Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Relating to the size of solids.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Protein-mineral complexes that comprise substrates needed for the normal calcium-carbonate-phosphate homeostasis. Nanobacteria was the prior name for the particles which were originally thought to be microorganisms.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Objects that produce a magnetic field.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Anhydride polymers with a repeating structure of RC(=O)OC(=O)R. They readily hydrolyze in water making them useful for DELAYED-ACTION PREPARATIONS.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
The area within CELLS.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Synthetic and natural polycationic polymer nanoparticles interact selectively with fluid-phase domains of DMPC lipid bilayers. (1/4646)

Polycationic polymers are known to disrupt lipid bilayers. In this letter, we report the dependence of this disruption on the lipid structural phase. DMPC bilayers are exposed to two polycationic polymeric nanoparticles, PAMAM dendrimers and MSI-78. We find that regions of the bilayer that are in the gel phase are unaffected by the presence of polymers, whereas the liquid phase is disrupted.  (+info)

Body distribution and in situ evading of phagocytic uptake by macrophages of long-circulating poly (ethylene glycol) cyanoacrylate-co-n-hexadecyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles. (2/4646)

AIM: To investigate the body distribution in mice of [14C]-labeled poly methoxyethyleneglycol cyanoacrylate-co-n-hexadecyl cyanoacrylate (PEG-PHDCA) nanoparticles and in situ evading of phagocytic uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages. METHODS: PEG-PHDCA copolymers were synthesized by condensation of methoxypolyethylene glycol cyanoacetate with [14C]-hexadecyl-cyanoacetate. [14C]-nanoparticles were prepared using the nanoprecipitation/solvent diffusion method, while fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by incorporating rhodamine B. In situ phagocytic uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry. Body distribution in mice was evaluated by determining radioactivity in tissues using a scintillation method. RESULTS: Phagocytic uptake by macrophages can be efficiently evaded by fluorescent PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles. After 48 h, 31% of the radioactivity of the stealth [14C]-PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles after iv injection was still found in blood, whereas non-stealth PHDCA nanoparticles were cleaned up from the bloodstream in a short time. The distribution of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles and non-stealth PHDCA nanoparticals in mice was poor in lung, kidney, and brain, and a little higher in hearts. Lymphatic accumulation was unusually high for both stealth and non-stealth nanoparticles, typical of lymphatic capture. The accumulation of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles in the spleen was 1.7 times as much as that of non-stealth PHDCA (P< 0.01). But the accumulation of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles in the liver was 0.8 times as much as that of non-stealth PHDCA (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: PEGylation leads to long-circulation of nanoparticles in the bloodstream, and splenotropic accumulation opens up the potential for further development of spleen-targeted drug delivery.  (+info)

Enhancing the photoluminescence of peptide-coated nanocrystals with shell composition and UV irradiation. (3/4646)

The composition and structure of inorganic shells grown over CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal dots and rods were optimized to yield enhanced photoluminescence properties after ligand exchange followed by coating with phytochelatin-related peptides. We show that, in addition to the peptides imparting superior colloidal properties and providing biofunctionality in a single-step reaction, the improved shells and pretreatment with UV irradiation resulted in high quantum yields for the nanocrystals in water. Moreover, peptide coating caused a noticeable red-shift in the absorption and emission spectra for one of the tested shells, suggesting that exciton-molecular orbital (X-MO) coupling might take place in these hybrid inorganic-organic composite materials.  (+info)

Surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles using hetero-bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) spacer for intracellular tracking and delivery. (4/4646)

For the development of surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles as cellular probes and delivery agents, we have synthesized hetero-bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW 1500) having a thiol group on one terminus and a reactive functional group on the other for use as a flexible spacer. Coumarin, a model fluorescent dye, was conjugated to one end of the PEG spacer and gold nanoparticles were modified with coumarin-PEG-thiol. Surface attachment of coumarin through the PEG spacer decreased the fluorescence quenching effect of gold nanoparticles. The results of cellular cytotoxicity and fluorescence confocal analyses showed that the PEG spacer-modified nanoparticles were essentially non-toxic and could be efficiently internalized in the cells within 1 hour of incubation. Intracellular particle tracking using a Keck 3-D Fusion Microscope System showed that the functionalized gold nanoparticles were rapidly internalized in the cells and localized in the peri-nuclear region. Using the PEG spacer, the gold nano-platform can be conjugated with a variety of biologically relevant ligands such as fluorescent dyes, antibodies, etc in order to target, probe, and induce a stimulus at the target site.  (+info)

Coarse grained protein-lipid model with application to lipoprotein particles. (5/4646)

A coarse-grained model for molecular dynamics simulations is extended from lipids to proteins. In the framework of such models pioneered by Klein, atoms are described group-wise by beads, with the interactions between beads governed by effective potentials. The extension developed here is based on a coarse-grained lipid model developed previously by Marrink et al., although future versions will reconcile the approach taken with the systematic approach of Klein and other authors. Each amino acid of the protein is represented by two coarse-grained beads, one for the backbone (identical for all residues) and one for the side-chain (which differs depending on the residue type). The coarse-graining reduces the system size about 10-fold and allows integration time steps of 25-50 fs. The model is applied to simulations of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles involving water, lipids, and two primarily helical proteins. These particles are an ideal test system for the extension of coarse-grained models. Our model proved to be reliable in maintaining the shape of preassembled particles and in reproducing the overall structural features of high-density lipoproteins accurately. Microsecond simulations of lipoprotein assembly revealed the formation of a protein-lipid complex in which two proteins are attached to either side of a discoidal lipid bilayer.  (+info)

Electrochemistry of xanthine oxidase and its interaction with nitric oxide. (6/4646)

With the help of nanocrystalline TiO2, the direct electrochemistry of xanthine oxidase (XOD) was achieved and two pairs of redox waves were observed. The interaction between XOD and nitric oxide (NO) was also investigated. The experimental results reveal that NO can be reduced at a XOD-nano TiO2 film modified electrode. When the NO concentration was low, the reduced product, HNO, would inactivate the protein. However, when the NO concentration was high, HNO would continue to react with NO to form N2O2- and N3O3-, which would not inhibit XOD, and thus the amount of active protein did not decrease any further.  (+info)

Calixarene-encapsulated nanoparticles: self-assembly into functional nanomaterials. (7/4646)

Calixarenes are excellent surfactants for enhancing the dispersion and self-assembly of metal nanoparticles into well-defined structures, particularly those with unit length scales in the 10-100 nm size range. Particles within these ensembles are strongly coupled, giving rise to unique collective optical or magnetic properties. The self-assembled nanostructures described in this feature article include 2D arrays of colloidal Au nanoparticles with size-dependent plasmonic responses, and sub-100 nm Co nanoparticle rings with chiral magnetic states. These nanoparticle assemblies may be further developed for applications in chemical sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and as binary elements for nonvolatile memory, respectively.  (+info)

Blood compatible carbon nanotubes--nano-based neoproteoglycans. (8/4646)

Although nanotechnology has provided a rich variety of nanomaterials (1-100 nm) for in vivo medical applications, the blood compatibility of all these nanobiomaterials is still largely unexamined. Here, we report the preparation of blood-compatible carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that potentially represent the building blocks for nanodevices having in vivo applications. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thromboelastography (TEG) studies prove that heparinization can significantly enhance the blood compatibility of nanomaterials.  (+info)

