight waffle slab provides NIST A vibration rating, approximating quiet, slab-on-grade construction.. ...
Three types of CuO nanostructuresâ€the nanorod, nanofiber, and nanoparticleâ€have been grown by using a self-catalytic growth process at 400, 500, and 600 °C, respectively. Field-emission (FE) properties of the CuO nanostructures were investigated. The results indicated that the FE current was significantly affected by the morphologies of the CuO samples. Typical turn-on voltage for the CuO nanofiber array was detected at about 6â€7 V/μm with an emission area of 1 mm[sup 2]. Based on Fowlerâ€Nordheim plot, the values of work function for the nanofiber array were estimated in ranges of 0.56 to 2.62 and 0.30 to 1.39 eV from a two-stage linearity plot. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed no obvious changes in chemical composition of the nanofiber array before and after FE tests. According to the analyses, the highly ordered CuO nanofiber array can be a promising candidate for FE emitters. © 2003 American Institute of Physics ...
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Shadow Mask assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (SMMBE) is a technique enabling selected area epitaxy of semiconductor heterostructures through shadow masks. The objective of this work was the development of the SMMBE technique for the reliable fabrication of compound semiconductor nanostructures of high structural and optical quality. In order to accomplish this, technological processes have been developed and optimized. This, in combination with model calculations of the basic kinetic growth processes has enabled the fabrication of high quality quantum structures. A high spatial precision and control of the incidence regions of the molecular beams during the SMMBE process are required for the fabrication of nanostructures. One of the technological developments to this effect, which has substantially enhanced the versatility of SMMBE, is the introduction of a new type of freestanding shadow masks: Growth through such a mask with different incidence angles of the molecular beams is equivalent to employing
Nanofabrication has the power to impact a vast number of academic fields and see immediate and powerful changes in industries such as hospitals and health care, right through to car manufacturing and food production. The expertise at MCN is particularly relevant in the application areas of energy, biosensors, microfluidics and nanofluidics, nanomedicine and drug delivery, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), optics and medical bionics. We have highlighted projects in each of these areas in a series of case studies, while we also showcase some of the exciting projects taking place at our ANFF Victoria partner nodes. We are always looking to expand our library of MCN case studies so, if you are an MCN or ANFF Victoria user and would like to highlight your research, we invite you to submit a case study to us at [email protected] using the MCN case study template. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Porphyrin-based nanostructures. T2 - Routes to molecular electronics. AU - Burrell, Anthony K.. AU - Wasielewski, Michael R.. N1 - Funding Information: A.K.B. wishes to thank the Marsden Fund of New Zealand (MAU 810) for support of this work. M.R.W. wishes to thank the National Science Foundation (CHE-9732840) for support of this work.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The potential of porphyrins and related macrocycles for applications in molecular electronics owes much to the fundamental studies of the photosynthetic light-harvesting arrays and reaction centers. The use of model systems to better understand these essential processes has resulted in the development of an assortment of methodologies for functionalizing and constructing the complex three-dimensional nanostructures that will be essential for a successful molecular electronic system. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.. AB - The potential of porphyrins and related macrocycles for applications in molecular electronics owes ...
Significance of postgrowth processing of ZnO nanostructures on antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria Shahid Mehmood,1 Malik A Rehman,1 Hammad Ismail,2 Bushra Mirza,2 Arshad S Bhatti11Center for Micro and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, PakistanAbstract: In this work, we highlighted the effect of surface modifications of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures (NSs) grown by the vaporâ solid mechanism on their antibacterial activity. Two sets of ZnO NSs were modified separately â one set was modified by annealing in an Ar environment, and the second set was modified in O2 plasma. Annealing in Ar below 800°C resulted in a compressed lattice, which was due to removal of Zn interstitials and increased O vacancies. Annealing above 1,000°C caused the formation of a new prominent phase, Zn2SiO4. Plasma oxidation of the
In one aspect, the present invention is directed to a thermally responsive AB diblock copolymer prepared by RAFT polymerization wherein the diblock copolymer comprises poly(N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride)-block-(N-isopropylacrylamide). Nanostructures of the thermally responsive diblock copolymer are formed by molecularly dissolving the diblock copolymer in aqueous solution at room temperature; and increasing the solution temperature to form nanostructures, for example vesicles or micelles. The first RAFT polymerization of an unprotected amino acid based monomer directly in water is also disclosed. The present invention also provides a method of forming shell cross-linked vesicles by adding a RAFT synthesized anionic homopolymer to a solution of the thermally responsive diblock copolymer. A method of forming interpolyelectrolyte complexed micelles or vesicles is also disclosed, the method comprising preparing by sequential aqueous RAFT polymerization a block copolymer comprised of N,N,
Researchers from TU Wien have discovered a novel way to fabricate pure gold nanostructures using an additive direct-write lithography technique. An electron beam is used to turn an auriferous organic compound into pure gold. This new technique can now be used to create nanostructures, which are needed for many applications in electronics and sensor technology. Just like with a 3-D printer on ...
Under one aspect, a plurality of silicon nanostructures is provided. Each of the silicon nanostructures includes a length and a cross-section, the cross-section being substantially constant along the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns. T2 - Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells. AU - Khor, Hwei Ling. AU - Kuan, Yujun. AU - Kukula, Hildegard. AU - Tamada, Kaoru. AU - Knoll, Wolfgang. AU - Moeller, Martin. AU - Hutmacher, Dietmar W.. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and ...
摘要 + :(浏览:1357次) , 请注意:下载全文可能需要登录或支付相关费用. Advanced micro/nanofabrication of functional materials and structures with various dimensions represents a key research topic in modern nanoscience and technology and becomes critically important for numerous emerging technologies such as nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. This review systematically explores the non-conventional material processing approaches in fabricating nanomaterials and micro/nanostructures of various dimensions which are challenging to be fabricated via conventional approaches. Research efforts are focused on laser-based techniques for the growth and fabrication of one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) nanomaterials and micro/nanostructures. The following research topics are covered, including: 1) laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for highly efficient growth and integration of 1D nanomaterial of ...
Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) origami nanotechnology is a recently developed self-assembly process for design and fabrication of complex three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures using DNA as a functional material. This paper reviews our recent progress in applying DNA origami to design kinematic mechanisms at the nanometer scale. These nanomechanisms, which we call DNA origami mechanisms (DOM), are made of relatively stiff bundles of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which function as rigid links, connected by highly compliant single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) strands, which function as kinematic joints. The design of kinematic joints including revolute, prismatic, cylindrical, universal, and spherical is presented. The steps as well as necessary software or experimental tools for designing DOM with DNA origami links and joints are detailed. To demonstrate the designs, we presented the designs of Bennett four-bar and crank-slider linkages. Finally, a list of technical challenges such as design automation and ...
Functional Nanomaterials is the first and unique compilation of the state-of-the-art review chapters covering all aspects of functional nanomaterials and their applications. Nanotechnology has led to a profound paradigm shift after the developments in recent years and after being classified as one of the most important areas of impending technology by the U.S. government. Novel functional nanomaterials are the basis of newly emerging nanotechnologies for various device applications. This book with 30 chapters reflects the tremendous world-wide interest in functional nanostructured -materials. The wide variety of topics covered in this book is interesting for professionals working in the fundamental and applied research. The book covers major classes of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon and polymer nano-fibers, nano-particles, nanocomposites, nanosheets, fullerenes, supramolecular and self-assembled nano-structures, and many other types of nanomaterials. In addition, this book ...
Nanostructure deals with objects and structures that are in the 1-100 nm range.[10] In many materials, atoms or molecules ... In describing nanostructures it is necessary to differentiate between the number of dimensions on the nanoscale. Nanotextured ... The term 'nanostructure' is often used when referring to magnetic technology. Nanoscale structure in biology is often called ... Materials which atoms and molecules form constituents in the nanoscale (i.e., they form nanostructure) are called nanomaterials ...
Ward, M.D. (2008). "Polynuclear Coordination Cages". Organic Nanostructures.: 223-250. doi:10.1002/9783527622504.ch9. Byrne, K ...
ISBN 0-521-58099-4. Bimberg, Dieter (2008). Semiconductor Nanostructures. Springer. pp. 243-245. ISBN 978-3-540-77898-1. ...
ZnO nanostructuresEdit. Nanostructures of ZnO can be synthesized into a variety of morphologies including nanowires, nanorods, ... Nanostructures can be obtained with most above-mentioned techniques, at certain conditions, and also with the vapor-liquid- ... In 2008 the Center for Nanostructure Characterization at the Georgia Institute of Technology reported producing an electricity ... 2011). "One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures: Solution growth and functional properties". Nano Res. 4 (11): 1013-1098. CiteSeerX ...
Box-shaped graphene (BSG) nanostructure is an example of 3D nanomaterial.[36] BSG nanostructure has appeared after mechanical ... One-dimensional nanostructuresEdit. The smallest possible crystalline wires with cross-section as small as a single atom can be ... Nanostructure Science and Technology. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 21-52. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-7853-0_2. ISBN 9781441978523. . ... Two-dimensional nanostructuresEdit. 2D materials are crystalline materials consisting of a two-dimensional single layer of ...
His studies on the self-assembly of chiral nanostructures have led to the development of nanoparticle assemblies with ... Kotov extended the concept of biomimetic nanostructures to inorganic nanoparticles. He established that, similarly to many ... and chiral nanostructures. Utilizing layer-by-layer assembly (LbL), Kotov prepared a wide spectrum of nacre-like nanocomposites ... "Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures". Chemical Reviews. 117 (12): 8041-8093. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00755. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID ...
"Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures". Chemical Reviews. 117 (12): 8041-8093. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00755. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID ...
The Center for Nanostructures (CNS) conducts activities in the interdisciplinary research and education of nanoscience and ... "Center for Nanostructures". Retrieved 2020-08-26. University, Santa Clara. "Student Organizations - Center for ...
Nanostructures». Solid State Physics 44. B.J. van Wees et al. (1988). «Quantized conductance of point contacts in a two- ...
These measurements employed suspended silicon nitride nanostructures that exhibited a constant thermal conductance of 16 g 0 {\ ...
Efforts to achieve attosecond temporal resolution and with that directly record optical fields around nanostructures with so ... Magnetic Microscopy of Nanostructures. Hopster, H. (Herbert), Oepen, H. P. (1st ed.). Berlin: Springer. 2004. ISBN 3-540-40186- ... information about the instantaneous electronic distribution in a nanostructure can be extracted with high spatial and temporal ...
"Resistance of molecular nanostructures". Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures. 1 (1-4): 304-309. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Diatoms: More on Morphology". Parker, Andrew R.; Townley, Helen E. (3 June 2007). "Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures". ...
... nanostructures and functional materials; and soft matter, biological physics and interdisciplinary physics. v t e. ...
Wang, Yao; Hu, Jiamian; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen (2010). "Multiferroic magnetoelectric composite nanostructures". NPG Asia ...
Centre for Functional Nanostructures. Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics. "Home « EuroPhotonics". ... In 2001, the Centre for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) was established. It merges the fields within material sciences, biology ...
Delerue, C. & Lannoo, M. (2004). Nanostructures: Theory and Modelling. Springer. p. 47. ISBN 978-3-540-20694-1. Quantum Dots: ... onto the metal which is then used as a mask for mesa-etching these nanostructures on a chosen substrate. Quantum dot ... "Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures". Reviews of Modern Physics. 87 (2): 347-400. ... by causing an ionic reaction at an electrolyte-metal interface which results in the spontaneous assembly of nanostructures, ...
Ridley, B.K. (2017). Hybrid phonons in nanostructures. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-878836-2 ...
Fu, Ying (2011). Optical properties of nanostructures. Pan Stanford. p. 201. *Andreev, A. A. (2000), An Introduction to Hot ...
