A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A surgical technique to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS of the EYE, such as MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. In this method, a flap of CORNEAL EPITHELIUM is created by exposure of the area to dilute alcohol. The flap is lifted and then replaced after laser ablation of the subepithelial CORNEA.
Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.

Streptococcal keratitis after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. (1/1261)

A 24-year-old healthy male underwent uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in left eye. One day after the surgery, he complained of ocular pain and multiple corneal stromal infiltrates had developed in left eye. Immediately, the corneal interface and stromal bed were cleared, and maximal antibiotic treatments with fortified tobramycin (1.2%) and cefazolin (5%) were given topically. The causative organism was identified as 'Streptococcus viridans' both on smear and culture. Two days after antibiotic therapy was initiated, the ocular inflammation and corneal infiltrates had regressed and ocular pain was relieved. One month later, the patient's best corrected visual acuity had returned to 20/20 with -0.75 -1.00 x 10 degrees, however minimal stromal scarring still remained. This case demonstrates that microbial keratitis after LASIK, if treated promptly, does not lead to a permanent reduction in visual acuity.  (+info)

Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children. (2/1261)

PURPOSE: An association between tonic accommodation, the resting accommodative position of the eye in the absence of a visually compelling stimulus, and refractive error has been reported in adults and children. In general, myopes have the lowest (or least myopic) levels of tonic accommodation. The purpose in assessing tonic accommodation was to evaluate it as a predictor of onset of myopia. METHODS: Tonic accommodation was measured in children enrolled in the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia using an infrared autorefractor (model R-1; Canon, Lake Success, NY) while children viewed an empty lit field or a dark field with a fixation spot projected in Maxwellian view. Children aged 6 to 15 years were measured from 1991 through 1994 (n = 714, 766, 771, and 790 during the 4 years, successively). Autorefraction provided refractive error and tonic accommodation data, and videophakometry measured crystalline lens curvatures. RESULTS: Comparison of the two methods for measuring tonic accommodation shows a significant effect of age across all years of testing, with the lit empty-field test condition yielding higher levels of tonic accommodation compared with the dark-field test condition in children aged 6 through 11 years. For data collected in 1994, mean (+/-SD) tonic accommodation values for the lit empty-field condition were significantly lower in myopes, intermediate in emmetropes, and highest in hyperopes (1.02 +/- 1.18 D, 1.92 +/- 1.59 D, and 2.25 +/- 1.78 D, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001; between-group testing shows each group is different from the other two). Age, refractive error, and Gullstrand lens power were significant terms in a multiple regression model of tonic accommodation (R2 = 0.18 for 1994 data). Lower levels of tonic accommodation for children entering the study in the first or third grades were not associated with an increased risk of the onset of myopia, whether measured in the lit empty-field test condition (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval = 0.75, 1.08), or the dark-field test condition (relative risk = 0.83; 95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.14). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document an association between age and tonic accommodation. The known association between tonic accommodation and refractive error was confirmed and it was shown that an ocular component, Gullstrand lens power, also contributed to the tonic accommodation level. There does not seem to be an increased risk of onset of juvenile myopia associated with tonic accommodation.  (+info)

Colchicine causes excessive ocular growth and myopia in chicks. (3/1261)

Colchicine has been reported to destroy ganglion cells (GCs) in the retina of hatchling chicks. We tested whether colchicine influences normal ocular growth and form-deprivation myopia, and whether it affects cells other than GCs. Colchicine greatly increased axial length, equatorial diameter, eye weight, and myopic refractive error, while reducing corneal curvature. Colchicine caused DNA fragmentation in many GCs and some amacrine cells and photoreceptors, ultimately leading to the destruction of most GCs and particular sub-sets of amacrine cells. Colchicine-induced ocular growth may result from the destruction of amacrine cells that normally suppress ocular growth, and corneal flattening may result from the destruction of GCs whose central pathway normally plays a role in shaping the cornea.  (+info)

The growing eye: an autofocus system that works on very poor images. (4/1261)

It is unknown which retinal image features are analyzed to control axial eye growth and refractive development. On the other hand, identification of these features is fundamental for the understanding of visually acquired refractive errors. Cyclopleged chicks were individually kept in the center of a drum with only one viewing distance possible. Defocusing spectacle lenses were used to stimulate the retina with defined defocus of similar magnitude but different sign. If spatial frequency content and contrast were the only cues analyzed by the retina, all chicks should have become myopic. However, compensatory eye growth was still always in the right direction. The most likely cues for emmetropization, spatial frequency content and image contrast, do therefore not correlate with the elongation of the eye. Rather, the sign of defocus was extracted even from very poor images.  (+info)

Naturally occurring vitreous chamber-based myopia in the Labrador retriever. (5/1261)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether myopia is present in a breed of domestic dog, the Labrador retriever, and how the ocular components are related to refractive error in this breed. METHODS: Cycloplegic refractive error was measured in 75 Labrador retrievers by retinoscopy. Corneal and crystalline lens radii of curvature were measured in the right eyes of 57 of these dogs using a video-based keratophakometer, with axial ocular dimensions measured using A-scan ultrasonography. RESULTS: Of the 75 dogs tested, 11 (14.7%) were myopic by at least -0.50 D in one eye, and 6 (8.0%) were myopic in both eyes (full range of refractive errors, +3.50 D to -5.00 D). Of the 57 dogs with ocular component measurements, seven (12.3%) were myopic by at least -0.50 D in the right eye. There was a significant negative correlation between refractive error and vitreous chamber depth (Spearman r = -0.42; P < 0.001). Myopic eyes had an elongated vitreous chamber depth (10.87+/-0.34 mm for myopic dogs, 10.02+/-0.40 mm for nonmyopic dogs; P < 0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). There was also a significant quadratic association between lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth (P < 0.005; R2 = 0. 11), indicating that thinner lenses occurred at both shorter and longer vitreous chamber depths. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia in the Labrador retriever is analogous to human myopia in that it is caused by an elongated vitreous chamber. Thinner crystalline lenses found at longer vitreous chamber depths may be analogous to lens thinning documented in human ocular development. The Labrador retriever warrants investigation as a potential model of myopia that is naturally occurring rather than experimentally induced.  (+info)

Spherical and aspherical photorefractive keratectomy and laser in-situ keratomileusis for moderate to high myopia: two prospective, randomized clinical trials. Summit technology PRK-LASIK study group. (6/1261)

OBJECTIVE: Determine the outcomes of single-zone photorefractive keratectomy (SZPRK), aspherical photorefractive keratectomy (ASPRK), and laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the correction of myopia between -6 and -12 diopters. DESIGN: Two simultaneous prospective, randomized, multi-center clinical trials. PARTICIPANTS: 286 first-treated eyes of 286 patients enrolled in one of two studies. In Study I, 134 eyes were randomized to SZPRK (58 eyes) or ASPRK (76 eyes). In Study II, 152 eyes were randomized to ASPRK (76 eyes) or to LASIK (76 eyes). INTERVENTION: All eyes received spherical one-pass excimer laser ablation as part of PRK or LASIK performed with the Summit Technologies Apex laser under an investigational device exemption, with attempted corrections between -6 and -12 diopters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, predictability and stability of refraction, and complications were analyzed. Follow-up was 12 months. RESULTS: At 1 month postoperatively, more eyes in the LASIK group achieved 20/20 and 20/25 or better uncorrected visual acuity than PRK-treated eyes; at the 20/25 or better level, the difference was significant for LASIK (29/76 eyes, 38%) over SZPRK (10/58 eyes, 17%) (P = .0064). At all subsequent postoperative intervals, no difference was seen between treatment groups. Similarly, best corrected visual acuities were better for LASIK than all PRK eyes at 1 month postoperatively, and LASIK was better than SZPRK at 3 months follow-up (e.g., for 20/20 or better at 1 month, LASIK 50/76 eyes (66%) versus SZPRK 24/57 eyes (42%), P = .0066). PRK eyes had a mean loss of BCVA through 6 months, while LASIK eyes had a slight gain of mean BCVA through month 6; at 12 months, both ASPRK groups but not SZPRK continued to have a small mean loss of BCVA (e.g., compared to preoperative, mean BCVA at 12 months for SZPRK was + 0.3, LASIK was +.21, ASPRK I was -0.11, and ASPRK II -0.31 (SZPRK versus ASPRK II, P = .0116). Predictability was better for PRK than LASIK at all follow-up intervals (e.g., for manifest refraction spherical equivalent +/- 1.0 diopters at 6 months, ASPRK I 42/62 eyes (68%) versus LASIK 29/72 eyes (40%), P = .0014%). Stability was slightly but insignificantly less in the LASIK eyes compared to PRK eyes. All visual outcome measures were better for eyes with preoperative myopia between -6 and -8.9 D compared with eyes with myopia between -9 and -12 D. No consistent differences in refractive outcomes or postoperative corneal haze were seen between aspherical and single-zone ablations; haze diminished over 12 months and was judged to be vision-impairing in only one ASPRK eye. Microkeratome and flap complications occurred in 4 eyes, resulting in delay of completion of the procedure in 3 eyes but not causing long-term impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in uncorrected visual acuity and return of best corrected visual acuity was more rapid for LASIK than PRK, but efficacy outcomes in the longer term through 12 months were similar for all treatment groups. LASIK eyes tended toward undercorrection with the nomogram employed in this study compared to PRK, but the scatter was similar, suggesting little difference between these procedures for most patients by 6 months and thereafter. No consistent advantage was demonstrated between aspherical and single-zone ablation patterns. Predictability was much better for all procedures for corrections of -6 to -8.9 D compared with -9 to -12 D. Sporadic loss of best corrected vision in the PRK eyes not found in the LASIK eyes and other measures of visual function require further study.  (+info)

Enhancement ablation for the treatment of undercorrection after excimer laser in situ keratomileusis for correcting myopia. (7/1261)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment of undercorrection after the excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for correcting moderate and high myopia. METHODS: An enhancement ablation was performed in 48 eyes of 39 patients who had undergone LASIK but remained in undercorrection. Four procedures were performed within 1 month postoperatively, and the others performed between 3 and 10 months. The surgical technique includes the re-invert of the corneal cap from the temporal side, the excimer laser ablation, and the re-position of the cap. RESULTS: The undercorrection (spherical equivalent) ranged from -2.00 to -11.00 D, with a mean of -4.34D +/- 1.95 D. Following up after enhancement ablation was done after 4 to 12 months, the refractions in the 42 eyes were found to be within +/- 1.00 D. Undercorrection of -2.50 D to -5.00 D recurred in 6 eyes. Uncorrected visual acuity equals to the preoperative spectacle corrected visual acuity in 39 of 48 eyes (81.3%). Five eyes gained 1 line, 1 eye gained 2 lines and 4 eyes lost 1 line. No eyes had haze. CONCLUSION: Undercorrection after LASIK can be corrected by an enhancement ablation of the stroma under the primary corneal cap with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser, and the time for the enhancement of ablation is at 3 months postoperatively.  (+info)

Long-term changes in retinal contrast sensitivity in chicks from frosted occluders and drugs: relations to myopia? (8/1261)

Experiments in animal models have shown that the retinal analyzes the image to identify the position of the plane of focus and fine-tunes the growth of the underlying sclera. It is fundamental to the understanding of the development of refractive errors to know which image features are processed. Since the position of the image plane fluctuates continuously with accommodative status and viewing distance, a meaningful control of refractive development can only occur by an averaging procedure with a long time constant. As a candidate for a retinal signal for enhanced eye growth and myopia we propose the level of contrast adaptation which varies with the average amount of defocus. Using a behavioural paradigm, we have found in chickens (1) that contrast adaptation (CA, here referred to as an increase in contrast sensitivity) occurs at low spatial frequencies (0.2 cyc/deg) already after 1.5 h of wearing frosted goggles which cause deprivation myopia, (2) that CA also occurs with negative lenses (-7.4D) and positive lenses (+6.9D) after 1.5 h, at least if accommodation is paralyzed and, (3) that CA occurs at a retinal level or has, at least, a retinal component. Furthermore, we have studied the effects of atropine and reserpine, which both suppress myopia development, on CA. Quisqualate, which causes retinal degeneration but leaves emmetropization functional, was also tested. We found that both atropine and reserpine increase contrast sensitivity to a level where no further CA could be induced by frosted goggles. Quisqualate increased only the variability of refractive development and of contrast sensitivity. Taken together, CA occurring during extended periods of defocus is a possible candidate for a retinal error signal for myopia development. However, the situation is complicated by the fact that there must be a second image processing mode generating a powerful inhibitory growth signal if the image is in front of the retina, even with poor images (Diether, S., & Schaeffel, F. (1999).  (+info)