Abstract Poly lactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic polymer, widely used in many pharmaceutical preparations such as controlled release formulations, parenteral preparations, surgical treatment applications, and tissue engineering. In this study, we prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for topical and site targeting delivery of Norfloxacin by emulsification solvent evaporation method (ESE). The design of experiment (DOE) was done by using software to optimize the result, and then a surface plot was generated to compare with the practical results. The surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential and composition of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM, and FTIR. The thermal behavior of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles was characterized by DSC and TGA. The prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles of Norfloxacin exhibited an average particle size from 178.6 ± 3.7 nm to 220.8 ± 2.3 nm, and showed very narrow ...
Boron Carbide Nanoparticles,Freestanding Gallium Nitride Substrate,Gallium Nitride Powder,Molybdenum Disulfide Nanoparticle,Nano Hydroxylapatie Powder,Silicon Carbide SIC Nanoparticles,Silicon Nitride Nanoparticles,Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles,Titanium Carbide Nanoparticles,Tungsten Carbide Nanoparticles,Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles,Zirconium Boride Nanoparticles,Aluminium Nanoparticles,Bismuth Nanoparticles,Carbon Nanoparticles,Cobalt Nanoparticles,Copper Nanoparticles,Gold Nanoparticles,Graphite Nanoparticles,Iron Nanoparticles,Indium Nanoparticles,Molybdenum Nanoparticles,Nickel Nanoparticles,Silicon Nanoparticles,Silver Nanoparticles,Tin Nanoparticles,Titanium Nanoparticles,Tungsten Nanoparticles,Znic Nanoparticles,Nano Metal Oxide,ATO Nanoparticles,Alpha Aluminum Oxide,Gamma Aluminum Oxide,Nano CeO2,Nano CuO,Nano Cu2O,Nano Indium Oxide,Nano Indium Tin Oxide,Nano Lanthanum Oxide,Nano MgO,Nano Nickel Oxide,Hydrophobic Nano SiO2,Nano SiO2,Nano SnO2,Nano TiO2,Nano ZnO,Nano ZrO2 Copyright ...
Boron Carbide Nanoparticles,Freestanding Gallium Nitride Substrate,Gallium Nitride Powder,Molybdenum Disulfide Nanoparticle,Nano Hydroxylapatie Powder,Silicon Carbide SIC Nanoparticles,Silicon Nitride Nanoparticles,Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles,Titanium Carbide Nanoparticles,Tungsten Carbide Nanoparticles,Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles,Zirconium Boride Nanoparticles,Aluminium Nanoparticles,Bismuth Nanoparticles,Carbon Nanoparticles,Cobalt Nanoparticles,Copper Nanoparticles,Gold Nanoparticles,Graphite Nanoparticles,Iron Nanoparticles,Indium Nanoparticles,Molybdenum Nanoparticles,Nickel Nanoparticles,Silicon Nanoparticles,Silver Nanoparticles,Tin Nanoparticles,Titanium Nanoparticles,Tungsten Nanoparticles,Znic Nanoparticles,Nano Metal Oxide,ATO Nanoparticles,Alpha Aluminum Oxide,Gamma Aluminum Oxide,Nano CeO2,Nano CuO,Nano Cu2O,Nano Indium Oxide,Nano Indium Tin Oxide,Nano Lanthanum Oxide,Nano MgO,Nano Nickel Oxide,Hydrophobic Nano SiO2,Nano SiO2,Nano SnO2,Nano TiO2,Nano ZnO,Nano ZrO2 Copyright ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: A Potential Approach for Dermal Drug Delivery. AU - Kakadia, Partibha. AU - Conway, Barbara. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have attracted increasing attention during recent years. Due to their unique size dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer possibilities to develop new therapeutics. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanoparticles offers a new prototype in drug delivery thus realizing the dual goal of both controlled release and site-specific drug delivery. Drug delivery to the skin is widely used for local and systemic delivery and has potential to be improved by application of nanoparticulate formulations. If investigated appropriately, solid lipid nanoparticles may open new opportunities in therapy of complex diseases which is difficult to treat.. AB - Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have attracted increasing attention during recent years. Due to their unique size dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Scalable manufacturing processes for solid lipid nanoparticles. AU - Anderluzzi, Giulia. AU - Lou Ramirez, Gustavo. AU - Su, Yang. AU - Perrie, Yvonne. PY - 2019/11/30. Y1 - 2019/11/30. N2 - Solid lipid nanoparticles offer a range of advantages as delivery systems, but they are limited by effective manufacturing processes. Within this study we outline a high-throughput and scalable manufacturing process for solid lipid nanoparticles. The solid lipid nanoparticles were formulated from a combination of Tristearin and 1,2-Distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-methyl-polyethyleneglycol conjugate-2000 and manufactured using the M-110P Microfluidizer® processor (Microfluidics Inc, Westwood, Massachusetts, US). The manufacturing process was optimized in terms of the number of process cycles (1 to 5) and of process pressure change (20,000, 25,000 and 30,000 psi). The solid lipid nanoparticles were purified using tangential flow filtration, and they were characterized in terms of their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alumina-pepsin hybrid nanoparticles with orientation-specific enzyme coupling. AU - Li, Ju. AU - Wang, Jianquan. AU - Gavalas, Vasilis G.. AU - Atwood, David A.. AU - Bachas, Leonidas G.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Hybrid alumina nanoparticles with pepsin were prepared in a controlled and efficient manner. Phosphorylated pepsin can be coupled to alumina through the interaction between phosphoserine on pepsin and the alumina surface in an orientation-specific manner. A comparison of data obtained with nanoparticles and microsized alumina particles reveals that the conjugated pepsin retained much higher enzymatic activity when it was immobilized on nanoparticles mainly because of the lack of diffusion limitations of the substrate. Additionally, upon attachment to the alumina nanoparticles, the thermal stability of pepsin is enhanced. The coupled enzyme can be quantitatively released by simply incubating the hybrid nanoparticles with phosphate buffer.. AB - Hybrid alumina ...
Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) are next-generation core-shell nanostructures, conceptually derived from both liposome and polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), where a polymer core remains enveloped by a lipid layer. Although they have garnered significant interest, they remain not yet widely exploited or ubiquitous. Recently, a fundamental transformation has occurred in the preparation of LPHNPs, characterized by a transition from a two-step to a one-step strategy, involving synchronous self-assembly of polymers and lipids. Owing to its two-in-one structure, this approach is of particular interest as a combinatorial drug delivery platform in oncology. In particular, the outer surface can be decorated in multifarious ways for active targeting of anticancer therapy, delivery of DNA or RNA materials, and use as a diagnostic imaging agent. This review will provide an update on recent key advancements in design, synthesis, and bioactivity evaluation as well as discussion of future clinical
Nanoparticles have been widely used in biological and biomedical fields. To achieve certain purpose, nanoparticles should be functionalized with diverse molecules through genetic or chemical modification. Therefore, we developed genetically functionalized nanoparticles for improved systems by simple construction. In chapter 1, we developed genetically functionalized ferritin nanoparticles for immunoassay and imaging. Ferritins are known as self-assembled protein nanoparticles, and we fused human IgG-specific repebody to N-terminal heavy-chain ferritin subunit to construct repebody-ferritin nanoparticles. The repebody-ferritin nanoparticles were shown to have a three-order of magnitude higher binding affinity toward human IgG than free repebody due to multivalency. Also, the dye-labeled repebody-ferritin nanoparticles were applied for immunoassay such as western blot, cell imaging and flow cytometry. As a result, the repebody-ferritin nanoparticles generated much stronger fluorescent signals than ...
OBJECTIVE Docetaxel (DTX) remains the only effective drug for prolonging survival and improving quality of life of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Combination anticancer therapy encapsulating DTX and another extract of traditional Chinese medicine is one nano-sized drug delivery system promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects, to maximize the treatment effect, and to overcome multi-drug resistance. The purpose of this study is to construct lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) as nanomedicine for co-encapsulation of DTX and curcumin (CUR). METHODS DTX and CUR co-encapsulated LPNs (DTX-CUR-LPNs) were constructed. DTX-CUR-LPNs were evaluated in terms of particles size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, and drug delivery. The cytotoxicity of the LPNs was evaluated on PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells (PC3 cells) by MTT assays. In vivo anti-tumor effects were observed on the PC3 tumor xenografts in mice. RESULTS The particle size of DTX-CUR-LPNs was
Many prostate cancers relapse after initial chemotherapy treatment. Combining molecular and chemotherapy together with encapsulation of drugs in nanocarriers provides effective drug delivery and toxicity reduction. We developed core shell lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (CSLPHNPs) with poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core and lipid layer containing docetaxel and clinically used inhibitor of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) FTY720 (fingolimod). We show for the first time that FTY720 (both free and in CSLPHNPs) re-sensitizes castrate resistant prostate cancer cells and tumors to docetaxel, allowing a four-fold reduction in effective dose. Our CSLPHNPs showed high serum stability and a long shelf life. CSLPHNPs demonstrated a steady uptake by tumor cells, sustained intracellular drug release and in vitro efficacy superior to free therapies. In a mouse model of human prostate cancer, CSLPHNPs showed excellent tumor targeting and significantly lower side effects compared to free drugs, importantly,
Background: Due to the rise in antimicrobial resistance and the challenges accompanied by conventional antibiotic dosage forms, there is a need for developing drug delivery systems that enhance, protect and potentiate the current antibiotics in the market. Furthermore, natural derivatives from plants have proven to be potent antimicrobial agents. Therefore, their combination with antibiotics could be effective in overcoming antimicrobial resistance. Aim: The aim of this study was to co-deliver vancomycin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid via pH-responsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (VCM-GAPAH-LPHNPs) formulated from polyallylamine and oleic acid (OA) and to explore its potential for enhanced activity and targeted delivery. Methods: Molecular dynamics and stability studies were used to determine the stability of the oil and water phases independently as well as VCM-GAPAH-LPHNPs as a complex. VCM-GAPAH-LPHNPs were prepared using the micro-emulsion technique. The size, polydispersity index and ...
Page contains details about fluorescein isothiocyanate-loaded targeted lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Page contains details about small interfering RNA against actin-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Core-shell nanostructures are emerging as more important materials than alloy nanostructures and have much more interesting potential applications in various fields. In this work, we demonstrated the fast and facile synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles consisting of Pt thin layer as the shell and Ni nanoparticles as the cores. The described method herein is suitable for large-scale and low-cost production of the core-shell nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the physicochemical characterizations. Importantly, the catalytic activity of [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles was probed to develop electrocatalyst in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). This electrocatalyst was applied to ethanol oxidation reaction for first time. Thus, the electrocatalytic activity of the [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles towards ethanol oxidation reaction has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles by nanoparticle tracking analysis and high-throughput flow cytometry.. AU - Shmueli, Ron B.. AU - Bhise, Nupura S.. AU - Green, Jordan J.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Non-viral gene delivery using polymeric nanoparticles has emerged as an attractive approach for gene therapy to treat genetic diseases(1) and as a technology for regenerative medicine(2). Unlike viruses, which have significant safety issues, polymeric nanoparticles can be designed to be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, non-mutagenic, easier to synthesize, chemically versatile, capable of carrying larger nucleic acid cargo and biodegradable and/or environmentally responsive. Cationic polymers self-assemble with negatively charged DNA via electrostatic interaction to form complexes on the order of 100 nm that are commonly termed polymeric nanoparticles. Examples of biomaterials used to form nanoscale polycationic gene delivery nanoparticles include polylysine, ...
Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles water dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethanol dispersin, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles nmp dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles acetone dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethylene glycol dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles dmf dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles DMSO dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles toluene dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles water dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethanol dispersin, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles nmp dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles acetone dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethylene glycol dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles dmf dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 ...
A hybrid hydrogel including a hydrogel material and a plurality of first hybrid nanoparticles is provided. The plurality of first hybrid nanoparticles are conjugated to the hydrogel material, wherein each of the first hybrid nanoparticles includes a first positive-charged polysaccharide and a first negative-charged polysaccharide. The first positive-charged polysaccharide is located at an inner core of the first hybrid nanoparticles. The first negative-charged polysaccharide is located at an outer shell of the first hybrid nanoparticles and carries a plurality of first growth factors. The first negative-charged polysaccharide and the first positive-charged polysaccharide are electrostatically attracted to form the first hybrid nanoparticles. A method of fabricating the hybrid hydrogel is also provided.
The present invention is directed to cationic nanoparticles, methods to make them, and the use of compositions containing said nanoparticles in personal care compositions or formulations. The nanoparticles are useful in personal care applications and impart antimicrobial properties to home and personal care products containing them. These cationic nanoparticles also contribute useful conditioning properties to hair-care and skin-care products.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new therapeutic modality for acute myocardial infarction. T2 - Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of pitavastatin induces cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and anti-inflammation in a rat model. AU - Nagaoka, Kazuhiro. AU - Matoba, Tetsuya. AU - Mao, Yajing. AU - Nakano, Yasuhiro. AU - Ikeda, Gentaro. AU - Egusa, Shizuka. AU - Tokutome, Masaki. AU - Nagahama, Ryoji. AU - Nakano, Kaku. AU - Sunagawa, Kenji. AU - Egashira, Kensuke. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Nagaoka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.. PY - 2015/7/13. Y1 - 2015/7/13. N2 - Aim: There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), for which the effectiveness of interventional reperfusion therapy is ...
The bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles show unique plasmonic properties and their preparations and characterizations are currently under investigation. A new type of Au core-Ag shell ([email protected]) nanoparticles is prepared by sandwiching the chemically attached Raman reporter molecules (RRMs) and a 12-base-long oligonucleotide between the 13 nm average size core-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and 9 nm and 21 nm average size of Ag shell. The synthesized [email protected] nanoparticles are tested for their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance. It is found that the chemical attachment of the oligonucleotides along with the RRM improved the enhancement in Raman scattering more than one order of the magnitude with the [email protected] nanoparticles with an average 9-nm shell thickness while the [email protected] nanoparticles with 21 nm average shell thickness have poor SERS activity. A minimum enhancement factor of 1.0 x 10(7) is estimated for the SERS active oligonucleotide-mediated [email protected] nanoparticles. The approach may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions Between the Lipid Core and the Phospholipid Interface in Emulsions and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles. AU - Bricarello, Daniel A.. AU - Pan, Yuanjie. AU - Nitin, Nitin. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - This study evaluates interactions between the lipid core and the phospholipid interface in oil in water emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles. Interactions between the core and the interface are characterized based on changes in structural order and lateral mobility of the phospholipid interface as a function of physical state of the lipid core (solid vs. liquid) and composition of phospholipids and bile salts at the interface. Changes in structural order of the lipid core are also evaluated as a function of composition of the interface. Emulsions (liquid core) and solid lipid nanoparticles (solid core) are formulated using an eicosane lipid core. Phospholipid with long carbon chain (C16)-high melting phospholipids (41 °C) and short carbon chain (C12)-low melting ...
Nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for local drug delivery to the inner ear recently. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method followed by glutaraldehyde fixation or heat denaturation. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average diameter of 492 nm. The heat-denatured nanoparticles had good cytocompatibility. The nanoparticles could adhere on and penetrate through the round window membrane of guinea pigs. The nanoparticles were analyzed as drug carriers to investigate the loading capacity and release behaviors. Rhodamine B was used as a model drug in this paper. Rhodamine B-loaded nanoparticles showed a controlled release profile and could be deposited on the osseous spiral lamina. We considered that the bovine serum albumin nanoparticles may have potential applications in the field of local drug delivery in the treatment of inner ear disorders.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cationic surface modification of PLG nanoparticles offers sustained gene delivery to pulmonary epithelial cells. AU - Baoum, Abdulgader. AU - Dhillon, Navneet. AU - Buch, Shilpa J. AU - Berkland, Cory. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles are currently being explored as a nonviral gene delivery system; however, many obstacles impede the translation of these nanomaterials. For example, nanoparticles delivered systemically are inherently prone to adsorbing serum proteins and agglomerating as a result of their large surface/volume ratio. What is desired is a simple procedure to prepare nanoparticles that may be delivered locally and exhibit minimal toxicity while improving entry into cells for effectively delivering DNA. The objective of this study was to optimize the formulation of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles for gene delivery performance to a model of the pulmonary epithelium. Using a simple solvent diffusion technique, ...
Background: Accurate tumor localization is critical to performing laparoscopic colectomy which is lack of tactile sensation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using carbon nanoparticles to localize non-palpable tumor for laparoscopic colectomy, compared with intra-operative colonoscopy.. Methods: A prospective study was performed between July 2012 and September 2015. Inclusion criteria included T1-3 colon cancer, big adenoma or polyp unsuitable for endoscopic resection, multiple colorectal tumors, and cancer complete or partial response after neoadjuvant therapy. Exclusion criteria included T4 colon cancer, planned local excision, previous abdominal surgery, and emergency case with bleeding or obstruction or perforation. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and divided into carbon nanoparticles group (30 cases) and intra-operative colonoscopy group (30 cases). One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug ...
Faceted colloidal nanoparticles are currently of immense interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and catalytic properties. However, continuous flow synthesis that enables rapid formation of faceted nanoparticles of single or multi-elemental composition is not trivial. We present a continuous flow synthesis route for the synthesis of uniformly sized Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell nanoparticles in a single-phase microfluidic reactor, which enables rapid formation of shaped nanoparticles with a reaction time of 3 min. The PdPt core-shell nanoparticles feature a dendritic, high surface area with the Pt shell covering the Pd core, as verified using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell particles are catalytically tested during NO2 reduction in the presence of H2 in a flow pocket reactor. The Pd nanocubes exhibited low-temperature activity (i.e., <136 °C) and poor selectivity performance toward
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of ritonavir solid lipid nanoparticles by Box Behnken design for intestinal lymphatic targeting. AU - Kumar, Swapnil. AU - Narayan, Reema. AU - Ahammed, Vasif. AU - Nayak, Yogendra. AU - Naha, Anup. AU - Nayak, Usha Y.. PY - 2018/4/1. Y1 - 2018/4/1. N2 - The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of anti-HIV drug ritonavir to target intestinal lymphatic vessels and bioavailability enhancement by the oral route of administration. SLNs were prepared by solvent evaporation followed by ultrasonication using Compritol 888 and sodium lauryl sulfate using Box Behnken design. SLNs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and pharmacokinetic studies. The average particle size for the optimized formulations was well within 300 nm, and PDI (0.361) and zeta potential (−32.4 mV) were also found to be in acceptable ranges. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 53.20 ± 4.13 to ...
Due to their high surface area and size-dependent properties, nanoparticles have seen use as biomedical devices in the past several decades. Magnetic nanoparticles are of particular interest as their properties allow for a variety of uses including separations, targeting, imaging, and therapy. The biological milieu is not a pristine environment, however. The complex medium presents many challenges for particle stability and reproducible performance. It even makes fundamental particle characterization more difficult. In this thesis, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are investigated as biomedical devices which provide diagnosis/imaging and therapy (theranostics). Innovative methods for characterizing these particles and observing their behavior over time in biologically relevant environments are also presented. Overall, this thesis aims to make the important point that magnetic nanoparticles are not stagnant objects but are in fact dynamic systems capable of vast changes upon exposure to in vitro ...