... molecules trapped in the nanostructures. Although nanostructures are typically formed by etching, laser etching can also be ... Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) is a variant of DIOS that uses "initiator" ... Dios and Nanostructures". Laser Ablation and its Applications. Springer Series in Optical Sciences. 129. pp. 505-528. doi: ... "Clathrate nanostructures for mass spectrometry". Nature. 449 (7165): 1033-6. Bibcode:2007Natur.449.1033N. doi:10.1038/ ...
The DNA nanostructure created by the team consists of six strands of DNA to form a tetrahedron, with one strand of RNA affixed ... Nanostructures of arbitrary, non-regular shapes are usually made using the DNA origami method. These structures consist of a ... DNA nanostructures must be rationally designed so that individual nucleic acid strands will assemble into the desired ... The first step in designing a nucleic acid nanostructure is to decide how a given structure should be represented by a specific ...
Gibson works on optical materials and nanostructures, with a focus on photovoltaic cells. In particular, she is developing ... ". "Optical Materials and Nanostructures Group". Retrieved 2019-04-27. "Cheaper silicon means cheaper solar cells ...
Ravishankar's researches have been focusing on the bottom-up paradigm for the synthesis and assembly of nanostructures. He is ... "Functional Inorganic Nanostructures Laboratory". MRC, IISc. 2017. "Researches". MRC, IISc. 2017. "Session 3A - Inaugural ... he serves as a professor and heads the Functional Inorganic Nanostructures Laboratory. ...
"Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures". Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports. 69 (1-3): 1-35. doi:10.1016/j.mser ...
Jahnke, F. (2012). Quantum Optics with Semiconductor Nanostructures. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0857092328.. Kira, M.; ...
Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J. (2000). "Curie temperature of multiphase nanostructures". Journal of Applied Physics. 87 (9): 4756 ...
In silicon nanostructures (e.g. Silicon Nanowires) this rapid growth is generally followed by diminishing oxidation kinetics in ...
C.W.J.Beenakker and H. van Houten (1991). "Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures". Solid State Physics. 44: 1-228. ... C.W.J.Beenakker and H. van Houten (1991). "Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures". Solid State Physics. 44: 1-228. ... "Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures". Solid State Physics. 44: 1-228. arXiv:cond-mat/0412664. Bibcode:2004cond. ...
Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Deaton, Russell (2012). "Programmable Construction of Nanostructures: Assembly of Nanostructures ... Classification Nanostructures can be organized into groups based on their size, function, and structure; this organization is ... Much like molecules, nanostructures at small enough scales are essentially "all surface". The mechanical properties of ... Nanostructure characterization tools include advanced optical spectro-microscopy (linear, non-linear, tipenhanced and pump- ...
Within the "Carbon Nanostructures" book series, the reader will find valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and ... The "Carbon Nanostructures" book series covers the state-of-art in the research of nanocarbons and their applications. Topics ... Since the discovery of Fullerenes in 1985, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996, carbon nanostructures have ... Get the table of contents of every new volume published in Carbon Nanostructures. ...
This volume covers all aspects of carbon and oxide based nanostructured materials. The topics include synthesis, characterization and application of carbon-based namely carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofi
Get the table of contents of every new volume published in Carbon Nanostructures. ...
The British Carbon Group (SCI, RSC Faraday Division, IOP and) is delighted to be co-hosting three important RSC Award lectures at a special event to be held at Burlington House on Friday 31 October 2014. The three Awardees involved are working in the field of nanocarbons, and the afternoon event will be completed by the 2014 Ubbelohde Award Lecture (directly sponsored by The British Carbon Group) which this year is also on a similar theme.. ...
Dopants can diffuse into the nanostructure during synthesis. Alternatively, the nanostructures can be treated after synthesis ... which affect the properties of the resultant nanostructure . To directly create ZnO nanostructures, one can decompose zinc ... The nanostructure develops as the ZnO solidifies and grows outwards from the gold seed. This reaction can be highly controlled ... ZnO nanostructures can be used for many different applications. Here are a few examples. Dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) are ...
... and applications of materials containing true nanosize dimensions or nanostructures that enable novel/enhanced properties or ... Nanostructures for Medical Diagnostics. Md. Motasim Bellah,1,2 Shawn M. Christensen,3 and Samir M. Iqbal1,2,4,5 ... In the last few years, much work has been focused on the use of nanostructures toward problems of biology and medicine. In this ... nanoscale fabrication that have enabled reproducible production of nanostructures. The prospects, benefits, and limitations of ...
... Vladimir I. Gavrilenko,1 Tatiana V. Murzina,2 and Goro Mizutani3 ... Vladimir I. Gavrilenko, Tatiana V. Murzina, and Goro Mizutani, "Nonlinear Optics of Nanostructures," Physics Research ...
Organic-inorganic nanostructures. Definition. An organic-inorganic nanostructure is a nanoscale structure (that is, a structure ... As such, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an example of an organic-inorganic nanostructure. ...
Depending on the nanostructure size, the phonon mean free path values (Λ) may be comparable or larger than the object size, L ... In nanostructures phonons usually dominate and the phonon properties of the structure become of a particular importance for ... Display of great potential by nanostructures for thermoelectric applications also motivates the studies of thermal transport in ... The measurements employed suspended nanostructures coupled to sensitive dc SQUID measurement devices. In 2008, a colorized ...
... these sequences could fold into nanostructures on their own, contiguously. For the immobile Holliday junction nanostructure, ... For example, nanostructure functionality can be directly selected for in the context of a cell. Although currently there is no ... Porous 3D DNA nanostructures can encapsulate or adsorb a variety of proteins and have potential applications to drug delivery ( ... In vivo replication and assembly of DNA nanostructures. (A) The in vivo replication scheme used by Lin et al. (7). dsDNA ...