Myopia (nearsightedness) is an important public health problem, which entails substantial societal and personal costs. It is highly prevalent in our society and even more frequent in Asian countries; furthermore, its prevalence may be increasing over time. High myopia contributes to significant loss of vision and blindness. At present, the mechanisms involved in the etiology of myopia are unclear, and there is no way to prevent the condition. Current methods of correction require lifelong use of lenses or surgical treatment, which is expensive and may lead to complications. The rationale for this trial, the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), arises from the convergence of research involving (1) the link between accommodation and myopia in children and (2) animal models of myopia showing the important role of the visual environment in eye growth. A contribution of this research is that blur is a critical component in the development of myopia. The primary aim of COMET, to evaluate the ...
Purpose : To investigate the axial length and corneal radius of curvature (AL/CR) ratio in high versus low myopes and its relationship with myopia progression. Methods : Baseline AL/CR ratio of the right eyes of 310 high myopes (aged 7 to 16; myopia ≤ -6.00D) from the ZOC-BHVI High Myopia Registry (2012- 2013, Guangzhou, China) and 733 low myopes (aged 6 to 16; myopia -0.50D to -3.50D) from Vision CRC studies (2010-2014, Guangzhou, China) were calculated. Exclusion criteria were ocular disease, surgery or previous treatment for myopia. All participants underwent measurement of axial lengths (AL), corneal radii of curvature (CR) and cycloplegic objective refraction. Low myopes were followed 6 monthly for 12 months. Parental myopia was documented. General linear model was used to test the relationship between AL/CR ratio and spherical equivalent (SE) after adjusting for parental myopia, gender, age, and high versus low myopia. The progression in AL/CR ratio with progression in SE was assessed in ...
Measures for the detection and management of myopia ought to be an integral part of plans for the provision of eye-care services. They ought to be part of general health care for vision impairment due to (i) the uncorrected refractive error associated with related to the increased prevalence of myopia; (ii) the pathologic repercussions of myopia.. The term myopic macular degeneration (MMD) should be used scientifically and in research to classify the blinding retinal diseases associated with high myopia. Presently, a number of terms are used, including MMD, myopic maculopathy, myopic retinopathy and myopic choroidal neovascularization.. Epidemiological data are lacking on the occurrence of myopia, high near-sightedness and vision impairment connected with high myopia in Africa, Central America, South America and Oceania. These locations ought to be priorities for future research study.. Interpretations of myopia and high myopia. The medicinal definition of myopia is a condition in which the ...
The prevalence rate of myopia is rising rapidly in several Asian countries. A prevalence survey conducted in 1995 of 11178 school children in Taiwan were 12 percent for six year old and 84 percent for teenagers 16 o 18 years. Among them, twenty percent were high myopes. While in the United States and Europe the prevalence rate in older adults is 20% to 50%. The rate of progression of myopia is highest in young children, and the average age of stabilization of myopia is approximately 16 years.The onset of myopia may occur at a relatively young age, leading to higher risks of high myopia (myopia at least 6.0 diopters ) in adulthood. High myopia is associated with potentially blinding complications. Therefore, prevention of myopia progression is important in Taiwan, especially in young children.. There is some evidence that atropine eyedrops retard myopia progression in three randomized clinical trials. It is believed that atropine act on muscarinic receptor located in the sclera and through some ...
The effect of myopic defocus on myopia progression was assessed in a two-year prospective study on 94 myopes aged 9{14 years, randomly allocated to an undercorrected group or a fully corrected control group. The 47 experimental subjects were blurred by approximately +0.75 D (blurring VA to 6/12), while the controls were fully corrected. Undercorrection produced more rapid myopia progression and axial elongation (ANOVA, F(1,374)=14.32, p,0.01). Contrary to animal studies, myopic defocus speeds up myopia development in already myopic humans. Myopia could be caused by a failure to detect the direction of defocus rather than by a mechanism exhibiting a zero-point error ...
Children are less likely to develop myopia when they are more often outside. Animal models show that bright laboratory lighting (15,000-25,000 lux) slows deprivation myopia (chick, tree shrew, monkey) and negative lens-induced myopia (chick, tree shrew). Long-term exposure for 3 months to bright light in the lab increases retinal dopamine production and release (chicks); and because a dopamine antagonist was found to cancel the effect of bright light on deprivation myopia (chicks), it was proposed that bright light might inhibit myopia development by stimulating dopamine release from the retina. But does bright light in the lab really reflect the natural conditions outside? Stone and colleagues1 have now compared deprivation myopia development in chicks in animal facilities and in real outdoor settings, with variable weather and illuminances. They found disappointingly small and temporary effects on deprivation myopia, and the effects on retinal dopamine were inconsistent-no effect of outdoor ...
The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors. The rise in prevalence of high myopia has an unusual pattern of development, with increases in prevalence first appearing at approximately age 11. This pattern suggests that the increasing prevalence of high myopia is because of progression of myopia in children who became myopic at approximately age 6 or 7 because age-specific progression rates typical of ...
A patients risk of myopia onset can be influenced by various things, including parental myopia, female gender, longer axial length, reduced outdoor time, increased near work time and accommodative insufficiency. Since cycloplegia isnt readily available for most medical practitioners outside of eyecare offices, assessment of spherical equivalent (SE) refraction-commonly used in myopia studies-has limited applicability for other care providers. A recent cohort study observed the performance of SE obtained using non-cycloplegic methods as a predictor of myopia, which would be more accessible across the board for patient assessment. Researchers included 1,022 children aged six to 10 years from two elementary schools in Wenzhou, China. The participants were evaluated at baseline and annual follow-up appointments for three years. The doctors performed non-cycloplegic refraction, ocular biometry and accommodation measurements. A total of 830 of the students were non-myopic at baseline. Two years into ...
Purpose: To investigate the association between serum vitamin D levels and myopia in young adults. Methods: A total of 946 individuals participating in the 20-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were included in this study. Ethnicity, parental myopia, and education status were ascertained by self-reported questionnaire. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed, including postcycloplegic autorefraction and conjunctival UV autofluorescence photography. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry. The association between serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations and prevalent myopia was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Myopia was defined as mean spherical equivalent ≤ −0.5 diopters. Results: Of the 946 participants, 221 (23.4%) had myopia (n = 725 nonmyopic). Myopic subjects had lower serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations compared to nonmyopic participants (median 67.6 vs. 72.5 nmol, P = 0.003). In ...
The prevalence of myopia has been increasing worldwide. Its causes are not completely clear, although genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Data were collected by the Korean Military Manpower Administration. Frequency analysis was used for comparisons of general characteristics. Pearsons chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to verify the correlations between possible risk factors and the prevalence of myopia or high myopia. The prevalence of myopia (50.6-53.0%) and high myopia (11.3-12.9%) increased each year. These tended to be the highest in patients born in spring, and decreased in the following order according to education level: 4- or 6-year university education or more, high school education or less, and 2- to 3-year college education. Moreover, the prevalence of myopia and high myopia was significantly higher in patients ≤ 60 kg and with a body mass index ≤ 18.5 kg/m2. The prevalence of high myopia was significantly higher in taller patients (
Orthokeratology Lenses are hard contact lenses which are specifically worn overnight during sleep. This method was first developed in the 1960s to correct myopia without glasses.. The Ortho-K Lenses work by temporarily moulding and flattening the corneas shape so light rays entering the eyes are more focused on the retina, this sharpening vision. The user can go about his/her activities the next day without spectacles and glasses, but the effect only lasts for a day and he/she will have to wear the Ortho-K lens again at night to achieve the same effect the next morning.. Therefore, Ortho-K does not actually treat, control nor reduce myopia. It only temporarily reshapes the cornea into a flatter curvature to overcome near-sightedness. Although Ortho-K lenses can be worn for temporary correction for myopia, most ophthalmologists will not recommend Ortho-K lenses as a means of controlling childhood myopia progression.. ...
Myopia (near-sightedness) is a condition in which the optical system of the eye causes incoming light rays to focus in front of the retina, instead of focusing directly on the retinal surface. Various factors can cause this abnormal focus of light rays, including abnormalities of the lens or cornea, or by an eye that is abnormally long. Myopia is treated with glasses in younger children or, in some cases, contact lenses in older children and teenagers. Refractive surgery, such as Lasik, is generally reserved for adults except for certain limited studies in children less than 18 years of age. High myopia is generally defined as near-sightedness of -6.00 diopters or higher, and is often associated with a very long eye, termed a long axial length. High myopia generally begins in early childhood, and continued growth of the eye often means that the corrective lens prescription required to allow proper focus may not stabilize until the early adult years. The prevalence of high myopia has been ...
This survey provides the first population-based cross-sectional data on the prevalence of myopia and high myopia and associated risk factors among the older adult in East China. The major finding was that myopia is common in East Chinese resident population with age ≥ 60 years. It indicated that 21.1% subjects had myopia, which was much lower than the rate (41.8%) among Japanese urban population with age ≥ 65 reported in the Tajimi study [18]. However, it was higher than the rate among rural Korean population in the same age group (13.2% in 60-69 years, 15.9% in 70-79 years, and 34.9% in 80+ years) [29]. The prevalence of myopia among older adult population in East China was lower than South China, and approximated North China. Different distribution of myopia in Chinese cities may suggest that environment and lifestyle may play an important role in myopia among older population, except reasons such as differences in ages of subjects included and the examination techniques used in different ...
Myopia, or near-sightedness, is an ocular refractive error of unfocused image quality in front of the retinal plane. Individuals with high-grade myopia (dioptric power greater than -6.00) are predisposed to ocular morbidities such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic maculopathy. Nonsyndromic, high-grade myopia is highly heritable, and to date multiple gene loci have been reported. We performed exome sequencing in 4 individuals from an 11-member family of European descent from the United States. Affected individuals had a mean dioptric spherical equivalent of -22.00 sphere. A premature stop codon mutation c.157C>T (p.Gln53*) cosegregating with disease was discovered within SCO2 that maps to chromosome 22q13.33. Subsequent analyses identified three additional mutations in three highly myopic unrelated individuals (c.341G>A, c.418G>A, and c.776C>T). To determine differential gene expression in a developmental mouse model, we induced myopia by applying a -15.00D lens over one eye. Messenger ...
Most people do not take Myopia seriously. After all, it is a common vision problem. This condition, (also called nearsightedness or short-sightedness), involves having blurred vision when looking at things far from you while objects near you appear clear. This is assuming you are not wearing glasses or contact lenses.. Perhaps, the notion of myopia as a relatively safe eye condition comes from the fact that most cases improve as one ages, especially with the help of eye glasses or contact lenses. However, very few people know that myopia can actually be a serious problem that can cause vision loss. Read on to learn more about this condition.. Degenerative Myopia. This condition is more severe than other types of nearsightedness. It is associated with changes in the retina and the macula. It progresses rapidly and it can cause severe vision loss and retinal detachment.. Degenerative myopia is believed to be hereditary and is present from the time of birth. Most of the time, however, its symptoms ...
Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood with a peak incidence between 13-15 years. Especially high myopia, a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve. The causes of myopia are complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as time spent outdoors and close work are risk factors. Moreover, genetic studies have revealed more than many factors associated with myopia. Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are becoming increasingly common. The ultimate goal of this thesis was to gain insight into the causes and consequences of childhood myopia. For this purpose we investigated the environmental and genetic factors of myopia, eye growth in children and ocular biometry development in subjects of the Generation R and ALSPAC study. We studied the consequences of high myopia on ...
Importance: Because of the high prevalence of myopia in Taiwan, understanding the risk factors for its development and progression is important to public health. Background: This study investigated the risk factors for myopia and their influence on the progression of myopia in schoolchildren in Taiwan. Design: Patients’ clinical records were obtained retrospectively from ophthalmologists. Questionnaires were given to collect demographic information, family background, hours spent on daily activities, myopia progression, and treatment methods. Participants: A total of 522 schoolchildren with myopia from a regional medical hospital in northern Taiwan participated the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants of legal age or the parents or legal guardians. Methods: Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Myopia measured in dioptres was analysed, controlling for patients’ family and demographic information as well as their daily behaviours. Main Outcome Results
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MYOPIA is a REFRACTIVE ERROR disturbing the clear focus of distant objects caused by a combination of the eye being too long, or the cornea - lens focusing too strongly.. Myopia is also called Nearsightedness and can be treated with minus, concave spectacles or contact lenses.. Refractive errors change with age. In many children, especially those with myopic parents, and this children who spend lots of time indoors looking at near objects, or text-books, myopia may progress substantially through the teen years.. ...
Looking for Myopia, severe? Find out information about Myopia, severe. see nearsightedness nearsightedness or myopia, defect of vision in which far objects appear blurred but near objects are seen clearly. Because the eyeball... Explanation of Myopia, severe
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
Myopia is a refractive error that happens when the eye focuses incoming light in front of the retina, rather than directly on it, resulting in blurred distance vision. While an exact cause of progressive myopia is not known, most research indicates that a combination of environmental and genetic factors trigger the condition. First of all, there is evidence that a family history of nearsightedness is a contributing factor. Additionally, spending a lot of time indoors may play a role in myopia development, as studies show that children who spend more time outside have less incidence of myopia. Lastly, near point stress, which can be caused from looking at a near object for an extended period of time, can prompt the eye to grow longer and result in myopia. Several eye doctors recommend following the 20-20-20 rule when using digital devices (stopping every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce near point stress caused by computer use. ...
What Is Myopia Control?. Although an outright cure for nearsightedness has not been discovered, Bellevue Vision Clinic can now offer a number of treatments that may be able to slow the progression of myopia.. ​. These treatments can induce changes in the structure and focusing of the eye to reduce stress and fatigue associated with the development and progression of nearsightedness.. ​. Why should you be interested in myopia control? Because slowing the progression of myopia may keep your child from developing high levels of nearsightedness that require thick, corrective eyeglasses and have been associated with serious eye problems later in life, such as early cataracts or even a detached retina. ...
Myopia is also called nearsightedness. It means that you cannot see long distances without the help of glasses or contact lenses (refractive lenses). On the other hand, you have no trouble seeing objects up close in focus. Myopia is caused by changes to the shape of the eye globe - specifically elongation or lengthening. This impairs the eyes ability to properly focus light that is being projected on the retina. Instead of focusing it right at the retina, it focuses it in front of the retina. Myopias sister - hyperopia, or farsightedness - is the opposite. Because the eye globe is shortened, the light focuses behind the retina.. Children whose parents have myopia are more likely to develop it, but it isnt a cause-and-effect situation. Some childrens ophthalmologists suspect that screen use has something to do with the rise in diagnosis rates, as well. If you suspect your child may have myopia, look for these symptoms:. ...