Nanoparticle size controls their ability to move through the body. Smaller nanoparticles move through the body without getting stuck in tight spaces. They also are easier for cells to swallow, which is important because nanoparticles need to release their medicine inside cells to work. Smaller nanoparticles can also let go of medicine faster.. It might seem like a good idea to make the smallest nanoparticles possible, but there is a size limit that cant be crossed. If the nanoparticles are too small, they will clump together. Clumpy nanoparticles are no longer small enough to work properly. Thats why its important to stay within a certain size range when designing nanoparticles.. While their small size allows nanoparticles to go anywhere in the body, they still have to find their target organs or cell types. Scientists can program nanoparticles to find cell types from different organs, systems, or even tumors because each type of cell has different proteins on its surface. This is the cells ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Nanotoxicity of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles. AU - Prasad, Dev. AU - Chauhan, Harsh. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Nanoparticles, as the name suggest, are the particles in a size ranging between 1 and 1000 nm. The utilization of nanoparticles, especially in the eld of medicine and pharmaceutical sciences, provides the exibility to alter fundamental physical properties of compounds such as solubility, diffusivity, half-life of drug in blood circulation, drug release characteristics, and immunogenicity. A drug can be dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated, or attached to a nanoparticle matrix [1-3]. Over the years, a number of nanoparticulate systems have been developed for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer, diabetes, pain, asthma, allergy, and infections among many other diseases and conditions [4,5]. Further, the discovery of new chemical entities for better treatment and control of a wide spectrum of diseases has necessitated the use of these carrier systems for ...
Nanoparticles are considered a primary vehicle for targeted therapies because they can pass biological barriers, enter and distribute in cells by energy-dependent pathways1-3. Until now, most studies have shown that nanoparticle properties, such as size4-6 and surface7,8, can affect how cells internalise nanoparticles. Here we show that the different phases of cell growth, which constitute the cell cycle, can also influence nanoparticle uptake. Although cells in different cell cycle phases internalised nanoparticles with similar rates, after 24 hours of uptake the concentration of nanoparticles in the cells is ranked according to the different cell cycle phases: G2/M , S , G0/G1. Nanoparticles were not exported from cells but the internalised nanoparticle concentration is split when the cell divides. Our results suggest that future studies on nanoparticle uptake should consider the cell cycle because in a cell population, the internalised nanoparticle dose in each cell varies as the cell cycles ...
Makefield Therapeutics Licenses Patent Rights Covering Its Hybrid Nanoparticle Delivery Platform From Albert Einstein College of Medicine
PCS and AFM analyses were carried out in order to characterize size and size distribution, surface properties, and shape of nanoparticles. The analyses showed that the produced nanoparticles have almost spherical shape, and they are formed with desirable surface morphology (they have very smooth surface). In addition, it was turned out that egg albumin nanoparticles had a mean size of less than 100 nm. The simple coacervation method was considered an appropriate method for the production of this type of nanoparticles. Therefore, egg albumin nanoparticles can be considered very good candidates to be used as drug and food nano-carriers ...
0153] In some embodiments, subject 2DG-functionalized polyoxalate nanoparticles exhibit differential metabolic uptake into a particular mammalian cell and/or tissue. In some embodiments, subject 2DG-functionalized polyoxalate nanoparticles exhibit differential metabolic uptake into a diseased mammalian fissile, e.g., subject 2DG-functionalized polyoxalate nanoparticles exhibit an at least about 1%, at least about 5%, at least about 10%, at least about 25%, at least about 50%, at least about 100% (or 2-fold), at least about 2.5-fold, at least about 5-fold, at least about 10-fold, at least about 15-fold, at least about 20-fold, at least about 50-fold, or at least about 100-fold, or more, greater metabolic uptake into the diseased tissue, compared to the metabolic uptake of the 2DG-functionalized polyoxalate nanoparticles into a non-diseased tissue, e.g., a non-diseased tissue of the same tissue type. For example, in some embodiments, subject 2DG-functionalized polyoxalate nanoparticles exhibit ...
Through a process of translocation across biological barriers, nanoparticles can reach and deposit in secondary target organs where they may induce adverse biological reactions. Therefore, a correct assessment of nanoparticle-induced adverse effects should take into account the different aspects of toxicokinetics and tissues that may be targeted by nanoparticles. For this reason, a comprehensive evaluation of renal nanotoxicity is urgently needed as kidneys are particularly susceptible to xenobiotics and renal excretion is an expected and possible elimination route of nanoparticles in living organisms. On one hand, summarizing the findings of in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the adverse effects of nanoparticles on the kidney, this review intends to provide a thorough insight into the nephrotoxicity of these substances. The evaluation of the in vitro studies revealed that different types of nanoparticles (carbon, metal and/or silica nanoparticles) are able to exert significant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein Nanoparticle Formation Using a Circularly Permuted α-Helix-Rich Trimeric Protein. AU - Kawakami, Norifumi. AU - Kondo, Hiroki. AU - Muramatsu, Masayuki. AU - Miyamoto, Kenji. PY - 2017/2/15. Y1 - 2017/2/15. N2 - We here report the production of highly spherical protein nanoparticles based on the domain-swapping oligomerization of a circularly permuted trimeric protein, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II associated chaperonin. The size distribution of the nanoparticles can be adjusted to between 40 and 100 nm in diameter, and thus, these particles are suitable as drug carriers following purification under basic conditions. Our approach involves no harsh treatments and could provide an alternative approach for protein nanoparticle formation.. AB - We here report the production of highly spherical protein nanoparticles based on the domain-swapping oligomerization of a circularly permuted trimeric protein, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II ...
The development of eco-friendly technologies in material synthesis is of considerable importance to expand their biological applications. Nowadays, a variety of inorganic nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology have been synthesized by using different microorganisms, and their applications in many cutting-edge technological areas have been explored. This paper highlights the recent developments of the biosynthesis of inorganic nanoparticles including metallic nanoparticles, oxide nanoparticles, sulfide nanoparticles, and other typical nanoparticles. Different formation mechanisms of these nanoparticles will be discussed as well. The conditions to control the size/shape and stability of particles are summarized. The applications of these biosynthesized nanoparticles in a wide spectrum of potential areas are presented including targeted drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy and DNA analysis, antibacterial agents, biosensors, enhancing reaction rates, separation
The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (tradename Nexavar®, Bayer) has been recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of non-resectable hepatocarcinoma and advanced renal carcinoma. Despite its proven survival benefit, sorafenib can lead to important side effects. The aim of this study is the development of a magnetic nanovector able to efficiently and selectively deliver sorafenib toward cancer lesions thanks to a physical guidance mediated by magnetic nanoparticles. Sorafenib and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), extensively characterized and in vitro tested on the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Obtained results suggest the possibility to prepare stable SLNs able to destroy HepG2 cancer cells through sorafenib cytotoxic effect, and to enhance this effect in a desired area thanks to the magnetically-driven accumulation of the drug.
Nanoparticles made from poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) are used to deliver a wide range of bioactive molecules, due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. This study investigates the surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles via the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of polyelectrolytes, and the effects of these coatings on the release behavior, cytotoxicity, hemolytic activity, and cellular uptake efficiency. PLGA nanoparticles are modified via LbL adsorption of two polyelectrolyte pairs: 1) poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and 2) poly(L-lysine hydrobromide) (PLL) and dextran sulfate (DES). It is demonstrated that both PAH/PSS and PLL/DES coatings suppress the burst release usually observed for unmodified PLGA nanoparticles and that the release behavior can be adjusted by changing the layer numbers, layer materials, or by crosslinking the layer constituents. Neither bare nor polyelectrolyte-modified PLGA nanoparticles show any signs of ...
The health risk and cytotoxic effects of nanoparticles are almost unknown. Consequently, we have launched an interdisciplinary research program to systematically investigate the toxicity of nanoparticles. An initial observation prompted us to hypothesize that SiO2 nanoparticles can traverse the plasma membranes of cells through the endocytosis mechanism and thereby exert their cellular and cytotoxic effects on cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on two human brain tumor cell lines (SK-N-SH, a neuroblastoma line and U87, an astrocytoma line) employing light microscopy, lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium (an indicator of cell damage and necrosis) and MTT assay (an indicator of cell survival). Our results indicate exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles led to cytotoxic damage (as indicated by LDH release) and decreases in cell survival (as determined by the MTT assay) in SK-N-SH and U87 cells in a dose-related manner, their effect being
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced solubility of poorly soluble drugs. AU - Potta, Sriharsha Gupta. AU - Minemi, Sriharsha. AU - Nukala, Ravi Kumar. AU - Peinado, Chairmane. AU - Lamprou, Dimitrios A.. AU - Urquhart, Andrew. AU - Douroumis, D.. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - Cyclosporine (CyA) solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by using a solvent free high pressure homogenization process. CyA was incorporated into SLNs that consisted of stearic acid, trilaurin or tripalmitin lipid solid cores in order to enhance drug solubility. The process was conducted by varying lipid compositions, drug initial loading and applied homogenization pressure. The processing temperatures were above the lipid melting points for all formulations. The empty and CyA loaded SLN particles made were characterized for particle size stability over six months. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) showed particle sizes ranging from 112-177 nm for ...
PhD Project - Nanoparticle delivery of antibiotics for treatment of pulmonary infection at Queens University Belfast, listed on
We develop second-harmonic nanoparticles as the contrast agents for cell imaging. Second-harmonic nanoparticles show promise as cell imaging probes due to their non-bleaching, non-blinking, and coherent signal. Nanoparticles of noncentrosymmetric crystal structures have high second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency and provide high contrast in a generally non-structured cell environment. Here, we use barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles with tetragonal crystal structure as imaging probes. Cytotoxicity tests performed on BaTiO3 nanoparticles with mammalian cells did not result in toxic effects. Specifically we observed no change in the cell metabolism after 24 hours incubation of the cells with high concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles. We demonstrate two methods of cell labeling with BaTiO 3 nanoparticles for imaging. One is non-specific labeling via endocytosis of the cells, which results in a great number of the nanoparticles randomly distributed inside the cells. The other is specific ...
Water-soluble cupric oxide nanoparticles are fabricated via a quick-precipitation method and used as peroxidase mimetics for ultrasensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose. The water-soluble CuO nanoparticles show much higher catalytic activity than that of commercial CuO nanoparticles due to their higher affinity to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the as-prepared CuO nanoparticles are stable over a wide range of pH and temperature. This excellent stability in the form of aqueous colloidal suspensions makes the application of the water-soluble CuO nanoparticles easier in aqueous systems. A colorimetric assay for hydrogen peroxide and glucose has been established based on the catalytic oxidation of phenol coupled with 4-amino-atipyrine by the action of hydrogen peroxide. This analytical platform not only confirms the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of the water-soluble cupric oxide nanoparticles, but also shows its great potential applications in environmental chemistry, biotechnology and
Nanomaterials have become a popular topic of research over the years because of their many important applications. It can be a challenge to stabilize the particles at a nanometer size, while having control over their surface features. Copper nanoparticles were synthesized photochemically using a photogenerated radical allowing spatial and temporal control over their formation. The synthesis was affected by the stabilizers used, which changed the size, dispersity, rate of formation, and oxidation rate. Copper nanoparticles suffer from their fast oxidation in air, so copper-silver bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized in attempts to overcome the oxidation of copper nanoparticles. Bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized, but preventing the oxidation of the copper nanoparticles proved difficult. One important application of nanoparticles that was explored here is in catalyzing organic reactions. Because of the fast oxidation of copper nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles were synthesized ...
Laser manipulation technique was applied to patterning of single nanoparticles onto a substrate one by one in solution at room temperature. Individual polymer nanoparticles were optically manipulated to the surface of glass substrate in ethylene glycol solution of acrylamide, N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide), and commercial radical photoinitiator. An ultra violet (UV) laser beam was focused to the nanoparticle, which led to generation of sub-μm sized acrylamide gel around the particle. The polymer nanoparticles were incorporated into the polymerized gel and fixed onto the substrate. A single gold nanoparticle was optically trapped and moved to the surface of the glass substrate in ethylene glycol. Additional irradiation of the UV laser light induced transient melting of the particle, resulting in its adhesion to the substrate. By the use of the present methods, arrangement of individual polymer and gold nanoparticles on any pattern was achieved ...
We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd2O3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Engineering well-characterized PEG-coated nanoparticles for elucidating biological barriers to drug delivery. AU - Yang,Qi. AU - Lai,Samuel K.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings can substantially reduce nanoparticle uptake and clearance by immune cells as well as nonspecific interactions with the biological environment, thus potentially improving nanoparticle circulation times and biodistribution in target tissues such as tumors. Naturally, the stealth properties of PEG coatings are critically dependent on the density and conformation of surface PEG chains. However, there are significant technical hurdles to both generating sufficiently dense PEG coatings on nanoparticles and precisely characterizing their PEG grafting densities. Here, we describe methods for preparing PEGylated polymeric nanoparticles with precisely tunable PEG coatings without the use of organic solvents, quantifying PEGylation efficiency and density using a standard fluorescence ...
1. Chertok B, Webber MJ, Succi MD. et al. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: From science fiction ideas to viable technologies. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:3531-43 2. Hubbell JA, Langer R. Translating materials design to the clinic. Nat Mater. 2013;12:963-6 3. Hu C-MJ, Fang RH, Luk BT. et al. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies. Nanoscale. 2013;6:65-75 4. Wicki A, Witzigmann D, Balasubramanian V. et al. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: Challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications. J Control Release. 2015;200:138-157 5. Tan SW, Li X, Guo Y. et al. Lipid-enveloped hybrid nanoparticles for drug delivery. Nanoscale. 2013;5:860-72 6. Bamrungsap S, Zhao ZL, Chen T. et al. Nanotechnology in therapeutics: a focus on nanoparticles as a drug delivery system. Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1253-71 7. Al-Jamal WT, Kostarelos K. Liposomes: from aclinically established drug delivery system to a nanoparticle platform for theranostic nanomedicine. ...
The rise of antimicrobial resistance demands the development of more rapid screening methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance in clinical samples to both give the patient the proper treatment and expedite the treatment of patients. Cerium oxide nanoparticles may serve a useful role in diagnostics due to their ability to exist in a mixed valence state and act as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents. Considering that cerium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to shift in absorbance upon oxidation, a useful method of antimicrobial resistance detection could be based on the oxidation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Herein, an assay is described whereby cerium oxide nanoparticle oxidation is a function of glucose metabolism of bacterial samples in the presence of an antimicrobial agent. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were shown to have an absorbance in the range of 395nm upon oxidation by hydrogen peroxide whereas mixed valence cerium oxide nanoparticles lacked an absorbance around 395nm. In
Wet chemical precipitation route is developed for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using a dipodal receptor as capping agent to control the size and shape of ZnO nanoparticles and also to passivate the surface defects. The capping of ZnO nanoparticles with dipodal receptor is characterized with NMR and IR spectroscopy. EDX analyses also confirmed the presence of organic receptors together with ZnO nanoparticles. The morphology and size of surface modified ZnO nanoparticles is checked by SEM, TEM and DLS spectroscopic techniques. The surface decorated ZnO nanoparticles demonstrate emission peak at 333 nm. The emission peak at 333 nm in case of surface capped ZnO demonstrate fewer surface defects present in comparison to their bulk counterpart, where blue, red, green, yellowish green emission peaks are present. The photophysical studies of ZnO nanoparticles are further carried in presence of metal ions where it is observed that the binding with Mn(II) result in increase in fluorescence ...
For subunit vaccines, adjuvants play a key role in shaping the magnitude, persistence and form of targeted antigen-specific immune response. Flagellin is a potent immune activator by bridging innate inflammatory responses and adaptive immunity and an adjuvant candidate for clinical application. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are efficient carriers for different biomolecules like DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. Flagellin-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles were prepared and their immunostimulatory effect on the innate immune system, i.e. the cytokine production, was studied. They induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 (Caco-2 cells) and IL-1β (bone marrow-derived macrophages; BMDM) in vitro and IL-6 in vivo after intraperitoneal injection in mice. The immunostimulation was more pronounced than with free flagellin.
Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles water dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethanol dispersin, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles nmp dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles acetone dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethylene glycol dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles dmf dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles DMSO dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles toluene dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles water dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethanol dispersin, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles nmp dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles acetone dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethylene glycol dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles dmf dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 ...
Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles water dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethanol dispersin, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles nmp dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles acetone dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethylene glycol dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles dmf dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles DMSO dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles toluene dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles water dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethanol dispersin, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles nmp dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles acetone dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles ethylene glycol dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 Nanopowder / Nanoparticles dmf dispersion, Molybdenum Dioxide MoO2 ...
Background: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function. Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Clchannels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches. Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial ...
Objective(s): This study considered the combination of chitosan nanoparticles with antioxidant-antibacterial fraction extracted from Lactobacillus casei and investigation of possible increasing of antibacterial activity of the fraction in hybrid nanoparticle and the effect of the fraction on the stability of chitosan nanoparticles. Methods: Extraction of Antioxidant antibacterial material from Lactobacillus casei supernatant was done by thin layer chromatography fractionation. For determination of antioxidant and antibacterial activity of fraction, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay and Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) by micro-well dilution method was used, respectively. For chitosan nanoparticles (Cs NPs) formation, the ionic gelation method was used and the ratio of Tripolyphosphate pentasodium (TPP): chitosan was optimized. For Antioxidant fraction loaded chitosan nanoparticles, the fraction is physically incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticles. Particle morphology was monitored
