Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Rheiformes: An order of large, long-necked, long-legged, flightless birds, found in South America. Known as rheas, they are sometimes called American ostriches, though they are in a separate order from true OSTRICHES.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Liquid Phase Microextraction: Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Brodsky J, Ballschmiter K (1988). "Reversed phase liquid chromatography of PCBs as a basis for calculation of water solubility ... is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium. This ratio is therefore a ... Likewise, hydrophobicity plays a major role in determining where drugs are distributed within the body after absorption and as ... "Determination of liquid-liquid partition coefficients by separation methods" (PDF). (secondary). Journal of Chromatography A. ...
... both the mobile and stationary phases are liquid. The contrast is, however not as stark as it first appears. In reversed-phase ... chromatography encompasses a collection of related liquid chromatography techniques that employ two immiscible liquid phases ... The analyte will distribute between the phases according to its partition coefficient which is also called the distribution ... phase chromatography, and the non-polar stationary phase chromatography became "reversed" phase chromatography. In reversed- ...
Reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) is any liquid chromatography procedure in which the mobile phase is significantly more ... Chromatography is a physical method of separation that distributes components to separate between two phases, one stationary ( ... Chromatography is based on the concept of partition coefficient. Any solute partitions between two immiscible solvents. When we ... Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a type of liquid-liquid chromatography, where both the stationary and mobile phases are ...
In liquid-liquid separation, a compound is distributed between two immiscible liquid phases under equilibrium conditions. ... "Liquid Chromatography with Hydrocarbonaceous Bonded Phases; Theory and Practice of Reversed Phase Chromatography". Journal of ... paper chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography which is more commonly known as gas chromatography. The modification of ... Martin, A J P; Synge, R L M (1941). "A new form of chromatogram employing two liquid phases A theory of chromatography. 2. ...
Brodsky J, Ballschmiter K (1988). "Reversed phase liquid chromatography of PCBs as a basis for calculation of water solubility ... is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium. This ratio is therefore a ... Likewise, hydrophobicity plays a major role in determining where drugs are distributed within the body after absorption and as ... "Determination of liquid-liquid partition coefficients by separation methods" (PDF). (secondary). Journal of Chromatography A. ...
In liquid-liquid separation, a compound is distributed between two immiscible liquid phases under equilibrium conditions. ... "Liquid Chromatography with Hydrocarbonaceous Bonded Phases; Theory and Practice of Reversed Phase Chromatography". Journal of ... paper chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography which is more commonly known as gas chromatography. The modification of ... Martin, A J P; Synge, R L M (1941). "A new form of chromatogram employing two liquid phases A theory of chromatography. 2. ...
Main article: Reversed-phase chromatography. Reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) is any liquid chromatography procedure in ... Chromatography is a physical method of separation that distributes components to separate between two phases, one stationary ( ... Chromatography is based on the concept of partition coefficient. Any solute partitions between two immiscible solvents. When we ... Fast protein liquid chromatography. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), is a form of liquid chromatography that is often ...
... liquid chromatography separation modes, partitioning of analytes, stationary phases, normal phase chromatography ... reverse phase chromatography separation of nonpolar compounds, hydrocarbons ion chromatography, C8 column, C18 column, high ... chromatography the solute molecules are distributed between two immiscible liquid phases, the mobile phase and the stationary ... Which are the main liquid chromatography separation modes? / Liquid-Liquid Chromatography (LLC) ...
... as lamellar phases, hexagonal or reversed hexagonal phases, cubic phases, or other liquid or solid phases of copolymer ... Where it is desired to use copolymer surfactants which become distributed at the phase interfaces, e.g. in the form of a film ... Flash chromatography on a silica column, eluted with 5% methanol in chloroform, gave 5.39 g (68%) of the title compound. 1 H ... comprise a water-immiscible organic solvent such as an aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or araliphatichydrocarbon, e.g. containing up ...
... which passes through the stationary phase. The stationary phase can be a solid adsorbent (adsorption chromatography), a liquid ... is a physical method of separation that distributes components to separate between two phases, one stationary (stationary phase ... extraction of the active principles which are liquid or embedded a liquid, with another immiscible liquid [16]. ... silica gel and reverse phase C18 silica, adsorption chromatography and membrane method. Although the though there are diverse ...
Liquid. Column. Exclusion. 7.. Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). Ion-exchange resin or bonded-phase. Liquid. Column. Ion- ... Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, ... The surface can be between solid and liquid, between air and liquid and between two different immiscible liquids. The unique ... stands for the aqueous phase. This process is reversible, that is, it can be reversed by suitably changing the concentration of ...
... and these solvent systems can be used in liquid-liquid separations and countercurrent chromatography. The wide... ... Ionic liquids can form biphasic solvent systems with many organic solvents and water, ... 3.4 Phase Behaviour of Ionic Liquids. Two immiscible liquids are present when there is a visible barrier between two phases. ... In the field of liquid chromatography, the determination of ionic liquid cations by reversed-phase HPLC [48] was reported in ...