Investigating Enamel Nanostructure with Nanoindentation In this interview, Dr S. Amini, post-doctoral researcher at the Max ... Scientists analyze nanostructure of chicken eggshells The results of a study recently published in the prestigious ... Highly stable DNA origami nanostructures may pave way for a plethora of biomedical applications The DNA origami technique is a ... These magnetically guided nanostructures could enable gene therapies that are safer, faster and more cost-effective. ...
As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the ... The unique challenges in the fabrication of nanostructures are illustrated, and set into context of controlling structure, ... Nanostructures.html?id=cKyMmAly5osC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareInorganic Nanostructures. ... As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the ...
Metals and Metallic Nanostructures (MMN). CONTACTS Name. Email. Phone. Room. Diana Farkas. [email protected] (703)292-7576 1065 N ... The Metals and Metallic Nanostructures (MMN) Program supports fundamental research and education on the relationships between ...
As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the ... The unique challenges in the fabrication of nanostructures are illustrated, and set into context of controlling structure, ... As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the ... The unique challenges in the fabrication of nanostructures are illustrated, and set into context of controlling structure, ...
... 3 September 2019 16:00 - 7 September 2019 13:00, Alghero, ... Nanostructures (HyNano), which is focused on hybrid organic-inorganic materials containing biomolecules or having bioinspired ...
Biomedical nanostructures. [Kenneth E Gonsalves;] -- Learn to Use Nanoscale Materials to Design Novel Biomedical Devices and ... Nanostructures for tissue engineering/regenerative medicine / Syam P. Nukavarapu ... [et al --. Nanostructures for cancer ... Nanostructures for tissue engineering/regenerative medicine / Syam P. Nukavarapu ... [et al -- Nanostructures for cancer ... Novel nanostructures as molecular nanomotors / Yan Chen [and others] --. Bioconjugation of soft nanomaterials / Neetu Singh, ...
Our research focuses on the interaction of nanoscale materials with radiation with the aim to develop novel analytical methods, to study chemical reactions triggered by the transfer of electrons and to stimulate new developments e.g. in cancer therapy. Below you will find more detailed information on our research projects. ...
Cheng, F.Y., Zhao, J.Z., Song, W., Li, C.S., Ma, H., Chen, J., Shen, P.W.: Facile controlled synthesis of MnO2 nanostructures ... Yang Y., Choi J.W., Cui Y. (2012) Oxide Nanostructures for Energy Storage. In: Wu J., Cao J., Han WQ., Janotti A., Kim HC. (eds ... Wu, C.Z., Xie, Y., Wang, D., Yang, J., Li, T.W.: Selected-control hydrothermal synthesis of gamma-MnO2 3D nanostructures. J. ... Lou, X.W., Wang, Y., Yuan, C.L., Lee, J.Y., Archer, L.A.: Template-free synthesis of SnO2 hollow nanostructures with high ...
b,c) Large-scale TEM image of as-synthesized α-HgS nanostructures with (+)C-P and (+)C-M nanostructures by following synthetic ... Similar to nanostructures with chiral morphology in Fig. 2, the size of HgS nanostructures with achiral morphology can also be ... i-n) TEM images of (+)C-M (i-k) and (+)C-P (l-n) α-HgS nanostructures with different size. Blue dashed curve is added to guide ... Figure 3: The α-HgS nanostructures with chiral lattice ((+)C) but various achiral morphology.. (a-c) Model, typical large-scale ...
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... is the first reference source that compiles up-to-date coverage of the latest and emerging research ... The magnetic nanostructures should have commercial applications in magnetic hard disks for computer information storage, ... The objective of this book is to provide a highly coherent coverage of magnetic nanostructures ranging from materials to device ... From a technological point of view, the magnetic nanostructures impart much larger storage density due to a phenomenal increase ...
Nanostructures for Novel Therapy by Denisa Ficai, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu. Get Nanostructures for Novel Therapy now with ... Get Nanostructures for Novel Therapy now with OReilly online learning.. OReilly members experience live online training, plus ... 2013;19(7): … - Selection from Nanostructures for Novel Therapy [Book] ...
Nanostructures for Drug Delivery by Ecaterina Andronescu, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu. Get Nanostructures for Drug Delivery now ... Get Nanostructures for Drug Delivery now with OReilly online learning.. OReilly members experience live online training, plus ... Selection from Nanostructures for Drug Delivery [Book] ...
New printer creates color by shaping nanostructures. Laser morphs tiny germanium pillars to generate shades that wont fade. ... Carving nanostructures with a laser creates long-lasting colors.. Researchers developed the new printing technique as an ... The coating protects the shapes of the newly carved nanostructures.. Researchers have tried structure-based color printing ...
Different approaches have been proposed to treat cancer cells using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in combination with radiation ranging from infraredlasers to high-energy ion beams. Here we study the decomposition of the DNA/RNA nucleobases thymine (T) and uracil (U) and the well-known radiosensitizer 5-bromouracil (BrU) in close vicinity to AuNPs, which are irradiated with a nanosecond pulsed laser (532 nm) matching the surface plasmon resonance of the AuNPs. The induced damage of nucleobases is analyzed by UV−vis absorption spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A clear DNA damage is observed upon laser irradiation. SERS spectra indicate the fragmentation of the aromatic ring system of T and U as the dominant form of damage, whereas with BrU mainly the cleavage of the Br−C bond and formation of Br− ions is observed. This is accompanied by a partial transformation of BrU into U. The observed damage is at least partly ascribed to the intermediate formation of low energy ...
... 0 By editor on November 21, 2017. Brookhaven National Lab, College ... "At the time, I was looking for ways to apply my idea of stabilizing nanostructures in metals to an application-oriented problem ... In these roles, he takes advantage of the much higher magnifications of electron microscopes to see tiny nanostructures in fine ... "We extensively use the electron microscopy facilities to look at material micro- and nanostructure, very often at how ...
Collective Excitations in Advanced Nanostructures. From 2015-10-01 to 2019-09-30, ongoing project , CoExAN Website ... stemming from the quantum nature of light and look at sophisticated arrangements of carbon-based and other nanostructures in ... the participating groups in quantum optics aiming eventually at a design and feasibility study of novel advance-nanostructure- ... considered in the proposed research is associated with the quantum mechanics and quantum optics of carbon-based nanostructures ...