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bisindole anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles for cyanide sensing in aqueous media. AU - Kim, Hyun Jung. AU - Lee, Hyejin. AU - Lee, Ji Ha. AU - Choi, Dong Hoon. AU - Jung, Jong Hwa. AU - Kim, Jong Seung. PY - 2011/10/21. Y1 - 2011/10/21. N2 - For CN- recognition, a series of bisindolyl compounds 1-3 were prepared, and their chromodosimetric color changes toward anions were investigated. Nucleophilic addition of the cyanide ion to the meso position of the bisindolyl group gave rise to breaking of the double bond conjugation, thereby inducing spectroscopic changes in the compound. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles 3 also gave color changes from deep orange to yellow in response to the cyanide ion.. AB - For CN- recognition, a series of bisindolyl compounds 1-3 were prepared, and their chromodosimetric color changes toward anions were investigated. Nucleophilic addition of the cyanide ion to the meso position of the bisindolyl group gave rise to breaking of the double bond ...
In a paper published in ACS Nano in November 2013, researchers from MCN, The Australian Synchrotron, CSIRO, RMIT and Monash University showcased ground-breaking characterisation techniques which were used to enable research into the human immune response to zinc oxide nanoparticles.. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are used in many consumer products such as sunscreen since they are largely insoluble in water and invisible to the eye, unlike larger white zinc particles which remain white on the skin. However, the behaviour of zinc oxide nanoparticles in biological systems is not well understood. This led the team of researchers to delve into what happens to these nanoparticles after they are absorbed into our skin.. The research team used x-ray fluorescence to image immune cells which had been treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles. Using the world-class Maia x-ray fluorescence detector at the Australian Synchrotron, the researchers were able to count how many of these tiny particles had been absorbed ...
ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO encapsulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized using zinc acetate as a precursor at low temperature and characterized by different techniques. The influence of the types of solvent, synthesis parameters, and PEG encapsulation on the crystallization, the surface morphology, and the luminescent properties of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel process were investigated. The influence of different addition molar masses of the PEG during the synthesis on the ZnO emission peaks was systematically monitored. The crystallinity, the surface morphology, and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO depended highly on the synthesis process and PEG encapsulation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of ZnO nanoparticles show that all the peaks corresponding to the various planes of wurtzite ZnO indicate the formation of a single phase. The absorption edges of these ZnO nanoparticles are shifted by additions of the PEG polymer. The photoluminescence (PL) ...
SEE PDF Full Length Article Writers: M.H.M.T. Assumpção; A. Moraes; R.F.B. De Souza; M.L. Calegaro; M.R.V. Lanza; E.R. Leite; M.A.L. Cordeiro; P. Hammer; M.C. Santos. Keywords: Oxygen reduction reaction; Electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide; Cerium oxide nanoparticles. Abstract: This work describes the influence of the preparation method and the carbon support using a low content of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2/C 4%) on H2O2 electrogeneration via the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose, the polymeric precursor (PPM) and sol-gel (SGM) methods with Vulcan XC 72R (V) and Printex L6 (P) supports were employed. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis identified two phases comprising CeO2 and CeO2−x. The smallest mean crystallite size was exhibited for the 4% CeO2/C_PPM_P material, which was estimated using the Debye-Scherrer equation to be 6 nm and 4 nm for ...
In order to improve drug entrapment efficiency and loading capacity, nanostructured lipid carriers consisting of solid lipid and liquid lipid as a new type of colloidal drug delivery system were prepared. The dispersions of oridonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers were successfully prepared by the emulsion-evaporation and low temperature-solidification technique using monostearin as the solid lipid, caprylic/capric triglycerides as the liquid lipid and oridonin as the model drug. Their physicochemical properties of oridonin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers and release behaviours were investigated and compared with those of solid lipid nanoparticles. As a result, the mean particle size was similar to 200 nm with narrow polydispersity index lower than 0.4 for all developed formulations. Zeta potential values were in the range -35 mV similar to -50 mV, providing good physical stability of all formulations. The differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray ...
David Warther, Chiara Mauriello-Jimenez, Laurence Raehm, Corine Gerardin, Jean-Olivier Durand, et al.. Small sized mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with mannose for retinoblastoma cell imaging. RSC Advances, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, pp.37171-37179. ⟨10.1039/c4ra05310a⟩. ⟨hal-01068017⟩ ...
Rapid and sensitive detection of thrombin has very important significance in clinical diagnosis. In this work, bare magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (magnetic nanoparticles) without any modification were used as fluorescence quenchers. In the absence of thrombin, a fluorescent dye (CY3) labeled thrombin aptamer (named CY3-aptamer) was adsorbed on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles through interaction between a phosphate backbone of the CY3-aptamer and hydroxyl groups on the bare magnetic nanoparticles in binding solution, leading to fluorescence quenching. Once thrombin was introduced, the CY3-aptamer formed a G-quartet structure and combined with thrombin, which resulted in the CY3-aptamer being separated from the magnetic nanoparticles and restoration of fluorescence. This proposed assay took advantage of binding affinity between the CY3-aptamer and thrombin for specificity, and bare magnetic nanoparticles for fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence signal had a good linear relationship ...
Nanoparticle-based systems can alleviate systemic toxicity via surface functionalization to promote tissue-specific targeting as well as passive targeting abilities [1], such as the enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR) [2]. The transport of nanoparticles is limited in hypoxic tumor regions due to the typically impaired tumor vasculature. To enhance diffusion of nanotherapeutics within tumor tissue; functionalized citrate gold nanoparticles and silica gold nanoshells with surface modifications of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were synthesized. 3D cell cultures were used as a representative model of portions of hypoxic tissue in liver, lung, and pancreatic solid tumors. Our results indicate that two layered silica gold nanoshells (surface modifications of -thiol and PC) permit enhanced accumulate compared to PEGylated nanoparticles. The addition of HDL for the smaller, citrate gold nanoparticles as a third external layer provided enriched accumulation compared to
Gold nanoparticles with sizes around 2 nm and below are being studied extensively because they exhibit novel electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties. We are investigating the formation of Au-55 types of gold nanoparticles through a reduction reaction at a liquid-liquid interface. Diffuse X-ray scattering and reflectivity techniques [1] allow us to monitor the formation of gold nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interface. These techniques also provide information regarding the out-of-plane and in-plane structure of the gold nanoparticles at liquid surface and liquid-liquid interface.. In situ X-ray scattering measurements were carried out at beamline ID10B during the formation of gold nanoparticles at a toluene-water interface. The reduction reaction [2] uses an organic precursor of gold kept in the toluene layer and a reducing agent kept in the slightly alkaline water layer. As the reaction occurs through the creation of fingers from one liquid to another, the size (1 nm diameter) of ...
Functionalization of nanoparticles can significantly influence their properties and potential applications. Although researchers can now functionalize metal, metal oxide, and organic polymer nanoparticles with a high degree of precision, controlled surface functionalization of nanoscale coordination polymer particles (CPPs) has remained a significant challenge. The lack of methodology is perhaps one of the greatest roadblocks to the advancement of CPPs into high added-value drug delivery applications. Here, we report having achieved this goal through a stepwise formation and functionalization protocol. We fabricated robust nanoparticles with enhanced thermal and colloidal stabilities by incorporation of carboxyl groups and these surface carboxyl groups could be subsequently functionalized through well-known peptide coupling reactions. The set of chemistries that we employed as proof-of-concept enabled a plethora of new functional improvements for the application of CPPs as drug delivery ...
0101] 1. A coated article comprising a substrate surface, a nanoparticle-containing primer disposed on the substrate surface, and a silicone-based material bonded to the nanoparticle-containing primer, wherein the nanoparticle-containing primer comprises agglomerates of silica nanoparticles, said agglomerates comprising a three-dimensional porous network of silica nanoparticles, and the silica nanoparticles being bonded to adjacent silica nanoparticles. 2. The coated article of embodiment 1, wherein the silica nanoparticles are spherical and have an average particle diameter of less than 40 nanometers. 3. The coated article of embodiment 1, wherein the silica nanoparticles are spherical and have an average particle diameter of less than 20 nanometers. 4. The coated article of embodiment 1, wherein the silica nanoparticles are spherical and have an average particle diameter of less than 10 nanometers. 5. The coated article of any one of embodiments 1 through 4, wherein the substrate surface ...
As more and more oral formulations of nanoparticles are used in clinical contexts, a comprehensive study on the mechanisms of interaction between polymer nanoparticles and live cells seems merited. Such a study was conducted and the results were compared to the polymer itself in order to demonstrate different kinds of effects that are brought into the cell by polymer and its nanoparticles, especially the effects on the biomembrane. Several techniques, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy (FP), flow cytometry (FCM) with quantitative analysis, and confocal images with antibody staining were employed toward this end. The cytotoxicity in vitro was also evaluated. Chitosan (CS), a polycationic polymer, was used to prepare the nanoparticles. We demonstrate that chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NP) induce strong alterations in the distribution of membrane proteins, fluidity of membrane lipids, ...
A one-step method to prepare core-shell nanoparticles and thus hollow nanospheres is reported. The process for the formation of core and shell took place during reaction. Once the core formed, it was covered with the shell substance produced in situ, and thus, the shell hindered the continued growth of the core. Based on this method, we readily obtained core-shell nanoparticles by choosing AgCl, CuS, or Fe(III) diethyldithiocarbamate (FeDEC)3 as model core substances and the cogel from gelatin and gum arabic as the shell substance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) directly revealed the core-shell structure. TEM results showed the average particle sizes were under 100 nm, depending on the core substance and the concentration of substances producing cores. After removal of the core materials, hollow nanospheres resulted, which were directly observed by TEM. The observation further verified the core-shell structure. UV spectrophotometry also gave signals of coated structure ...
The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF-EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF,
Polyfluorenes with pendant alkoxysilyl groups have been used to prepare inorganic-organic composite nanoparticles (diameter = 80-220 nm) in which the conjugated polymer is dispersed within a silica matrix. Preparation of these nanoparticles is achieved by simultaneous nanoprecipitation of the conjugated polymer and hydrolysis/crosslinking of the alkoxysilyl groups under basic conditions. The composition of the nanocomposites is controlled by addition of an alkoxysilane monomer, tetramethylorthosilicate. The hybrid nanoparticles form highly stable dispersions in water and buffer (pH 9.2). The size of the nanoparticles can be tuned by varying the amount of the alkoxysilane monomer added during the nanoprecipitation process. Increasing the relative amount of alkoxysilane monomer also increases the proportion of polyfluorene chains that adopt the higher energy β-phase conformation within the resultant nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with the highest silica content were found to have increased ...
   Nanotechnology researchers have identified a wide range of nanoparticle applications that may have an important role in medicine and treatment of diseases. Due to lack of detailed documentation about the toxicology of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, this study was aimed to evaluate the absorption of ZnO nanoparticles in hearts of female NMRI mice. Overall, 20 adult NMRI female mice were studied in experimental and control groups. ZnO nanoparticles with concentration of 100 and 300 mg/kg were administered in the drinking water for 28 days and the mice were dissected after 28 days. Then, the heart tissues were isolated and dissolved in acid and the amount of ZnO deposited into the heart tissue was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. ZnO nanoparticles treatment groups were significantly influenced by the nanoparticles compared with the control group. The experimental group 1 and 2 had a significant increase in ZnO NPs absorption in heart tissue compared to the control group (P|0.01).
Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were prepared using microemulsion method using cadmium chloride as cadmium source and sodium sulphide as sulphur source. The obtained nanoparticles structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) whereas optical characterization was done by Ultra Violet-Visible absorption. XRD result shows that CdS nanoparticles of hexagonal phase are formed. The TEM result indicates that the synthesized CdS nanoparticles are of variable morphology like spherical, cylindrical, nanorods and nanoneedles. Histograms help to evaluate size and aspect ratio of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy reveals that as prepared CdS nanoparticles show a quantum confinement effect with shift in band gap. It is also found that water to surfactant molar ratio (wo) and co-surfactant are vital factors in the morphology and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles.
The burden of life on the earth is the source of biological contamination in water. Nanotechnology has promising contributions in control of microbial contaminations and medicinal plants further increase these properties. Presently, copper acetate and nickel oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using 1mM solution of each with Ziziphus mauritiana leaves extract as reducing agent. Nanoparticles were characterized through UV vis-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope and antimicrobial properties were determined through disc diffusion method. Copper and nickel nanoparticles were adsorbed on filter paper strips and used in biological water purification. The pre and post treatment viable bacterial count of water was analyzed statistically. Absorbance peaks of copper acetate nanoparticles were recorded at 650nm while for nickel oxide nanoparticles at 250nm. The particles size of copper acetate nanoparticles through SEM was calculated up-to 47.90nm while 48.40 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles at resolution
Squaraine dyes, that exhibit intense absorption in the red/near infrared region, have been successfully introduced into mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to obtain a nanoplatform for photodynamic therapy. Three brominated squaraine dyes which exhibited good PS performance in solution but a different behaviour
In this paper, a targeted drug delivery system has been developed based on hyaluronic acid (HA) modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). HA-MSNs possess a specific affinity to CD44 over-expressed on the surface of a specific cancer cell line, HCT-116 (human colon cancer cells). The cellular uptake performance of fluorescently labelled MSNs with and without HA modification has been evaluated by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Compared to bare MSNs, HA-MSNs exhibit a higher cellular uptake via HA receptor mediated endocytosis. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), has been loaded into MSNs and HA-MSNs as drug delivery vehicles. Dox loaded HA-MSNs show greater cytotoxicity to HCT-116 cells than free Dox and Dox-MSNs due to the enhanced cell internalization behavior of HA-MSNs. It is expected that HA-MSNs have a great potential in targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to CD44 over-expressing tumors.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radioactive (90Y) upconversion nanoparticles conjugated with recombinant targeted toxin for synergistic nanotheranostics of cancer. AU - Guryev, Evgenii L.. AU - Volodina, Natalia O.. AU - Shilyagina, Natalia Y.. AU - Gudkov, Sergey V.. AU - Balalaeva, Irina V.. AU - Volovetskiy, Arthur B.. AU - Lyubeshkin, Alexander V.. AU - Sen, Alexey V.. AU - Ermilov, Sergey A.. AU - Vodeneev, Vladimir A.. AU - Petrov, Rem V.. AU - Zvyagin, Andrei V.. AU - Alferov, Zhores I.. AU - Deyev, Sergey M.. PY - 2018/9/25. Y1 - 2018/9/25. N2 - We report combined therapy using upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) coupled to two therapeutic agents: beta-emitting radionuclide yttrium-90 (90Y) fractionally substituting yttrium in UCNP, and a fragment of the exotoxin A derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa genetically fused with a targeting designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) specific to HER2 receptors. The resultant hybrid complex UCNP-R-T was tested using human breast adenocarcinoma cells SK-BR-3 ...
Soils are facing new environmental stressors, such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs). While these emerging pollutants are increasingly released into most ecosystems, including agricultural fields, their potential impacts on soil and its function remain to be investigated. Here we report the response of the microbial community of an agricultural soil exposed over 90 days to TiO2-NPs (1 and 500 mg kg-1 dry soil). To assess their impact on soil function, we focused on the nitrogen cycle and measured nitrification and denitrification enzymatic activities and by quantifying specific representative genes (amoA for ammonia-oxidizers, nirK and nirS for denitrifiers). Additionally, diversity shifts were examined in bacteria, archaea, and the ammonia-oxidizing clades of each domain. With strong negative impacts on nitrification enzyme activities and the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganism, TiO2-NPs triggered cascading negative effects on denitrification enzyme activity and a deep ...
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in biomedical applications, (Z. Li, J. C. Barnes, A. Bosoy, J. F. Stoddart, J. I. Zink), Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41, 2590-2605. ...
Background: This study investigated the potential effects of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Tio2NPs) followed by maternal gavage on fetal development
Title:Study of Time-dependent Interaction of ZnO Nanoparticles with Sucrose and Honey Molecules for Biomedical Applications. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Pijus Kanti Samanta *, Tapanendu Kamilya and Dhrubajyoti Pahari. Affiliation:Department of Physics (PG & UG), Prabhat Kumar College, Contai-721404, West Bengal, Department of Physics, Narajole Raj College, Narajole-721211, West Bengal, Department of Zoology, Prabhat Kumar College, Contai-721404, West Bengal. Keywords:ZnO, nanoparticles, sucrose, absorption, corona, conjugation.. Abstract:. Background: Nanoparticles are in the forefront of research due to their unique properties that find possible applications from optoelectronics to medical technology. It is also reported that nanoparticles can interact with the living cells and can selectively destroy the cells. Researchers are thus interested to find a way by which the drugs will be attached to the nanoparticles, go to the target site and destroy the infected cells. Before that, it is very ...
Researchers from UT Southwestern Medical Center have developed a first-of-its-kind nanoparticle vaccine immunotherapy that targets several different cancer types.. The nanovaccine consists of tumor antigens - tumor proteins that can be recognized by the immune system - inside a synthetic polymer nanoparticle. Nanoparticle vaccines deliver minuscule particulates that stimulate the immune system to mount an immune response. The goal is to help peoples own bodies fight cancer.. What is unique about our design is the simplicity of the single-polymer composition that can precisely deliver tumor antigens to immune cells while stimulating innate immunity. These actions result in safe and robust production of tumor-specific T cells that kill cancer cells, said Dr. Jinming Gao, a Professor of Pharmacology and Otolaryngology in UT Southwesterns Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center.. A study outlining this research, published online in Nature Nanotechnology, reported that the nanovaccine had ...
Both aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are able to remove contaminants of emerging concern from wastewater at high efficiencies. However, the main bottleneck of this technology is membrane biofouling. Coating heavy metal nanoparticles on the surface of membrane has been proposed as an effective antifouling strategy. Nevertheless, metal nanoparticles can potentially result in detrimental impact on the overall functionality of the MBRs. This book chapter aims to understand how nanoparticles impact MBRs. To achieve this aim, the chapter starts off by illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of nanoparticles. The chapter then critically reviews past studies that illustrate the antibacterial effect of nanoparticles against pure bacterial cultures and biofilm-associated populations. Finally, the chapter evaluates if the presence of nanoparticles would affect the overall performance of aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Specifically, the impact of heavy metal nanoparticles on ...
