Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.PaintingsBase Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Diaminopimelic AcidSoil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.PhenazinesNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Picolinic AcidsBacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Peptidoglycanalpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes: A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Bacillaceae: A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Famous PersonsAlkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Glycoside HydrolasesGram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Hydroxyphenylazouracil: Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods: Rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS and CLOSTRIDIUM.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Pimelic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).ThymineResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Flavobacteriaceae: A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.UracilMuramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.EponymsArtificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Tyrothricin: A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Oligo-1,6-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 3.2.1.10.Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Bacillus subtilis[edit]. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis have a cAMP-independent catabolite repression ...
Bacillus thuringiensis[edit]. Constant exposure to a toxin creates evolutionary pressure for pests resistant to that toxin. ... To reduce resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, the 1996 commercialization of transgenic cotton and maize came with ... Tobacco, corn, rice and some other crops have been engineered to express genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus ... plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).[40] ...
Bacillus cereus group: close and polyphyleticEdit. Main article: Bacillus cereus. In a similar way, the Bacillus species (= ... Main article: Bacillus. Another example of a large genus with nested genera is the genus Bacillus, in which the genera ... Bacillus-a genus of spore-forming rod shaped bacteria first described in 1835[13] ... Bacteria were at first classified based solely on their shape (vibrio, bacillus, coccus etc.), presence of endospores, gram ...
Bacillus brevis • Bacillus Cereus • Bacillus megaterium • Bacillus subtilis • Burkholderia cepacia • Campylobacter jejuni • ...
Bacillus spp. (genus): This organism is likely to grow soy sauce ingredients, and to generate odors and ammonia. ...
Paenibacillus popilliae (formerly Bacillus popilliae) is a soil-dwelling, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. It is ...
Bacillus cereus infection Bacillus cereus Bacterial pneumonia multiple bacteria Bacterial vaginosis List of bacterial vaginosis ...
... releasing many more bacilli into the bloodstream to be transferred to the entire body. Once in the blood stream, these bacilli ... Bacillus spp. are quite large in size (3 to 4 μm long), they may grow in long chains, and they stain Gram-positive. To confirm ... Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, aerobic bacterium about 1 by 9 μm in size. It was shown to cause disease by ... Bacillus spp. usually grow within 24 hours of incubation at 35°C, in ambient air (room temperature) or in 5% CO2. If ...
Bacillus licheniformis. These kinds of bacteria produce biosurfactants which replace chemically produced surfactants. ...
Spencer, RC (2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182-187. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905 ... Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive bacteria that causes anthrax, secretes two siderophores: bacillibactin and petrobactin. ...
BT - Bacillus thuringiensis. *EH - Erwinia hebicola. *FP - fluorescent particle. Radiological Agent[edit]. Main article: ...
Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii.[8] ...
Bacillus subtilis spores. 82 0.5 µm. Pseudomonas diminuta. 19146 0.45 µm. Serratia marcescens. 14756 ...
Insecticide, Bacillus and nematode treatments must be repeated three times at an interval of about ten days, because they ... Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki is a bacterium which produces an insect-specific endotoxin which perforates the ...
Bacillus ARC3 (ArsB; TC# 2.A.59.1.2) probably has a 10 TMS topology. ACR3 of S. cerevisiae is 404 amino acyl residues long and ... The Bacillus protein exports both arsenite and antimonite. The exact transport mechanism has not established. The generalized ... Sato, T.; Kobayashi, Y. (1998-04-01). "The ars operon in the skin element of Bacillus subtilis confers resistance to arsenate ... protein of Bacillus subtilis. While the nomenclature of the ARC3 ArsB protein overlaps with ArsB of E. coli (ArsB family), it ...
Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, Bacillus solisalsi and Bacillus gelatini in the ... Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liu, R; Zhang, KY; Lai, R (June 2009). "Bacillus solisalsi sp. nov., a halotolerant, alkaliphilic bacterium ...
Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, Bacillus solisalsi and Bacillus gelatini in the ... Zhang, T; Fan, X; Hanada, S; Kamagata, Y; Fang, HH (February 2006). "Bacillus macauensis sp. nov., a long-chain bacterium ...
Qiu, F.; Zhang, X.; Liu, L.; Sun, L.; Schumann, P.; Song, W. (1 April 2009). "Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. and Bacillus ... "Reclassification of Bacillus beijingensis Qiu et al. 2009 and Bacillus ginsengi Qiu et al. 2009 as Bhargavaea beijingensis comb ...
named Morgan's bacillus, Bacillus morganii. In 1936, though, Rauss renamed B. morganii as Proteus morganii. Fulton, in 1943, ... Morganella morganii was first described by a British bacteriologist H. de R. Morgan in 1906 as Morgan's bacillus. Morgan ... Pulaski, E. J.; Deitz, G. W. (1940). "Morgan's bacillus septicemia". Journal of the American Medical Association. 115 (11): 922 ...
nov., Bacillus formosus sp. nov., nom. rev., and Bacillus borstelensis sp. nov., nom. rev". International Journal of Systematic ... Shida, O.; Takagi, H.; Kadowaki, K.; Udaka, S.; Nakamura, L.; Komagata, K. (January 1995). "Proposal of Bacillus reuszeri sp. ...