Purpose: To determine the effects of intravitreal atropine on scleral growth in the form-deprived chick as an experimental model of myopia. Methods: Five groups of five chicks were studied from day 0-12 post-hatching. One group remained untreated (C), and four were form-deprived by monocular light diffusers to induce myopia. Two groups (RL and A) wore diffusers for 9 days, and the other two groups (D and D + A) wore diffusers throughout the study. Group D received no further treatment (myopia positive control). Groups A and D + A received intravitreal injections of atropine for days 9-12. Measurements of refractive error and axial length were performed on days 0, 9, and 12. Sclera changes were assessed in cartilaginous and fibrous layers by histological analysis. Results: All form-deprived eyes had a myopic refractive error on day 9. All atropine- treated groups were hyperopic on day 12. The effect of atropine was most evident in Group D + A in which diffusers were maintained throughout ...
Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the onset and progression of myopia, but it has been suggested that environmental factors have a larger role to play in the rapid increase in the prevalence of myopia. A heavily indoor and near-activity based lifestyle,[16, 17] with less time outdoors,[18] combined with the intense education commencing at very young ages, as occurring in many East Asian countries, are major contributing factors.[16] Evidence is now growing to support the use of interventions in slowing myopia progression. Optical interventions that modulate the visual feedback and environmental interventions promoting increased outdoor time can successfully delay and slow the progress of myopia in an individual. Optical strategies shown to slow the progress of myopia include ortho-K (30% to 57%),[19, 20] multifocal-type soft contact lenses (25% to 72%),[20] and executive bifocals (39% to 51%).[21] Progressive addition spectacles are limited to 15% to 20%.[21] ...
Alternative treatments include orthokeratology contacts. These are special contacts that you sleep in at night and take out in the morning. They work well for low levels of nearsightedness without much astigmatism. Dr. Doss does not fit these lenses but can help you find a provider if you are a good candidate.. Call 205-949-2020 schedule an eye exam or a contact lens consultation with Dr. Rebecca Doss.. *Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology. 2011 Jun; 118(6):1152-61.. **Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinott L, et al. A randomized trial of the effect of soft contact lenses on myopia progression in children. Invest Ophthamol Vis Sci. 2008 Nov;(11):4702-6. ***Chia A, Qing-Shu L, Tam, D. Five-year clinical trial on atropine fore the treatment of myopia 2. Ophthalmology. 2016; ul;. 123:391-9. ...
What causes myopia?. Myopia develops when the eye exhibits unusual structural issues. In some children, the problem might arise if the cornea, which helps incoming light focus at a single point, is overly curved. Other children might have longer than average eyes. A naturally healthy eye assumes a nearly perfectly round shape, but a longer eye makes it more difficult for light to converge at the retina as needed for clear vision.. Why does myopia in children worsen with age?. Children with myopia tend to experience a progressive deterioration of their vision until adulthood. The growing process characteristic of childhood affects many bodily organs, including the eyes. As a result, the eyes may change, making myopia worse. Once the eyes stop their growth, which may not happen until early adulthood, the severity of a persons myopia may begin to stabilize ...
Yam JC, Jiang Y, Tang SM, Law AKP, Chan JJ, Wong E, Ko ST, Young AL, Tham CC, Chen LJ, Pang CP.. PURPOSE: Low-concentration atropine is an emerging therapy for myopia progression, but its efficacy and optimal concentration remain uncertain. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-concentration atropine eye drops at 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% compared with placebo over a 1-year period.. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial.. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 438 children aged 4 to 12 years with myopia of at least -1.0 diopter (D) and astigmatism of -2.5 D or less.. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% atropine eye drops, or placebo eye drop, respectively, once nightly to both eyes for 1 year. Cycloplegic refraction, axial length (AL), accommodation amplitude, pupil diameter, and best-corrected visual acuity were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months. Visual Function ...
The CDC now recognizes progressive myopia (near-sightedness) as an epidemic. There is research to suggest the rapid increase in near-sightedness in the world is related to children spending more time doing near activities (reading, studying, playing computer work) and less time playing outdoors. In addition to increasing outdoor play time, there are medical treatments available to slow down the development of myopia. One such treatment is called ortho-keratology (ortho-k). Ortho-k is a non-surgical procedure that eliminates the need for daytime glasses or contact lenses. It improves vision by gently reshaping the cornea while you sleep. Best of all, this technology has been shown to decrease the rate of myopia development in children. Call the office to learn more about ortho-keratology and other methods of controlling near-sightedness.. ...
Visiting Research Scientist, Brien Holden Vision Institute. A network meta-analysis on myopia control found that use of atropine at different concentrations was significantly superior to other interventions (for example, progressive addition spectacle lenses, multifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, more outdoor activities, etc.)1 Other reviews and meta-analysis similarly concluded that there was less myopic progression with atropine and that both the efficacy and adverse effects were dose-dependent.2, 3. Atropine is a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mAchR), and the underlying mechanisms by which it controls myopia progression remain unclear. Initially, it was thought that the drug acted via accommodative mechanisms. Later evidence suggested that the mechanism was via non-accommodative pathways,4 with some reports suggesting that atropine exerted its action via retinal amacrine cells and dopamine; when atropine binds to mAchR on the cells, they could release ...
Some animals suffer from shortsightedness and have poor eyesight. In domestic animals, myopia, with or without astigmatism, occurs frequently. Whereas the rhinoceros may suffer from less-than-adequate eyesight, it generally survives by concentrating with its superior hearing and sense of smell. Some reports, however state that it can see better when focusing with one eye, particularly when walking, posturing, and combatting. Myopia, with or without astigmatism, is the most common eye condition in horses. Several types of occlusion myopia have been recorded in tree shrews, macaques, cats and rats, deciphered from several animal-inducing myopia models. Preliminary laboratory investigations using retinoscopy of 240 dogs found myopic problems with varying degrees of refraction errors depending on the breed. In cases involving German Shepherds, Rottweilers and Miniature horses, the refraction errors were indicative of myopia. Nuclear sclerosis of the crystalline lens was noticed in older dogs. ...
What are the symptoms of myopia in children - Sohu maternal and child now, a lot of children at a young age will be myopia. Why is there such a phenomenon? Now more and more advanced science and technology, games, e-books, computers, televisions, every household, so many children brought up on the glasses since childhood. For myopia, the best solution is prevention, and prevention is the premise that parents need to understand what will happen after the child myopia. 1 often frown to say this, mom and dad may feel very strange, myopic close frown what thing? After the study found that some of the decline in vision, or has been myopic children frown. This is mainly because children want to see things. Because they can not see clearly, children like to frown, so that they can see for a while. But always frown will oppress the eye nerve and eye, will make myopia become more and more serious. If Mom and dad found that children often frown, it is best to take the child to do a visual examination, you ...
Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, causes close objects to appear clearly, but far ones dont. Myopia can also be caused by a cornea thats not shaped correctly.
Over the years, a range of different environmental factors have been proposed as potentially playing a role in human myopia development, with factors related to near-work, education and academic achievement being a major focus of many studies.[6] More recently, perhaps spurred on by the sometimes equivocal findings of studies examining the association between myopia and near work, a shift in the focus of refractive error research has occurred, with a move away from traditional near work measures and a broader focus on additional potential environmental factors (e.g. outdoor activities).[7] Evidence has been emerging from both human epidemiological studies, and research with animals, that ambient light exposure may be an important additional environmental factor that plays a role in myopia. Animal studies demonstrate that normal eye growth appears to be influenced by environmental light levels, since rearing young chickens in dim ambient light environments has been shown to result in more rapid ...
Do you struggle to see distant objects clearly, such as road signs or billboards? You may have a common eye condition called myopia (nearsightedness). Learn what causes this refractive error, what signs and symptoms it has, and how myopia is typically treated.
Looking for online definition of nearsightedness in the Medical Dictionary? nearsightedness explanation free. What is nearsightedness? Meaning of nearsightedness medical term. What does nearsightedness mean?
In the BLINK trial in almost 300 children, commercially available center-distance soft multifocal contact lenses with a high add power slowed myopia progression by 0.45 D and eye growth by 0.23 mm compared with single-vision contact lenses, and slowed myopia progression by 0.29 D and eye growth by 0.16 mm compared with medium add power multifocal contact lenses over 3 years, according to Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD, of The Ohio State University College of Optometry in Columbus, and co-authors.. The high add power did not clinically alter the ability to see or result in a greater number of adverse events, they wrote in JAMA.. Wallines group explained that in American children, myopia typically begins between ages 8 and 10 years, with progression into the mid-teen years. Myopia is associated with sight-threatening ocular sequelae, such as cataracts, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and choroidal atrophy. Effective myopia control measures should therefore be implemented to reduce the risks ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Laser vision correction in treating myopia. AU - Ehlke, Germano Leal. AU - Krueger, Ronald R.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Myopia is a generally benign refractive error with an increasing prevalence worldwide. It can be corrected temporarily with glasses and contact lenses and permanently with laser vision correction. The 2 main procedures currently being performed formyopia correction are photorefractive keratectomy and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Each technique has its advantages, but they appear to yield similar visual outcomes 1 year after surgery. Laser vision correction for myopia was considered a paradigm shift because healthy eyes could now undergo a surgical procedure to permanently and safely correct the error by altering the center of the cornea, which was previously off limits because of the potential for loss of transparency. Customized ablation using wavefront aberrometry and its optimized profiles were created to correct higher-order aberrations ...
Looking for online definition of alcohol myopia in the Medical Dictionary? alcohol myopia explanation free. What is alcohol myopia? Meaning of alcohol myopia medical term. What does alcohol myopia mean?
Myopia, also called near-sightedness or short-sightedness, is one of the most commonly occurring eye problems in children and adolescents. Early detection and treatment of initial myopia is associated with better outcomes of visual improvement and correction. Myopia is usually managed by wearing glasses and/or contact lenses. It is common practice for traditional Chinese medicine practitioners to use acupuncture for the treatment of myopia. Acupuncture is the stimulation of acupuncture points by needle insertion, acupressure, surface electrical and laser stimulation. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in slowing the progression of myopia in children and adolescents. We included two studies conducted in Taiwan with a total of 131 school children and did not combine the results as the two trials assessed different outcomes. One study found no significant difference in changes in the length of the eyes. Both studies found several children experienced mild pain ...
There is no way to prevent nearsightedness. Reading and watching television do not cause nearsightedness. In the past, dilating eye drops were proposed as a treatment to slow the development of nearsightedness in children, but they have never been proven effective.. The use of glasses or contact lenses does not affect the normal progression of myopia - they simply focus the light so the nearsighted person can see distant objects clearly. Hard contact lenses will sometimes hide the progression of nearsightedness, but vision will still get worse under the contact lens.. ...
Strategies for treating seasonal allergies. potential drugs niacin potassium zinc mainly weighted information suggest. So, how many degrees of myopia myopia? The so-called moderate myopia refers to above 300 degrees of myopia, myopia in more than 300. About 15 mins after exercise, I notice part of my vision is blurred - a bit just off I am experiencing this for the first time right now, after a hard game of when looking straight ahead, it was ok when he turned his head to side. would it help with retinal cell loss due to other conditions like extreme myopia? I have also tried ayurvedic medication and I think that any natural herbs thats. Few of them develop lens induced glaucoma (LIG. flashing lights; watery eyes; poor or blurry vision or loss of peripheral vision in one eye Floaters are common, especially as people age, and they do not. Acrolein Dizziness; Fast Heartbeat; Nausea or Vomiting; Weakness; Stomach pains. Another beneficial nutrient-nutrient combination is vitamin A and zinc ...
A couple of interesting articles about the increasing incidence of myopia in children.. Myopia isnt an infectious disease, but it has reached nearly epidemic proportions in parts of Asia. In Taiwan, for example, the percentage of 7-year-old children suffering from nearsightedness increased from 5.8 percent in 1983 to 21 percent in 2000. An incredible 81 percent of Taiwanese 15-year-olds are myopic.. The first thought is that this is an Asian genetic thing. It isnt.. In 2008 orthoptics professor Kathryn Rose found that only 3.3 percent of 6- and 7-year-olds of Chinese descent living in Sydney, Australia, suffered myopia, compared with 29.1 percent of those living in Singapore. The usual suspects, reading and time in front of an electronic screen, couldnt account for the discrepancy. The Australian cohort read a few more books and spent slightly more time in front of the computer, but the Singaporean children watched a little more television. On the whole, the differences were small and ...
1. MetlapallyR Wildsoet CF. Scleral Mechanisms Underlying Ocular Growth and Myopia. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;134:241-8 doi:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.05.005 2. Backhouse S, Gentle A. Scleral remodelling in myopia and its manipulation: a review of recent advances in scleral strengthening and myopia control. Ann Eye Sci. 2018;3:5. doi: 10.21037/aes.2018.01.04 3. Siegwart JT Jr, Norton TT. Selective regulation of MMP and TIMP mRNA levels in tree shrew sclera during minus lens compensation and recovery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:3484-92 doi:10.1167/iovs.05-0194 4. Rada JA, Shelton S, Norton TT. The sclera and myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:185-200 doi:10.1016/j.exer.2005.08.009 5. Dolgin E. The myopia boom. Nature. 2015;519:276-8 doi:10.1038/519276a 6. Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA. et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1036-42 doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006 7. Flitcroft DI, He M, Jonas JB. et al. IMI - ...
Nearsightedness(Myopia) is a visual problem that affects about one-third of the population Nearsightedness occurs when the eyeball is slightly longer than normal, causing light to focus on a point in front of the retina rather than on the surface of the retina. Nearsighted people can see items clearly close up, but have trouble with distance vision. Nearsightedness can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or Lasik refractive surgery ...
Three clinical trials in East Asia have demonstrated that raising the amount of time kids spend outside at college lessens the possibility of myopia. Australia has obviously lower levels of myopia using a lifestyle which emphasises outside activities. Young kids report spending just two to three hours every day out, not counting time outside at college. But, there are powerful barriers to accomplishing this benchmark in places where spending time outside is regarded as a diversion from research.. Policy answers must therefore also plan to impede the development of myopia, the occurrence where moderate to moderate myopia gets more intense during youth. Theres currently controversy over if time outside slows development, but powerful seasonal effects on development suggest it may.. School regimes that give a decent place to time outside can reduce both the start and development of myopia. These school-based interventions need to be supplemented with clinical interventions, like the use of ...