In this paper effect of SiO2 nanoparticles was investigated on potato starch films. Potato starch films were prepared by casting method with addition of nano-silicon dioxide and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1) as plasticizers. SiO2 nanoparticles incorporated to the potato starch films at different concentrations 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5% of total solid, and the films were dried under controlled conditions. Â Physicochemical properties such as water absorption capacity (WAC), water vapor permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of the films were measured. Results show that by increasing the concentration of silicon dioxide nanoparticles, mechanical properties of films can be improved. Also incorporation of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in the structure of biopolymer decrease permeability of the gaseous molecules such as water vapor. In summary, addition of silicon dioxide nanoparticles improves functional properties of potato starch films and these bio Nano composites can be used in
Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.
The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing
This thesis consists of three parts, which revolve around the fabrication of multifunctional glyconanomaterials (cellulose nanocrystals, chitin nanocrystals, mesoporous silica nanoparticles) and the development of their applications in biorecognition and nanomedicine.. Part one presents a detailed introduction to glyconanomaterials, focusing on cellulose nanocrystals, chitin nanocrystals and mesoporous silica nanoparticles, including their general preparations, properties and applications.. Part two demonstrates dually modified cellulose and chitin nanocrystals. They are prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation, followed by conjugation with a fluorescent dye and carbohydrate ligands. The two functional nanocrystals are applied in carbohydrate-lectin recognition and bacterial imaging as new types of glyconanomaterials.. Part three describes two types of drug delivery systems based on carbohydrate- conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles: the first type is a trehalose- functionalized nanoparticle ...
Background and Aims: Drug resistance, particularly methicillin resistant in Staphylococcus aureus strain is a major worldwide public health concern. The present study aimed to synthetize selenium nanoparticles, investigate its antibacterial effect and its ability to be used as ampicillin nanocarrier. Materials and Methods: Selenium nanoparticles were synthetized via chemical regeneration of ...
We report the formulation of novel composite nanoparticles that combine the high transfection efficiency of cationic peptide-DNA nanoparticles with the biocompatibility and prolonged delivery of polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG). The cationic cell-penetrating peptide RALA was used to condense DNA into nanoparticles that were encapsulated within a range of PLA-PEG copolymers. The composite nanoparticles produced exhibited excellent physicochemical properties including size |200 nm and encapsulation efficiency |80%. Images of the composite nanoparticles obtained with a new transmission electron microscopy staining method revealed the peptide-DNA nanoparticles within the PLA-PEG matrix. Varying the copolymers modulated the DNA release rate |6 weeks in vitro. The best formulation was selected and was able to transfect cells while maintaining viability. The effect of transferrin-appended composite nanoparticles was also studied. Thus, we have demonstrated the manufacture of composite
In the current research, polyvinylchloride based mixed matrix heterogeneous anion exchange membranes were prepared by a solution casting technique. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were also utilized as inorganic filler additive in the membrane fabrication. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration in the casting solution on the membrane physico-chemical properties was studied. Membrane water content was decreased by an increase of nanoparticle concentration. Ion exchange capacity was also improved initially by an increase of nanoparticle content ratio and then slightly decreased. The membrane fixed ionic concentration, membrane potential, transport number and permselectivity were all increased by an increase of additive loading ratio. The membrane ionic permeability was enhanced initially by an increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 0.5 %wt in the membrane matrix and then decreased by more additive content ratio from 0.5 to 4 %wt. Membrane ionic resistance was declined by using TiO2
Americas Gold Nanoparticles Market Analysis by Type (nanorods, nanoshells , nanocages) by Application (photodynamic therapy, diagnostics, medical imaging), by End-users (Hospitals, Clinics, Dental clinics) Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and - Forecast to 2027. Market Synopsis of Gold nanoparticles Market Scenario. The market for Gold nanoparticles is increasing rapidly due to increasing advancement in nanotechnologies. The factors that influence the growth of Gold nanoparticles market; expanding medical diagnostics industry, increasing growth in advance healthcare technology, high advantages in medicinal imaging applications and many others. As per the American Nano Society, nanotechnology is a field of science which manages the investigation of nano size. In medical field, gold nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and calcium phosphate are significantly used nanoparticles. These particles all things considered represented a piece of the overall industry of more ...
Using magnetic nanoparticles to absorb alternating magnetic field energy as a method of generating localized hyperthermia has been shown to be a potential cancer treatment. This report demonstrates a system that uses tumor homing cells to actively carry iron/iron oxide nanoparticles into tumor tissue for alternating magnetic field treatment. Paramagnetic iron/iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded into RAW264.7 cells (mouse monocyte/macrophage-like cells), which have been shown to be tumor homing cells. A murine model of disseminated peritoneal pancreatic cancer was then generated by intraperitoneal injection of Pan02 cells. After tumor development, monocyte/macrophage-like cells loaded with iron/iron oxide nanoparticles were injected intraperitoneally and allowed to migrate into the tumor. Three days after injection, mice were exposed to an alternating magnetic field for 20 minutes to cause the cell-delivered nanoparticles to generate heat. This treatment regimen was repeated ...
Thanavala Lab concisely explains the advantages of nanoparticle vaccines: Nanomedicine is an emerging field by which drugs, therapeutic and imaging agents and vaccines can be delivered effectively, since their bioavailability and pharmacokinetics can be improved by encapsulation with nanoparticles. A significant advantage of using biodegradable polymers are their long safety history, proven biocompatibility and ability to control the time and rate of polymer degradation and encapsulated cargo release; these qualities make them attractive for the formulation of nanoparticle based vaccine delivery systems. Current vaccines face ongoing challenges in terms of both efficacy and ease of delivery. Cancers and many chronic diseases have yet to be prevented by vaccination and several vaccines require multiple injections. Thanavala Lab states that they have begun to test the hypothesis that: vaccine antigens that are conjugated to or loaded within nanoparticles are protected from rapid degradation in ...
Layer-by-layer nanoparticle assemblies.. Nanoparticle coatings[edit]. Dip coating have been utilized for example in the ... As an emerging field, nanoparticles are often used as a coating material. Dip coating applications include: *Multilayer sensor ... "Functionalization of the Polymeric Surface with Bioceramic Nanoparticles via a Novel, Nonthermal Dip Coating Method". ACS ... fabrication of bioceramic nanoparticles, biosensors, implants and hybrid coatings. For example, dip coating has been used to ...
Nanoparticles[edit]. Nanoparticles are 1-1000 nanometer (nm) sized particles that can promote tumor selectivity and aid in ... to preferentially target the nanoparticles to the tumor cells. There are many types of nanoparticle delivery systems, such as ... Nanoparticles made of magnetic material can also be used to concentrate agents at tumor sites using an externally applied ... Nanoparticles can be targeted passively or actively. Passive targeting exploits the difference between tumor blood vessels and ...
Nanoparticles. Main article: Silver nanoparticle. Nanosilver particles, between 10 and 100 nanometres in size, are used in many ... Silver and silver nanoparticles are used as an antimicrobial in a variety of industrial, healthcare, and domestic application: ... In one study, the presence of excess ionic silver and silver nanoparticles caused bioaccumulation effects on zebrafish organs ... silver nanoparticles are used both in pigments, as well as cosmetics.[118][119] ...
Nanoparticles[edit]. Nanoparticles 40 nm in diameter and smaller have been successful in penetrating the skin.[34][35][36] ... Nanoparticles of different materials have shown skin's permeability limitations. In many experiments, gold nanoparticles 40 nm ... Increasing the permeability of skin allows nanoparticles to penetrate and target cancer cells. Nanoparticles along with multi- ... There are other methods to increase nanoparticle penetration by skin damage: tape stripping is the process in which tape is ...
... nanoparticles[edit]. Magnetite micro- and nanoparticles are used in a variety of applications, from biomedical to ... a b c d e f g Magnetite Nano-Particles in Information Processing: From the Bacteria to the Human Brain Neocortex - ISBN 9781- ... These nanoparticles can travel to the brain via the olfactory nerve increasing the concentration of magnetite in the brain.[36] ... Magnetite nanoparticles are also thought to form in soils, where they probably oxidize rapidly to maghemite.[8] ...
Noble metal nanoparticles and hydrogen[edit]. According to the work of corrosion electrochemist David W. Shoesmith,[6][7] the ... the oxidation of hydrogen at the nanoparticles will exert a protective effect on the uranium dioxide. This effect can be ... while the metallic nanoparticles slightly increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel.[3] ... nanoparticles of Mo-Tc-Ru-Pd have a strong effect on the corrosion of uranium dioxide fuel. For instance his work suggests that ...
Nanoparticle catalysts for reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration[edit]. A recent addition to the field is new light- ... 3.1.2 Nanoparticle catalysts for reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration * Internal bleaching ... Reduced concentrations of hydrogen peroxide cause lower incidences of tooth hypersensitivity.[39] The nanoparticles act as ... accelerated bleaching agents containing lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide with a titanium oxide nanoparticle-based ...
Nanoparticles. *Quantum dots. *Nanostructures. *Colloidal gold. *Silver nanoparticles. *Iron nanoparticles. *Platinum ...
Pereira, R. N.; Almeida, A. J. (2015). "Doped semiconductor nanoparticles synthesized in gas-phase plasmas". J. Phys. D: Appl. ... A recent novelty in the field is the discovery of carbon quantum dots, a new generation of optically-active nanoparticles ... Quantum dots may be excited within a locally enhanced electromagnetic field produced by gold nanoparticles, which can then be ... Sankaran, R. M.; Holunga, D.; Flagan, R. C.; Giapis, K. P. (2005). "Synthesis of blue luminescent Si nanoparticles using ...
Recent advances show that MWNT decorated with maghemite nanoparticles can be oriented in a magnetic field[107] and enhance the ... Nanotubes can be grown on nanoparticles of magnetic metal (Fe, Co) that facilitates production of electronic (spintronic) ... and Alignment of Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes Tethered with Maghemite Nanoparticles". The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 114 (15 ... of Surface-Engineered Tape-Casting Method for Fabricating Freestanding Carbon Nanotube Sheets Containing Fe2 O3 Nanoparticles ...
Theoretical predictions of buckyball molecules appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s,[9][10][11] but these reports went largely unnoticed. In the early 1970s, the chemistry of unsaturated carbon configurations was studied by a group at the University of Sussex, led by Harry Kroto and David Walton. In the 1980s, Smalley and Curl at Rice University developed experimental technique to generate these substances. They used laser vaporization of a suitable target to produce clusters of atoms. Kroto realized that by using a graphite target,[12] a range of carbon clusters could be studied. Concurrent but unconnected to the Kroto-Smalley work, astrophysicists were working with spectroscopists to study infrared emissions from giant red carbon stars.[13][14][15] Smalley and team were able to use a laser vaporization technique to create carbon clusters which could potentially emit infrared at the same wavelength as had been emitted by the red carbon star.[13][16] Hence, the inspiration came to Smalley ...
... nanoparticles. This hypothesis has been offered for explaining the singular magnetic properties of nanoparticles made of gold ... Gréget, Romain (2012). "Magnetic Properties of Gold Nanoparticles: A Room-Temperature Quantum Effect". ChemPhysChem. 13 (13): ...
Although nanoparticles are associated with modern science, they were used by artisans as far back as the ninth century in ... These nanoparticles are created by the artisans by adding copper and silver salts and oxides together with vinegar, ochre, and ... The first observations and size measurements of nanoparticles had been made during the first decade of the 20th century by ... This led to a fast increasing number of semiconductor nanoparticles of quantum dots. Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by ...
Reiss, Gunter; Hutten, Andreas (2010). "Magnetic Nanoparticles". In Sattler, Klaus D. (ed.). Handbook of Nanophysics: ... Nanoparticles and Quantum Dots. CRC Press. pp. 2-1. ISBN 9781420075458. Khan, Firdos Alam (2012). Biotechnology Fundamentals. ... The salts are reduced to metals and coalesce into nanoparticles. Those particles give the second glaze a metallic appearance. ...
Catalyst nanoparticles. Electron beam induced deposition - a technique of growing nanostructures and nanodevices using the beam ...
2-encapsulated sulfur nanoparticles. 2013. Stanford University[27][28]. 721 mA⋅h/g at 1,000 cycles (0.5C). shell protects the ...
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were independently synthesized in 1990 by researchers in Japan. They were later produced ... doi:10.1016/0021-9797(68)90272-5. Kicklebick, Guido (2015). "Nanoparticles and Composites". In Levy, David; Zayat, Marcos (eds ... "Synthesis and Functionalization of a Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Based on the Sol-Gel Process and Applications in Controlled ...
Nanoparticles prepared using the Stöber process have found applications including in the delivery of medications to within ... The mesoporous silica nanoparticles prepared by modified Stöber processes have applications in the field of catalysis and ... doi:10.1016/0022-3093(88)90187-1. Kicklebick, Guido (2015). "Nanoparticles and Composites". In Levy, David; Zayat, Marcos (eds ... Ding, Xuefeng; Zhao, Jingzhe; Liu, Yanhua; Zhang, Hengbin; Wang, Zichen (October 2004). "Silica nanoparticles encapsulated by ...
Xia, Younan; Yang, Hong; Campbell, Charles T. (August 20, 2013). "Nanoparticles for Catalysis". Accounts of Chemical Research. ...
PbS nanoparticles have been recently examined for use in solar cells. Although of little commercial value, PbS is one of the ... Lead sulfide-containing nanoparticle and quantum dots have been well studied. Traditionally, such materials are produced by ... Zhou, H. S.; Honma, I.; Komiyama, H.; Haus, Joseph W. (2002-05-01). "Coated semiconductor nanoparticles; the cadmium sulfide/ ... "A novel and simple one-step solid-state reaction for the synthesis of PbS nanoparticles in the presence of a suitable ...
Nanoparticles are everywhere. You eat them, drink them, breathe them, pay to have them, and pay even more to get rid of them ... Retrieved 2010-02-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Nanoparticle scientist speaks on new discoveries". Science Daily ...
Kicklebick, Guido (2015). "Nanoparticles and Composites". In Levy, David; Zayat, Marcos (eds.). The Sol-Gel Handbook: Synthesis ... Boday, Dylan J.; Wertz, Jason T.; Kuczynski, Joseph P. (2015). "Functionalization of Silica Nanoparticles for Corrosion ...
Novel nano particles". Computing Technologies Research Lab. Kedersha, NL; Rome, LH (1986-09-01). " ...
A variety of nanoparticle materials have been demonstrated to promote various electrochemical reactions, although none have ... They can also be functionalized, or encapsulate other materials such as nanoparticles. MOFs can also be combined with carbon- ... An electrocatalyst of platinum and rhodium on carbon backed tin-dioxide nanoparticles can break carbon bonds at room ... nanoparticles are often fixed onto a support in order to stay in place, therefore part of their surface is unavailable for ...
Nanoparticle. Self-assembling, may target specific receptors, requires technical expertise to prepare ...
Solid lipid nanoparticles for cosmeticsEdit. Solid lipid nanoparticles preparate has been developed for cosmetics where the ... Micelles and nanoparticlesEdit. A drug design with curcuminoids in complex with micelles could be one solution of the ... Curcuminoids as loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been developed with great success by using microemulsion technique ... "Formulation and characterization of curcuminoids loaded solid lipid nanoparticles". Int J Pharm. 337 (1-2): 299-306. doi: ...
This has allowed, for example, the separation of cells or the orientation and manipulation of nanoparticles[2][7] and nanowires ... Morgan, Hywel; Green, Nicolas G. (2003). AC Electrokinetics: Colloids and Nanoparticles. Research Studies Press. ISBN ...
Further information: Synthesis of nanoparticles by fungi. Microorganisms are used to produce many commercial and industrial ...
"A Nanoparticle-based Hydrogen Microsensor". University of Central Florida. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved ...
Fratoddi, Ilaria; Venditti, Iole; Cametti, Cesare; Russo, Maria Vittoria (2015). "How toxic are gold nanoparticles? The state- ... "Gastrointestinal persorption and tissue distribution of differently sized colloidal gold nanoparticles". Journal of ...
Non-close-packed nanoparticle arrays. Films of colloidal nanoparticles usually form dense, close-packed lattices. If binary ... 3 Extension to multilayers and other nanoparticle sizes.. (A) TEM image of an AB4-type binary superlattice. (B) TEM image of a ... DNA-programmable nanoparticle crystallization. Nature 451, 553-556 (2008). doi:10.1038/nature06508pmid:18235497. ... Ultra-large-area self-assembled monolayers of nanoparticles. ACS Nano 5, 8868-8876 (2011). doi:10.1021/nn2037048pmid:22010827. ...
Polystyrene nanoparticles are capable of entering through the blood-brain-barrier in an animal model of brain ischemia and ... Silicon dioxide nanoparticles have toxic effects on various tissues including liver, kidney, lung, and testis.Aug 12, 2014. ... Problem Substances : Electronic Cigarettes, Ethylene Glycol, Nanoparticles, Tin. Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Endocrine ... Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake by the rat gastrointestinal mucosa results in their systemic bodily distribution. Dec 01, 1990 ...
I also couldnt resist revisiting the topic of nanoparticles one last time. You remember nanoparticles? Theyre the contaminant ... who published a paper that purported to show that vaccines were hopelessly contaminated with heavy metal nanoparticles. (Hey, ...
1986) Targetable Nanoparticles. In: Gregoriadis G., Senior J., Poste G. (eds) Targeting of Drugs With Synthetic Systems. NATO ... L. van Snick, P. Couvreur, D. Christiaens-Leyh and M. Roland, Molecular weights of free and drug-loaded nanoparticles, Pharm. ... C. Verdun, P. Couvreur, H. Vranckx, V. Lenaerts and M. Roland, Development of a nanoparticle controlled release formulation for ... P. Guiot and P. Couvreur, Quantitative study of the interaction between polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles and mouse ...
Gold nanoparticles have unusual optical, electronic and chemical properties, which scientists are seeking to put to use in a ...
The inhaler would deliver nanoparticles that could kill cancer cells. ... To get the particles to where they need to be, and away from healthy cells, the nanoparticles would likely be attached to ... The key to the possible treatment is the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle. Jayanth Panyam, a professor in the ... Patients would first suck the nanoparticles into their lungs. Then, they would be surrounded by an oscillating magnetic field, ...
... including engineered nanoparticles (i.e., particles measuring less than 100 nanometers (nm). ... Respirator Performance against Nanoparticles under Simulated Workplace Activities Data. ... In general, geometric mean SWPF trend holds true for nanoparticles (10-100 nm), larger size particles (100-400 nm), and the ... Materials and Methods for Respirator Performance against Nanoparticles under Simulated Workplace Activities Dataset pdf icon[ ...
Environmental impact of silver nanoparticles. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Graf, Christina; Vossen, Dirk L.J.; Imhof, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silver nanoparticles.. *. Cao, Huiliang (2017). Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial ... Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size.[1] While frequently described as being ... 2014). "Silver nanoparticles induce silver nanoparticle-specific allergic responses (HYP6P.274)". The Journal of Immunology. ...
... emphasizing how little we know about the risks associated with the nanoparticles now used in a wide range of consumer products ... I also couldnt resist revisiting the topic of nanoparticles one last time. You remember nanoparticles? Theyre the contaminant ... âWhen you take a nanoparticle and put it into the environment, you have to know how itâs going to behave. And we donât.â ... Itâs the kind of risk that should make us slow down and stop pumping out more of these nanoparticles, at least until we know ...
These are T cells (red) and tumor cells (green) incubated with control particles (left) or immunoswitch particles (right). T cells that have latched on to tumor cells are indicated by green arrows.
This article describes the techniques used to produce monodisperse gold nanoparticles, including centrifugation and filtration ... A monodisperse sample of gold nanoparticles with a radius of 5 nm will contain very few nanoparticles of any other radius, ... Most methods for producing gold nanoparticles aim to produce nanoparticles of even size and shape, with publications constantly ... When investigating the role of gold nanoparticles, polydispersity makes correlating function and activity of nanoparticles ...
Nanoparticles possess a variety of shapes and their names are characterized by their different shapes. For example, there are ... Types of nanoparticle. The morphologies of nanoparticles help serve their various purposes such as long carbon nanotubes being ... Nanoparticle aspect ratios. Nanoparticles with high- and low-aspect ratio are classified separately. High aspect ratio ... Dimensionality and classification of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are generally classified based on their dimensionality, ...
The growth of gold nanoparticles has been manipulated using amino acids and peptides to produce twisted structures that alter ... Figure 1 , The transfer of chirality from peptides to nanoparticles. Lee et al.3 grew gold nanoparticles from crystal seeds ... Peptides used to make light-twisting nanoparticles. The growth of gold nanoparticles has been manipulated using amino acids and ... The resulting nanoparticles were also chiral, and the mirror-image form that grew depended on the form of the amino-acid or ...
