It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The omission of atrial activation that is caused by transient cessation of impulse generation at the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a prolonged pause without P wave in an ELECTROCARDIOGRAM. Sinus arrest has been associated with sleep apnea (REM SLEEP-RELATED SINUS ARREST).
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
A plant family of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS, which is the source of Oriental TEA.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.
An order of fresh water fish with 18 families and over 1600 species. The order includes CHARACINS, hatchetfish, piranhas, and TETRAS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A family of fresh water fish in the order CHARACIFORMES, which includes the Tetras.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.
The largest genus in the family Myxobolidae, class MYXOSPOREA, containing over 400 species.
The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 are critical to its formation. MyoD and ... Associated genetic factors: Myogenin, Mcf2, Six, MyoD, and Myf6 Mutations in these associated genetic factors will prevent ... Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs): MyoD, Myf5, Myf6 and Myogenin. There are a number of stages (listed below) of muscle ... As stated earlier, the combination of Myf5 and MyoD is crucial to the success of myogenesis. Both MyoD and Myf5 are members of ...
MRF family members include Myf5, MyoD (Myf3), myogenin, and MRF4 (Myf6). This transcription factor is the earliest of all MRFs ... As no muscle is formed in Myf5;Myod double mutant zebrafish, Myf5 cooperates with Myod to promote myogenesis. The regulation of ... Numerous studies have shown redundancy with two other MRFs, MyoD and MRF4. The absence of all three of these factors results in ... Rudnicki MA, Schnegelsberg PN, Stead RH, Braun T, Arnold HH, Jaenisch R (December 1993). "MyoD or Myf-5 is required for the ...
... where it binds to the transcription factors MyoD, myogenin and MRF4. M-line as well as plasma membrane localization of MLP has ... an effect attributed to the direct association of MLP with muscle specific transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin and ... "Muscle LIM protein promotes myogenesis by enhancing the activity of MyoD". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (8): 4750-60. doi ...
... has been shown to interact with: C9orf86, GNAI2, MyoD, Myogenin, and SIX1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000112559 - ... MyoD family inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MDFI gene. This protein is a transcription factor that ... "Entrez Gene: MDFI MyoD family inhibitor". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, ... Chen CM, Kraut N, Groudine M, Weintraub H (Sep 1996). "I-mf, a novel myogenic repressor, interacts with members of the MyoD ...
Differentiation is regulated by myogenic regulatory factors, including MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4. GATA4 and GATA6 also ...
DUX4 downregulates many genes involved in muscle development, including MyoD, myogenin, desmin, and PAX7. DUX4 has shown to ...
Other members in this family include myogenin, Myf5, Myf6, Mist1, and Nex-1. When MyoD binds to the E-box motif CANNTG, muscle ... MyoD can also bind to noncanonical E boxes of MyoG and regulate its expression. MyoG belongs to the MyoD transcription factor ... The researchers ablated various parts of the recombinant MyoD sequence and concluded that MyoD used encompassing elements to ... MyoD regulates HB-EGF (Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor), a member of the EGF (Epidermal growth factor) family that ...
The four MRFs have four distinct expression profiles, though with some redundancy, as MyoD and Myf5 are both involved in ... myogenin, and MRF4. These proteins contain a conserved basic DNA binding domain that binds the E box DNA motif. They dimerize ... Myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myogenesis: MyoD, Myf5 ... "The myoD gene family: nodal point during specification of the muscle cell lineage". Science. 251 (4995): 761-6. Bibcode:1991Sci ...
MyoD, Myogenin, PCAF, TAL1 TWIST1, and UBE2I. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000071564 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... Maleki SJ, Royer CA, Hurlburt BK (Jun 1997). "MyoD-E12 heterodimers and MyoD-MyoD homodimers are equally stable". Biochemistry ... Chakraborty T, Martin JF, Olson EN (Sep 1992). "Analysis of the oligomerization of myogenin and E2A products in vivo using a ...
The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins, including myoD (MIM 159970), myogenin (MIM 159980), MYF5 (MIM 159990), and MRF4 ( ... Black BL, Molkentin JD, Olson EN (1998). "Multiple Roles for the MyoD Basic Region in Transmission of Transcriptional ... Funk WD, Wright WE (1992). "Cyclic amplification and selection of targets for multicomponent complexes: myogenin interacts with ...
Greater activation also results in increased expression of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MyoD, myogenin ... MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 remains to be determined. There is some research indicating that satellite cells are negatively ...
Muscles from mice lacking IFRD1 display decreased protein and mRNA levels of MyoD, and myogenin, and after muscle crash damage ... prevents their morphological and biochemical differentiation by inhibiting the expression of MyoD and myogenin, key master ... Micheli L, Leonardi L, Conti F, Buanne P, Canu N, Caruso M, Tirone F (March 2005). "PC4 coactivates MyoD by relieving the ... Micheli L, Leonardi L, Conti F, Buanne P, Canu N, Caruso M, Tirone F (2005). "PC4 coactivates MyoD by relieving the histone ...
... myoD and myogenin) and gene transcription factors (e.g., MEF2). HMB-induced human myosatellite cell proliferation in vitro is ...
... myod protein MeSH D12.776.210.500.570.595 - myogenic regulatory factor 5 MeSH D12.776.210.500.570.600 - myogenin MeSH D12.776. ...