Bacteria that test positive for cleaving indole from tryptophan include: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas punctata, Bacillus ... most Bacillus sp., Bordetella sp., Enterobacter sp., most Haemophilus sp., most Klebsiella sp., Neisseria sp., Mannheimia ...
". "Bacillus stearothermophilus NEUF2011". Microbe wiki. Chandler, M.; Bird, R.E.; Caro, L. (May 1975). "The replication time ...
nov., reassignment of Bacillus iranensis (Bagheri et al. 2012) as Alteribacillus iranensis comb. nov. and emended description ... Bagheri, M; Didari, M; Amoozegar, MA; Schumann, P; Sánchez-Porro, C; Mehrshad, M; Ventosa, A (April 2012). "Bacillus iranensis ...
nov., Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov., isolated from cryotubes used for collecting air from ... Bacillus isronensis (named after ISRO) and Bacillus aryabhattai (named after the ancient Indian mathematician, Aryabhata). ... 30% of Bacillus subtilis spores survived the nearly 6 years exposure when embedded in salt crystals, whereas 80% survived in ... However, if shielded against solar UV, spores of Bacillus subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, ...
and Bacillus Spp. against Pythium Aphanidermatum Isolated from Tomato Damping off." Scholars Research Library 4.4 (2012): 1623- ... Bacteria species include Bacillus subtilis, Candida oleophila, Enterobacter cloaceae, and Pseudomonas species. Fungi include ...
... since SigB has been demonstrated to support pathogenesis in Bacillus, Listeria and Staphylococcus species. During the ... The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group currently includes seven species (B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides ... Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis. J ... The genus Bacillus is a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive heterotrophic aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacilli that form ...
Title : CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR TRANSFORMATION TO PROTOTROPHY AND TO THE ABILITY TO SYNTHESIZE POLYGLUTAMIC ACID IN BACILLUS ...
Bacillus subtilis.. The reason for this is not clear because the raw juice is thought to be more concentrated than the other ... Bacillus subtilis. was not inhibited at all. The hot water extracts of onions did not inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi. ... Bacillus subtilis. but inhibited Salmonella typhi. at 0.8gml-1 while the cold-water extract of ginger inhibited both ... Bacillus cereus,. which mainly causes diarrhoea and nausea. It has been shown to reduce the stickiness of blood platelets, ...
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be ... Many Bacillus species are able to secrete large quantities of enzymes. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is the source of a natural ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bacillus.. *Bacillus genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... The genus Bacillus was named in 1835 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, to contain rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria. He had seven ...
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bacillus (plural bacilli) *Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming aerobic bacteria in the genus Bacillus, some of which cause ... bacillus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français. , Hachette. *bacillus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 ... 1895, H. G. Wells, The Stolen Bacillus This again, said the Bacteriologist, slipping a glass slide under the microscope, is ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=bacillus&oldid=49991930" ...
Bacillus phage phi29 (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, ... "Assembly of Bacillus subtilis Phage Phi29. 1. Mutants in the Cistrons Coding for the Structural Proteins". European Journal of ... are the smallest Bacillus phages isolated to date and are among the smallest known dsDNA phages.[3] ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bacillus_phage_phi29&oldid=841433724" ...
Bacillus Coagulans: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... When taken by mouth: Bacillus coagulans is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth. Research shows that Bacillus coagulans in doses ... Bacillus coagulans might increase the activity of the immune system. Taking Bacillus coagulans along with medications that ... B. Coagulans, Bacillus Bacteria, Bacillus Probiotics, Bactéries Bacilles, Bactéries à Gram Positif Sporogènes, Bactérie Gram ...
Bacilli and close relatives denote Bacillus species and other low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, but not clostridia, mycoplasma, ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... 2002) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds Sonenshein A L, Hoch J A, Losick R(Am. Soc. ...
In bacillus. …incidentally. A notable exception is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and domestic animals. B. ... true of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Although usually present in abundance in factories in which rawhides and ... animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant spores ... polysaccharides), although the capsule of Bacillus anthracis is made of polyglutamic acid. Most capsules are hydrophilic (" ...