hyperopia and myopia may be caused by hereditary factors, in this case, susceptibility to disease is dependent on the characteristics in the structure of the eye and the eye muscles.Also, the disease can occur as a result of chronic infection, metabolic disorders or vitamin deficiencies.A person may appear short-sightedness of what he had long sitting at the computer.Also, work is based on continuous visual load, it helps eyesight.The causes of many, but, apart from the hereditary disposition, can be avoided with proper regard to his vision.. In some cases, can be both nearsightedness and farsightedness, here, as in other embodiments, to help special glasses or contact lens prescription.With the constant fall of view, requires urgent specialist advice to avoid more serious moments, such as deprivation of all.. Hyperopia seen less frequently than myopia.In this case, the reflected rays falling on the human eye, in the retina are not focused.Signs that a person has a far-sightedness, the ...
Myopia (Nearsightedness). If you have myopia you can clearly see close objects, but distant objects are blurry. Myopia is caused by the eyeball being too long. Myopia occurs in different degrees from minimal to extreme. The more myopic you are the blurrier your vision is at a distance and objects will have to be closer to you so you can see them clearly.. Hyperopia (farsightedness). If you have hyperopia, you can see distant objects clearly, but close ones are blurry. Hyperopia occurs when the eyeball is too short for the light rays to focus clearly on the retina.. Astigmatism. If you have an astigmatism, the surface of the eye (cornea) is not perfectly round, rather it is more oval and doesnt allow the eye to focus clearly. The cornea is very important in helping the eye focus light rays on the retina. Astigmatism rarely occurs alone. It is usually accompanies myopia or hyperopia.. Presbyopia. If you have presbyopia, you have the loss of the ability to focus up close that occurs as you age. ...
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of matrix degradation in the two-layer avian sclera to the development of myopia. METHODS: Tissue inhibitor o
Podolsk city clinical hospital, Podolsk, Russia. Dynamic electroneurostimulation is a modern method of reflexotherapy. which can be applied when treating eye diseases both as monotherapy and in the complex with other methods of physical treatment.. The article presents the results of complex treatment of myopia and accommodation spasm which included DENS-therapy. color and magnetostimula-tion and accommodation training. Reliable efficiency of the proposed method of treatment was observed, which is confirmed by increase of visual acuity by 0.14 on average, reduction of the accommodation tone by 0.3 diopters, increase of the reserves of relative accommodation (RRA) by 2.98 diopters, improvement of other functional indexes. This allows us recommending the proposed method of treatment for application in the ophthalmologic practice.. Key words: dynamic electroneurostimulation. color and magnetostimulation, accommodation training.. A need for prophylaxis of myopia development is caused by its vital ...
Contact lenses  Toric contact lenses Soft lenses [SL] Rigid gas permeable lenses [RGP] RGP do not conform to the asymmetry of corneal surface but replaces it totally and also provides F. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Laser Sub-Epithelial Keratomileusis• LASEK can treat mild to moderate myopia and hyperopia +/- astigmatism.• Can be performed as an outpt with topical anesthesia• The corneal epithelium is incompletely incised using a PowerPoint Presentation Wave Aberration: Astigmatism Wave Aberration: Coma Wave Aberration: ... , PowerPoint PPT presentation , free to view GPS Error - The accuracy of GPS signals was intentionally degraded by For a small fee you can get the industrys best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. Refractive Error In Children Ppt Anisometropia• Difference in refractive power between 2 eyes• refractive correction often leads to ...
RESULTS: Ten years after surgery, 45.5% of eyes in the LASIK group achieved uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/40 or better compared to 31.3% in the PRK group. Mean efficacy indices after 10 years in both groups were similar (0.87 in the LASIK group and 0.82 in the PRK group, P=.51). Twenty-one (41%) eyes in the PRK group were within +/-1.00 D whereas 60 (42.5%) eyes from the LASIK group were within +/-1.00 D 10 years after surgery. Six (14%) eyes from the PRK group lost 2 or more lines of BSCVA compared to 7 (6%) eyes from the LASIK group ...
I am a Senior Lecturer at the School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW. My research focuses on optical strategies of myopia control. In particular, I have been exploring optical changes induced by various types of contact lenses to better understand how different contact lenses induce myopia control effects. My research has extended to explore changes in visual function, binocularity and accommodation with contact lenses used for myopia control to with the aim of improving efficacy of current myopia control devices. I also coordinate the Myopia Clinic at the UNSW Optometry Clinic, to not only provide a clinic dedicated to myopia management, but to teach undergraduate Optometry and Vision Science students current evidence-based management of progressive myopia ...
For many, the term nearsightedness evokes an image of a school-aged child wearing glasses to correct a common condition so they can clearly see a blackboard. But in areas such as East Asia rates of myopia are disturbingly high. Studies in Taiwan have shown that 93% of 18-year-old girls there are myopic.7 In Singapore around 70% of college graduates have the condition8 and in China, a country of well over one billion people, studies have shown rates as high as 78% among 15-year-old children living in urban areas.9 In the US the prevalence has increased markedly in the last 30 years - from 25% in the early 1970s, among those aged 12 to 54 years, to over 40% now.10. Since 2003, Brien Holden Vision Institute with collaborators through the Vision CRC, have been developing methods using an optical device to slow the growth of the myopic eye and reduce the risk of progressing to high levels of myopia. The Institute is now conducting clinical trials on these innovative lenses in China and is ...
The cornea is a part of the eye that helps focus light to create an image on the retina. It works in much the same way that the lens of a camera focuses light to create an image on film. The bending and focusing of light is also known as refraction. Usually the shape of the cornea and the eye are not perfect and the image on the retina is out-of-focus (blurred) or distorted. These imperfections in the focusing power of the eye are called refractive errors. There are three primary types of refractive errors: They are myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness, have more difficulty seeing distant objects as clearly as near objects. Persons with hyperopia, or farsightedness, have more difficulty seeing near objects as clearly as distant objects. Astigmatism is a distortion of the image on the retina caused by irregularities in the cornea or lens of the eye. Combinations of myopia and astigmatism or hyperopia and astigmatism are common. In LASIK surgery, a precise and ...
The cornea is a part of the eye that helps focus light to create an image on the retina. It works in much the same way that the lens of a camera focuses light to create an image on film. The bending and focusing of light is also known as refraction. Usually the shape of the cornea and the eye are not perfect and the image on the retina is out-of-focus (blurred) or distorted. These imperfections in the focusing power of the eye are called refractive errors. There are three primary types of refractive errors: They are myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness, have more difficulty seeing distant objects as clearly as near objects. Persons with hyperopia, or farsightedness, have more difficulty seeing near objects as clearly as distant objects. Astigmatism is a distortion of the image on the retina caused by irregularities in the cornea or lens of the eye. Combinations of myopia and astigmatism or hyperopia and astigmatism are common. In LASIK surgery, a precise and ...
The cornea is a part of the eye that helps focus light to create an image on the retina. It works in much the same way that the lens of a camera focuses light to create an image on film. The bending and focusing of light is also known as refraction. Usually the shape of the cornea and the eye are not perfect and the image on the retina is out-of-focus (blurred) or distorted. These imperfections in the focusing power of the eye are called refractive errors. There are three primary types of refractive errors: They are myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness, have more difficulty seeing distant objects as clearly as near objects. Persons with hyperopia, or farsightedness, have more difficulty seeing near objects as clearly as distant objects. Astigmatism is a distortion of the image on the retina caused by irregularities in the cornea or lens of the eye. Combinations of myopia and astigmatism or hyperopia and astigmatism are common. In LASIK surgery, a precise and ...
The cornea is a part of the eye that helps focus light to create an image on the retina. It works in much the same way that the lens of a camera focuses light to create an image on film. The bending and focusing of light is also known as refraction. Usually the shape of the cornea and the eye are not perfect and the image on the retina is out-of-focus (blurred) or distorted. These imperfections in the focusing power of the eye are called refractive errors. There are three primary types of refractive errors: They are myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness, have more difficulty seeing distant objects as clearly as near objects. Persons with hyperopia, or farsightedness, have more difficulty seeing near objects as clearly as distant objects. Astigmatism is a distortion of the image on the retina caused by irregularities in the cornea or lens of the eye. Combinations of myopia and astigmatism or hyperopia and astigmatism are common. In LASIK surgery, a precise and ...
The minus lens is merely an aid to vision, i.e., compensation by external means. In the majority of cases, naked-eye vision gets worse with the traditional minus lens correction. . . . At times, the best that I can do is to emphasize that the use of (minus lens) glasses be restricted to chalk board, and always must be removed after class. . . . The earlier age you begin wearing the minus lens, the faster vision deteriorates. The minus lens can make vision worse all by itself! Many scientists, engineers and health workers have formed this opinion - that the minus lens is definitely harmful to young kids long-term vision. . . . . My goal is to look to the future and begin preventive methods which can be effective for the child who is on the threshold of myopia. Today, I make it clear that my mission and task is to try my best to discuss the alternate opinion on the therapeutic use of the plus lens - instead of the compensatory use of minus lens. . . . I have supported several hundred children ...
waterproof anti-fog myopia swimming glasses swimming goggles,The optional degree of myopia,9 degree for your choose.this type of goggles have anti-fog,waterproof,and UV resistance function. - Banggood Mobile
New life-saving treatments for Nearsightedness | astigmatism | farsightedness in clinical trial on Advanced Surface Ablation (ASA) vs Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK)
Not everyone can wear Paragon CRT. This lens is designed for individuals with low to moderate myopia (nearsightedness) with or without astigmatism (up to -1.75 diopters). Paragon CRT therapeutic lenses are not yet available in bifocal prescriptions for presbyopia (which requires reading glasses or bifocals). Depending on your needs, you may be fitted in a monovision mode (one eye corrected for near vision and one corrected for distance vision). You might still need reading glasses. However, since there are variations in patient physiology and visual needs, the decision for CRT, at any age, can only be made after a thorough eye exam. At this time, hyperopia (farsightedness) is not correctable with CRT ...
Not everyone can wear Paragon CRT. This lens is designed for individuals with low to moderate myopia (nearsightedness) with or without astigmatism (up to -1.75 diopters). Paragon CRT therapeutic lenses are not yet available in bifocal prescriptions for presbyopia (which requires reading glasses or bifocals). Depending on your needs, you may be fitted in a monovision mode (one eye corrected for near vision and one corrected for distance vision). You might still need reading glasses. However, since there are variations in patient physiology and visual needs, the decision for CRT, at any age, can only be made after a thorough eye exam. At this time, hyperopia (farsightedness) is not correctable with CRT ...
Retinal detachment is rare in children, but when it does occur, doctors need to know how to discuss the prognosis with patients and their parents. A new Taiwanese study helps clarify the clinical features and surgical outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in pediatric patients.. In a review of 86 patients younger than 18 years (mean age: 12.9 ± 4.8; 76.7% male) who underwent vitreoretinal surgery between 2008 and 2013, researchers classi﫿ed patients according to etiology and performed regression analysis to evaluate the association between outcomes and each etiologic factor. The mean follow-up was 46.3 ± 23.9 months. In 90.7% of patients, at least one etiology could be identi﫿ed, including myopia (55.8%), congenital or developmental disease (39.5%), trauma (27.9%) and previous intraocular surgery (17.4%). Among the risk factors examined in this study, congenital or developmental disease had the worst functional outcomes. Myopia was a good prognostic factor for a better ...
Figure 4 shows some mean higher-order aberration coefficients, higher-order root-mean-squared aberrations (HORMS) and total RMS aberrations excluding defocus (total RMS) for the two groups across the visual field. Other higher-order coefficients are not shown, as they had little or no regular pattern across the visual field and were small in magnitude. For each refractive group, oblique trefoil C 3 −3 decreased from the top to the bottom of the field (Aa, Ba). It was more negative, or less positive, for the myopic group than for the emmetropic group (Aa, Ba). The most prominent differences between the two groups were seen in the vertical C 3 −1 (Ab, Bb) and horizontal C 3 1 coma (Ac, Bc) coefficients, both of which tended to be relatively large in comparison to the other higher-order coefficients. Vertical coma C 3 −1 increased linearly from the superior to the inferior visual field and horizontal coma C 3 1 increased from the nasal to the temporal visual field. Emmetropes had slightly ...
Low myopia results: Biomechanical shear modulus at 10% strain was 4.2±3.2MPa in group-A, 3.9±2.5MPa in group-B and 6.8±2.9MPa in group-C. Enzymatic Digestion: Time to dissolution was 195±19min in group-A, 189±27min in group-B and 320±34min in group-C. High myopia results: Biomechanical shear modulus at 10% strain was 3.7±2.1MPa in group-D, 2.9±2.2MPa in group-E and 4.5±2.9MPa in group-F. Enzymatic Digestion: Time to dissolution was 155±17min in group-D, 129±37min in group-E and 175±44min in group-F. Biomechanical and enzymatic digestion results were statistically significant between SMILE and LASIK for high myopia; between LASIK+CXL and SMILE and LASIK for both low and high myopia ...
The increasing survival rate of premature infants has led to an increase in long term ocular problems, such as ROP and its sequelae-refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia.4-22,30,31. Myopia is a common finding in premature infants, and its incidence increases with lower gestational age and the severity of ROP.15-25,28-33 Holmström et al8 pointed out that even in premature infants without ROP, the risk of myopia and anisometropia is higher than in full term infants: the overall incidence of myopia in their preterm babies was 8% at the corrected age of 6 months and 10% at 30 months. The rate of occurrence of myopia was higher in eyes with ROP than eyes without, and higher in the more premature infants.. Choi et al15 and Lue et al19 reported that in premature infants, myopia begins to appear at 6 months of age and increases in severity between ages 6 months and 3 years. Eyes with ROP are more susceptible to a dramatic change in refractive status after 6 months of age, with no further ...
Chandigarh Ayurved Centre Provides Herbal and Ayurvedic Treatment to cure Myopia and helps in curing weak eye-sight without any side-effects.
Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. ... Myopia. The nature versus nurture debate goes on. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 1996;37:952-7. Zadnik K, Manny ... 2002;21:671-9. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial of the effects of rigid contact lenses on myopia ... Myopia and refractive error in dogs. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 1992;33:2459-63. Zadnik K, Jones LA, Irvin ...
Low myopia usually describes myopia of −3.00 diopters or less (i.e. closer to 0.00). Moderate myopia usually describes myopia ... High myopia usually describes myopia of −6.00 or more. People with high myopia are more likely to have retinal detachments and ... Myopia is sometimes classified by the age at onset: Congenital myopia, also known as infantile myopia, is present at birth and ... Adult onset myopia Early adult onset myopia occurs between ages 20 and 40. Late adult onset myopia occurs after age 40. Some ...
Hyperoxic myopia has occurred in closed circuit oxygen rebreather divers with prolonged exposures. It also occurs frequently in ... Oxidative damage to the eye may lead to myopia or partial detachment of the retina. Pulmonary and ocular damage are most likely ... Butler, Frank K; White, E; Twa, M (1999). "Hyperoxic myopia in a closed-circuit mixed-gas scuba diver". Undersea and Hyperbaric ... Anderson Jr, B; Shelton, DL (1987). "Axial length in hyperoxic myopia". In: Bove, Alfred A; Bachrach, Arthur J; Greenbaum, Leon ...
"Incentive myopia". World Development. 17 (4): 447-459. doi:10.1016/0305-750X(89)90254-4. ISSN 0305-750X. Chew, David C.E. (1990 ...
Manji, Irshad (16 August 2006). "Muslim Myopia". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2018. Aroon, Preeti (19 April 2007 ...