Immunostaining for myogenin and for MyoD can be used to determine ARMS from other rhabdomyosarcoma tumors and immunostaining ...
... myod protein MeSH D12.776.930.125.750.595 - myogenic regulatory factor 5 MeSH D12.776.930.125.750.600 - myogenin MeSH D12.776. ...
... myod protein MeSH D12.776.260.103.750.595 - myogenic regulatory factor 5 MeSH D12.776.260.103.750.600 - myogenin MeSH D12.776. ...
Vertebrate MRF family members include MyoD1, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 (Myf6). In non-vertebrate animals, a single MyoD protein ... Maleki SJ, Royer CA, Hurlburt BK (June 1997). "MyoD-E12 heterodimers and MyoD-MyoD homodimers are equally stable". Biochemistry ... MyoD and pRb are both necessary for repressing Fra-1 (and thus cyclin D1) as either MyoD or pRb on its own is not sufficient ... MyoD mRNA levels are also reported to be elevated in aging skeletal muscle. One of the main actions of MyoD is to remove cells ...
... is a member of the MyoD family of transcription factors, which also includes MyoD, Myf5, and MRF4. In mice, myogenin ... In cell culture, myogenin can induce myogenesis in a variety of non-muscle cell types. Myogenin has been shown to interact with ... Myogenin (myogenic factor 4), also known as MYOG, is a gene. Myogenin is a muscle-specific basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ... "Entrez Gene: MYOG myogenin (myogenic factor 4)". Hasty P, Bradley A, Morris JH, Edmondson DG, Venuti JM, Olson EN, Klein WH ( ...
Wright WE, Binder M, Funk W (August 1991). "Cyclic amplification and selection of targets (CASTing) for the myogenin consensus ... Blackwell TK, Weintraub H (November 1990). "Differences and similarities in DNA-binding preferences of MyoD and E2A protein ...
When expressed, the myoD gene produces a protein referred to as MyoD (or MyoD1), which can bind certain DNA sequences, stop ... "Expression of two myogenic regulatory factors myogenin and MyoD1 during mouse embryogenesis". Nature. 341 (6240): 303-307. doi: ... During the final years of his life, Weintraub's work used myoD to delve broadly and deeply into the areas of regulatory ... Perhaps the work for which Weintraub is best known was his laboratory's discovery and characterization of "myoD", the first ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD gene cluster or the 5' end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital abnormalities. In addition to effects during embryogenesis, this particular gene may also play a role in adult urogenital tract function.[7] ...
HNF-3G is a member of the forkheadclass of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific transcripts such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver.[5] ...
Animal cells maintain proper levels of intracellular lipids (fats and oils) under widely varying circumstances (lipid homeostasis).[6][7][8] For example, when cellular cholesterol levels fall below the level needed, the cell makes more of the enzymes necessary to make cholesterol. A principle step in this response is to make more of the mRNA transcripts that direct the synthesis of these enzymes. Conversely, when there is enough cholesterol around, the cell stops making those mRNAs and the level of the enzymes falls. As a result, the cell quits making cholesterol once it has enough.. A notable feature of this regulatory feedback machinery was first observed for the SREBP pathway - regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Subsequently, RIP was found to be used in almost all organisms from bacteria to human beings and regulates a wide range of processes ranging from development to neurodegeneration.. A feature of the SREBP pathway is the proteolytic release of a membrane-bound transcription ...
FXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine. Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a heterodimer with RXR) and binds to hormone response elements on DNA, which up- or down-regulates the expression of certain genes.[6] One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. FXR does not directly bind to the CYP7A1 promoter. Rather, FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which then functions to inhibit transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. In this way, a negative feedback pathway is established in which synthesis of bile acids is inhibited when cellular levels are already high. FXR has also been found to be important in regulation of hepatic triglyceride levels.[7] Studies have also shown the FXR to ...
... was first described as a transcription factor that activates the hemoglobin B gene in the red blood cell precursors of chickens.[30] Subsequent studies in mice and isolated human cells found that GATA1 stimulates the expression of genes that promote the maturation of precursor cells (e.g. erythroblasts) to red blood cells while silencing genes that cause these precursors to proliferate and thereby to self-renew.[31][32] GATA1 stimulates this maturation by, for example, inducing the expression of genes in erythroid cells that contribute to the formation of their cytoskeleton and that make enzymes necessary for the biosynthesis of hemoglobins and heme, the oxygen-carrying components of red blood cells. GATA1-inactivating mutations may thereby result in a failure to produce sufficient numbers of and/or fully functional red blood cells.[5] Also based on mouse and isolated human cell studies, GATA1 appears to play a similarly critical role in the maturation of platelets from their precursor ...
MYB factors represent a family of proteins that include the conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. Plants contain a MYB-protein subfamily that is characterised by the R2R3-type MYB domain.[8] In maize, phlobaphenes are synthesized in the flavonoids synthetic pathway[9] from polymerisation of flavan-4-ols[10][11] which encodes an R2R3 myb-like transcriptional activator[12] of the A1 gene encoding for the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (reducing dihydroflavonols into flavan-4-ols)[13] while another gene (Suppressor of Pericarp Pigmentation 1 or SPP1) acts as a suppressor.[14] The maize P gene encodes a Myb homolog that recognizes the sequence CCT/AACC, in sharp contrast with the C/TAACGG bound by vertebrate Myb proteins.[15] In sorghum, the corresponding yellow seed 1 gene (y1)[16] also encodes a R2R3 type of Myb domain protein that regulates the expression of chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes required for the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids.[17] Ruby is a MYB ...