A foreign substance, an immiscible liquid is introduced to provide a second phase. ... C., or can comprise a mixture of liquid and vapor phases at ambient temperatures and pressures, e.g., at 25 deg. C. and 1 atm. ... This is a "reverse" operation, in contrast with the normal use of this hydrolase in water to convert a less water-soluble fatty ... The more common chromatography types are paper, thin layer, high performance, gas, and gel permeation. The two major mechanisms ...
... from the solid phase into the gaseous phase. The reverse process, when the vapor goes back to the solid phase is called ... Vinegar by itself would be a Liquid/Liquid solution. Foam is an example of a Liquid/Gas... ... A colloid consists of two phases in its entire substantial form which are a dispersed phase of the solution and a continuous ... Chromatography is used to separate mixtures of substances into their... Continue Reading Please join StudyMode to read the full ...
For example, the nucleic acids can be purified by reverse phase or ion exchange HPLC, size exclusion chromatography or gel ... b) dissolving DNA in water to yield a first aqueous phase; (c) emulsifying the organic and first aqueous phases to yield a ... To form the organic phase, at least one biocompatible polymer is dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent. The polymer(s ... Microspheres containing DNA have the DNA distributed throughout the bulk of the microsphere (not merely on the surface), and ...
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... an oil phase present in the amount of from about 5 to about 20 percent by weight of the total emulsion composition which ... Ordinarily, when two immiscible liquids are mechanically agitated, both phases initially tend to form droplets. Thereafter, ... procedure in which the chromatograph was equipped with a reversed phase 5 micron C-8 column (25 cm in length 4.6 mm in diameter ... As reported herein, we determined retinoid concentrations by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ...
Yu et al. developed a targeted liquid chromatography (LC) ESI-MS/MS method for detecting glutathione, a suggested biomarker of ... The combination of monobromobimane for derivatizing glutathione and reversed phase LC separation enabled the detection of ... a liquid that is immiscible in both aqueous and organic solvents. A theta pipette was then inserted into a single A. cepa cell ... Significant differences were found between the mitotic phases and the results indicated that the metaphase is a high energy ...
... systems comprising two immiscible liquid phases intimately mixed and dispersed with each other. In general, emulsions may be of ... phase, oily phase or itself as a separate phase. Pharmaceutical excipients such as emulsifiers, stabilizers, dyes, and anti- ... Levels in plasma may be measured, for example, by high performance liquid chromatography. [0205] In addition to their ... However, it is preferred that the affinity not be so strong that the HSA-ligand binding cannot be reversed. [0106] In another ...
... liquid service( ie: soil, Rudy on Rails), and element tractor. create environmental download Схемотехника for IT to assist ... signage phases may or may especially be. comprising sales since 1972. How found Jerry and Esther are? The download Схемотехника ... interior grants that distribute in subject from 1820 to 1881 are the different supply of others. treatments extra in Smiths ... pursue liquid app download Схемотехника и средства проектирования table. A long variety party group buffering in Harlem. Our ...
liquid at room temperature. As indicated above, the use of such compounds, whether as a continuous phase or, as. a suspension ... 3. Emulsions of immiscible low=boiling (below 100 C) liquids suitable far use with the present invention are. generally of the ... drying the emulsion using a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLCI pump. The emulsion is pumped. through a 200 x 0.030 inch ... will be unevenly distributed over the surface. As a result, the charge half-. life of powders comprising non-conducting. ...
Emerging techniques in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, infrared ... Physical Processes Affecting the Fate and Transport of Immiscible Liquid Contaminants in Ground-Water Systems. show details ... and liquid phases present. This knowledge of reaction rates is necessary because many chemical reactions occur simultaneously ... 1) Develop, maintain, distribute, and provide training on state-of-the-art river modeling software.. 2) Provide consultation, ...
... on the surface of the stationary phase and an equilibrium is established between molecules in the vapor and liquid phases. ... Reverse-phase HPLC uses a nonpolar stationary phase and a polar mobile phase to achieve separation (the reverse of. normal ... Define the terms miscible and immiscible.. Provide two examples of immiscible solvent pairs.. Discuss why immiscible solvent ... which the components to be separated are distributed between a mobile and stationary phase. Although several types of. ...
sure in the external liquid phases, eq 1, and an assumption. of ideality in the membrane phase, that is, am w ¼ ww/ww. where w ... ously distributed in the polymer matrix. as follows. In the theory for reverse osmosis given above, it is assumed that CAm ¼ qm ... size exclusion chromatography; membranes for these appli- tion and scaling issues in RO membrane systems.13. cations need to be ... Then, a water immiscible organic. for nanofiltration applications. The bottom layer is a woven solution containing a second ...
If the mobile phase is a liquid, the technique is liquid chromatography; if it is a gas, the technique is gas chromatography. ... Reverse osmosis often is used for water purification. Osmosis or reverse osmosis can be utilized in certain instances to ... they are partitioned between the two phases depending on their attractions to the stationary phase. Because different mixture ... If the results are normally distributed, 68.3 percent of the results can be expected to fall within the range of plus or minus ...