"On-surface synthesis is a promising strategy for the formation of nanostructures. This new thermally controlled reaction ... New reaction for the synthesis of nanostructures. Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) ... Nevertheless, this use could have huge advantages when engineering nanostructures with technological applications. ...
Purchase One-dimensional Nanostructures for PEM Fuel Cell Applications - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128111123, ... One-dimensional Nanostructures for PEM Fuel Cell Applications 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... One-dimensional Nanostructures for PEM Fuel Cell Applications provides a review of the progress made in 1D catalysts for ... The unique structure of one-dimensional nanostructures give them advantages to overcome some drawbacks of Pt/C nanoparticles as ...
  • The Metals and Metallic Nanostructures (MMN) Program supports fundamental research and education on the relationships between processing, structure and properties of metals and their alloys. (
  • Trelewicz is now an assistant professor in the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences' Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering with a joint appointment in the Institute for Advanced Computational Science at Stony Brook University and principal investigator of the Engineered Metallic Nanostructures Laboratory . (
  • The teams from Seoul National University (SNU), Pohang University of Science and Technology and LG Display Co. have successfully created three-dimensional metallic nanostructures with chirality, SNU said. (
  • The unique structure of one-dimensional nanostructures give them advantages to overcome some drawbacks of Pt/C nanoparticles as a new type of excellent catalysts for fuel cell reactions. (
  • Through self-assembly peptides can give rise to a range of well-defined nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanofibers, nanoparticles, nanotapes, gels and nanorods. (
  • After freezing cerium oxide nanoparticles in solution at different temperatures and rates and storing the frozen solution for days to weeks, the research team used transmission electron microscopy and other tools to characterise the resulting nanostructures. (
  • We find that a range of different silicon nanostructures, including nanowires, nanoparticles, and nanodisks, demonstrate resonantly enhanced Raman signal of the silicon optical phonon mode. (
  • The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. (
  • According to Nam, the 3D crumpled graphene?Au nanostructure exhibits at least one order of magnitude higher SERS detection sensitivity than that of conventional, flat graphene?Au nanoparticles. (
  • Nanophotonics, Nanoparticles, Nanooptoelectronics and Nanostructures Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Nanophotonics, Nanoparticles, Nanooptoelectronics and Nanostructures Conference. (
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Nanophotonics, Nanoparticles, Nanooptoelectronics and Nanostructures Conference. (
  • The nanostructures are formed inside a liquid known as a ferrofluid, a solution with suspensions of nanoparticles composed of iron-containing compounds. (
  • Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel (Ni) chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core-shell nanostructure, [email protected], and this provided a route for: a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH4 core and its dehydrogenation products, and b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride and possible modification of reaction paths. (
  • Greencarcongress - Using an antisolvent precipitation method, they synthesized NaBH4 particles with a size restricted to a few nanometers (less than 30 nm), which resulted in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulating these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface enabled the synthesis of a core-shell nanostructure. (
  • The discussion starts by introducing some basic techniques of micro-/nanoscale fabrication that have enabled reproducible production of nanostructures. (
  • An organic-inorganic nanostructure is a nanoscale structure (that is, a structure with single units sized between 1 and 1000 nanometres) composed of an intimate combination of inorganic and organic components. (
  • Our study enables an emerging class of nanostructures with tailored cooperative chirality that is vital for fundamental understanding of nanoscale chirality as well as technology applications based on new chiroptical building blocks. (
  • The typically weak Raman signal from phonon modes can be enhanced by engineering the dielectric nanostructure to support optical resonances, which has applications in nanoscale Raman lasers and nanothermometry. (
  • One of the grand challenges associated with the assembly of synthetic nanostructures is to prepare asymmetric nanoscale objects," says Craig J. Hawker , whose research group synthesizes polymer nanostructures at the University of California, Santa Barbara. (
  • Such nanostructures are ideal systems for the exploration of a large number of novel phenomena at the nanoscale and investigation of size and dimensionality dependence of nanostructure properties towards potential applications. (
  • The silica nanostructures basically a synthetic analogue of bone-like cellular structures, replicated at the nanoscale using silica compounds thus may improve performance where increased pore volume is important. (
  • However, researchers want to view molecules such as proteins and lipids, as well as synthetic nanostructures like nanotubes, which are a few nanometers in diameter. (
  • Carbon nanotubes and related nanostructures, including nanosheets have attracted tremendous attention for their unique structures and intriguing properties. (
  • In addition, non-carbon nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanosheets of boron nitride (BN) have gained increasing interest. (
  • To facilitate scientific interaction among students and researchers on the latest advancements in this area, Symposium MM - Nanotubes and Related Nanostructures, was organized and held on April 21-25 at the 2014 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California. (
  • We provide a brief summary of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, e.g., nanowires, nanotubes and hierarchical nanoarchitectures, synthesized in porous anodic alumina membrane (AAM) templates. (
  • After a brief introduction of fabrication process of AAMs with different pore sizes, various materials, namely, metals, compounds or alloys, organic nanowires/nanotubes, and hierarchical nanostructures prepared in AAMs are reviewed. (
  • To generate ssDNA for the formation of nanostructures, in vivo rolling circle amplification was exploited ( Fig. 1 A ). Two different dsDNA sequences were cloned into a phagemid vector containing a bacteriophage M13 origin of replication. (
  • On-surface synthesis is a promising strategy for the formation of nanostructures. (
  • By focusing on hollow structures of some binary metal oxides (such as SnO 2 ,TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 ) and complex metal oxides, we seek to provide some rational understanding on the effect of nanostructure engineering on the electrochemical performance of the active materials. (
  • Gold Hybrid Nanostructures for Advanced Nanoplasmonic Sensors," published in Nano Letters . (
  • In this paper, we focus on the application of various nanostructures and nanodevices in clinical diagnostics and detection of important biological molecules. (