Forkhead box protein A2 is a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific genes such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. This gene has been linked to sporadic cases of maturity onset diabetes of the young. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene.[5] ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. This gene product is one of two closely related family members, the HAND proteins Hand1 and Hand2, which are asymmetrically expressed in the developing ventricular chambers and play an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis. Working in a complementary fashion, they function in the formation of the right ventricle and aortic arch arteries, implicating them as mediators of congenital heart disease. In addition, this transcription factor plays an important role in limb and branchial arch development.[6] In one study, it was found that a missense mutation of the Hand2 protein in patients with the congenital heart disease (CHD) Tetralogy of Fallot experienced significantly decreased Hand2 interactions with other key developmental genes such as GATA4 and NKX2.5.[7] Hand2 mutations have the potential to be genes for the future study of right ventricle stenosis and its pathogenesis.[8] In avian ...
Aster JC, Robertson ES, Hasserjian RP, Turner JR, Kieff E, Sklar J (Apr 1997). "Oncogenic forms of NOTCH1 lacking either the primary binding site for RBP-Jkappa or nuclear localization sequences retain the ability to associate with RBP-Jkappa and activate transcription". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (17): 11336-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.17.11336. PMID 9111040 ...
We examined the normal expression pattern of MyoD and myogenin in C2C12 cell culture using immunofluorescence. MyoD was highly ... Our objective was to use the C2C12 cell culture model to test the hypothesis that both MyoD and myogenin were required for ... We report that antibody to either MyoD or myogenin decreases the frequency of agrin-induced AChR clustering without affecting ... Next we used antibodies to decrease MyoD and/or myogenin function. Fluorescence microscopy images were captured and then ...
MyoD expression appears to increase at the same time as the phenotypic transition. Thus, MyoD expression or the Myogenin: MyoD ... Myogenin expression levels do not change during the slow to fast myofiber phenotypic transition that occurs during hindlimb ... Thus, MyoD expression or the Myogenin: MyoD mRNA ratio may be important in the phenotypic transition. Neither myogenin nor MyoD ... Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin heavy chain isoform expression following hindlimb suspension Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 May;70(5 ...
Downstream MyoD and myogenin cDNA sequences were isolated by 3′RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) combining the MyoD- ... Halibut MyoD and myogenin exhibited the highest overall aa sequence identity to gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) MyoD (71%) ... Based on the gene structure of zebrafish MyoD (Du et al., 2003) and mouse myogenin (Edmondson et al., 1992), the primers sets ... RT-PCR was used to verify the temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin (not shown). Owing to the difficulty of making specific ...
Sodium butyrate inhibits myogenesis by interfering with the transcriptional activation function of MyoD and myogenin.. L A ... Sodium butyrate inhibits myogenesis by interfering with the transcriptional activation function of MyoD and myogenin. ... Sodium butyrate inhibits myogenesis by interfering with the transcriptional activation function of MyoD and myogenin. ... Sodium butyrate inhibits myogenesis by interfering with the transcriptional activation function of MyoD and myogenin. ...
... myoD; myoblast; myocyte; myogenesis; myogenic regulatory factor; myogenin; myostatin; nutritional programming; obesity; ...
However, myogenin expressed no affect by rapamycin. In conclusion, leucine may up-regulate the activation of mTORC1 to promote ... We have shown that leucine promoted the differentiation of myotubes in part through the mTORC1-MyoD signal pathway. ... Furthermore, leucine increased the expression of MyoD and myogenin while the protein level of MyoD decreased due to rapamycin. ... Furthermore, leucine increased the expression of MyoD and myogenin while the protein level of MyoD decreased due to rapamycin. ...
... such as MyoD and myogenin, inflammatory pathways, such as TNF-𝛼 and NF-kB, as well as proteolytic enzymes, such as 𝜇-calpain ... on H2O2-treated C2C12 cells significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of myogenin and MyoD when compared to those ... 𝜇-calpain may be involved in the muscle atrophy through the suppression of myogenin and MyoD. Moreover, Sunphenon may regulate ... the skeletal muscle genes/promote skeletal muscle recovery by the up-regulation of myogenin and MyoD and suppression of 𝜇- ...
Taken together all these data, we concluded that the synergism of MyoD (or myogenin) and MEF2 is necessary for TRIM72 ... Taken together all these data, we concluded that the synergism of MyoD (or myogenin) and MEF2 is necessary for TRIM72 ... Taken together all these data, we concluded that the synergism of MyoD (or myogenin) and MEF2 is necessary for TRIM72 ... Taken together all these data, we concluded that the synergism of MyoD (or myogenin) and MEF2 is necessary for TRIM72 ...