... is more common in people with severe myopia (above 5-6 diopters), in whom the retina is more thinly ... Risk factors for retinal detachment include severe myopia, retinal tears, trauma, family history, as well as complications from ... Hyams SW, Bialik M, Neumann E (1975). "Myopia-aphakia. I. Prevalence of retinal detachment". The British Journal of ... Retinoblastoma Severe myopia Smoking and passive smoking Stickler syndrome Von Hippel-Lindau disease Play media Retinal ...
"Media Myopia." Archivaria 12 (1981): 146-157. Cook, Terry. " 'A Reconstruction of the World': George R. Parkin's British Empire ...
Research into slowing of myopia progression in children[edit]. In 2006 and 2007, papers presented at the British Contact Lens ... The US FDA overnight orthokeratology is approved up to -6.00 diopters of myopia and a maximum of 1.75 diopters of astigmatism. ... Orthokeratology is most often used for candidates with up to -6.00 diopters of myopia, though exceptions may be made if the ... Some patients with higher degrees of myopia are successfully treated by specialist practitioners with "off-label" uses of these ...
A series of authors has focused upon the increasing myopia in the youngest generations of Inuit. Myopia was almost unknown ... Morgan RW, Speakman JS, Grimshaw SE (March 1975). "Inuit myopia: an environmentally induced "epidemic"?". Can Med Assoc J. 112 ... Bernard Gilmartin; Mark Rosenfield (1998). Myopia and nearwork. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7506-3784-8. " ...
Myopia A number of studies have shown a correlation between IQ and myopia. Some suggest that the reason for the correlation is ... ISBN 978-0-7506-3784-8. Czepita, D.; Lodygowska, E.; Czepita, M. (2008). "Are children with myopia more intelligent? A ... Rosenfield, Mark; Gilmartin, Bernard (1998). Myopia and nearwork. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 23. ...
He would put his "home course advantage" to good use when the USGA selected Myopia to host four U.S. Opens between 1898 and ... Jones tied for eighth place in the 1898 U.S. Open, held at Myopia Hunt Club in South Hamilton, Massachusetts. His scores of 83- ... The 1908 U.S. Open-once again contested at the Myopia Hunt Club-featured strong winds in the first two rounds that plagued many ... "Myopia Hunt Club". Links. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ...
China are working in 2013 with the Institute on juvenile myopia on a project focused on myopia clinical translational research ... Myopia, which affects up to 600 million Chinese people, is a target of research at the Australia China Centre for Optometry ... "Myopia Research Boost". Mivision. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2013. "Indian Vision Institute launched". The Hindu. 19 ... for the treatment of myopia (near-sightedness), presbyopia (also known as "aging sight"), hyperopia and astigmatism. It also ...
The Myopia golf course, designed by Herbert Leeds, was difficult to score on. No player entered in the tournament managed to ... Fitzjohn also competed in the 1901 U.S. Open held at the Myopia Hunt Club near Boston. He had a T12 finish in the tournament. ... "Myopia Hunt Club". Links. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Championship Golfers -- List of Those Who Will Contest at Myopia Hunt Club". The ...
Concerning the meaning of Myopia, Obel explained: "For me Myopia is an album about trust and doubt. Can you trust yourself or ... There's a comfort to being pulled into Myopia's contemplative, isolating territory." Elisa Bray, The Independent "Myopia was ... About Myopia, journalist Tina Benitez-Eves stated: "Myopia is an abstract anatomization of the human psyche, transcending ... "Agnes Obel review - Myopia: New album inhabits a desolate place of twilight solitude". www.independent.co.uk. 20 February 2020 ...
2013). Pathologic Myopia. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 2. ISBN 978-1461483380. Mabbett, I. W. (1964). "The Date of the ... Graeco-Roman physician Galen would later use the term "myopia" for near-sightedness. Late 4th century BC: Kautilya establishes ...
Gardner also finished fourth in the 1901 U.S. Open held at Myopia Hunt Club. In 1901 the Myopia Hunt Club course played ... "Myopia Hunt Club". Links. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
However, significant daily exposure to bright light may be necessary for children to avoid myopia (nearsightedness). Short-term ... Dolgin, Elie (March 19, 2015). "The Myopia Boom". Nature. 519 (7543): 276-278. Bibcode:2015Natur.519..276D. doi:10.1038/519276a ...
Levinthal, D., & March, J. (1993). Myopia of learning. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 95-112. Lewin, A. Y., Long, C. P., & ...
Playing conditions were even more difficult in the 1901 U.S. Open at Myopia Hunt Club when no players were able to break 80. ... "Myopia Hunt Club". Links. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ... The 1905 U.S. Open was the 11th U.S. Open, held September 21-22 at Myopia Hunt Club in South Hamilton, Massachusetts, northeast ... Scoring conditions at Herbert Leeds-designed Myopia Hunt Club were so difficult that no player broke 75 in any round. ...
"Myopia or strategic behavior? Indian regimes and the East India Company in late eighteenth century India." Explorations in ...
The Myopia of Learning. Strategic Management Journal. 14 (S2): 95-112. Lindenberg, S. & Foss, N.J. 2011. Managing Motivation ...
Reading has also been found to be a predictor of myopia in children. It has been reported that children with myopia spent ... axial myopia). Myopia can be corrected with a concave lens, which causes the divergence of light rays before they reach the ... there is a correlation between environmental factors and the risk of developing myopia. Myopia has been observed in individuals ... Myopia may be present in heritable connective tissue disorders such as: Knobloch syndrome (OMIM 267750); Marfan syndrome (OMIM ...
Cooke C.A., Cooper, C., Dowds, E., Frazer, D.G., Jackson, A.J. (2003). "Keratoconus, myopia and personality". Cornea. 22 (3): ...
"Avoiding Green Marketing Myopia". Retrieved 2010-12-07. G. Fowler (2002-03-06). "Green Sales Pitch Isn't Moving Many Products ...
"IntraCOR for myopia" (PDF). 2010pv.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-02. Retrieved 20 December 2018. Chen S, ... "LASIK for Myopia and Astigmatism: Safety and Efficacy - EyeWiki". eyewiki.aao.org. Retrieved 2019-08-06. Health, Center for ... For patients with moderate to high myopia or thin corneas which cannot be treated with LASIK and PRK, the phakic intraocular ... and is in European clinical trials for the correction of myopia and keratoconus. Technolas FEMTEC laser: for incisionless ...
Use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia. Therapy to reduce myopia. Behavioural approaches to the ... at one extreme there is some weak evidence in support of the idea that myopia may be affected by eye training; at the other ... "There is no evidence that vision therapy delays the progression or leads to correction of myopia." Journal of Behavioral ...
Ottman, Jacquelyn; Stafford, Edwin R.; Hartman, Cathy (2006). "Avoiding Green Marketing Myopia" (PDF). Environment. 48 (5). ...
"Policy Myopia:causes and treatment". VOX Ukraine. Pettinger, Tejvan. "Government Failure". Economics Help. • Blanchard, Olivier ...
The Fuchs spot (also known as Förster-Fuchs' Spot), is a degeneration of the macula in case of high myopia. It is named after ... The size of the spots are proportionate to the severity of the pathological myopia. First signs of a Fuchs spot are distorted ... Macular degeneration Kumar, Atul; Chawla, Rohan; Kumawat, Devesh; Pillay, Ganesh (2017). "Insight into high myopia and the ... "Pathologic myopia (myopic degeneration) - EyeWiki". eyewiki.aao.org.. ...
"The Myopia of Manila Marketers". Adformatix.com. Retrieved 2008-02-14. "Economists say Manila should become more dense". ABS- ...
Listen to Myopia on Spotify. Plaid · Song · 1997. ...
China may restrict screen time to combat myopia 3rd September 2018 Business News Comments Off on China may restrict screen time ...
A brief definition of myopia (nearsightedness) from AllAboutVision.com. ... Myopia typically starts to develop during childhood and can progress gradually or rapidly. The most common symptoms of myopia ... Myopia also tends to run in families. Researchers have discovered at least 24 genetic risk factors for myopia. ... Myopia occurs when the eye grows too long from front to back, causing light to come to a focus in front of the retina instead ...
Anti-immigration myopia. Laura Pritchett Feb. 17, 2003 From the print edition Like Tweet Email Print Subscribe Donate Now ...
Penn State and the Danger of Sports-Induced Myopia The idea that Sanduskys crimes were a creation of college sports suggests ... both because of nature of the alleged crimes and the myopia that allowed them to proliferate. Anybody who has ever cared about ...
... myopia) is a common cause of blurred vision. It can be mild, moderate, or severe. If you are nearsighted, objects in the ... Nearsightedness (Myopia). Condition Basics. What is nearsightedness?. Nearsightedness (myopia) is a common cause of blurred ...
Posted in Biographical, Brighton, Mental Health with tags astigmatism, Eyes, Mental Health, myopia, optic nerve, Optical ... My prescription has corrections for both astigmatism and myopia (short-sightedness) but these are both well corrected by ...
It can slow down myopia progression in children by 60%, and 20% of the test subjects experienced no increase in myopia. ... Among them, the Defocus Incorporated Multiple Segments (DIMS) Spectacle Lens for Myopia Control snatched the Grand Prize of the ... Among them, the Defocus Incorporated Multiple Segments (DIMS) Spectacle Lens for Myopia Control snatched the Grand Prize of the ... Defocus Incorporated Multiple Segments (DIMS) Spectacle Lens for Myopia Control Principal Investigators: Prof. Carly SY LAM and ...
Myopia Uber Allis. Posted by commcom on May 18, 2005 in Uncategorized , 0 comments ...
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Album , Agnes Obel - Myopia. by Bob Fish • 21 February 2020. • Comments Off on Album , Agnes Obel - Myopia ... Myopia is the latest example of that, with her taking a short-sighted approach to creating her music, she notes, "For me the ... Trust and doubt are at the heart of Myopia. As Obel explains, "Can you trust your own judgments? Can you trust that you will do ... From that perspective, Agnes Obel doesnt suffer from Myopia, she revels in it, creating songs that offer clarity amidst the ...
Greater focus on rise in Hong Kong myopia called for. *Home learning on portable devices by children during the pandemic has ... Myopia among children has increased with the Covid-19 pandemic, according to a study by Chinese Universitys department of ... Myopia among children has increased with the Covid-19 pandemic, according to a study by Chinese Universitys department of ...
Clinical studies found that at 6 months, in 98.3% of those who received the CustomVue high-myopia treatment vision was ... CustomVue procedures for high myopia will be released to doctors certified in VISX technology over the next several weeks after ... With the CustomVue wavefront-guided LASIK procedure, indications include the reduction or elimination of myopia and myopic ... FDA-approved laser system treats high myopia with astigmatism. @media screen and (max-width: 468px) { .video-detail .doc-group- ...
Download the citation for this article by clicking on one of the following citation managers:. ...
You may not be aware that your product organization suffers from severe myopia. Once your product is sold or installed in the ... In all likelihood, your organizations myopia had set on much earlier, during the collection and formulation of market and ... and the digitalization of the product value chain can help overcome much of your organizations myopia. IoT-driven digital ...
2 hours in a day were protective with an inverse association with progression of myopia (P, 0.001). Conclusion Myopia is an ... Results Of the 9,616 children re-screened (97.3% coverage), annual incidence of myopia was 3.4%with mean dioptric change of - ... There was a significant higher incidence of myopia in younger children compared to older children (P = 0.012) and among girls ... An annual eye vision screening should be conducted, and outdoor activities be promoted to prevent the increase of myopia among ...
Myopia and Cognitive Performance: Results From the Gutenberg Health Study.. Mirshahi A1, Ponto KA2, Laubert-Reh D3, Rahm B4, ... You are here: vision-research.eu » Vision Research » Vision in the European Focus » 2017 » Myopia and Cognitive Performance ... "To put it crudely, myopia is not the ophthalmic sign of intelligence, rather it marks the striver", says Alireza Mirshahi. ... This finding is in line with other publications that emphasize environmental factors to be more relevant for the current myopia ...
Yvette Kratzberg answered: No: Degenerative Myopia is an progressively worsening disorder that can lead to blindness. Lasik ... What are the possible side-effects of lasik treatment for myopia? I want to correct my myopia with lasik surgery, but im ... Degenerative Myopia is an progressively worsening disorder that can lead to blindness. Lasik surgery is used primarily for ... Is it possible to have cataract surgery and lasik for myopia during the same procedure? I would like to deal with the side ...
The worst thing of vision though, isnt the tragic part of paediatric myopia. The tragic part of paediatric myopia, is that ... Visioneering Technologies Inc (ASX:VTI) talks myopia data & sales. Interviews by Jessica Amir December 13, 2017 02:40 PM ... Jessica Amir: Moving to the other area of the market that youre focused on, paediatric myopia. Why is that an exciting market ... Our other patient population are children with near-sightedness, we call this paediatric myopia. These are children who can see ...
In this study we investigated in observers with low myopia: (i) the pattern of lateral interactions between stimuli activating ... Abstract: Purpose: In this study we investigated in observers with low myopia: (i) the pattern of lateral interactions between ... Method: Participants (seven adults with low myopia) performed 12 training sessions. Participants were trained on a contrast ... Specificity and generalization of perceptual learning in low myopia Article type: Research Article ...
Spectacle Lenses for Myopia Control Part 3: new designs and latest studies ...
Centre for Ocular Research & Education. School of Optometry & Vision Science. University of Waterloo. 200 University Avenue West. Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1. P: +1-519-888-4742. P: +1-519-888-4303. [email protected] ...
It may seem like ancient history, but in a landmark 1960s article in the Harvard Business Review entitled "Marketing Myopia", ... Marketing Myopia and the 21st Century Automotive Business. * ...
Nearsightness or Myopia is an eye condition that should be treated by your optometrist so call now to set up an appointment. ...
Excellent practice and customer service. Ive been going here for about 10 years and Ive never had any problems. The doctors as well as the other staff are professional, kind, and very helpful. Ive been able to receive my contact…Excellent practice and cu ...
Degenerative Myopia Degenerative myopia is characterized by a refractive error of at least -6.00 diopters, with an axial length ... Degenerative myopia is associated with an increased... Degenerative myopia is characterized by a refractive error of at least - ... Degenerative myopia is associated with an increased risk of developing a choroidal neovascular membrane and a rhegmatogenous ... The overall expansion of the globe with sclera thinning results in the hallmark ectasia of degenerative myopia: the posterior ...
... and it is in that spirit that I am pleased to offer this series with Project Myopia. Utopian Studies is often considered a ... an approach whose significance I explored in a previous Myopia article (projectmyopia.com/toyin-odutola). In Mules and Men, ...
Myopia and laser myopia surgery with femtosecond laser. Myopia laser with femtosecond laser lasik; comparison with the ... If you decide to solve the problem of myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism, you need to know that from the very next day: ... It is used to correct medium and high degrees of myopia and astigmatism, while it is the only method used to correct hyperopia ... Solutions for myopia corrections. Introduction to myopia and myopia correction. Myopia and myopia correction with the LASIK ...
Elizabeth Dietz. Edited by Rianna Walcott. Art by Arta Ajeti https://www.instagram.com/artawork/. "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest". Adam Smith famously asserted the rational features of man in The Wealth of Nations in 1776, and inspired a constellation of theories on Homo Economicus that would come to define the field of Economics. Over two centuries later, journalist Katrine Marçal wonders if these claims hold true. In Who Cooked Adam Smiths Dinner? (2016) she points out that Adam Smith in fact had his dinner made by his mother, Margaret Douglas. Why did she make her son dinner? Not simply because of rational self-interest, thinks Marçal, as she develops a feminist critique of economic rationality. What could this perspective add to how we understand the economy? Perhaps it is time Economics students found out. ...
... device-assisted methods of myopia treatment in children, progressing myopia treatment (scleroplasty). Myopia prevention ... Methods of myopia treatment - laser vision correction, phakic lens implantation, refractive lens exchange (lensectomy), ... Myopia Ë È Treatment of myopia Myopia, what is it? Myopia in children Laser vision correction Progressive myopia Treatment for ... Myopia with visual acuity dropping by more than 1D each year.. The risks behind progressing myopia are retinal ruptures and ...
  • Nearsightedness (myopia) is a vision problem that makes it hard to see distant objects clearly. (kidshealth.org)
  • Affected individuals also have severe nearsightedness (high myopia ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Impaired SLITRK6 protein function leads to abnormal nerve development in the inner ear and improperly controlled eyeball growth, resulting in the hearing loss and nearsightedness that occur in deafness and myopia syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Myopia, also known as "nearsightedness", is a refractive defect of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearsightedness (myopia) is a common condition in which a child can see clearly objects nearby but not objects in the distance, making them appear blurry. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Myopia , often called nearsightedness, occurs when the eyeball elongates and causes light to focus in front of the retina as opposed to directly on the light-sensitive tissue. (aoa.org)
  • This rapid revolution not only provided a cure for myopia but altered how we think about nearsightedness itself. (medpagetoday.com)