... reversed phase, covalent chromatography and affinity chromatography. For example, a hydrophobic polymer will bind more strongly ... Ultra-thin liquid membrane construction US3772072A (en) * 1971-06-14. 1973-11-13. Eastman Kodak Co. Method for treating reverse ... Distributed pore chemistry in porous organic polymers JP2807706B2 (en) 1990-01-25. 1998-10-08. パーデュー・リサーチ・ファウンデーション. ... Method for the chemical coupling of solid phases DE69313787D1 (en) * 1992-11-12. 1997-10-16. Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd. ...
The intermediate phase, forming the extended boundary between the crystalline and amorphous phases, is characterized by lower ... between water and an immiscible liquid. The term is meant to include soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, surface active agents, and ... 0194] In the formula above, the ethylene oxide groups and propylene oxide groups can occur in reverse order as well as in a ... 0319] Molecular weights of the PLA grades were determined using Size Exclusion Chromatography. The value of the D-contents was ...
The immiscible lattice BGK method for solving the two-phase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is analysed in great detail ... Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column Module) to simulate the hydrodynamics of general liquid-liquid extraction columns (LLEC). The ... It was shown from the XRD patterns for this system that the structure of the formed mixture consists of two phases. One phase ... For spatially distributed populations (such as extraction columns) the resulting system of partial differential equations is ...
... and Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). Specific purified fractions using these techniques have ... between two immiscible phases. Surfactants are useful with dry particles for several reasons, e.g., reduction of particle ... Here, it is assumed that the cells remain homogeneously distributed in the spray solution and spray process and are therefore ... The first phase, referred to as free water, is primarily the water content of the dry excipient. The second phase, referred to ...
  • Examples of polar stationary phases include those for which R contains a cyano (-C2H4CN), diol or amino (-C3H6NH2) functional group. (blogspot.com)
  • The most common nonpolar stationary phases use an organochlorosilane for which the R group is an n-octyl (C8) or n-octyldecyl (C18) hydrocarbon chain. (blogspot.com)
  • citation needed] To measure the partition coefficient of ionizable solutes, the pH of the aqueous phase is adjusted such that the predominant form of the compound in solution is the un-ionized, or its measurement at another pH of interest requires consideration of all species, un-ionized and ionized (see following). (wikipedia.org)
  • 16. The method according to claim 15 , wherein the second aqueous phase further includes an emulsifying agent. (google.com)
  • We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i) chemically defined or ii) aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The separations in LLC are derived from the partitioning of analytes between two liquids, one of which is held immobile on a stationary solid support. (blogspot.com)
  • A variety of contrast agents has been proposed to enhance the acoustic images so obtained, including suspensions of solid particles, emulsified liquid droplets, gas bubbles and encapsulated gases or liquids. (google.com.au)
  • In this regard, given the low extraction efficiency of conventional sorbent phases, the development of materials with enhanced extraction capabilities is of particular interest. (bvsalud.org)
  • c) an oil phase present in the amount of from about 5 to about 20 percent by weight of the total emulsion composition which contains (i) a light, dry absorbable oil and (ii) substantive, emollient oils or waxes, wherein the light, dry absorbable oil and the substantive oil or wax are present in a ratio of from about 1:3 for about 10:1. (google.es)
  • Martin and Synge initially attempted to devise a method of performing a sequential liquid-liquid extractions with serially connected glass vessels that functioned as separatory funnels. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mixed sample is usually analyzed by separating, detecting, and identifying its components by methods that depend on differences in their properties (e.g., volatility, mobility in an electric or gravitational field, distribution between liquids that do not mix). (academic.ru)
  • who were and became the download an introduction to in her agent, Our Own Metaphor: A Personal Account of a oxide on the differences of immiscible asphalt on Human Adaptation. (kar-men.com)
  • A corresponding partition coefficient for ionizable compounds, abbreviated log P I, is derived for cases where there are dominant ionized forms of the molecule, such that one must consider partition of all forms, ionized and un-ionized, between the two phases (as well as the interaction of the two equilibria, partition and ionization). (wikipedia.org)
  • Affinity ligands can be covalently attached to polymer or polymer can also be modified with hydrophobic groups [ 5 ] Interested readers about aqueous two-phase affinity partitioning (ATPAP) are referred to an excellent review by Ruiz-Ruiz et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A colloid consists of two phases in its entire substantial form which are a dispersed phase of the solution and a continuous phase. (studymode.com)
  • Then the liquid is carefully poured off to leave the insoluble solid behind. (studymode.com)
  • A colloidal system may be solid, liquid or gaseous in form. (studymode.com)
  • Suspensions They are heterogeneous mixtures of a solid and a liquid in which the solid does not dissolve. (studymode.com)
  • Hence, this material was employed as an in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) device coupled online with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and applied for the analysis of xanthines in roasted coffee samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chromatography technique developed substantially as a result of the work of Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge during the 1940s and 1950s, for which they won the 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry . (wikipedia.org)
  • A liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is condensed again to a liquid. (studymode.com)
  • For example, the free-base forms of many phenethylamines are volatile, oily liquids that produce nondescript spectra. (123doc.org)