MyoD, and myogenin in primary myotubes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Myogenin Medicine & Life Sciences ... We also show that expression of MyoD and myogenin are regulated by electrical activity in primary myotube cultures and that all ... We also show that expression of MyoD and myogenin are regulated by electrical activity in primary myotube cultures and that all ... We also show that expression of MyoD and myogenin are regulated by electrical activity in primary myotube cultures and that all ...
The transcription factors of the MyoD family have essential functions in myogenic lineage determination and muscle ... Four members, MyoD, myogenin, myf5 and MRF4/herculin/myf6, have been identified in higher vertebrates and have been shown to ... Furthermore, as a result of an additional polyploidy that occurred during the evolution of some amphibians and fish, MyoD, ... The transcription factors of the MyoD family have essential functions in myogenic lineage determination and muscle ...
The levels of connexin 43, myogenin, myoD, and desmin expression were normalized to the level of GAPDH; and the level of day 0 ... The optimal cycles to semi-quantify the product for GAPDH and connexin 43 were 25; and for myogenin, myoD and desmin were 22. ... myogenin, myoD, desmin and GAPDH, respectively. The different primers used in this study were described in Table 2. After ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Myogenin Antibody (MGN185 + F5D) [PerCP]. Skeletal Muscle Marker. Validated: WB. Tested Reactivity: Human ... Myogenin is a member of the MyoD family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that also includes MyoD ... Myogenin Antibody (MGN185 + F5D) [PerCP] Summary. Immunogen. Human myogenin recombinant protein (MGN185); Rat myogenin ... MyoD family members share about 80% amino acid homology in their bHLH motifs. Anti-myogenin labels the nuclei of myoblasts in ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Myogenin Antibody (MGN185) [Alexa Fluor® 647]. Skeletal Muscle Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF ... Myogenin is a member of the MyoD family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that also includes MyoD ... MyoD family members share about 80% amino acid homology in their bHLH motifs. Anti-myogenin labels the nuclei of myoblasts in ... Blogs on Myogenin. There are no specific blogs for Myogenin, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
MyoD and myogenin) [24]. In contrast to counterparts from young subjects muscle, the satellite cells from aged muscle exhibit ...
Myogenin is a member of the MyoD family of transcription factors, which also includes MyoD, Myf5, and MRF4. In mice, myogenin ... In cell culture, myogenin can induce myogenesis in a variety of non-muscle cell types. Myogenin has been shown to interact with ... Myogenin (myogenic factor 4), also known as MYOG, is a gene. Myogenin is a muscle-specific basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ... "Entrez Gene: MYOG myogenin (myogenic factor 4)". Hasty P, Bradley A, Morris JH, Edmondson DG, Venuti JM, Olson EN, Klein WH ( ...
a. Myogenin. b. MyoD. c. MRF-4. d. myf-5. e. Pax-3 ...
Myogenin, MyoD. Upregulates miR-206. Primary human myoblasts; C2C12 cells. [11]. MyoD. Upregulates linc MD1 (encodes miR-133b) ... Myogenin, MyoD. Upregulates miR-1-1 and miR-133a-2. Primary human myoblasts; C2C12 cells. [11]. ... HMOX1 downregulates MyoD and myogenin. Downregulates all myomiRs. Inflamed skeletal muscle. [60]. ... Myogenin. Binds miR-206 enhancer (ChIP). Fibroblast cell line:. [40]. IGF-I signalling. Upregulates miR-133b. Mouse Adipose ...
... for MyoD, myogenin, calpain-1, and atrogin-1. For TGFβ1 the analysis indicated a significant effect of mutSOD1 (*p , 0.0001), ... Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 ... MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin ...
However, in white muscle, only the ,i,myod,/i, transcript level was significantly decreased in the black water tambaqui. The ... myogenin,/i,, and ,i,mrf4,/i,) were significantly lower in the red muscle from black water fish in comparison to clear water ... All of the MRF transcript levels (,i,myod,/i,, ,i,myf5,/i,, ,i, ... Myod, myf5, Myogenin, and mrf4 mRNA Expression. The partial ... The MRF family comprises the transcripts of the myod, myf5, myogenin, and mrf4 genes [21]. During embryogenesis, myod and myf5 ...
MyoD, myogenic factor 3; MyoG, myogenic factor 4 (myogenin); NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa; NO, nitric oxide; Pax, paired box; ... MyoD, myogenic factor 3; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T-cells; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa; NRF1 ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 are critical to its formation. MyoD and ... Associated genetic factors: Myogenin, Mcf2, Six, MyoD, and Myf6 Mutations in these associated genetic factors will prevent ... Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs): MyoD, Myf5, Myf6 and Myogenin. There are a number of stages (listed below) of muscle ... As stated earlier, the combination of Myf5 and MyoD is crucial to the success of myogenesis. Both MyoD and Myf5 are members of ...
MyoD), and muscle-specific gene transcription (MyoD, myogenin), all of which are important for muscle hypertrophy (Ishido et al ... Ishido, M., Kami, K., and Masuhara, M. (2004). Localization of MyoD, myogenin and cell cycle regulatory factors in ... Jogo, M., Shiraishi, S., and Tamura, T. A. (2009). Identification of MAFbx as a myogenin-engaged F-box protein in SCF ubiquitin ... In skeletal muscle, a few targets of MAFbx have been identified, including eIF3f (Lagirand-Cantaloube et al., 2008), MyoD ( ...