  • According to the Myopia Institute in the US, incidences of myopia or nearsightedness (seeing objects at a distance as blurry) affects 1.6 billion children worldwide, and in India, according to Dr Himanshu P Matalia, consultant (cornea, refractive surgery and ocular surface) at Narayana Health City, Bangalore, studies show that 7 to 10 per cent of children aged between five and 15 are myopic. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Myopia in young children escalates rapidly during the six years of primary education, with the rate of nearsightedness among surveyed pupils rising from nearly 12 percent for first graders to almost 66 percent for sixth graders, according to Wei Xiong, deputy director of the Beijing CDC Center. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Nearsightedness (myopia) causes blurry vision when looking at distant objects. (nih.gov)
  • Nearsightedness: What Is Myopia? (aao.org)
  • Myopia surgery to correct nearsightedness reshapes the cornea or implants objects to allow incoming light rays to focus directly on the retina. (wisegeek.com)
  • Myopia surgery corrects nearsightedness. (wisegeek.com)
  • These types of myopia treatment use a laser to reshape the curvature of the cornea, and the results allow people to stop using glasses or contacts to correct their nearsightedness. (wisegeek.com)
  • The other two types of myopia surgery use implants to permanently repair nearsightedness. (wisegeek.com)
  • Nearsightedness is also called myopia. (harvard.edu)
  • Multifocal contact lenses for children with myopia can slow the progression of nearsightedness, providing a more effective and efficient treatment option. (aoa.org)
  • This special issue on myopia highlights scientific discoveries leading to potentially useful approaches to prevention and treatment of progressive nearsightedness in young patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One study states that soft contact lenses with multiple areas of focus can reduce progression of myopia (nearsightedness) in children, and that multifocal lenses also affect eye growth, with effects persisting through at least two years, according to new research reported by Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD, FAAO, of The Ohio State University, Columbus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Myopia or nearsightedness - difficulty seeing objects at a distance - is a common problem in children, and may gradually worsen as they grow. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lack of physical activity is related to obesity, as well as nearsightedness, the agency said, citing a previous survey which found that children who participated in few outdoor activities, stayed in front of television and computer screens longer and spent more time in cram schools, were more likely to develop myopia. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Myopia, or nearsightedness, significantly affects the muscles used in focusing the lens of the eye -- a finding with important implications for the development of "accommodating" implanted intraocular lenses (IOLs) that can adjust to different visual distances. (medindia.net)
  • The participants --all free of cataracts or other eye diseases-- had vision prescriptions ranging from nearsightedness (myopia) to farsightedness (hyperopia). (medindia.net)
  • To learn more about factors that may reduce diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk, Laurence Shen Lim, MRCS, and colleagues at the Singapore National Eye Centre, studied how refractive error (vision worse than 20/20, without glasses) relates to the presence and severity of DR. Earlier, smaller studies had suggested a protective effect for nearsightedness (myopia), but were inconclusive. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, despite ongoing attempts to tie these close behaviors to the onset of nearsightedness, or myopia, researchers have not come up with convincing results. (nih.gov)
  • Several of these reports have illustrated a link between myopia (nearsightedness) and environment. (howstuffworks.com)
  • If so, your child might have myopia, or nearsightedness, an increasingly common visual condition that impacts the sight of many school-age children. (mercy.net)
  • Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the inability to see objects at a distance clearly. (covd.org)
  • Risk factors for the development of myopia include a family history of nearsightedness, visual stress from close work, or using a computer. (covd.org)
  • Myopia, or nearsightedness, is one of the most common eyesight problems. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Low myopia is a mild form of nearsightedness. (sharecare.com)
  • Myopia, or nearsightedness, is found in approximately 25 percent of people in the United States. (sharecare.com)
  • It is the first causal gene that has been proven, through complete animal model tests, to lead to high myopia, nearsightedness of-6.00 diopters, said Jin Zibing, one of the leading researchers on a team from Wenzhou Medical University in Zhejiang province. (eastday.com)
  • Nearsighted glasses for myopia control are eyeglasses with specially designed multifocal lenses to slow the progression of myopia (nearsightedness) in children. (allaboutvision.com)
  • myopia control lenses are being developed in response to the significant increase in nearsightedness among children worldwide over the past several decades. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Myopia (also called nearsightedness or shortsightedness ) is not an eye disease. (allaboutvision.com)
  • And the increased risk of these sight-robbing conditions and eye diseases caused by childhood myopia can persist after nearsightedness is corrected - even if it's permanently treated with LASIK or other vision surgery . (allaboutvision.com)
  • If nearsightedness is detected early and treated with lenses specially designed to control myopia, the risk of vision loss from serious eye problems later in life can be significantly reduced. (allaboutvision.com)
  • I had remembered that a researcher at UW-Madison did a study on eyesight in dogs, in which GSDs had an especially high rate of myopia, or nearsightedness. (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • Fujimoto said a topic of growing concern, especially as people become more dependent on technology, is the increasing development of myopia or nearsightedness. (pacificu.edu)
  • Also called nearsightedness , myopia is a common refractive error of the eye that causes distant objects to appear blurry. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Myopia (near-sightedness) is the most common refractive vision disorder in children. (nih.gov)
  • Progressive myopia, i.e. near-sightedness that becomes worse over time, is especially prevalent among young people in Asia, where currently up to 90 percent of children and teenagers up to 20 years of age are nearsighted. (zeiss.com)
  • Innovation to manage myopia matters because near-sightedness is increasingly becoming a global problem: in the future, half of the world's population could be nearsighted. (zeiss.com)
  • This includes progressive myopia, a form of near-sightedness that becomes more severe over the years and can lead to high myopia. (zeiss.com)
  • Myopia, also known as short-sightedness or near-sightedness, is the most common disorder affecting the eyesight and it is on the increase. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Myopia ("near-sightedness") is a condition in which the optical system of the eye causes incoming light rays to focus in front of the retina, instead of focusing directly on the retinal surface. (aapos.org)
  • High myopia is generally defined as near-sightedness of -6.00 diopters or higher, and is often associated with a very long eye, termed a long "axial length. (aapos.org)
  • Myopia , also called near-sightedness or short-sightedness , is a problem with the focusing ability of the eye . (wikipedia.org)
  • Myopia is commonly known as short-sightedness or near-sightedness. (cyh.com)
  • DUBLIN, Calif. , Oct. 5, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, the Medical Technology business group of ZEISS announced the FDA Premarket Approval (PMA) for ReLEx ® SMILE ® PMA expanding myopia treatment to patients with astigmatism. (prnewswire.com)
  • WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 -- Early life factors associated with myopia include maternal education, fertility treatment, summer birth, and hours spent playing computer games, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in the British Journal of Ophthalmology . (drugs.com)
  • Myopia, with or without astigmatism, is the most common eye condition in horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am a 39 year old male with severe myopia (contact lens prescription is -12 D in both eyes) and minor astigmatism, and I was recently diagnosed with subcapsular cataracts in both eyes which is at its early stages. (medhelp.org)
  • D. Dursun, R. K. Forster, and W. J. Feuer, "Suturing technique for control of postkeratoplasty astigmatism and myopia," Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society , vol. 100, pp. 51-59, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • The advantages of RLE include rapid and predictable visual rehabilitation, stable refraction, no regression of myopia, and often superb optical quality with no irregular astigmatism because the cornea remains intact. (nature.com)
  • The expansion of Myopia treatment to patients with Astigmatism will enable current and future SMILE ® surgeons to expand their patient base, paving the way for a new generation of refractive surgery patients,' said Jim Mazzo , Global President Ophthalmic Devices at Carl Zeiss Meditec. (prnewswire.com)
  • However, not all patients are good candidates for LASIK surgery, including patients with severe myopia, patients who have hypermetropia or astigmatism, patients with an unusually thin or irregularly shaped cornea, and patients with eye conditions such as keratoconus, pellucid marginal dystrophies, or dry eye. (medscape.com)
  • As with myopia, vision problems caused by longsightedness and astigmatism typically can be fully corrected with spectacles and contact lenses. (allaboutvision.com)
  • When ophthalmologist James Salz, MD, first saw Nancy, severe myopia left her completely reliant on glasses and contacts. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In a worst-case scenario, early myopia can lead to the emergence of progressive myopia, a severe form of short-sightedness: after the onset, a person's vision may quickly deteriorate at a rate of one dioptre per year and turn into high myopia, which increases the risk of other eye problems, such as damage to the retina or even blindness 6 . (zeiss.com)
  • I am a 39 year old male with severe myopia (contact lens prescription is -12 D in b. (medhelp.org)
  • I have severe myopia (-8D) and if I try to read or look at anything close up without gl. (medhelp.org)
  • To describe the results of refractive lens exchange (RLE) combined with simultaneous pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in the management of severe myopia. (nature.com)
  • RLE was effective in correcting severe myopia. (nature.com)
  • The agency warned that the earlier the onset of myopia, the more severe it is likely to become later in life. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Reduced risk of DR, especially severe DR, was found in patients whose myopia resulted from two anatomical characteristics: longer axial length and deeper anterior eye chamber (anterior chamber depth, ACD). (eurekalert.org)
  • Severe myopia with increasing elongation of the eyeball as we age is a degenerative condition resulting in damage to the macula, cornea, walls of the eye, possible detachment and other complications. (naturaleyecare.com)
  • Myopia can be slight or severe and is easily treated with corrective glasses or contact lenses. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Phakic IOL is preferable over LASIK surgery in most patients with severe myopia. (medscape.com)
  • For example, severe shortsightedness known as high myopia is associated with complications like glaucoma , cataracts and retinal detachment . (allaboutvision.com)
  • In people with myopia, the eyeball is too long or the cornea has too much curvature, so the light entering the eye is not focused correctly. (medicinenet.com)
  • Unlike those with normal vision, people with myopia often have elongated eyes (axial myopia). (zeiss.com)
  • People with myopia often squint while watching television or trying to see distant objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, people with myopia have good near vision but poor distance vision. (nih.gov)
  • Yes, the people with myopia have a higher risk of glaucoma. (firmoo.com)
  • Progressive myopia can cause longitudinal growth over more than ten years, extending the eye by several millimeters and leading to values of up to -12 diopters. (zeiss.com)
  • We excluded trials where participants were older than 18 years at baseline or participants had less than -0.25 diopters (D) spherical equivalent myopia. (nih.gov)
  • This retrospective study comprised 14 eyes of eight patients who had RLE to treat myopia of −19.0±5.4 diopters (D). Phacoemulsification, posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and standard three-port vitrectomy were performed. (nature.com)
  • The predictability of LASIK falls abruptly when used to correct myopia higher than 12.0 diopters (D). Possible complications are undercorrection, regression, corneal ectasia, corneal flap displacement, intraepithelial cysts, and a deteriorated quality of vision. (nature.com)
  • The 2010 national survey on the prevalence of myopia among children found that 4.6 percent of kindergarteners aged four to five were nearsighted (equal to or greater than minus-0.5 diopters), with the prevalance rising to 7.1 percent among those aged five to six. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Because a majority of Taiwanese children start to have problems with their vision at a fairly young age, many of them are highly susceptible to developing high-degree myopia (greater than minus-6.00 diopters) at a later age. (taipeitimes.com)
  • High myopia means that a person's vision requires at least -5.00 diopters, the unit of focusing power correction required to optimize distance vision. (nih.gov)
  • Phakic myopia lens of -20.0 diopters, 7 years postoperatively, in a 30-year-old man. (medscape.com)
  • Myopia is a condition that results in distant objects appearing blurry. (wisegeek.com)
  • When a person has myopia, the eye is too long and the image is focussed in front of the retina, so it appears blurry. (cyh.com)
  • A person with myopia sees near objects clearly but distant objects appear blurry. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Myopia is caused by a bent or a curved lens or retina that doesn't refract light properly. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Pathological myopia is characterized by rapid, extreme axial elongation of the globe, leading to a high refractive error (typically far more negative than -6.00D). This extreme stretching puts stress on the ocular structures (retina, choroid, and sclera), which can then result in degenerative changes in the eye ( Figure 3 ), and irreversible vision loss. (nih.gov)
  • A fundus photograph of the retina of a person with degenerative myopia (right) is compared with that of a normal person's retina (left). (nih.gov)
  • CHICAGO --- Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered a cell in the retina that may cause myopia when it dysfunctions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Myopia occurs when the eye grows longer than normal, causing the eye to focus in front of the retina instead of on it, which creates a blurred image. (wisegeek.com)
  • Constant focusing on near objects also moves the peripheral focal plane behind the retina, triggering a long term correction that induces myopia. (fark.com)
  • Myopia is commonly known as being nearsighted or shortsighted)and is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it. (earthscape.org)
  • This DR-protective effect may result from conditions often found in myopia, including atrophy of the retina, choroid, or vitreous," Dr. Lim said. (scienceblog.com)
  • The gene is mainly expressed in the eye's ciliary body and neural retina, which may offer key insight into future medical treatment and prevention of high myopia, the cause of which remains unclear, Jin said. (eastday.com)
  • Through our research we speculated that the ciliary body and neural retina are probably the root place where high myopia happens, which may help future treatment to be more accurately directed,' he said. (eastday.com)
  • Functional analysis of APLP2 using an APLP2 knockout mouse model confirmed functional significance of APLP2 in refractive development and implicated a potential role of synaptic transmission at the level of glycinergic amacrine cells of the retina for the development of myopia. (plos.org)
  • Especially in urban areas in Asia, almost 90% of young people develop myopia before the age of 20 4 . (zeiss.com)
  • In the past, vision scientists and eye care professionals thought that the tendency to develop myopia was "hardwired" into genes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nearly two-thirds of Taiwanese children develop myopia before they finish elementary school, and more than a quarter of them are either overweight or obese, the Health Promotion Administration said, as it recommended more outdoor exercises to help children stay fit and maintain good eyesight. (taipeitimes.com)
  • More recently, an Australian study found that children who spend more time outside don't develop myopia as often as children who spend more time indoors. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Laser eye surgery is commonly used to correct myopia. (wisegeek.com)
  • In many cases, people may choose to correct myopia with LASIK or another form of refractive surgery . (aao.org)
  • It is currently commercially available to correct myopia for up to 10 D. However, evidence of its effectiveness for visual correction and slowing AL growth is lacking. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pet dogs with progressive myopia have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there is not (yet) a cure for this visual impairment, ZEISS is launching several innovations in Asia for children affected by progressive myopia. (zeiss.com)
  • Progressive myopia is particularly prevalent in Asia. (zeiss.com)
  • Globally, more and more treatment options are being tested and researched for progressive myopia,' says Sven Hermann, CSO/CMO of ZEISS Vision Care. (zeiss.com)
  • Thus do you get progressive myopia. (fark.com)