Modified nanoparticles could eventually be used to bypass the human bodys defences and deliver a variety of drugs more ... However, studies have found that such nanoparticles usually become stuck in mucus. While nanoparticles less than 100 nm can ... Nanoparticles with the right coating can quickly slip through human mucus, a new study shows. The results raise hopes for more ... The nanoparticles could be encapsulated to survive the trip through the stomach, and then the PEG coating would allow them to ...
Iron-platinum nanoparticles (FePt NPs) are 3D superlattices composed of an approximately equal atomic ratio of Fe and Pt. Under ... a b Hyie, K. M.(2010). "Synthesis of Iron-Platinum Nanoparticles in Water-in-Oil Microemulsions for High-Density Storage Media ... FePt Nanoparticles Embedded in a Si-Rich Matrix". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. Institute of Electrical and Electronics ... Platinum nanoparticles have a stronger chemical stability with the addition of iron, cobalt, or nickel. The platinum alloys ...
Drugs based on magnetic nanoparticles may offer solutions. ... Now, a new study describes how magnetic nanoparticles that ... "Dissolving blood clots with magnetic nanoparticles." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Jun. 2016. Web.. 20 Nov. 2018 ... Leach-proof magnetic thrombolytic nanoparticles and coatings of enhanced activity, Andrey S. Drozdov et al., Scientific Reports ... Paddock, C. (2016, June 25). "Dissolving blood clots with magnetic nanoparticles." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https:// ...
Doane, T.L., Burda, C.: The unique role of nanoparticles in nanomedicine: Imaging, drug delivery and therapy. Chem. Soc. Rev. ... Link, S., El-Sayed, M.A.: Size and temperature dependence of the plasmon absorption of colloidal gold nanoparticles. J. Phys. ... In: de Mello Donegá C. (eds) Nanoparticles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * First Online 22 October 2014 ... Koole R., Groeneveld E., Vanmaekelbergh D., Meijerink A., de Mello Donegá C. (2014) Size Effects on Semiconductor Nanoparticles ...
Nanoparticles The research adds weight to the baby-astronaut hypothesis of weightlessness. The changes in muscle tissue ... "Eat your vitamins" might be replaced with "ingest your ceramic nano-particles" in the future as space research is giving more ... "The effect we observed seems to imply that nanoparticles work better and longer than traditional antioxidants such as vitamins ... so researchers in Italy were keen to see if nanoparticles would have the same protective effect on cells on the International ...
A breakthrough new experimental treatment that uses nanoparticles covered with proteins to trick the immune system, managed to ... Protein-Covered Biodegradable Nanoparticles Trick the Immune System. The researchers used biodegradable nanoparticles covered ... But the effect in this case was to make the immune system view the nanoparticles as ordinary dying blood cells and nothing to ... A breakthrough new experimental treatment that uses nanoparticles covered with proteins to trick the immune system, managed to ...
Gold nanoparticle artificial skin could sense touch, humidity, temperature all at the same time July 16, 2013 at 9:54 am New ... Scientists precisely control gold-coated nanoparticles with lasers March 13, 2015 at 4:30 pm Researchers from Munich have ...
Nanoparticles Taught to Swim. NSF-supported research team at Penn State creates nanoscale motors powered by catalytic reactions ... Nanoparticles Taught to Swim: The Sen Group: ...
... interim guidance for medical screening and hazard surveillance for workers potentially exposed to engineered nanoparticles. ... Take prudent measures to control occupational exposures to engineered nanoparticles, such as those described in an earlier ... NIOSH Offers Interim Guidance for Worker Medical Screening, Hazard Surveillance Pertaining to Engineered Nanoparticles. ... including the identification of work tasks and processes that involve the production and use of engineered nanoparticles. ...
Nanoparticles in Soft Materials - Colloidal Systems. Polymer Nanotechnology. Carbon Nano Structures & Devices. Nano Particles ... Targeted Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy. H. Onyuksel, University of Illinois at Chicago, US (bio). ... Measuring Nanoparticle Size Distributions in Real-Time: Key Factors for Accuracy. K. Erickson, M. Singh and B. Osmondson, TSI ... High Throughput Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization. S. Fletcher, Chemistry Innovation KTN, UK (bio). ...
... ions can stabilize gold nanoparticles, assisting research on the structures potential. ... Gold standards for nanoparticles Understanding how small organic ions stabilize gold nanoparticles may allow for better control ... Gold standards for nanoparticles. King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST). Journal. Nature Chemistry. Keywords ... IMAGE: Gold nanoparticles were imaged at atomic resolution, with an idealized schematic at top left. view more ...
... nanoparticles, to make quinary alloys laced with multicomponent intermetallic nanoparticles (MCINPs), thereby simultaneously ... Multicomponent intermetallic nanoparticles strengthen high-entropy alloys. By Arthur L. Robinson January 28, 2019 ... Structure and composition of a two-phase quinary alloy containing multicomponent intermetallic nanoparticles (MCINPs). (a) ... they added aluminum and nickel to the starting mix with the aim of making ductile nanoparticles with a stable intermetallic ...
Over the decades, nanoparticles used as dignified metals such as si… ... The review article summarizes the applications of silver nanoparticles for diverse sectors. ... The review article summarizes the applications of silver nanoparticles for diverse sectors. Over the decades, nanoparticles ... 1: Applications of silver nanoparticles in diverse sectors. Fig. 1: Applications of silver nanoparticles in diverse sectors. ...
Completely dedicated to the biomedical applications of metal nanoparticles, this book covers the different toxicity problems ... Gold Nanoparticle Biodistribution and Toxicity: Role of Biological Corona in Relation with Nanoparticle Characteristics ... Metal Nanoparticles in Pharma is the first edited volume to set up the discussion for a clinical setting and to target a ... Biocompatible Magnetic Oxide Nanoparticles with Metal Ions Coated with Organic Shell as Potential Therapeutic Agents in Cancer ...
"Our nanoparticle therapy may offer the potential for saving lives in those situations. Its lightweight and compact and doesnt ... Nanoparticles containing nitric oxide (NO) were infused into the bloodstream of hamsters, where they helped maintain blood ... "Animals given the nanoparticles exhibited better cardiac stability, stronger blood flow to tissues and other measures of ... Once in the body, the nanoparticles gradually release a sustained dose of NO to tissues. ...
... had 32 percent less biomass in the mesocosms treated with the nanoparticles. Microbes were also affected by the nanoparticles, ... The nanoparticles are too small to be filtered out, so they and other materials end up in the resulting wastewater treatment " ... Silver nanoparticles are used in consumer products because they can kill bacteria, inhibiting unwanted odors. They work through ... "Specifically, the nanoparticles led to an increase in nitrous oxide fluxes, changes in microbial community composition, biomass ...
It is shown that the synthesis of nanoparticles using microbes is eco-friendly and results in ... Following an introduction to biogenic metal nanoparticles, this book presents how they can be biosynthesized using bacteria, ... It is shown that the synthesis of nanoparticles using microbes is eco-friendly and results in reproducible metal nanoparticles ... silver nanoparticles and their numerous applications in medicine, and the application of gold nanoparticles in developing ...
  • Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles has been used to prepare hundreds of different colloidal crystals, but almost invariably with the restriction that the particles must be densely packed. (
  • Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. (
  • To get the particles to where they need to be, and away from healthy cells, the nanoparticles would likely be attached to peptides that would attach onto tumors. (
  • Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) are commonly used by workers for protection against potentially hazardous particles, including engineered nanoparticles (i.e., particles measuring less than 100 nanometers (nm). (
  • In general, geometric mean SWPF trend holds true for nanoparticles (10-100 nm), larger size particles (100-400 nm), and the 'all size' range (10-400 nm). (
  • The most common methods for nanoparticle synthesis fall under the category of wet chemistry, or the nucleation of particles within a solution. (
  • Differential centrifugal sedimentation and nanoparticle tracking analysis both determine the diameter of a far larger number of particles with excellent resolution, though details, such as the exact shape of the particle are lost. (
  • Nanoparticles that control the rotation of light have potential applications, for example in optical devices 1 and sensors 2 , but preparing such particles has been difficult, especially from crystalline metals. (
  • The nanoparticles become superparamagnetic because the addition of heat makes the particle smaller and iron rich, since it removes any impurities in the particles. (
  • In a demonstration, silver chloride particles suspended in distilled water do not move until ultraviolet light is shone on them, whereupon they migrate en masse toward the light. (
  • Knowing that micron-sized carbide-based particles reported previously tended to crack under load, leading to low ductility because the material fractured, they added aluminum and nickel to the starting mix with the aim of making ductile nanoparticles with a stable intermetallic structure. (
  • In an advance that could improve battlefield and trauma care, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have used tiny particles called nanoparticles to improve survival after life-threatening blood loss. (
  • This ability of nanoparticles to have molecules "sticking" to their surface depends on the surface characteristics of the particles and can be relevant for drug delivery uses. (
  • Size - In addition to being able to cross cell membranes , reach the blood and various organs because of their very small size, nanoparticles of any material have a much greater surface to volume ratio (i.e. the surface area compared to the volume) than larger particles of that same material. (
  • This may be one of the reasons why nanoparticles are generally more toxic than larger particles of the same composition. (
  • Epidemiological studies on ambient air pollution have not proved conclusively that nanoparticles are more harmful than larger particles, but these studies may not be well suited to demonstrate such differences. (
  • Players can adjust a range of variables to design nanoparticles for a particular job - the size of each particle, the number of them in a swarm, the coating on those particles and the dose of drugs they carry. (
  • Their lung tissues and fluids contained nanoparticles about 30 nanometers in diameter - matching particles that health protection officials later found in materials used in the factory where the women worked. (
  • By flame spray synthesis (FSS) we are producing oxide nanoparticles such as silica, titania, zirconia, perovskites, various types of mixed oxides and composite particles with well-defined composition and morphology. (
  • ANN ARBOR, Mich.---University of Michigan researchers have developed a faster, more efficient way to produce a wide variety of nanoparticle drug delivery systems, using DNA molecules to bind the particles together. (
  • After being injected, those microparticles, nanoparticles and aggregates can stay around the injection site forming swellings and granulomas…But they can also be carried by the blood circulation, escaping any attempt to guess what will be their final destination…As happens with all foreign bodies, particularly that small, they induce an inflammatory reaction that is chronic because most of those particles cannot be degraded. (
  • To model particles, the scientists used the well-characterized properties of polystyrene spheres, which are widely employed in nanoparticle research, at various diameters on the order of 200 nm. (
  • In this paper we describe the growth kinetics of ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles and show how an understanding of the growth kinetics can be used to synthesize particles with tailored size and morphology. (
  • Due to the low solubility, the growth rate of TiO 2 nanoparticles is slow and relatively high temperatures are needed to produce particles several nanometers in size. (
  • A universal method of introduction of metall-containing nano-particles in polymeric matrices has been developed, which allows the fabrication of large amounts (kilogram-scale) of polymer nanoparticle composites. (
  • They are one of the first such particles that can precisely home in on damaged vascular tissue, says Omid Farokhzad, associate professor at Harvard Medical School and an author of a paper describing the nanoparticles in the Jan. 18 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • The particles, which measure in at a tiny fraction of the width of a human hair, "can have significantly altered bioavailability and may, therefore, raise new safety issues that have not been seen in their traditionally manufactured counterparts," the FDA wrote in a 2012 draft proposal for regulating nanoparticles in food. (
  • Yet, the Washington, D.C.-based environmental group Friends of the Earth (FoE) reports that none of the more than 100 food or food-related products it identified that contain nanoparticles -puny particles between 100 and one nanometers-bears a warning label or has undergone safety testing by government agencies. (
  • Dhar and her co-author, doctoral student Sean Marrache, used a biodegradable, FDA-approved polymer to fabricate their nanoparticles and then used the particles to encapsulate and test drugs that treat a variety of conditions. (
  • In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. (
  • By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed. (
  • Nanoparticles are defined as microscopic particles with sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers. (
  • For example, nanoparticles are generally more reactive than standard-sized particles. (
  • So far, few studies have been done on nanoparticle interactions within cells, but the fact that particles can enter the bloodstream and reach the interior of cells can be concerning. (
  • Thallium (Tl) Nanoparticles , nanodots or nanopowder are spherical or faceted high surface area metal particles. (
  • Surface functionalized nanoparticles allow for the particles to be preferentially adsorbed at the surface interface using chemically bound polymers. (
  • Play media Plasmonic nanoparticles are particles whose electron density can couple with electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths that are far larger than the particle due to the nature of the dielectric-metal interface between the medium and the particles: unlike in a pure metal where there is a maximum limit on what size wavelength can be effectively coupled based on the material size. (
  • What differentiates these particles from normal surface plasmons is that plasmonic nanoparticles also exhibit interesting scattering, absorbance, and coupling properties based on their geometries and relative positions. (
  • Changing the geometry of the nanoparticles can be used to manipulate the optical activity and properties of the system, but so can the polarized light by lowering the symmetry of the conductive electrons inside the particles and changing the dipole moment of the cluster. (
  • The equations change when particles are non-spherical, or are coupled to 1 or more other nanoparticles, such as when their geometry changes. (
  • Remarkable advances have been made in the scaling up of bottom-up methods to make chiral nanomaterials, mainly by using a chiral template to direct the assembly of preformed nanoparticles. (
  • Most of the information available comes from studies on inhaled nanoparticles and from pharmaceutical studies in which nanomaterials are used, among other things to improve drug delivery. (
  • By adjusting the components, as we have, we have synthesized the nanoparticles with the Curie temperature as low as 34 o C. This is a major nanomaterials breakthrough. (
  • They're the contaminant that poisons everything, at least if you believe two Italians, Antonietta Gatti and Stefano Montanari, who published a paper that purported to show that vaccines were hopelessly contaminated with heavy metal nanoparticles. (
  • Completely dedicated to the biomedical applications of metal nanoparticles, this book covers the different toxicity problems found in healthcare situations and also provides comprehensive info on the use of metal nanoparticles in treating various diseases. (
  • Metal Nanoparticles in Pharma is the first edited volume to set up the discussion for a clinical setting and to target a pharmaceutical audience of academic and industry-based researchers. (
  • The first book introducing the new biotechnology of biogenic metal nanoparticles. (
  • Following an introduction to biogenic metal nanoparticles, this book presents how they can be biosynthesized using bacteria, fungi and yeast, as well as their potential applications in biomedicine. (
  • It is shown that the synthesis of nanoparticles using microbes is eco-friendly and results in reproducible metal nanoparticles of well-defined sizes, shapes and structures. (
  • All readers - PhD students, researchers or even undergraduate students with keen interest in microbiology, or professors - may find interesting contributions on metal nanoparticles in microbiology. (
  • This collaboration has brought us a better understanding of how these solid catalysts work, putting us in the position to unlock the true potential of small metal nanoparticles for CO 2 catalysis," says Bert Weckhuysen, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis at Utrecht University. (
  • Such narrow photothermal spectra had never been seen for metal nanoparticles, either singularly or in clusters. (
  • He said the discovery opens the possibility that many metal nanoparticles could be used in biomedical and industrial applications where spectral selectivity and tuning would provide "unprecedented" precision. (
  • Noble-metal nanoparticles have had a substantial impact across a diverse range of fields, including catalysis, sensing, photochemistry, optoelectronics, energy conversion and medicine. (
  • The stability, purity and yield are substantially better than those for other metal nanoparticles, including gold, owing to an effective stabilization mechanism. (
  • A chemical in the paint, the patients' lung tissue and the liquid surrounding the lungs were all found to contain nanoparticles. (
  • Tomorrow, novel polymer nanocomposites may contain nanoparticles far less than 10 nm in diameter, enabling new properties not achievable with larger nanoparticles. (
  • One list of packaging that could contain nanoparticles includes beer bottles, aluminum foil, sandwich bags, and even a salad bowl. (
  • In particular, you want to look out for ingredients that contain nanoparticles. (
  • Now researchers have cracked the problem, with a cheap and easy way to make larger nanoparticles slip through mucus. (
  • When in space, astronauts have been shown to suffer from more oxidative stress due to the extra radiation they receive and as a by-product of floating in weightlessness, so researchers in Italy were keen to see if nanoparticles would have the same protective effect on cells on the International Space Station as on Earth. (
  • A breakthrough new experimental treatment that uses nanoparticles covered with proteins to trick the immune system, managed to stop it attacking myelin and halt disease progression in mice with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The researchers say the approach may also be applicable to other auto-immune diseases such as asthma and type 1 diabetes. (
  • Using nanoparticles would be much cheaper and easier, say the researchers. (
  • Researchers at KAUST reveal how simple organic citrate ions, derived from readily available citric acid, can interact with the gold atoms to yield the stable nanoparticles needed for further research. (
  • In experiments mimicking a natural environment, Duke University researchers have demonstrated that the silver nanoparticles used in many consumer products can have an adverse effect on plants and microorganisms. (
  • These preliminary findings are important, the researchers said, because little is known about the environmental effects of silver nanoparticles, which are found in textiles, clothing, children's toys and pacifiers, disinfectants and toothpaste. (
  • Previous studies have involved high concentrations of the nanoparticles in a laboratory setting, which the researchers point out, doesn't represent "real-world" conditions. (
  • The researchers found that one of the plants studied, a common annual grass known as Microstegium vimeneum, had 32 percent less biomass in the mesocosms treated with the nanoparticles. (
  • The researchers plan to continue to study longer-term effects of silver nanoparticles and to examine another ubiquitous nanoparticle - titanium dioxide. (
  • Boston, May 4 (IANS) US researchers have engineered nanoparticles for diabetics capable of releasing insulin in the blood thereby to help maintain normal blood sugar levels, says a study. (
  • Seven women working in a factory where nanoparticles were used in paint fell ill with serious lung disease and two died, researchers in China reported. (
  • Researchers writing in the European Respiratory Journal said nanoparticles were found deep in the lungs of the women who fell ill. (
  • Dr Andrew Maynard, Chief Science Advisor, Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, in Washington DC, said the researchers have not identified what the nanoparticles involved are made from or how much the patients had inhaled. (
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - Seven young Chinese women suffered permanent lung damage and two of them died after working for months without proper protection in a paint factory using nanoparticles, Chinese researchers reported on Wednesday. (
  • The researchers developed a nanoparticle carrying a molecular marker that binds to the surface of cancer cells, triggering the cells to absorb it. (
  • New findings indicate that specially treated nanoparticles of silica could allow researchers to detect a single E. coli bacterium in a ground beef sample, with no amplification required. (
  • Thermal self-regulating nanoparticles that seek out and destroy cancer cells may sound like something pulled from the new Blade Runner movie script, but researchers at the University of Surrey have developed the therapy for use today. (
  • Researchers from Utrecht University, Netherlands in collaboration with R&D colleagues Peter Berben, Esther Groeneveld and Gerda Kamsma from BASF in De Meern, Netherlands, have found a way to study the conversion process in detail and determine the perfect size for the catalytic nickel nanoparticles. (
  • In order to understand how these nickel nanoparticles behave during the conversion of CO 2 , the researchers studied the catalysts in action. (
  • Since then, the researchers found that cerium oxide nanoparticles have two additional medical benefits: they behave like an antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative stress, and they can be fine-tuned to potentially deliver medical treatments directly into cells. (
  • Now Rice University researchers have found a way to selectively heat diverse nanoparticles that could advance their use in medicine and industry. (
  • The researchers repeated their experiment with nanoparticle clusters in water, in living cancer cells and in animals, with the same or better results: they showed spectral peaks two nanometers wide. (
  • Authored by leaders in the field, Bio-Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis and Sustainable Biotechnological Implications bridges the gap between biology and technology, and is an invaluable resource for students and researchers alike. (