Rabbit polyclonal Abs against myogenin, MEF2, myoD, SRF, TGF-β1, TGF-βR1, and TGF-βR2 were purchased from Santa Cruz ... The membrane used for detection of MyoD was stained with Coomassie blue to show equal protein loading. (c) Immunoblots ... myoD, sense: 5′-CTCCACATCCTTTTGTTTGT-3′, antisense: 5′-AGCGTCTTTATTTCCAACAC-3′; TGF-β1, sense: 5′-TGAGTGGCTGTCTTTTGACG-3′, ... myogenin, sense: 5′-CAATACACAAAGCACTGGAA-3′, antisense: 5′-TCTGAGGAGAGAAAGATGGA-3′; myf5, sense: 5′-GAACCCATTATTGCAAATGT-3′, ...
MyoD-dependent transcription drives subsequent expression of myogenin and other members of the MRF family (75). Although MyoD ... 5D). The expression of Pax3, MyoD, and myogenin also was altered in the Cygb−/− muscle as compared with Cygb+/+ muscle, ... D and E) qRT-PCR revealed increased Pax3, Pax7, myogenin, MyoD, and Cygb levels after muscle injury. The transcript levels were ... 2D). Likewise, there were marked increases in mRNA levels of MyoD and myogenin, which are hallmarks of MPC activation (Fig. 2E ...
... myogenin, actin, MyoD, myosin; an oocyte specific promoter, e.g., ZP1, ZP2, ZP3; a testes-specific promoter, e.g., protamin, ...
... and Myod, and, subsequently, the differentiation gene myogenin (Myog) (Rudnicki et al., 1993; Kassar-Duchossoy et al., 2004; ... Pax7+/Myod-, P=0.0572 or GFP-/Pax7+/Myod+, P=0.4226) and only a modest increase in the proportion of the Myod+ population was ... and Myod (right panels). See also supplementary material Fig. S2A. (G) Quantification of Myod+/GFP+ cells in control (Myf5Cre/+ ... Myod (mouse; Dako M3512; 1/50); myogenin (DSHB F5D; 1/100); Myf5 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-302; 1/1200); MyHC (rabbit; ...
MyoD, and Myogenin. The PP6 cells also expressed c-met and MNF, two genes which are expressed at an early stage of myogenesis ( ...
In contrast, expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD or Myogenin has not been affected by myostatin in the muscle tissue. ... Myostatin genotype did not affect the expression level of MyoD or Myogenin (P > 0.5). Myostatin may regulates the expression of ... In contrast, expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD or Myogenin has not been affected by myostatin in the muscle tissue. ... cDNA Synthesis and Real Time PCR for MYOD and Myogenin. Reverse transcription of RNA was performed (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) ...
MyoD)16. Differentiating myoblasts start to express myogenin (MyoG)17. The terminal differentiation of myoblasts is marked by ... Figure 9: Myogenin immunostaining. Day 4, 7 and 10 cultures were stained with antibodies against Myogenin. (A-D) Representative ... Figure 7: Pax 7, MyoD immunostaining. Day 4, 7 and 10 cultures were stained with antibodies against Pax7, and MyoD ... G and H) The number of Pax7+ and MyoD+ nuclei per microscopic field was counted and expressed as a percentage of the total ...
MRFs consist of Myf5, MyoD, MRF4, and myogenin. MRFs normally heterodimerize with gene E2A products (i.e., E12/E47) and bind to ... MyoD, MEF2, and myogenin). In this sense, the status of the JAK1-STAT1-STAT3 pathway can be viewed as a key checkpoint for ... myogenin, MyoD, Id1, p21Cip1, p27Kip1, β-actin, and MEF2 were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.; anti-Flag was ... or JAK1 already led to a reduced expression of myogenin, cells overexpressing both further repressed myogenin expression (Fig. ...