  • There are promising optical and pharmacological interventions for preventing the development of myopia or slowing its progression, which require further validation, and promising vision-sparing treatments for pathological myopia. (nih.gov)
  • Fortunately, pathological myopia is relatively rare, affecting 0.9-3.1% of the population ( 4 ). (nih.gov)
  • Does my change in prescription mean I have pathological myopia? (aao.org)
  • New treatment options can help slow the progression of myopia in children. (kidshealth.org)
  • Interventions that have been explored to slow the progression of myopia include bifocal spectacles, cycloplegic drops, intraocular pressure-lowering drugs, muscarinic receptor antagonists and contact lenses. (nih.gov)
  • Bifocal glasses slow the progression of myopia but only by a very small amount-in fact, they don't provide clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression," Dr. Walline says. (aoa.org)
  • Low-dose atropine (0.01%) has emerged as an effective approach to slow the progression of myopia in children and adolescents. (aao.org)
  • Essilor is a leading eyeglass lens manufacturer that's on the forefront of developing nearsighted glasses to slow the progression of myopia in children. (allaboutvision.com)
  • For some reason, outdoor time seems to delay the onset of myopia, but it does not have any effect after you become myopic," Dr. Walline says. (aoa.org)
  • If your child has been diagnosed with myopia, chances are that you are myopic too. (hindustantimes.com)
  • About six to 15 per cent of children with myopia come from families where neither parent is myopic," she says. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Another study done by researchers from Ohio State University found that a lack of sports and outdoor activities increased the odds of myopia in children who had two myopic parents, more than in those children with none or one myopic parent. (hindustantimes.com)
  • This project aims to investigate/examine high myopic subjects on full correction ortho-k (using Topaz ortho-k lenses for high myopia) compared to subjects undergoing partial reduction ortho-k and their relationship with myopia and myopic progression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Specifically, controlling myopia progression by 1 D reduces the risk of myopic maculopathy by 40%, the risk of open-angle glaucoma by 20% and the risk of visual impairment by 20% and saves between 0.5 and 1 year of visual impairment, he said. (healio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess whether a short-term imposed myopic defocus is effective in preventing the development and progression of juvenile-onset myopia in Chinese children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Multifocal contact lenses - typically used to improve near vision of people over the age of 40 years - correct myopic vision in children while simultaneously slowing myopia progression by slowing eye growth. (nih.gov)
  • Selection bias could account for some of the reported association between glaucoma and myopia given that myopic subjects are likely to consult their ophthalmologist more frequently and glaucoma is underdiagnosed in myopic patients due to the great variability of their optic disc morphology, especially in high myopia, and the difficulty to interpret their visual field. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In multivariate models, only the following variables were significantly associated with myopia: age, two myopic parents, outdoor activity time, and continuous near work without 5 min rest. (hindawi.com)
  • Age, two myopic parents, and continuous near work time without 5 min rest were risk factors for myopia. (hindawi.com)
  • Nearly half of all Americans are myopic, and school-age myopia is becoming more prevalent. (mercy.net)
  • Multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess possible factors associated with myopia. (hindawi.com)
  • Factors associated with myopia in Korean children: Korea National Health and nutrition examination survey 2016-2017 (KNHANES VII). (harvard.edu)
  • Incidence of and Factors Associated With Myopia and High Myopia in Chinese Children, Based on Refraction Without Cycloplegia. (harvard.edu)
  • Jeffrey Walline, O.D., Ph.D., AOA Council on Research member and associate dean for research at The Ohio State University College of Optometry who works extensively in myopia progression, says there's notable evidence that more outdoor time is associated with a decreased incidence of myopia onset. (aoa.org)
  • Why are we seeing higher incidence of myopia, higher degrees of myopia, and earlier age of diagnosis? (modernmedicine.com)
  • More than a billion people in the world have myopia, whose incidence is rising and is linked to how much time people spend indoors as children. (eurekalert.org)
  • Particularly in South East Asia the incidence of myopia in school children has increased notably over the last decades. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Myopia is the most prevalent refractive error in the world and its incidence is increasing. (intechopen.com)
  • We are at an interesting crossroads in our understanding of myopia: Most of us believe that the incidence is increasing throughout the world and particularly in Asian countries. (healio.com)
  • The researchers made an interesting discovery -- in this group, people aged 56 or older had zero incidence of myopia. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Parents aged 30 and up had about an 8 percent incidence, but their children -- who were the first of their group to start reading -- had a 59 percent incidence of myopia. (howstuffworks.com)
  • What is the rate of incidence of early adult-onset myopia? (sharecare.com)
  • Recently, is has been projected that 2.5 billion people (1/3 of the world's population) will have some degree of myopia by 2030 ( 2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, intravitreal injection of cyclopentolate significantly reduced the degree of myopia in the deprived eyes (from -3.92 D to -0.86 D, P (scirp.org)
  • Then, using a measurement scale based on dioptres (units of measure that represent an eye's ability to focus), the doctor will determine the degree of myopia that is present. (sharecare.com)
  • In addition to the genetic causes of myopia there are also environmental factors, the most significant of which are education-related behavior patterns. (uni-mainz.de)
  • While comprehensive research still has to be done, we do know several different potential causes of myopia. (zeiss.com)
  • Orthokeratology, the process of wearing gas-permeable contact lenses at night to reshape the eye and temporarily provide clear vision without wearing glasses or contact lenses, also slows myopia progression and eye growth. (aoa.org)
  • You may have heard of a process called orthokeratology to treat myopia. (aao.org)
  • While numerous studies have shown that orthokeratology is an effective clinical treatment to slow axial eye growth in children, the exact mechanism underlying this reduction in myopia progression associated with orthokeratology remains unclear. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Multiple studies strongly suggest three effective treatments for myopia progression - atropine, orthokeratology (ortho-K) and bifocal contact lenses, with bifocal glasses helpful for some. (healio.com)
  • In addition to multifocal lenses, other myopia control options include orthokeratology contact lenses, which are worn overnight to reshape the cornea, or low-dose atropine eye drops used at bedtime. (nih.gov)
  • There are no reported major genes for school myopia, although there are several genes associated with high myopia. (nih.gov)
  • However, to what extent many genes of small effect and gene-environment interactions contribute to variations in school myopia within populations remains to be established. (nih.gov)
  • There have been attempts to identify genes that may be important in myopia development. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluating more than 250,000 participants across North America, Europe and Asia, the study identified 161 genes related to myopia whereas it had only found nine the year before in a smaller meta-analysis. (aoa.org)
  • However, the myopia-causing genes that had been previously identified do not alone sufficiently explain the extent to which the condition is inherited. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Scientists have now discovered 24 new genes that cause refractive errors and myopia - an important cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide, which has no cure to date. (earthscape.org)
  • This work identifies APLP2 as one of the "missing" myopia genes, demonstrating the importance of a low-frequency gene variant in the development of human myopia. (plos.org)
  • Gene variants identified by GWAS studies to date explain only a small fraction of myopia cases because myopia represents a complex disorder thought to be controlled by dozens or even hundreds of genes. (plos.org)
  • Here, we combined gene expression profiling in a monkey model of myopia, human GWAS, and a gene-targeted mouse model of myopia to identify one of the "missing" myopia genes, APLP2 . (plos.org)
  • We found that a low-frequency risk allele of APLP2 confers susceptibility to myopia only in children exposed to large amounts of daily reading, thus, providing an experimental example of the long-hypothesized gene-environment interaction between nearwork and genes underlying myopia. (plos.org)
  • Then scientists can turn its activity up or down in a genetic mouse model to try to induce or cure myopia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Early attempts to cure myopia were disastrous. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There is no scientific evidence to suggest that eye exercises , vitamins or pills can prevent or cure myopia. (aao.org)
  • Furthermore, mouse studies revealed that lack of Aplp2 has a dose-dependent suppressive effect on susceptibility to form-deprivation myopia, providing a potential gene-specific target for therapeutic intervention to treat myopia. (plos.org)
  • This discovery could lead to a new therapeutic target to control myopia," said Greg Schwartz, lead investigator and assistant professor of ophthalmology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Children in Tel Aviv have been treated with nightly atropine drops, significantly slowing the progression of myopia. (modernmedicine.com)
  • LAS VEGAS - Slowing the progression of myopia can reduce the risk of other ocular pathology, with these benefits outweighing the risks of contact lens wear or atropine use, Mark A. Bullimore, MCOptom, PhD, FAAO, said during the Global Contact Lens Forum here at Vision Expo West . (healio.com)
  • Alternative methods of treatment are under investigation, but presently there are no evidence-based, preferred practice recommendations for slowing the progression of school-age myopia. (mercy.net)
  • There are two clinical designations for myopia: pathological degenerative myopia, and spontaneous-onset or school age myopia. (nih.gov)
  • These results will help scientists focus efforts to prevent-or at least delay the onset of-myopia. (aoa.org)
  • However, the mistake many people make is assuming that more outdoor time leads to slower progression of myopia after onset. (aoa.org)
  • Despite the global pandemic of myopia, the precise molecular mechanism of the onset of myopia remains largely unknown. (nature.com)
  • however, the mechanisms of the onset and the progression of AL elongation are largely unknown and further study is needed to develop effective ways for controlling myopia. (nature.com)
  • Studies done by Kathryn Rose, a researcher of visual disorders at the University of Sydney's, College of Health Sciences, have shown that spending at least 10 to 14 hours outside per week may prevent the early onset of myopia. (hindustantimes.com)
  • School-age myopia is twice as common as adult-onset myopia. (mercy.net)
  • Is early adult-onset myopia serious? (sharecare.com)
  • Early adult-onset myopia is mildly serious and should be treated. (sharecare.com)
  • The older a father is, the higher the possibility his child will suffer from early-onset high myopia due to a mutation in a gene, Chinese scientists found. (eastday.com)
  • Jin, also an ophthalmologist at the Eye Hospital at Wenzhou Medical University, said the research started with the collection of patient samples to find out possible reasons for early-onset high myopia among children under 6 years old. (eastday.com)
  • We propose that the condition of early-onset high myopia is driven by genetic predisposition more than environmental factors,' he said. (eastday.com)
  • We also want to figure out whether early-onset high myopia is related to in vitro fertilization, which is gaining in popularity when some couples of advanced reproductive age are eager to have a second child,' Jin said. (eastday.com)
  • I had no idea that there was such a thing called "juvenile-onset myopia" in people. (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • any veterinarians out there who know if there is such a thing as "Juvenile Onset Myopia" in dogs? (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • Did you mean to say that the juvenile onset myopia comes in at 6 - 14 months, rather than years? (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • Interventions to slow progression of myopia in children. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of strategies to control progression of myopia in children. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, there is evidence to suggest that time spent outdoors during childhood may reduce the progression of myopia in children and adolescents. (aapos.org)
  • But in more recent years, a succession of new research has shown that environmental factors have an important influence on the development and progression of myopia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To determine if +3D lenses wearing for half an hour everyday prevents the development and progression of myopia in school children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To identify ocular parameters and risk factors at baseline associated with development and progression of myopia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A review published in the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology in 2012 indicated that each hour spent outside per week reduces a child's chances of developing myopia by two per cent. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Insufficient sunlight exposure could play a part in the complicated interplay of environmental and genetic factors that trigger myopia, evidence suggests, lending further credence to calls encouraging children's outdoor time. (aoa.org)
  • Published in the journal Nature Genetics , a new international study identifies 161 genetic factors for myopia-many of which are novel-that essentially quadruples the number of known genetic risk factors playing a role in all retinal cell types, most involved in processing light. (aoa.org)
  • Researchers from the Gutenberg Health Study at Mainz University Medical Center believe their latest genetic research helps shed light on a possible answer using data from the international Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia (CREAM) study. (aoa.org)
  • The team has uncovered nine new genetic risk factors which work together with education-related behavior as the most important environmental factor causing myopia to generate the disorder. (uni-mainz.de)
  • With the aim of identifying genetic mutations relating to myopia and acquiring better insight into the development of the condition, the international research group CREAM carried out a meta-analysis of data collected from around the world. (uni-mainz.de)
  • This represents significant initial headway towards understanding how genetic causes interact with the level of education as an environmental factor to produce the heterogeneity of myopia. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Researchers have long known there is a genetic connection to the condition, but the alarming rise in rates of myopia among children over the last several decades has shown itself to be inconsistent with a genetic basis. (treehugger.com)
  • Given the rise in myopia prevalence, likely due to changing environmental pressures in childhood, further studies of this and other cohorts are warranted, in conjunction with genetic data, to continue efforts to produce predictive models that can ascertain who should be targeted for treatments to reduce the future burden of this condition," the authors write. (drugs.com)
  • Although the exact pathogenic mechanism of myopia is still unclear, most scholars believe that myopia is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (hindawi.com)
  • The majority of genetic variants underlying myopia seems to be of small effect and/or low frequency, which makes them difficult to identify using classical genetic approaches, such as GWAS, alone. (plos.org)
  • I'm not claiming causation, but I have read that myopia in children is commoner the more light they have in their bedrooms at night. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Monado: it has been observed that myopia is more common in children that do not spend time outdoors. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The higher prevalence of myopia in east Asian cities seems to be associated with increasing educational pressures, combined with life-style changes, which have reduced the time children spend outside. (nih.gov)
  • Andrew Morgenstern, OD, FAAO, sits down to talk myopia in children and adults, how to treat it, and how to go prevent it at the American Optometric Association's Optometry's Meeting in Washington, DC. (modernmedicine.com)
  • Myopia simplex usually develops in children aged ten to 12 and is hereditary. (zeiss.com)
  • This plays a part in triggering myopia at a very young age in our children," explains Dr Matalia. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Only 3.3 per cent of the children living in Sydney, Australia, had myopia, compared to 29.1 per cent of the children living in Singapore. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Frequent indoor activities, a lack of natural light, and an increasing number of near vision tasks, especially with digital devices, can intensify the spread of myopia amongst children. (zeiss.com)
  • Myopia is treated with glasses in younger children or, in some cases, contact lenses in older children and teenagers. (aapos.org)
  • Because more people, including children, are developing high myopia, various methods of attempting to slow its progression have been attempted. (aapos.org)
  • Children wearing multifocal lenses had 25 percent less myopia progression and 31 percent less axial elongation than those wearing single-vision lenses over two years, according to a 2014 double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of 221 Hong Kong children. (aoa.org)