... caused by the symbiotic microorganisms Bacillus fusiformis and Borrelia vincentii. The chief symptoms are painful, swollen, ... Other articles where Bacillus fusiformis is discussed: Vincent gingivitis: … ... caused by the symbiotic microorganisms Bacillus fusiformis and Borrelia vincentii. The chief symptoms are painful, swollen, ...
Bacillus subtilis. Definition. Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, flagellated Gram-positive soil bacterium used as a model for ...
Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis] Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,399163616,gb,AFP33255.1, ...
cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis] cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,506485019,gb,AGM16382.1, ...
... any rod-shaped or cylindrical bacterium of the genus Bacillus, comprising spore-producing bacteria. See more. ... Word Origin and History for bacillus Expand. n. 1877, medical Latin, from Late Latin bacillus "wand," literally "little staff ... usually gram-positive aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that often occur in chains and include Bacillus anthracis, the ... bacillus ba·cil·lus (bə-sĭləs). n. pl. ba·cil·li (-sĭlī) ...
Bacilli. › Bacillales. › Bacillaceae. › Bacillus. › Bacillus subtilis group. › Bacillus mojavensis subgroup. Strains i. › s87- ... Bacillus mojavensis Roberts et al. 1994 emend. Wang et al. 2007. › CIP 104095. › DSM 9205. › IFO 15718. More » › JCM 12230. › ...
"Bacillus testis" Cimmino et al. 2016. ›Bacillus sp. SIT10. ›CSUR P1492. ›DSM 101190. ›strain SIT10. ...
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Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Bacillus Genetic Stock Center;. EPS,. exopolysaccharide;. X-Gal,. 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-galactopyranoside. ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ...
... and studied spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. B. pumilus spores were found in an air lock between ... Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space ... "Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions." ...
... http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/Bacillus_coagulans_Monograph.shtml ... Bacillus coagulans is a gram-positive, spore-forming, microaerophilic, lactic-acid producing bacillus. It was originally ... Bacillus coagulans: Monograph This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all comments or additions to: [email protected] ... Antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against Fusarium sp. Acta Microbiol Pol 2002;51:275-283 *. Kim YM, et al. Studies on ...
Bacillus thuringiensis Taxonomy (NIH). *Bacillus thuringiensis genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... Bacillus thuringiensis General Fact Sheet (National Pesticide Information Center). *Bacillus thuringiensis Technical Fact Sheet ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif, toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir.[1] ... De Maagd, R; Bravo, A; Crickmore, N (2001). "How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect ...
Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... About: Bacillus selenitireducens An Entity of Type : species, from Named Graph : http://dbpedia.org, within Data Space : ...
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine. pronounced as (ba sil us kal met gay rayn) ...
  • To explore this hypothesis, we used an in silico approach to evaluate the relationship of pathogenic potential and the divergence of the SigB-dependent general stress response within the B. cereus sensu lato group, since SigB has been demonstrated to support pathogenesis in Bacillus , Listeria and Staphylococcus species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • O xénero Bacillus foi denominado así en 1835 por Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (que tamén nomeou o xénero, hoxe considerado inválido, Bacterium sete anos antes) e contiña inicialmente bacterias con forma de bastón, e despois foi emendado por Ferdinand Cohn para que incluíse bacterias formadoras de esporas, grampositivas ou variables, con forma bacilar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel transformation vectors containing novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and expression of the chimeric. (google.com)
  • This suggests that these virulence-enhancing genes are not specifically unique to Bacillus anthracis , but rather are part of the common array of genes of the B. cereus group (of which B. anthracis , B. cereus , and B. thuringiensis are all a part). (kenyon.edu)
  • Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space on an International Space Station experiment. (universetoday.com)
  • Survival of Rock-Colonizing Organisms After 1.5 Years in Outer Space " and " Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions . (universetoday.com)
  • In this study, the effect of Bacillus pumilus 3-19 proteolytic enzymes on the structure of 7-day-old S. marcescens biofilms was examined. (hindawi.com)
  • Although non-viable select agents are excluded from the select agent regulations, it has been observed that some inactivation protocols that have been used have not inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores completely, necessitating issuance of this policy statement. (cdc.gov)
  • Carr KA, Janes BK and Hanna PC (2010) Role of the gerP operon in germination and outgrowth of Bacillus anthracis spores. (els.net)
  • A lunchtime reading group held in conjunction with the exhibition Audible Bacillus . (wesleyan.edu)
  • Take a closer look at the Audible Bacillus exhibition by joining a 45-minute tour, led by Wesleyan University gallery guides. (wesleyan.edu)
  • Clinical symptoms during those pandemics resemble those associated with modern plague, whose etiological agent is the Gram-negative bacillus, Yersinia pestis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Francisella tularensis , Bacillus anthracis , and Yersinia pestis are tier 1 select agents with the potential to rapidly cause severe disease. (asm.org)