  • In response to inductive signals emanating from the adjacent tissues, muscle precursor cells start to progressively express the four myogenic regulating factors (MRFs) MyoD, myf5, myogenin and MRF4 (Weintraub et al. (biologists.org)
  • Four members, MyoD, myogenin, myf5 and MRF4/herculin/myf6, have been identified in higher vertebrates and have been shown to exhibit distinct but overlapping functions. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, as a result of an additional polyploidy that occurred during the evolution of some amphibians and fish, MyoD, myogenin, myf5 and MRF4 may exist in lower vertebrates in two distinct copies that have evolved separately, acquiring specific roles and resulting in increased complexity of the myogenic regulatory network. (nih.gov)
  • All of the MRF transcript levels ( myod , myf5 , myogenin , and mrf4 ) were significantly lower in the red muscle from black water fish in comparison to clear water fish. (hindawi.com)
  • The MRF family comprises the transcripts of the myod , myf5 , myogenin , and mrf4 genes [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During embryogenesis, myod and myf5 are known as primary factors that are expressed in myoblasts during the proliferation phase, whereas myogenin and mrf4 are expressed in myoblasts that are in developmental stages in which fusion and differentiation into immature muscle fibers take place [ 22 - 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Myogenin is a member of the MyoD family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that also includes MyoD, Myf-5, and MRF4 (also known as herculinor Myf-6). (novusbio.com)
  • Myogenin is a member of the MyoD family of transcription factors, which also includes MyoD, Myf5, and MRF4. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are MyoD, myogenin, myf-5 and MRF4/herculin. (searlescholars.net)
  • Myogenin and MRF4 gene expression was similar in both groups. (medscimonit.com)
  • MyoD and MRF4 protein levels, as well as the MyHC distribution, were not different between groups. (medscimonit.com)
  • 1994 ). Myf5, MyoD, myogenin and MRF4 myogenic derivatives of the embryonic mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 exhibit the same adult muscle phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • Our objective was to use the C2C12 cell culture model to test the hypothesis that both MyoD and myogenin were required for agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. (scirp.org)
  • MyoD was highly expressed while myoblasts were in GM, but expression declined within 72 hours after cell cultures were switched to DM. (scirp.org)
  • Myogenin expression succeeds MyoD expression, and activates fusion of myoblasts and differentiation to multinucleated myotubes ( Rescan, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Anti-myogenin labels the nuclei of myoblasts in developing muscle tissue, and is expressed in tumor cell nuclei of rhabdomyosarcoma and some leiomyosarcomas. (novusbio.com)
  • In response to muscle injury or exercise, these quiescent MSCs become activated, as indicated by the expression of MyoD, reenter the cell cycle, and actively proliferate to form myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Antibody to MyoD labels the nuclei of myoblasts in developing muscle tissues. (fishersci.com)
  • Quiescent SCs express the transcription factor Pax7 14,15 , while their progeny, the proliferating myoblasts, additionally express the myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD) 16 . (jove.com)
  • Differentiating myoblasts start to express myogenin (MyoG) 17 . (jove.com)
  • At the early stage of regeneration, activated STAT3 proteins were first detected in c-Met-positive activated satellite cell nuclei, and then continued to be activated in proliferating myoblasts expressing both PCNA and MyoD proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 12 MyoD and the related factors myogenin, 13 14 myf -5 15 and MRF 4/herculin/ myf -6 16 17 18 encode transcriptional regulatory factors that can convert a variety of cell lines to skeletal myoblasts. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1990 ). MyoD converts prymary dermal fibroblasts, chondroblasts, smooth muscle, and retinal pigmented epithelial cells into striated mononucleated myoblasts and multinucleated myotubes. (biologists.org)
  • Application of the conditioned medium to C2C12 myoblasts accelerated maturation, demonstrated by increased mef2c, myf5 and myogenin transcripts and fusion indexes. (biologists.org)
  • Subsequently all proliferating myoblasts express MyoD and part of the population is (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) positive. (biologists.org)
  • However, expression of the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD seems to be similar in proliferating and differentiating cells, suggesting that its function is attenuated in proliferating myoblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, Sunphenon may regulate the skeletal muscle genes/promote skeletal muscle recovery by the up-regulation of myogenin and MyoD and suppression of 𝜇-calpain and inflammatory pathways and may regulate the apoptosis pathways. (ias.ac.in)
  • Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. (nih.gov)
  • MyoD family members are expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle and play a key role in activating myogenesis by binding to enhancer sequences of muscle-specific genes. (novusbio.com)
  • In addition, these mice lack expression not only of the mutant genes but also of myogenin and MRF 4. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that RMS-specific expression of potentially cytotoxic genes can be achieved, we designed a series of reporter constructs containing either the myogenin promoter alone or the myo D enhancer coupled to the SV40 promoter. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The actions of these factors are mediated, at least in part, by the direct activation of a number of muscle-specific genes, including muscle creatine kinase, cardiac α-actin, myosin light chains 1/3, and troponin I. 19 20 Importantly, the differentiation program in skeletal muscle depends on the continuous expression of myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD . (ahajournals.org)
  • 23 Although differentiation control genes, analogous to MyoD , may be expressed in smooth muscle, none have been reported yet. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Question What is the relationship between muscle specific transcription factors (specifically Mef2D and myogenin) and chromatin remodeling-enzymes (SWI/SNF) in the activation of late myogenic genes? (coursehero.com)
  • Ectopic expression of MyoD in the hearts of transgenic mice activated some muscle-specific skeletal sarcomeric genes and resulted in embryonic lethality with severe cardiac abnormalities in fetuses heterozygous for the transgene. (ahajournals.org)