  • Nanoparticles attached to myelin sheath may help patients of multiple sclerosis , according to researchers. (
  • Nanoparticles of different sizes were tested by the researchers and it was realized that 500 nanometers was ideal for modulating the immune reaction. (
  • Researchers at MIT and Harvard Medical School have built targeted nanoparticles that can cling to artery walls and slowly release medicine, an advance that potentially provides an alternative to drug-releasing stents in some patients with cardiovascular disease. (
  • December, 2017 - Researchers from University of Illinois at Chicago (US) presented their study for the designer gold anti-viral nanoparticles they have developed that can bind to a range of viruses - such as dengue and herpes - and prevent them from infecting cells. (
  • During their study, the researchers found that when the cells that line veins or arteries are exposed to these nanoparticles, there is a change in the vascular permeability. (
  • Researchers used nanoparticles derived from grapefruits to deliver targeted drugs to treat cancer in mice. (
  • The researchers found that grapefruit juice yielded the most lipid nanoparticles. (
  • Researchers have developed a concept to potentially improve delivery of drugs for cancer treatment using nanoparticles that concentrate and expand in the presence of higher acidity found in tumor cells. (
  • To avoid that, the researchers coated antibiotic-containing plastic nanoparticles with cell membranes removed from human platelets, which are disk-shaped cell fragments found in the blood. (
  • The researchers plan to continue testing their nanoparticles on larger mammals before beginning clinical trials in humans. (
  • Nanoparticles have shown great promise in the targeted delivery of drugs to cells, but researchers at the University of Georgia have refined the drug delivery process further by using nanoparticles to deliver drugs to a specific organelle within cells. (
  • By encapsulating curcumin in the mitochondria-targeting nanoparticles, however, the researchers were able to restore the ability of brain cells in culture to survive despite the presence of a compound that encourages plaque formation. (
  • Finally, the researchers encapsulated the obesity drug 2,4-DNP-which works by making energy production in the mitochondria less efficient-in their nanoparticles and found that it reduced the production of fat by cultured cells known as preadipocytes by 67 percent compared to cells treated with the drug alone and by 61 percent of cells treated with nanoparticles that target the outside of cells. (
  • Stanford researchers retooled an electron microscope to work with visible light and gas flow, making it possible to watch a photochemical reaction as it swept across a nanoparticle the size of a single cold virus. (
  • By introducing light to an electron microscope, Stanford researchers can watch individual nanoparticles in extreme detail as they undergo a light-based reaction. (
  • Scientists know a lot about photocatalysis based on large groups of nanoparticles, but the new technique allows researchers to study what occurs in individual nanoparticles. (
  • The researchers claim that SPCE strips can be augmented with gold nanoparticles. (
  • An SPCE strip using gold nanoparticles could detect as little as one bacterial cell of L. monocytogenes, according to the researchers. (
  • To make their nanoparticles behave like viruses, the researchers coated them with polyethylene glycol, PEG, a non-toxic material commonly used in pharmaceuticals. (
  • The researchers also considered the size of their nanoparticles. (
  • Now, with a $1.1 million grant from the John R. Oishei Foundation, researchers in the University at Buffalo's Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics are turning their expertise in nanomedicine to the development of new, nanoparticle-based multi-probe systems, launching a new generation of medical imaging. (
  • The multimodal platforms underway in Prasad's group are based on versatile nanoparticles that the UB researchers have developed with previous Oishei Foundation funding that have been shown to be effective in a broad range of therapeutic applications. (
  • Synthesis, formation mechanisms and novel characterization tools of (mainly colloidal) anisotropic nanoparticles of different compositions (metal, metal oxide, semiconductor, polymer). (
  • PURPOSE: The present study introduces the preparation and in vitro characterization of a nanoparticle device comprising holmium acetylacetonate for radioablation of unresectable solid malignancies. (
  • After its characterization, silver nanoparticles were injected subcutaneously in to BALB/c mice at 200 μg/ kg BW for two different periods of time, one week and two weeks in daily manner. (
  • Antibody-Magnetite Nanoparticles: In Vitro Characterization of a Potential Tumor-Specific Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imagine," Bioconjugate Chem. (
  • Non-oxide nanoparticles like carbides and nitrides are produced out of solid precursors using the inductively coupled vacuum plasma process (ICP). (
  • Tailored oxide nanoparticles in polymer composites lead to improved mechanical properties, scratch resistance and super-hydrophilicity as well as easy-to-clean and anti-bacterial properties. (
  • Seal and his colleagues--James McGinnis, a vision scientist at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Artem Masunov, a theoretical chemist at UCF, and William Self, a molecular and micro-biologist at UCF--engineered special cerium oxide nanoparticles, which they call nanoceria , for tailored biomedical applications. (
  • Seal and his colleagues hypothesized that ROS may represent an 'Achilles' heel' of blinding diseases, which can be specifically targeted using cerium oxide nanoparticles. (
  • For example, wide band-gap metal oxide nanoparticles are critical components in high surface area electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. (
  • Growth rates for metal oxide nanoparticles span many orders of magnitude depending on the temperature, solubility, and surface energy of the crystal. (
  • A 2005 study in Environmental Science & Technology showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles were toxic to human lung cells in lab tests even at low concentrations. (
  • Ferrite nanoparticles or iron oxide nanoparticles (iron oxides in crystal structure of maghemite or magnetite) are the most explored magnetic nanoparticles up to date. (
  • Just like non-magnetic oxide nanoparticles, the surface of ferrite nanoparticles is often modified by surfactants, silica, silicones or phosphoric acid derivatives to increase their stability in solution. (
  • For instance, nanoparticles no bigger than a few nanometres may reach well inside biomolecules , which is not possible for larger nanoparticles. (
  • We can tune properties of composite materials over a much larger range than we could ever achieve with larger nanoparticles. (
  • Larger nanoparticles are more desirable because they can release greater amounts of medicine over a longer period of time. (
  • And we were also surprised to find that the larger nanoparticles (200 and 500 nanometers wide) actually moved through the mucus layer more quickly than the smaller ones (100 nanometers wide). (
  • Retrieved on May 22, 2019 from (
  • Investigative journalist Carole Bass has written extensively about nanotechnology, emphasizing how little we know about the risks associated with the nanoparticles now used in a wide range of consumer products, from sunscreen to stain-resistant clothing. (
  • Over 23% of all nanotechnology based products, diagnostic and therapeutic applications implanted with silver nanoparticles (e.g. (
  • Thus, Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been urbanized as an advanced artifact in the field of nanotechnology. (
  • They said the study is the first to document health effects of nanotechnology in humans, although animal studies in the past have shown nanoparticles could damage the lungs of rats. (
  • But Clayton Teague, who heads the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, noted that the women who were sickened on the job were spraying a paste containing nanoparticles in a very small, unventilated room, and wore gauze masks only occasionally. (
  • One of the most promising developments in cancer detection can be found in nanotechnology, and gold nanoparticles in particular could prove to be a life-saving tool. (
  • Visit our What is a Nanoparticle page to read about the scope of nanotechnology. (
  • Nanoparticles genotoxicity is a subject of compelling immediate action as a result of wide application of nanotechnology in many sectors which in contact with humane health. (
  • Gold nanoparticles have unusual optical, electronic and chemical properties, which scientists are seeking to put to use in a range of new technologies, from nanoelectronics to cancer treatments. (
  • Fifty days after scientists applied a single low dose of silver nanoparticles, the experimental environments produced about a third less biomass in some plants and microbes. (
  • Although the authors cannot be certain the nanoparticles caused the illness but said: "We call on scientists throughout the world to work together and address this new challenge. (
  • Scientists from Surrey's Advanced Technology Institute have worked with colleagues from the Dalian University of Technology in China to create nanoparticles which, when implanted and used in a thermotherapy session, can induce temperatures of up to 45°C. (
  • Rice scientists led by Dmitri Lapotko and Ekaterina Lukianova-Hleb showed common gold nanoparticles, known since the 19th century as gold colloids, heat up at near-infrared wavelengths as narrow as a few nanometers when hit by very short pulses of laser light. (
  • Specifically, in this work funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the polymer scientists applied an electric field to a system with two liquids to overcome the weak force that stabilizes nanoparticle assemblies at interfaces. (
  • Scientists have called for "urgent" testing of nanoparticles that are contained in every day products amid fears they could be dangerous to human health. (
  • The scientists injected nanoparticles attached to myelin in mice and it was seen that the immune system reverted back to normal. (
  • Recently, scientists have found that mammalian exosomes - tiny lipid capsules released from cells - can serve as natural nanoparticles. (
  • The scientists set out to isolate nanoparticles from the juice of grapefruits, grapes and tomatoes. (
  • Until recently, scientists believed an optimal nanoparticle size must exist. (
  • For years, scientists have known that drug-carrying nanoparticles could provide new, potent treatments for diseases like cancer by sending them to targeted parts of the body. (
  • Scientists from the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have come one step closer to this goal by demonstrating a new method for cooling nanoparticles in experiments. (
  • In a study published in September 2014 in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine journal, scientists found what they believe might be a better way to regrow bone tissue using magnetic nanoparticles coated with targeting proteins that stimulate stem cells to regenerate the bone. (
  • Scientists have developed a Listeria biosensor using gold nanoparticles, which they claim achieves rapid, cost-effective results and proves highly sensitive. (
  • Part of a new field called nanobiotechnology, the UB scientists are designing these nanoparticle systems to contain multiple contrast agents for different imaging medical techniques. (
  • Another method of silver nanoparticle synthesis includes the use of reducing sugars with alkali starch and silver nitrate. (
  • We're trying to come up with the data that can be used to help regulators determine the risks to the environment from silver nanoparticle exposures," Colman said. (
  • With such an ICP facility we also produce silicon nanoparticles in larger quantities. (
  • Silicon nanoparticles or tin nanocrystals are excellent candidates to replace graphite as anode material in Li-ion batteries. (
  • Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles. (
  • Directional light scattering by spherical silicon nanoparticles in the visible spectral range is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. (
  • Unique optical properties of silicon nanoparticles make them promising for design of novel low-loss visible- and telecom-range metamaterials and nanoantenna devices. (
  • The surprising effect reported in Advanced Materials appears to be related to nonstationary optical excitation of plasmonic nanoparticles. (
  • Plasmonic nanoparticles play an important role in biomedical applications today as they can serve as superior optically-stable bioimaging agents, be employed in biosensor devices for the early diagnosis of diseases, and exhibit promising results for their employment in vivo as therapeutic agents. (
  • This has led to the synthesis of multifunctional plasmonic nanoparticles that combine the attractive plasmonic properties with other functionalities like magnetism, photoluminescence, dispersibility in aqueous solutions and resistance to degradation. (
  • Here, biocompatible, SiO2-coated, Janus-like multifunctional plasmonic nanoparticles are prepared by one-step, scalable flame aerosol technology. (
  • Due to their ability to scatter light back into the photovoltaic structure and low absorption, plasmonic nanoparticles are under investigation as a method for increasing solar cell efficiency. (
  • The nanoparticles Miller and colleagues used are made of a polymer called Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG), which comprises lactic acid and glycolic acid, both natural metabolites in the human body. (
  • The nanoparticles are made up of FDA-approved substance, a polymer called Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG), comprising of glycolic acid and lactic acid, both being the natural metabolites of the human body. (
  • They chose a polymer of poly(propylene sulfide) 106 (PPS 106 ) to serve as the hydrophobic core of the nanoparticle. (
  • For the hydrophilic shell of the nanoparticle, the investigators selected poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) 9 methyl ether acrylate] 17 (POEGA 17 ), based on prior reports that this polymer conveys excellent resistance to phagocytic uptake. (
  • The fully assembled diblock polymer (PPS 106 -b-POEGA 17 ) formed micellar nanoparticles in phosphate-buffered saline that efficiently trapped either FA (FA-NPs) or the unconjugated 5-ROX fluorophore (5-ROX-NPs) (Figure 2). (
  • these interactions produce a polymer nanocomposite that is easier to process because nanoparticles move fast, quickly making the material less viscous. (
  • At right, many segments of a polymer chain stick to a larger nanoparticle, making it difficult for that nanoparticle to move. (
  • When a team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory tried to verify that shrinking the nanoparticle size would adversely affect the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites, they got a big surprise. (
  • Blending nanoparticles and polymers enables dramatic improvements in the properties of polymer materials. (
  • Nanoparticle size, spatial organization and interactions with polymer chains are critical in determining behavior of composites. (
  • A pure polymer (without nanoparticles) or a composite with large nanoparticles would need a temperature increase of at least 30 degrees Celsius for a comparable effect. (
  • Many more polymer segments stick to a large nanoparticle, making dissociation of a chain from that nanoparticle difficult. (
  • Broadband dielectric spectroscopy tracked the movement of polymer segments associated with nanoparticles. (
  • Using small-angle X-ray scattering, Halie Martin (UTK) and Mark Dadmun (UTK and ORNL) characterized nanoparticle dispersion in the polymer. (
  • The growth of gold nanoparticles has been manipulated using amino acids and peptides to produce twisted structures that alter the rotation of light. (
  • 3 report a remarkable method that uses amino acids or peptides (small molecules formed from amino acids) to direct the dissymmetric growth of gold nanoparticles that have a twisted morphology. (
  • The factors that influence the growth of Gold nanoparticles market include the expanding medical diagnostics industry, increasing growth in advance healthcare technology, high advantages in medicinal imaging applications and many others. (
  • The nanoparticle system used by Baker's lab is based on dendrimers, star-like synthetic polymers that can carry a vast array of molecules on the ends of their arms. (
  • The metallic core of magnetic nanoparticles may be passivated by gentle oxidation, surfactants, polymers and precious metals. (
  • Different modes can influence the structures and properties of nanoparticles. (
  • Key factors in the interaction with living structures include nanoparticle dose , the ability of nanoparticles to spread within the body, as well as their solubility . (
  • The Lung," Second Edition, 2014: "Nanoparticles [are] comparable in size to subcellular structures…enabling their ready incorporation into biological systems. (
  • The assembly of mesoscopic structures using nanoparticle building blocks have become increasingly important in many technologies. (
  • Although several structures have been determined for protected gold nanoclusters, none has been reported so far for silver nanoparticles. (
  • Bio-Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis and Sustainable Biotechnological Implications explores both the basics of and advancements in nanoparticle biosynthesis. (
  • A low-cost, green and reproducible probiotic microbe (Lactobacillus sporogens) mediated biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles is reported. (
  • During the bottom-up gold nanoparticle formation, ionic gold is reduced to metallic gold in solution, forming small clusters of gold atoms. (
  • Small nanoparticles usually form clusters. (
  • Expanding the potential of gold nanoparticles for a range of uses requires methods to stabilize the clusters and control their size. (
  • For a paper published Jan. 21 in the journal Chemistry and Biology, U-M Biomedical Engineering graduate student Youngseon Choi built nanoparticle clusters of two different functional dendrimers, one designed for imaging and the other for targeting cancer cells. (
  • The nanoparticles can form clusters (the so-called "plasmonic molecules") and interact with each other to form cluster states. (
  • Magnetic nanoparticle clusters that are composed of a number of individual magnetic nanoparticles are known as magnetic nanobeads with a diameter of 50-200 nanometers. (
  • Magnetic nanoparticle clusters are a basis for their further magnetic assembly into magnetic nanochains. (
  • The magnetic moment of ferrite nanoparticles can be greatly increased by controlled clustering of a number of individual superparamagnetic nanoparticles into superparamagnetic nanoparticle clusters, namely magnetic nanobeads. (
  • Curcumin effectively protects against zinc oxide nanoparticle induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (
  • Hesperidin alleviates zinc oxide nanoparticle induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. (
  • Binding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to lactate dehydrogenase. (
  • In this review, we analyse both antibodies and nanoparticles, focusing especially on the recent developments for antibody-conjugated nanoparticles, offering the researcher an overview of the different applications and possibilities of these hybrid carriers. (
  • Antibody-conjugated nanoparticles offer great opportunities to overcome these limitations in therapeutics. (
  • Moreover, antibody-conjugated nanoparticles have shown the ability to be internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis and accumulate in cells without being recognized by the P-glycoprotein, one of the main mediators of multi-drug resistance, resulting in an increase in the intracellular concentration of drugs. (
  • Controlling the morphology of nanoparticles is of key importance for exploiting their properties for their use in several emerging technologies. (
  • Despite the great importance of the morphology of nanoparticles, it is generally not well characterized and practically never controlled. (
  • Retrieved on November 30, 2020 from (
  • A nanothin SiO2 shell around these multifunctional nanoparticles leaves intact their morphology, magnetic and plasmonic properties but minimizes their toxicity. (
  • If we can modulate the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles, the therapeutic temperature can be self-regulated, eliminating the use of clumsy temperature monitoring and controlling systems. (
  • But Panyam found that larger aggregates of nanoparticles were killing tumor cells in an entirely different manner. (
  • The concept involves using nanoparticles made of "weak polybases," compounds that expand when transported into environments mimicking tumor cells, which have a higher acidity than surrounding tissues. (
  • The positive charge slows the movement of micelles out of tumor tissue, which would cause the nanoparticles to accumulate inside the tumor mass long enough to enter tumor cells and release anticancer drugs. (
  • Being much heavier than surrounding small molecules, gold nanoparticles quickly sink to the bottom of a centrifuge tube forming a pellet, and can be resuspended in the solvent of choice. (
  • Nanoparticles , can have the same dimensions as biological molecules such as proteins . (
  • A new study revealing that engineered carbon molecules known as 'buckyballs' cause brain damage in fish is one more brick in the wall of evidence suggesting that manufactured nanoparticles are harmful to the environment and to health. (
  • The surface of a maghemite or magnetite magnetic nanoparticle is relatively inert and does not usually allow strong covalent bonds with functionalization molecules. (
  • For example, they can combine the small size of nanoparticles and their special thermal, imaging, drug carrier, or magnetic characteristics with the abilities of antibodies, such as specific and selective recognition. (
  • The Nicomp ® DLS system is used in many industries to measure the size of nanoparticles, both in the lab and online in the process environment. (
  • The game, called NanoDoc , trains players on a few basic rules, including the types of nanoparticles in their arsenal and how they swarm through tissue to find cancerous cells. (
  • That means two or more types of nanoparticles in the same location can be selectively activated on demand. (
  • What are potential harmful effects of nanoparticles? (
  • 6.5 How should harmful effects of nanoparticles be assessed? (
  • 6.6 What are the effects of nanoparticles on the environment? (
  • Shape - Although there is little definitive evidence, the health effects of nanoparticles are likely to depend also on their shape. (
  • He said there should be renewed efforts to examine workplace exposure to nanoparticles and ensure it is kept to a minimum. (
  • These cases arouse concern that long term exposure to nanoparticles without protective measures may be related to serious damage to human lungs," Yuguo Song from the occupational disease and clinical toxicology department at Chaoyang Hospital in Beijing wrote in the European Respiratory Journal. (
  • There remain many unknown details about the interaction of nanoparticles and biological systems and more information on the response of living organisms to the presence of nanoparticles of varying size, shape, chemical composition and surface characteristics is needed to understand and categorize the toxicity of nanoparticles. (
  • Studies specifically dealing with the toxicity of nanoparticles have only appeared recently and are still scarce. (
  • Chemical composition and surface characteristics - The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical composition, but also on the composition of any chemicals adsorbed onto their surfaces. (