  • To directly create ZnO nanostructures, one can decompose zinc oxide at high temperatures where it splits into zinc and oxygen ions and when cooled it forms various nanostructures, including complex structures such as nanobelts and nanorings. (
  • By now, various nanostructures - which are created using different processes - exist. (
  • He foresees the use of these nanostructures in advanced optical devices such as sensors, where various nanostructures could be designed to possess custom-made optical properties. (
  • Herein, we develop a novel epitaxy based two-step synthetic scheme to achieve independent control of crystallographic and geometric chirality in an inorganic nanostructure, and we employ cinnabar α-HgS as an example to demonstrate versatile control and to explore enabled chirality interplay originating from primary atomic lattice and higher-order morphology with in-depth structural and optical characterization. (
  • Since the discovery of Fullerenes in 1985, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996, carbon nanostructures have been attracting a great deal of attention from the research community. (
  • The "Carbon Nanostructures" book series covers the state-of-art in the research of nanocarbons and their applications. (
  • Within the "Carbon Nanostructures" book series, the reader will find valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and traditional forms of carbon. (
  • When L {\displaystyle L} is comparable to or smaller than the mean free path (which is of the order 1 µm for carbon nanostructures), the continuous energy model used for bulk materials no longer applies and nonlocal and nonequilibrium aspects to heat transfer also need to be considered. (
  • Another set of problems to be considered in the proposed research is associated with the quantum mechanics and quantum optics of carbon-based nanostructures. (
  • We will also study collective photonics phenomena stemming from the quantum nature of light and look at sophisticated arrangements of carbon-based and other nanostructures in arrays or placing them in microcavities, thus utilizing the significant expertise of some of the participating groups in quantum optics aiming eventually at a design and feasibility study of novel advance-nanostructure-based optoelectronic devices including microwave, terahertz and light generators, detectors and frequency modulators. (
  • In an attempt to overcome this hurdle, researchers at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) have proposed a brand-new carbon nanostructure designed to store energy in mechanical form. (
  • Modification of carbon nanostructures by different chemical elements opens an opportunity for synthesis of materials of a new generation for different applications. (
  • This work demonstrates a possibility to produce such materials by the new proposed by authors method for synthesis of carbon nanostructures using arc evaporation of materials in liquid medium. (
  • The possibility to produce chlorine-filled carbon nanostructures by the arc synthesis of nanostructures in the liquid phase has been demonstrated. (
  • The proposed method may be one of the most efficient methods for synthesis of carbon nanostructures. (
  • Taking a cue from nature, collaborators from the University of Central Florida , Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the UK Defence Academy grew cerium oxide nanostructures inside the tiny voids that form in aqueous solutions upon freezing. (
  • Researchers have found a way to see synthetic nanostructures and molecules using a new type of super-resolution optical microscopy that does not require fluorescent dyes, representing a practical tool for biomedical and nanotechnology research. (
  • Researchers at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the US Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed an environmentally-friendly way to make nanostructures. (
  • By "crumpling" to increase the surface area of graphene-gold nanostructures, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have improved the sensitivity of these materials, opening the door to novel opportunities in electronics and optical sensing applications. (
  • By understanding the nanostructure of naturally occurring materials, researchers may be able to develop new light-weight, high-strength materials that will require less energy to manufacture and that could make the products in which they are used more energy efficient. (
  • DURHAM, N.C., Feb. 19, 2009 - By manipulating the magnetization of a liquid solution, researchers from Duke University and the University of Massachusetts Amherst have for the first time coaxed magnetic and nonmagnetic materials to form intricate nanostructures. (
  • The researchers also want to try to make even smaller nanostructures to find the limitations of the assembly process and to study the interesting optical properties that are expected from these structures. (
  • The unique challenges in the fabrication of nanostructures are illustrated, and set into context of controlling structure, dimensionality and electronic properties. (
  • Tufts University engineers have demonstrated that it is possible to generate nanostructures from silk in an environmentally friendly process that uses water as a developing agent and standard fabrication techniques. (
  • The present disclosure relates generally to fabrication of nanostructures and in particular to high density nanostructure fabrication using nanoimprint lithography. (
  • This letter reports on a novel fabrication method for 3D metal nanostructures using high-throughput nanostencil lithography. (
  • Shape-controlled synthesis of gold nanostructures using DNA origami molds. (
  • This reaction can be highly controlled to produce more complex nanostructures by modifying the size and arrangement of gold seeds, and of the alloys and vapor constituents. (
  • Scientists from the University of Virginia, US, and the Fritz Haber Institute in Germany have used single-step electrochemical machining to make complex nanostructures in nickel. (
  • Three-dimensional DNA origami nanostructures harboring an internal cavity are used as molds. (
  • In the framework of the Marie Curie - RISE 2017 H2020 Project: Hybrid Nanostructured Oligonucleotide Platforms for Biomedical Applications - Nano-OligoMed (778133) the consortium project and the Materials Science and Nanotechnology Laboratory of the University of Sassary invite you to participate in the International Summer School on Hybrid (bio) Nanostructures (HyNano) , which is focused on hybrid organic-inorganic materials containing biomolecules or having bioinspired structures. (
  • Assembling nanostructures into three-dimensional shapes is one of the major goals of nanotechnology. (
  • Nanorods, aligned nanowire arrays, flower-like and disc like nanowires and nanobelt arrays, along with other nanostructures, can all be created in aqueous solutions by varying the growth solution. (
  • ZnO nanostructures is a rapidly growing research field, with over 5000 papers published during 2014-2019. (
  • At the time, I was looking for ways to apply my idea of stabilizing nanostructures in metals to an application-oriented problem," said Trelewicz. (
  • As such, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an example of an organic-inorganic nanostructure. (
  • As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the. (
  • As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the surface science tools used to characterize them, such as electron spectroscopy and scanning probe techniques. (
  • By performing systematic circular dichroism (CD) measurements on samples with different combinations of crystallographic and geometric chirality, evolution of cooperative chirality can be revealed at multiple levels of inorganic nanostructures. (