  • As células isoladas de músculo distrófico apresentaram uma maior proporção de células em proliferação, como observado pela análise dos marcadores de ciclo celular no músculo gastrocnêmio dissociado, com maior número de células na fase G2/M. A cascata de genes de regeneração é ativada no músculo distrófico, com altos níveis de expressão de fatores de regeneração muscular, como MYOD e Myogenin. (usp.br)
  • Myogenin (myogenic factor 4), also known as MYOG, is a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs): MyoD, Myf5, Myf6 and Myogenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This MAb does not cross react with myogenin, Myf5, or Myf6. (fishersci.com)
  • M. A. Rudnicki, T. Braun, S. Hinuma and R. Jaenisch, "Inactivation of MyoD in Mice Leads to Up-Regulation of the Myogenic HLH Gene Myf-5 and Results in Apparently Normal Muscle Development," Cell, Vol. 71, No., 1992, pp. 383-390. (scirp.org)
  • This is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of MyoD, myocyte enhancer-binding factor 2 (MEF2), p21Cip1, and p27Kip1, a faster down-regulation of Id1, and an increase in MEF2-dependent gene transcription. (rupress.org)
  • At the molecular level, this involves application of a novel strategy for probing the MyoD regulatory network (forced dimer polyproteins), and further development and application of in vivo footprinting to help understand how protein:DNA complex formation is regulated and related to gene activity in the cell. (searlescholars.net)
  • Conclusions: Heart failure-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is combined with fiber necrosis, increased MyoD gene expression and decreased myogenin protein levels. (medscimonit.com)
  • Additionally, 9E11G cells expressed transcripts for MHox , a muscle homeobox gene expressed in smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles, but not the skeletal muscle-specific regulatory factors, MyoD and myogenin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Skeletal muscle development is influenced by myogenic regulatory factors, including the expression of MyoD and myogenin. (scirp.org)
  • M. K. Ball, D. H. Campbell, K. Ezell, J. B. Henley, P. R. Standley and W. A. Grow, "Antibody to MyoD or Myogenin Decreases Acetylcholine Receptor Clustering in C2C12 Myotube Culture," CellBio , Vol. 2 No. 3, 2013, pp. 138-148. (scirp.org)
  • This results in decreased expression of Pax7, a marker of undifferentiated state, and a change in the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (Myod, Myf5 and Myogenin). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • TRIM72 promoter activity was decreased by the site-directed mutagenesis of either E-boxes or a MEF2 site and synergistically enhanced by MyoD (or myogenin) and MEF2, which were associated with proximal E-box, and MEF2 site of the TRIM72 promoter, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together all these data, we concluded that the synergism of MyoD (or myogenin) and MEF2 is necessary for TRIM72 expression during C2C12 differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Jung, SY & Ko, YG 2010, ' TRIM72, a novel negative feedback regulator of myogenesis, is transcriptionally activated by the synergism of MyoD (or myogenin) and MEF2 ', Biochemical and biophysical research communications , vol. 396, no. 2, pp. 238-245. (elsevier.com)
  • At the cellular and molecular levels, it is clear that negative regulators of skeletal myogenesis are probably just as important in properly regulating the outcome as are the positive MyoD and MEF2 family regulators. (searlescholars.net)
  • We examined the normal expression pattern of MyoD and myogenin in C2C12 cell culture using immunofluorescence. (scirp.org)
  • The pre-treatment of Sunphenon (50 𝜇g/mL)/Polyphenon 60 (50 𝜇g/mL) on H 2 O 2 -treated C2C12 cells significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of myogenin and MyoD when compared to those treated with H 2 O 2 -induced alone. (ias.ac.in)
  • We also found that apigenin induces myogenic differentiation by regulating Prmt7-p38-myoD and the Akt-S6K1 pathway in C2C12 cells. (ergo-log.com)
  • We examined a panel of cell lines for the expression of the myogenic proteins myo D and myogenin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Journal Article] In vivo expression patterns of MyoD, p21 and Rb proteins in myonuclei and satellite cells of denervated rat skeletal muscle. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Myf5, MyoD and myogenin are signal proteins that induce muscles to grow. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • The researchers also looked at the synthesis of the anabolic signal proteins Myo-D and myogenin, but found no effect. (ironmagazine.com)
  • The transcription factors of the MyoD family have essential functions in myogenic lineage determination and muscle differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Myogenin is a muscle-specific basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor involved in the coordination of skeletal muscle development or myogenesis and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myogenin has been shown to interact with: MDFI, POLR2C, Serum response factor Sp1 transcription factor, and TCF3. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAX3 mediates the transcription of c-Met and is responsible for the activation of MyoD expression-one of the functions of MyoD is to promote the regenerative ability of satellite cells (described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell size, aspect ratio, and expression of transcription factor MyoD were measured after culturing the H9C2 cell on fibronectin coated PA gel with and without the presence of 10 cm hydrostatic pressure for 48 hours. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Mechanistically, dissection of the muscle regenerative process revealed that the demethylase activity of UTX is required for expression of the transcription factor myogenin, which in turn drives differentiation of muscle progenitors. (jci.org)
  • Specifically, UTX mediates the removal of H3K27me3 in the promoter of the transcription factor myogenin, which regulates myogenic differentiation. (jci.org)
  • Co-dependent Activators Direct Myoblast Specific MyoD Transcription. (sibcb.ac.cn)
  • 1995 ). Determination versus differentiation and the MyoD family of transcription factors. (biologists.org)
  • Myogenin is a member of the MyoD family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. (biotium.com)
  • The myogenic bHLH transcription factors MyoD and myogenin has been shown to possible be involved in the regulation of fibre type specificity. (uio.no)