  • 1) Recent scientific studies have raised serious concerns about the toxicity of nanoparticles (see 'Ten Toxic Warnings,' below). (
  • Experts said the findings are the first clear evidence that nanoparticles can be hazardous to health and should be taken very seriously. (
  • But a U.S. government expert said the study was more a demonstration of industrial hazards than any evidence that nanoparticles pose more of a risk than other chemicals. (
  • 6.2 Which characteristics of nanoparticles are relevant for health effects? (
  • Disclosed are silica-coated nanoparticles and a process for producing silica-coated nanoparticles. (
  • Silica-coated nanoparticles are prepared by precipitating nano-sized cores from reagents dissolved in the aqueous compartment of a water-in-oil microemulsion. (
  • Also disclosed are methods for functionalizing silica-coated nanoparticles for use in a variety of applications. (
  • New types of silica-fortified magnetic nanoparticles as tools for moleculare biology applications," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 194:8, 199. (
  • Furthermore, this silica shell hinders flocculation and allows for easy dispersion of such nanoparticles in aqueous and biological buffer (PBS) solutions without any extra functionalization step. (
  • However, the reactivity of the magnetic nanoparticles can be improved by coating a layer of silica onto their surface. (
  • The properties of silver nanoparticles applicable to human treatments are under investigation in laboratory and animal studies, assessing potential efficacy, toxicity, and costs. (
  • Obtaining monodisperse gold nanoparticles is essential for almost all intended applications, as important properties such as catalytic activity, surface area, or surface plasmon resonance wavelength are all affected by the size and shape of the nanoparticle. (
  • Optical 﫿lters and bio-sensors are among the many applications that use optical properties of gold nanoparticles and it requires anisotropy of the particle shape as larger shapes produce greater plasmon losses. (
  • The various properties of iron-platinum nanoparticles allow them to function in multiple ways. (
  • [4] The superparamagnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the systematic method for conjugating ligands to the FePt surface makes them viable vehicles for detection of pathogens such as gram-positive bacteria . (
  • Numerous studies reported that Nanoparticles of about 100 nm diameter play a crucial role in widely spread industries due to unique properties including the dimension of small particle, high surface area and quantum confinement and they dispersed without agglomeration. (
  • Decade of discoveries clearly established that shape, size and distribution of Silver nanoparticles strongly affect the electromagnetic, optical and catalytic properties, which are often an assortment of changeable synthetic methods and reducing agents with stabilizers. (
  • Impregnation of metals with silver nanoparticles is a practical way to exploit the microbe aggressive properties of silver at very low cost. (
  • Anisotropy at the nanoscale is a critical factor in the mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of nanoparticles. (
  • Nanoparticles by themselves offer specific physicochemical properties that they do not exhibit in bulk form, where materials show constant physical properties regardless of size. (
  • The conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles can generate a product that combines the properties of both. (
  • Those properties make nanoparticles applicable in many biomedical applications. (
  • However, some physical properties are enhanced by using microparticles compared to nanoparticles. (
  • The conjugation of different moieties to the nanoparticles widens their application fields and provides them with new or enhanced properties. (
  • This novel approach is counter to the established paradigm that assumes optical properties of nanoparticles are pre-set during their fabrication and stay constant during their optical excitation," he said. (
  • Because nanoparticles are composed of elements and compounds whose toxicity is well-studied at larger scales, they have been assumed safe even though they can exhibit wildly different properties from their larger siblings. (
  • However, for MoS2 nanoparticles the size-dependent deviations from the bulk properties are more pronounced than in other materials. (
  • Thus, the particle size and the three-dimensional structure crucially determine the physical and chemical properties of MoS2 nanoparticles. (
  • A joint theoretical and experimental investigation correlated the particle size and shape to the structural and electronic properties that are responsible for the catalytic activity of MoS2 nanoparticles. (
  • Solution-based methods are widely used for the synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles where the small size and high surface to volume ratio can lead to many unique properties. (
  • Particle size measurement (2-10 nm) and magnetic properties showed that the material really contained the nanoparticles, which were retaining their unique properties. (
  • Gold nanoparticles market product finds extensive application in targeted diagnosis and treatment of tumour and cancer owing to its special properties including strong scattering, optoacoustic signaling, high absorption rate with less bone or tissue interference, etc. (
  • Although silver has very desirable physical properties, good relative abundance and low cost, gold nanoparticles have been widely favoured owing to their proved stability and ease of use. (
  • Well-dispersed small "sticky" nanoparticles improved properties, one of which broke records: Raising the material's temperature less than 10 degrees Celsius caused a fast, million-fold drop in viscosity. (
  • We see a shift in paradigm where going to really small nanoparticles enables accessing totally new properties," said Alexei Sokolov of ORNL and UTK. (
  • The physical and chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles largely depend on the synthesis method and chemical structure. (
  • While nanoparticles less than 100 nm can often pass through mucus, they also leak drugs more rapidly, lessening the potential advantage. (
  • [9] The size increase of the bimetallic nanoparticles entitles it to a wider range of biological applications. (
  • Combined, FePt nanoparticles are synthesized for medicinal applications. (
  • The chapter ends by briefly discussing the potential applications of semiconductor nanoparticles. (
  • The potential applications of gold nanoparticles could have a huge impact on society, and understanding stabilizers like citrate might be crucial to progress," said Jean-Marie Basset, Director of the KAUST Catalysis Center and Distinguished Professor of Chemical Science, and a member of the research team, Professor Luigi Cavallo. (
  • The type of interaction with light depends on nanoparticle structure and could also yield applications in solar cells and micro-electronics. (
  • The review article summarizes the applications of silver nanoparticles for diverse sectors. (
  • She has filed two patent applications on nanoparticles for targeting malaria and HIV/AIDS reservoirs. (
  • Chapters include practical protocols for microbial synthesis of nanoparticles and microbial screening methods for isolating a specific nanoparticle producer as well as reviews on process optimization, industrial scale production, biomolecule-nanoparticle interactions, magnetosomes, silver nanoparticles and their numerous applications in medicine, and the application of gold nanoparticles in developing sensitive biosensors. (
  • 7) Presumably, she believes that the potential for safe applications of nanoparticles still exists, but that commercialization should proceed cautiously until scientific toxicological data catch up to the technology. (
  • Studies on anti-microbial and wound healing applications of gauze coated with chlorhexidine-Silver hybrid nanoparticles. (
  • By generating these jammed nanoparticle surfactants at interfaces, fluid drops of arbitrary shape and size can be stabilized opening applications in fluidics, encapsulation and bicontinuous media for energy applications. (
  • Nanoparticles are being developed for a range of healthcare product applications including drug delivery, controlled release systems and medical devices. (
  • Gold nanoparticles market also finds applications in photo-thermal therapy and in coating titanium based dental implants for osteoinduction. (
  • Growing expenditure for product development and R&D for applications in end-user industries will also boost the Americas gold nanoparticles market. (
  • Concentration data on size-selected nanoparticle batches enables the calculation of the nanoparticle extinction coefficient and will facilitate practical applications of absorption-based nanoparticle concentration determination when accurate quantitation of a small nanoparticle sample is required. (
  • This high level of reactivity-although with huge potential for science and engineering applications-may make nanoparticles unpredictable in living things. (
  • These nanoparticles may represent a valuable platform for antigen delivery, vaccine development, and other biomedical and environmental applications "Extreme Halophiles Are Models for Astrobiology" (PDF). (
  • NanoBioMagnetics , Inc. of Edmond, Oklahoma has received a patent for using metallic nanoparticles as the main component for creating a hearing aid system. (
  • "Metallic nanoparticles are useful in immunoassays, because … they provide more surface area on which antibodies can immobilise and capture target bacteria," ​ the study states. (
  • This also implies that for the same moment, metallic nanoparticles can be made smaller than their oxide counterparts. (
  • On the other hand, metallic nanoparticles have the great disadvantage of being pyrophoric and reactive to oxidizing agents to various degrees. (
  • This led the Marnett lab to join with Craig Duvall of Vanderbilt's Department of Biomedical Engineering to develop a nanoparticle-based delivery system for FA [M. J. Uddin, T. A. Werfel, et al. (
  • For example, transmission electron microscopy direct photographs small number of nanoparticles, allowing for detailed information regarding the size and shape of the nanoparticles to be gained at the cost of basing data on a relatively small sample size. (
  • The outstanding stability of the nanoparticle is attributed to a closed-shell 18-electron configuration with a large energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, an ultrastable 32-silver-atom excavated-dodecahedral core consisting of a hollow 12-silver-atom icosahedron encapsulated by a 20-silver-atom dodecahedron, and the choice of protective coordinating ligands. (
  • X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of ZnO nanoparticles. (
  • The key to the possible treatment is the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle. (
  • Sir John said he would not wear clothes made of nanofibres, although he would wear sunscreen that uses nanoparticles. (
  • The Zn-Co-Cr ferrite nanoparticles produced for this study are self-regulating, meaning that they self-stop heating when they reach temperatures over 45°C. Importantly, the nanoparticles are also low in toxicity and are unlikely to cause permanent damage to the body. (
  • formed binary superlattices of gold and magnetite nanoparticles at an air-liquid interface that could then be transferred to carbon-coated surfaces (see the Perspective by Kotov). (
  • Because enhanced ROS production is causally linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, exposure to such airborne PM-derived magnetite nanoparticles might need to be examined as a possible hazard to human health. (
  • Polymeric nanoparticles are generating considerable interest as agents to solubilize and improve the pharmacokinetics of a wide range of drugs. (
  • This review explores recent developments on active drug targeting by nanoparticles functionalized with monoclonal antibodies (polymeric micelles, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles) and summarizes the opportunities of these targeting strategies in the therapy of serious diseases (cancer, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, and thrombosis). (
  • The focus of this work will be pointed how to be able to prepare reactive polymeric nanoparticles with free radical polymerization in homogeneous solution without macrogelation. (
  • A monodisperse sample of gold nanoparticles with a radius of 5 nm will contain very few nanoparticles of any other radius, while a sample containing a wide range of sizes is said to be polydisperse. (
  • [8] The virus template acts as a natural and benign method to monodisperse the nanoparticles up to 30 nanometers in diameter. (
  • The optimum conditions are developed for the decomposition of MCC in order to introduce complicated and highly reactive nanoparticles into the polymeric matrix. (
  • Her areas of interest are oral solid dosage forms, dermal formulations, nanocrystals, lipid nanoparticles (SLNs/NLCs), nanoemulsions and galenic formulations. (
  • Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) were used to deliver modified messenger RNA to treat inflammatory bowel diseases and other diseases. (
  • Due to their superparamagnetism and controllable shape, size, and surface, iron-platinum nanoparticles have great potential for advancing medicine in many fields, including imagining, pathogen detection, and targeted cancer therapy . (
  • A specialized nanoparticle filled with an RNA-based cancer therapy can successfully target human cancer cells and silence the target gene, according to results from an early clinical trial. (
  • Nanoparticles (black spheres) carry a molecular marker on their surface that engages receptors on a cancer cell's surface, allowing the nanoparticles to be taken into the cell. (
  • The trial was sponsored by Calando Pharmaceuticals, a California-based startup founded by Davis that is developing nanoparticle-based siRNA therapies for cancer. (
  • Findings from the new study-published today in Nanoscale in an article entitled " Novel Nanoparticles with Cr 3+ Substituted Ferrite for Self-Regulating Temperature Hyperthermia "-could soon be used as part of hyperthermic thermotherapy to treat patients with cancer. (
  • Nanoparticle complexes can be specifically targeted to cancer cells and are small enough to enter a diseased cell, either killing it from within or sending out a signal to identify it. (
  • It is a single treatment that continues to work in the body because the nanoparticles bond with the cancer cells. (
  • Different approaches have been proposed to treat cancer cells using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in combination with radiation ranging from infraredlasers to high-energy ion beams. (
  • Micellar nanoparticles are an efficient vehicle to deliver a targeted imaging agent for the detection of cancer and regions of inflammation. (
  • Despite two decades of synthetic efforts, silver nanoparticles that are inert or have long-term stability remain unrealized. (
  • Construction of nanoparticles bearing inert materials, such as polyethylene glycol, on their surface reduces the likelihood that they will be opsonized and taken up by phagocytes. (
  • The morphologies of nanoparticles help serve their various purposes such as long carbon nanotubes being used to bridge an electrical junction. (
  • High aspect ratio nanoparticles include nanotubes and nanowires, with various shapes, such as helices, zigzags, belts, or perhaps nanowires with diameter that varies with length. (
  • Empa has extensive competences and excellent facilities for the synthesis of nanoparticles, nanocrystals, nanofibers and carbon nanotubes in lab- and pilot-scale batches. (
  • Platelets, fullerenes or even nanotubes, MoS2 nanoparticles larger than 10 nanometres are semi-conducting like the bulk. (
  • The advantages compared to ferrite or elemental nanoparticles are: Higher magnetization Higher stability in acidic and basic solution as well as organic solvents Chemistry on the graphene surface via methods already known for carbon nanotubes Several methods exist for preparing magnetic nanoparticle. (
  • Centrifugation is commonly used to wash away excess reactants or other waste from a colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles. (
  • By depositing a fixed volume of the nanoparticle colloidal solution and determining the dry residue mass after solvent evaporation, we measured the nanoparticle concentration and expressed it in mass per unit volume. (
  • A year ago our frozen samples splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on the Dragon spacecraft, and after comparing the samples we saw a marked effect in the cells treated with ceramic nanoparticles," says Gianni Ciofani from the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia in Italy. (
  • [10] Each of these methods, or a combination of methods, will offer differing degrees of control over the size distribution as well as distributions of geometric arrangements of the nanoparticle. (
  • [14] There have been methods that indicated that these reducing sugars are essential to the formation of silver nanoparticles. (
  • Most methods for producing gold nanoparticles aim to produce nanoparticles of even size and shape, with publications constantly introducing new methods or proposing minor improvements over existing methods. (
  • METHODS: HoAcAc nanoparticles were prepared by dissolving holmium acetylacetonate in chloroform, followed by emulsification in an aqueous solution of a surfactant and evaporation of the solvent. (
  • New toxicological testing methods, accurate measurement methods, reference materials and documentary standards are urgently needed to support risk assessments and regulatory policy decisions regarding materials containing nanoparticles. (
  • Due to the significant physical and chemical differences between materials in nanoparticle form and bulk material form, new methods are needed to assess nanomaterial safety. (
  • The mentioned methods were used to assess the genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in vivo. (
  • Results indicated that the three types of DNA damage assessment methods were capable to detect the genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in the treated animals. (
  • Many fabrication processes or chemical synthesis methods exist for preparation of such nanoparticles, depending on the desired size and geometry. (
  • When investigating the role of gold nanoparticles, polydispersity makes correlating function and activity of nanoparticles difficult. (
  • Gold nanoparticle production can be achieved from both a 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approach, that is, beginning from either bulk metal or molecular gold. (
  • Bottom-up approaches tend to produce superior nanoparticles in terms of monodispersity and are more commonly employed to produce functional gold nanoparticles with an application in mind. (
  • The nanoparticle continues to grow evenly in all directions (isotropic), until the available gold in solution has been used up. (
  • Therefore, the initial quantities of gold and reducing agent(s) reacted must be carefully considered when aiming to produce a particular size of nanoparticle, while the growth conditions must be carefully controlled and maintained to achieve monodispersity. (
  • Other techniques such as size exclusion chromatography, diafiltration, or dialysis can be used to separate a mixture of gold nanoparticles based on size, shape, and surface charge. (
  • He is currently completing a Ph.D. on the design and production of gold nanoparticles able to act as multimodal anticancer agents, being both drug delivery platforms and radiation dose enhancers. (
  • Gold nanoparticles were imaged at atomic resolution, with an idealized schematic at top left. (
  • Controlling the structure of gold nanoparticles could also fine tune their interaction with light to exploit a phenomenon known as surface plasmon resonance. (
  • Natural News) Are gold nanoparticles safe for human use and consumption? (
  • HOUSTON - (Jan. 3, 2013) - Plasmonic gold nanoparticles make pinpoint heating on demand possible. (
  • The key idea with gold nanoparticles and plasmonics in general is to convert energy," Lapotko said. (
  • There are two aspects to this: One is how efficiently you can convert energy, and here gold nanoparticles are world champions. (
  • All nanoparticles, beginning with solid gold colloids and moving to more sophisticated, engineered gold nanoshells, nanorods, cages and stars, have very wide spectra, typically about 100 nanometers, which means we were allowed to use only one type of nanoparticle at a time. (
  • The Rice lab showed basic colloidal gold nanoparticles could be efficiently activated by a short laser pulse at 780 nanometers, with an 88-fold amplification of the photothermal effect seen with a continuous laser. (
  • NIST has recently created a series of gold nanoparticles with certified mean diameters. (
  • Pune, India -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 12/27/2017 -- Accrediting the sedulous work of the key players, who brought novelties in Gold Nanoparticles helping the its market to gain increasing traction to grow widely, the Market Research Future, has recently published a meticulous study report, giving out the complete market prognosis up to 2027. (
  • According to which, continuing with the same trends, Americas Gold Nanoparticles Market is expected to accrue enormously by 2027, registering a spectacular CAGR during the period 2017 to 2027. (
  • Americas Gold Nanoparticles Market is gaining exponential traction attributing to the efficacy these Nanoparticles demonstrate in non-specific and targeted drug delivery systems therapies used to treat deadly viral diseases like HIV, dengue, papillomavirus, herpes and Ebola further allowing doctors to use a single drug to combat all viruses. (
  • On the other hand, stringent regulations for nanomaterial's specifications and use, coupled with volatility in gold prices are anticipated to pose challenges to the market growth of Americas Gold Nanoparticles Market however, adept innovations along with the rising demand from electronics market which is driven by the demand for smaller, versatile and smarter devices is expected to provided impetus to the Americas Gold Nanoparticle Market during the forecasted period. (
  • Americas Gold Nanoparticles Market is driven by some of the prominent players including Cytodiagnostics (Canada), Goldsol (U.S), NanoHybrids Corp (Austin), Nanopartz Inc. (U.S), Nanosphere (Canada), Nanostellar (U.S), NanoRods LLC (U.S), and Sigma Aldrich (U.S) acknowledging, the sedulous work of these key players, MRFR profiles them in its market analysis. (
  • Americas Gold Nanoparticles Market appears to be a fairly stable market as far as the eye can see. (
  • November 21, 2017 - Binghamton University (State University of New York) presented their study that proves that Gold Nanoparticles could help make drugs work more effectively. (
  • The innovation is detailed in the article 'Gold nanoparticle-modified carbon electrode biosensor for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes' ​, published in the US journal Industrial Biotechnology. (
  • "The objective of the study was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based biosensing strip to use for quick and inexpensive detection of L. monocytogenes through AuNP [gold nanoparticle]-modified SPCE [screen-printed carbon electrodes]," ​ the authors state. (
  • Recently, work has explored the synthesis and exchange bias effect in these Co core CoO shell nanoparticles with a gold outer shell. (
  • That's the first time anyone has seen that for any kind of particle delivery system, whether it's a liposome, a nanoparticle, or anything," says Davis. (
  • Instead of using the nanoparticle as a heat sink with a continuous, stationary laser, we're creating a transient, nonstationary situation in which the particle interacts with the incident laser in a totally different way," Lapotko said. (
  • The typical definition of a nanoparticle is a particle with a size between 1-100 nm. (
  • Dynamic light scattering (DLS) remains the most popular particle size analysis technique for nanoparticles. (