  • This mechanical self-assembly strategy will enable a new class of 3D crumpled graphene?gold (Au) nanostructures. (
  • The DNA origami technique is a widely used method for making complex, yet well-defined nanostructures, with applications in biophysics, molecular biology, as well as drug and enzyme delivery. (
  • Conversely, the optical resonances may be designed to enhance the near-field outside the nanostructure for molecular Raman sensing, such as in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (
  • Manners, Winnik, and coworkers say the new method will help chemists give aggregated cylindrical nanostructures any length and composition required for their potential use as drug delivery vehicles and molecular electronics components. (
  • Recently, substantial progress has been made in various subfields of molecular nanostructures. (
  • Molecular structures of the synthesized LC dimers and images of the resultant helical nanostructures with different helical pitches. (
  • Collaboration with a team at the Advanced Light Source research facility (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA) revealed that the ester bond direction in the molecular structures largely impacts the pitch lengths of helical nanostructures in the N TB phase. (
  • Finely tuning the molecular design (i.e., the ester bond direction) enables the manipulation of helical nanostructures, which is particularly important for optical applications. (
  • From a technological point of view, the magnetic nanostructures impart much larger storage density due to a phenomenal increase in the number of bits stored in a unit area that makes them quite attractive for a wide range of applications. (
  • Magnetic Nanostructures is the first reference source that compiles up-to-date coverage of the latest and emerging research activities in the field of magnetic nanostructures for a wide range of readers. (
  • In the second edition of this book, seven new review chapters on emerging new research topics related to magnetic nanostructures were added. (
  • The objective of this book is to provide a highly coherent coverage of magnetic nanostructures ranging from materials to device applications. (
  • Nanostructures are used for a variety of application areas, including, among other things, optical and magnetic data storage. (
  • In the Duke experiments, the nanostructures were created by applying a uniform magnetic field to a liquid containing various types of magnetic and nonmagnetic colloidal particles contained between transparent glass slides to enable real-time microscopic observations of the assembly process. (
  • By controlling solution freezing rate, nanoparticle concentration and storage temperature, the team's ice mould method can be used to produce nanostructures with tailored shapes and sizes. (
  • Because the surface plasmon resonance depends strongly on the shape of the nanostructures, nanostructures with different topological shapes were prepared to enhance the local electric fields. (
  • The starting point of this scheme is the enhancement of the excitation field for the electron oscillations in the nanostructures, which does not conflict with previous designs that varied the topological shapes of the nanostructures or combined nanostructures to generate larger electric fields. (
  • We were able to lock these nanostructures in their intended shapes both by using chemical glues and by simple heating. (
  • In this review, we aim to provide a broad survey of the synthesis of multifunctional MSN based nanostructures with exotic shapes and sizes. (
  • ZnO nanostructures have found uses in environmental, technological and biomedical purposes including dye-sensitised solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, biosensors, nanolasers and supercapacitors. (
  • Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are structures with at least one dimension on the nanometre scale, composed predominantly of zinc oxide. (
  • In this chapter, the effect of nanostructures on various oxide materials in batteries/capacitors will be discussed. (
  • Metal oxide hollow nanostructures for lit. (
  • In this Research News, we summarize the recent research activities in the synthesis of metal oxide hollow nanostructures with controlled shape, size,composition, and structural complexity, as well as their applications in LIBs. (
  • Finally, the development of a non-aqueous one-pot synthesis route to gold-iron oxide hetero-nanostructures was described. (
  • Additionally, nearly all of the DNA nanostructures that have been described rely on defined, synthetic DNA pieces, something that would not necessarily be available in vivo. (
  • Whereas previous attempts to replicate DNA nanostructures required additional, synthetic oligonucleotides for assembly, these sequences could fold into nanostructures on their own, contiguously. (
  • They may be combined with other composite substances to change the chemistry, structure or function of the nanostructures in order to be used in various technologies. (
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (
  • The scheme is based on manipulation of the incident wave to allow the superposition of the electric fields of multiple beams of light to work as the excitation source for the electrons in the nanostructures, and larger electric fields are thus excited around the nanostructures. (
  • Scientists from the University of Twente and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facilty (ESRF) discovered a new method to look deep inside a 3D nanostructure. (
  • A group of South Korean scientists has used amino acids and peptides to create a new type of nanostructure that can be utilized in various industries, a joint university-company team said Thursday. (
  • Although these were landmark demonstrations that nucleic acid nanostructures can both replicate and self-assemble, naked DNA can be more readily manipulated than can DNA in a cellular environment. (
  • VS processes can create a variety of ZnO nanostructures but their morphology and properties are highly dependent on the reactants and reaction conditions such as the temperature and vapor partial pressures. (
  • Altering the growth solution and its concentration, temperature and structure of the seed layer can change the morphology of the synthesised nanostructures. (
  • For example, recent attempts to control both lattice and morphology chirality in one-pot synthesis of colloidal selenium and tellurium nanostructures have only led to observation of optical activity dominated by chiral shape with an absence of chiral lattice contribution in both theoretical modelling and experiments 14 . (
  • The morphology and the growth mechanisms of the ZnSe nanostructures will be discussed. (
  • Enhanced by the improved knowledge of the interactions between complex hierarchical structures and functional requirements, Mechanical Properties of Polymers Based on Nanostructure and Morphology focuses on new polymer materials that possess a combination of improved mechanical and other physical properties. (
  • Mechanical Properties of Polymers Based on Nanostructure and Morphology presents effective ways to combine improved mechanical and physical properties in polymers and form new, performance-enhanced composite materials. (
  • Display of great potential by nanostructures for thermoelectric applications also motivates the studies of thermal transport in such devices. (
  • Nevertheless, this use could have huge advantages when engineering nanostructures with technological applications. (