  • The effect of slowing myopia progression became obvious when children wore the lenses for five hours a day, and the improvement increased if they wore them for seven hours a day or more, according to the study published in the January 2014 issue of the British Journal of Ophthalmology . (aoa.org)
  • No contact lenses have been marketed in the U.S. specifically for myopia control in children, Dr. Walline says, but there are many doctors who fit single-vision and multifocal lenses for children. (aoa.org)
  • Myopia typically appears between the age of 6 and 12, and the mean rate of progression is considered to be approximately 0.50 D per year, based on studies of mostly Caucasian children. (intechopen.com)
  • In more than 25 children varying in age from 3 to 16 years in whom the common ocular complication was congenital myopia, associated features included facial abnormalities and other changes often associated with familial and inherited conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Forty children with myopia, aged eight to 11 years, were randomly assigned to treatment with multifocal contact lenses or conventional, single-focus contact lenses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After two years, children who wore multifocal contact lenses had about half as much progression in myopia, compared to those wearing single-focus lenses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Studies have identified several important factors contributing to myopia - including evidence that children who spend less time outdoors are at higher risk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Last year, Hong Kong Polytechnic University announced that it developed a spectacle lens that slowed myopia progression by 60% and halted progression in 21.5% of Chinese children in a randomized controlled trial. (healio.com)
  • It doesn't apply to myopia control, doesn't talk about ortho-K and doesn't talk about children," he added. (healio.com)
  • In a piece of irony you couldn't imagine if you tried, researchers in Australia have discovered that a lack of time spent playing in the great outdoors is leading to greater incidences of myopia among children, which means it's not just figuratively causing shortsightedness, but literally as well. (treehugger.com)
  • And with the rates of myopia reaching 80% among children in some East Asian nations there's certainly incentive discover the cause and a cure. (treehugger.com)
  • Children wearing multifocal contact lenses had slower progression of their myopia, according to results from a clinical trial funded by the National Eye Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • The efficacy and safety of modified Snyder-Thompson posterior scleral reinforcement in extensive high myopia of Chinese children, Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, November, 2013. (naturaleyecare.com)
  • Singapore's health authorities launched the public awareness campaign in response to a sharp spike in myopia rates among children and young people that was flagged by the country's military. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the prevalence and related factors for myopia in school-aged children in the Economic and Technological Development Zone of Qingdao, Eastern China. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers have investigated what makes a child's eye longer and what might prevent the progression of myopia in school-age children. (mercy.net)
  • Wearing glasses is highly effective in improving visual acuity and is the widely accepted traditional treatment for children with myopia. (mercy.net)
  • Good visual hygiene, including reading with good posture, using good lighting, and taking frequent short breaks during reading or any other close activity, are considered to be helpful in preventing or reducing the progression of myopia, particularly in children. (covd.org)
  • And for most of the 12 families who have two children, the elder child did not suffer myopia while the younger one had high myopia,' Jin said. (eastday.com)
  • This analysis also found that the percentage of children with myopia is highest in East Asia, where 73% of schoolchildren are nearsighted. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Despite their advanced multifocal design for myopia control, Stellest lenses look virtually identical to standard ("single vision") eyeglass lenses prescribed for nearsighted children. (allaboutvision.com)
  • The children in the study were between 8 and 13 years old and were divided into a treatment group that wore Stellest multifocal lenses and a control group that wore standard single vision lenses for myopia correction. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Myopia is associated with high insulin levels, so this makes sense. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Myopia has emerged as a major health issue in east Asia, because of its increasingly high prevalence in the past few decades (now 80-90% in school-leavers), and because of the sight-threatening pathologies associated with high myopia, which now affects 10-20% of those completing secondary schooling in this part of the world. (nih.gov)
  • This case study presents the results and advantages of phacoemulsification, which Dr Dieter W Klass and his team applied after previous implantation of an iris-fixated phakic IOL (pIOL) (Artisan, Ophtec) for the correction of high myopia without explantation of the pIOL. (modernmedicine.com)
  • About nine out of 10 senior high school graduates are nearsighted, and more than one in four of them have developed high myopia, a condition closely associated with potential blindness, he said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • High myopia generally begins in early childhood, and continued growth of the eye often means that the corrective lens prescription required to allow proper focus may not stabilize until the early adult years. (aapos.org)
  • The prevalence of high myopia has been increasing over the last several decades, particularly in developed countries. (aapos.org)
  • It is important for patients with high myopia to receive regular dilated eye exams, since this condition is associated with an increased lifetime risk of retinal holes or tears, which can lead to retinal detachment. (aapos.org)
  • Thank you for a valuable forum and resource for those of us with high-myopia-induced eye co. (medhelp.org)
  • Hjortdal, "Femtosecond (FS) laser vision correction procedure for moderate to high myopia: a prospective study of ReLEx Ⓡ flex and comparison with a retrospective study of FS-laser in situ keratomileusis," Acta Ophthalmologica , vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 355-362, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Several techniques of refractive surgery are used to reduce high myopia. (nature.com)
  • 3 Thus, the interest in removal of the clear crystalline lens is renewed and RLE may be considered for the correction of high myopia. (nature.com)
  • Phakic intraocular lenses are suitable for patients younger than 45 years of age with high myopia or some other contraindications for corneal refractive surgery. (intechopen.com)
  • A recent report in Nature , entitled "The Myopia Boom," demonstrated, and it is now widely accepted, that there is an epidemic of myopia in the developed countries of East and Southeast Asia, paralleled by an epidemic of high myopia [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Attempts to use these lenses for reduction of high myopia have been shown to give rise to complications such as corneal staining and lens decentration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • High-degree myopia can lead to cataracts at a young age, glaucoma, retinal detachment, macular hole, hemorrhage and degeneration or even blindness, the agency said. (taipeitimes.com)
  • The researchers examined whether high-add power contact lenses provided better slowing of myopia progression and eye growth than medium-add power contact lenses. (nih.gov)
  • There are no tests to identify which individuals with myopia will progress to high myopia, but the younger a child is affected, the more opportunity their myopia has to progress if there is no intervention to slow it. (nih.gov)
  • Epidemiologic evidence suggests that moderate and especially high myopia with a refractive error exceeding -6D is a risk factor for the development and the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, with a twofold to threefold increased risk of glaucoma compared with that of nonmyopic subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Whereas the evidence on this issue is controversial, a cross-sectional study in Beijing demonstrated that a higher prevalence of myopia in high school students was associated with shorter near work distance [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • How is high myopia diagnosed? (sharecare.com)
  • High myopia is often first diagnosed in childhood, when vision problems begin to develop. (sharecare.com)
  • A rating of -6.0D or more is symptomatic of high myopia. (sharecare.com)
  • Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in Nonsyndromic High Myopia Associated with Recessive Mutations in LRPAP1. (harvard.edu)
  • For more information, read our full medical article on myopia symptoms and treatment. (medicinenet.com)
  • Symptoms of myopia can include headaches, eyestrain and squinting. (cbsnews.com)
  • Eyeglasses or contact lenses are the most common methods of correcting myopia symptoms. (aao.org)
  • We know from the Gutenberg Health Study conducted at Mainz that the number of years of education increases the risk of developing myopia,' said Professor Norbert Pfeiffer, Director of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Mainz University Medical Center. (uni-mainz.de)
  • What I find interesting about this average percentage is that ortho-K is routinely described as more effective than bifocal contact lenses for myopia control. (healio.com)
  • The hope is to move toward larger scale testing to assess the clinical efficacy of these contact lenses for myopia management. (pacificu.edu)
  • Myopia, also known as short-sightedness, is when your child sees nearby objects clearly but their vision is blurred in the distance. (zeiss.com)
  • Given that the myopia control effect found with atropine appears to be dose-related, it would be prudent to prescribe the highest, well-tolerated dose. (healio.com)
  • The Low-concentration Atropine for Myopia Progression (LAMP) study (Yam et al. (healio.com)
  • McBrien, N.A., Moghaddam, H.O. and Reeder, A.P. (1993) Atropine Reduces Experimental Myopia and Eye Enlargement via a Nonaccommodative Mechanism. (scirp.org)
  • Importantly, the effect was much greater than the effect of age--the ciliary muscle ring for a 40-year-old person with myopia would be substantially larger than for a 60-year-old person with hyperopia. (medindia.net)
  • We presented the protocol for precise evaluations of the state of myopia, including refraction, corneal curvature and axial length using up-to-date devices. (nature.com)
  • The study also found noticeable differences related to refractive error: eyes with myopia were significantly larger, especially front to back (axial elongation). (medindia.net)
  • Dr. Lim's study is the first to include axial length (AL, measured from the front to back of the eye) in an analysis of the myopia-DR relationship. (eurekalert.org)
  • Controversy exists in the literature concerning the role of axial myopia as a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A1 - Detry-Morel,M, Y1 - 2011/06/01/ PY - 2011/02/19/received PY - 2011/03/21/accepted PY - 2011/6/3/entrez PY - 2011/6/3/pubmed PY - 2011/12/13/medline SP - 392 EP - 5 JF - Journal francais d'ophtalmologie JO - J Fr Ophtalmol VL - 34 IS - 6 N2 - Controversy exists in the literature concerning the role of axial myopia as a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 2006) Axial Myopia Induced by a Monocularly-Deprived Facemask in Guinea Pigs: A Non-Invasive and Effective Model. (scirp.org)
  • Myopia may be caused by a person's eyeball stretching too long from front to back, or from the cornea being more curved than normal. (wisegeek.com)
  • It uses a series of hard contact lenses to slowly flatten the cornea and reduce myopia. (aao.org)
  • After you stop using the lenses, your cornea goes back to its original shape and myopia returns. (aao.org)
  • The phenotype was significantly stronger than form-deprivation myopia. (nature.com)
  • Myopia is one of the few things which correlated significantly with intelligence. (fark.com)
  • Myopia was significantly associated with age, family history of myopia, computer use, and reading and writing outside school. (who.int)
  • Several studies in the past five years have shown that soft multifocal contact lenses with a center distance design can slow the development of myopia as well as elongation of the eye. (aoa.org)
  • Multifocal lenses were also associated with about 30 percent reduction in a key measure of eye growth: lengthening of the eye, which is responsible for the myopia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the meantime, they write, "Eye care practitioners may tell parents that soft multifocal contact lenses can provide clear vision, and they may also provide myopia control, although not for everyone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved one lens for myopia control in November 2019, but multifocal contact lenses have been used off-label to slow myopia progression for many years. (nih.gov)
  • The company recently developed an innovative myopia control spectacle lens called Stellest - a multifocal lens designed with an exclusive and pioneering technology called "H.A.L.T." (Highly Aspherical Lenslet Target), according to the company. (allaboutvision.com)
  • The pilot study that garnered Fujimoto the award examined myopia management in three subjects who wore multifocal gas permeable (GP) contact lenses. (pacificu.edu)
  • Myopia and Refractive errors in Dogs" (pdf). (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual practitioners may find better control than the studies suggest, perhaps due to the particular design used or, perhaps in the case of ortho-K, due to the particular mix of refractive errors treated, with higher levels of myopia showing greater control than the averages in the clinical trials. (healio.com)
  • A lot of people have myopia, which is usually corrected by wearing glasses . (kidshealth.org)
  • Glasses and contacts remain the most common option for managing myopia. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Myopia surgery is a treatment option for people who are nearsighted and rely on glasses or contacts to see objects that are far away. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glasses and contacts have been a nuisance, but I've finally reached the age where myopia is adaptive. (fark.com)
  • Myopia may not be as grave a health problem as cancer or heart disease, but there is more at stake than a population saddled with the expense and inconvenience of coping with glasses or contact lenses. (nih.gov)
  • Wearing glasses will improve your vision when worn, but glasses won't change the progression of myopia. (mercy.net)
  • While LASIK has offered millions of adults an alternative to glasses or contact lens wear for myopia, refractive surgery is not indicated for school-age myopia. (mercy.net)
  • SLITRK6 mutations cause myopia and deafness in humans and mice. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Humans suffer from Psychological Myopia or the tendency to think short-sightedly . (sigarch.org)
  • Myopia occurs far less frequently in rural areas than in densely populated regions and cities. (zeiss.com)
  • Myopia occurs when a child's developing eyes grow too long from front to back. (nih.gov)
  • A refractive error, such as myopia, occurs when the focusing power of the eye is mismatched with the size of the eye. (mercy.net)
  • Myopia is a type of vision problem that people can't focus distance object clearly, while glaucoma is a types of eye diseases that often occurs to older people. (firmoo.com)
  • The underlying biological cause of myopia is unknown, and there is no widely accepted means of prevention or cure. (nih.gov)
  • So heredity apart, what's the real cause of myopia? (hindustantimes.com)
  • Exposure to light increases the levels of dopamine in the eye and helps prevent the elongation of the eyeball which is the common cause of myopia. (hindustantimes.com)
  • In contrast, only 19% of the GSDs in the Guide Dog program showed signs of myopia. (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • Also the increasing number of near vision tasks, especially with digital devices can intensify the impact of myopia. (zeiss.com)
  • If childhood myopia is a visual aspect of modern life, do we have any effective way to delay the progression of school-age myopia? (mercy.net)
  • The research on myopia has been growing exponentially since the first report of experimental myopia, which was achieved on monkeys by lid fusion 3 . (nature.com)
  • New research on myopia - how it develops, risk and protective factors, and potentially effective measures for prevention and treatment are reported across twenty articles in the November issue of Optometry and Vision Science , official journal of the American Academy of Optometry. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The special issue highlights important new research on myopia - how it develops, risk and protective factors, and potentially effective measures for prevention and treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Refractive eye surgeries are the most popular and widely used treatments for myopia. (wisegeek.com)
  • We aimed to identify the prevalence and risk factors of myopia among secondary-school students in Amman. (who.int)
  • Numerous cross-sectional studies have provided information on the pattern of prevalence and risk factors for myopia. (hindawi.com)
  • The myopia is usually diagnosed by early childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Myopia runs in families and usually appears in childhood. (medicinenet.com)
  • Myopia begins to develop in childhood and usually stops after puberty. (zeiss.com)
  • The proceeds will be used to fund the clinical development of MyopiaX, the company's lead product in childhood myopia. (medworm.com)
  • The second group had much fewer instances of myopia, leading researchers to believe that the sun may help regulate growth of the eyeball during childhood. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Visual researchers have suspected the risk of indoor activities instead of outdoor play as a factor for the progression of myopia in childhood. (mercy.net)
  • Myopia usually develops in childhood and may progress into the early adult years. (covd.org)