  • One-dimensional Nanostructures for PEM Fuel Cell Applications provides a review of the progress made in 1D catalysts for applications in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. (
  • It highlights the improved understanding of catalytic mechanisms on 1D nanostructures and the new approaches developed for practical applications, also including a critical perspective on current research limits. (
  • Self-assembled nanostructures based on peptides and proteins have been investigated and presented as biomaterials with an impressive potential for a broad range of applications such as microfabrication, biosensing platforms, drug delivery systems, bioelectronics and tissue reparation. (
  • These applications highlight the importance of Raman spectroscopy as well as optimizing high-refractive-index nanostructures for maximal Raman enhancement. (
  • SERS is one of the most promising applications of the enhanced optical fields generated by the excitation of local surface plasmons in metal nanostructures. (
  • The aim of the 24th Symposium is to focus on the newest achievements in physics, technology and applications of solid state and life nanostructures and bring together various scientific groups actively working in these very important directions. (
  • Finally, some key applications of ceria‐based nanostructures are reviewed. (
  • Research is ongoing to synthesise more productive and successful nanostructures from ZnO and other composites. (
  • ZnO creates one of the most diverse range of nanostructures, and there is a great amount of research on different synthesis routes of various ZnO nanostructures. (
  • Her research focuses on surface science, thin films and interfaces, nanostructures for spintronics and photovoltaics. (
  • Dr. Jakob Schwiedrzik is head of the biomechanics research team at the Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures. (
  • The symposium program will cover different aspects of semiconductor nanostructure research. (
  • So, it is no wonder that such nanostructures are the subject of intensive research. (
  • Another method to synthesise ZnO nanostructures is electrodeposition, which uses electric current to facilitate chemical reactions and deposition on electrodes. (
  • DNA has proved to be especially adept at creating diverse nanostructures because of the programmable interactions that exist between complementary sequences, its predictable 3D structure (at least as a duplex), and its relative chemical stability ( 1 ). (
  • Although the SERS signal from a particular molecule originates from both chemical and electromagnetic contributions, the dominant factor in SERS is a result of the local electromagnetic field enhancement caused by the resonant excitation of localized surface plasmons in metal nanostructures. (
  • Controlled photobioreactor cultivation of the N. frustulum cell suspension to silicon starvation induced changes in the nanostructure of the diatom frustule, which in turn imparted blue photoluminescence (PL) to the frustule biosilica. (
  • From the photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnSe nanostructures, it is interesting to note that red color emission with a single peak at the photon energy of 2eV at room temperature is obtained while the typical bandgap transition energy of ZnSe is 2.7eV. (
  • Bringing two electrical insulators together to create an electrical superconductor: Anyone wishing to analyze such phenomena in nanostructures will soon come up against metrological limitations - unless a new method is used that Würzburg physicists have helped to develop. (
  • A solution of catalysts and molecules containing zinc and oxygen are reacted and nanostructures grow from the seed layer. (
  • Doping ZnO nanostructures with other elements and molecules leads to a variety of material characteristics, because the addition or vacancy of atoms changes the energy levels in the band gap. (
  • In nanostructures phonons usually dominate and the phonon properties of the structure become of a particular importance for thermal conductivity. (
  • By creating different nanostructures on the surfaces, the energy harvesting properties of solar cells can be improved. (
  • Their unique nanostructure has demonstrated remarkable hydrogen storage properties. (
  • Through these resonances, high-refractive-index materials can be used to engineer the optical near field, both inside and outside the nanostructures, which opens up new opportunities for Raman spectroscopy. (
  • Trelewicz thinks that designing tungsten alloys with precisely tailored nanostructures could be a way to overcome these problems. (
  • Analysis of the electric fields around nanostructures indicates that they can provide a basic foundation to obtain greater SERS intensity. (
  • Depending on the nanostructure size, the phonon mean free path values (Λ) may be comparable or larger than the object size, L {\displaystyle L} . When L {\displaystyle L} is larger than the phonon mean free path, Umklapp scattering process limits thermal conductivity (regime of diffusive thermal conductivity). (
  • Here, we focus primarily on the latter since crystalline dielectric nanostructures show prominent phonon response, which is detectable in Raman spectroscopy. (
  • The new method could be used to produce nanostructures in a more environmentally-friendly way as well as being less expensive than the more traditional manufacturing techniques. (
  • Depending on kinetic constraints during growth, they can be prepared as endotaxial 1D Si nanostructures completely embedded in crystalline Si, or underneath a stripe of amorphous Si containing a large concentration of Bi atoms. (
  • Nonetheless, it was at least formally possible that a DNA nanostructure could replicate and assemble wholly in vivo. (
  • The in vivo-synthesized DNAs could then be assessed for the ability to assemble into nanostructures in vitro. (
  • When combined with nanogram amounts of angiogenic growth factors known to interact with heparin, the nanostructures stimulate extensive new blood vessel formation in vivo. (
  • Vapor deposition processes can also use catalysts to assist the growth of nanostructures. (
  • These are known as vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) processes, and use a catalytic liquid alloy phase as an extra step in nanostructure synthesis to accelerate growth. (
  • A large variety of ZnO nanostructures can also be synthesised by growth in an aqueous solution, which is desirable due to its simplicity and low processing temperature. (
  • This is why we think that TXT is an original and powerful tool to critically assess 3D functional nanostructures. (
  • The technological aspects related to nanostructures are also presented. (
  • Many technologies require the understanding of conduction and electrical transport mechanisms through nanostructures. (
  • The common denominator for resonant high-refractive-index nanostructures is that they provide strong light confinement with an accompanying enhancement of the electromagnetic near-fields. (
  • In Section 2 , we review the state-of-the-art of intrinsic Raman enhancement due to resonant dielectric nanostructures. (
  • Chemists can now exert a bit more control over the synthesis of polymer nanostructures. (
  • Up to now, chemists could grow wirelike polymer micelles of a specific length, but they could not control the makeup and architecture because the nanostructures would grow at both ends simultaneously, which can be a disadvantageous constraint. (
  • The ability to control nanostructure in this way is most interesting," says Marc A. Hillmyer , a polymer chemist at the University of Minnesota. (