  • TGFβ1 and BMP4 injections resulted in increased Pax7-positive satellite cells, whereas BMP4, TGFβ1, and Wnt3A resulted in a decrease in MyoD-positive satellite cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Subsequently, the proportion of Pax7+/MyoD- progenitors decreased while the proportion of Pax7-/MyoD+ cells committed in differentiation increased. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Il en résulte une diminution de l'expression de Pax7, marqueur de l'état indifférencié, et une dérégulation de l'expression des facteurs régulateurs de lamyogenèse (Myod, Myf5 et Myogénine). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • La conséquence ultime est laréduction de la proportion en progéniteurs Pax7+/MyoD- au profit decellules Pax7-/MyoD+ engagées dans la différenciation. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • 1996 ). Myogenin expression, cell cycle withdrawal, and phenotypic differentiation are temporally separable events that precede cell fusion upon myogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • 1996 ). Activation of different myogenic pathways: Myf5 is induced by the neural tube and MyoD by the dorsal ectoderm in mouse paraxial mesoderm. (biologists.org)
  • 1996 ). MyoD is required for myogenic stem cell function in adult skeletal muscle. (biologists.org)
  • Cellular responses of H 2 O 2 -induced C2C12cells were examined, including mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, inflammatory pathways, such as TNF-𝛼 and NF-kB, as well as proteolytic enzymes, such as 𝜇-calpain and m-calpain. (ias.ac.in)
  • The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. (drjeffreytucker.com)
  • 1992 ). Identification of skeletal muscle precursor cells in vivo by use of MyoD1 and Myogenin probes. (biologists.org)
  • 1990 ). Myogenic programs of mouse muscle cell lines: expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms, MyoD1, and myogenin. (biologists.org)
  • MEF2D Mef2D has a skeletal muscle specific isoform (Mef2D1b) and can accelerate muscle development in synergy with MyoD. (coursehero.com)
  • Although there was a shift to a faster myosin heavy chain phenotype in soleus muscles from hindlimb suspended rats, there was no change in myogenin expression, and MyoD expression was undetectable by Northern analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Only mutant MyoD caused cell fusion, myosin heavy chain expression, and altered mobility of the E-box oligonucleotide in gel shift assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IFN-γ also inhibited muscle cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro, and IFN-γ mutation increased MyoD expression in mdx muscle in vivo, showing that IFN-γ can have direct effects on muscle cells that could impair repair. (jimmunol.org)
  • Myogenic differentiation factor D (MyoD) and myogenin are myogenic regulatory factors that are expressed in activated satellite cells, and they are necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation ( 12 , 37 ). (physiology.org)
  • We have shown that leucine promoted the differentiation of myotubes in part through the mTORC1-MyoD signal pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • We previously identified the stimulatory effect of AMPKα1, the dominant AMPKα isoform in satellite cells, on myogenin expression and fusion into myotubes ( 20 , 21 ), which led us to hypothesize that AMPKα1 facilitates muscle regeneration and that obesity impedes muscle regeneration mainly through inhibition of AMPK. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1995 ). MyoD protein accumulates in satellite cells and is neurally regulated in regenerating myotubes and skeletal muscle fibres. (biologists.org)
  • Myogenin assoc. with myoblast fusion and differentiation. (mitomap.org)
  • Myogenin Mice lacking Myogenin display normal myoblast formation but are unable to complete the later stages of skeletal muscle development What is Myogenin's role in differentiation? (coursehero.com)
  • MyoD , which has subsequently been shown to encode the MyoD2 isoform, displayed a novel bilaterally asymmetric expression pattern only in white muscle precursor cells during early halibut somitogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • The regulatory domain of MyoD is approximately 70 amino acids in length and includes both a basic DNA binding motif and a bHLH dimerization motif. (novusbio.com)
  • MyoD family members share about 80% amino acid homology in their bHLH motifs. (novusbio.com)
  • Journal Article] Localization of MyoD, myogenin and cell cycle regulatory factors in hypertrophying rat skeletal muscles. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) of the MyoD family regulate the skeletal muscle differentiation program. (biologists.org)
  • This study was designed to determine the pattern of expression in vivo of the two myogenic regulatory factors, Myf5 and MyoD during this process. (biologists.org)
  • PURPOSE: To assess the presence of NOS in strain-induced muscle injury in conjunction with two muscle regulatory factors: MyoD and myogenin. (cdc.gov)
  • Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types. (curehunter.com)
  • Western immunoblot analysis revealed increased eNOS, MyoD, and myogenin protein levels 48- hours post-strain injury, but a decrease in nNOS protein levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Associated Genetic Factors: PAX3, c-Met, Mox2, MSX1, Six, Myf5, and MyoD Mox2 (also referred to as MEOX-2) plays an important role in the induction of mesoderm and regional specification. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD or Myogenin has not been affected by myostatin in the muscle tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adult satellite cells identified by M-cadherin labelling, when activated, initially express either MyoD or Myf5 or both myogenic factors. (biologists.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Myogenic factors MyoD and Myogenin are significantly repressed only one week following tumor implantation suggesting repressed myogenesis. (wku.edu)
  • In mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts, both wild-type and mutant MyoD induced terminal myogenic differentiation when growth factors were withdrawn from the cell culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, arachidonic acid boosted the synthesis of the anabolic molecules myoD and myogenin. (ironmagazine.com)
  • In mice, myogenin is essential for the development of functional skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking both copies of myogenin (homozygous-null) suffer from perinatal lethality due to the lack of mature secondary skeletal muscle fibers throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiotoxin was used to induce regeneration in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of heterozygous Myf5-nlacZ mice, and the muscles were assayed for the presence of (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) and MyoD. (biologists.org)
  • Exposure to both stimuli induced the greatest increases in mef2c, myf5, myoD and myogenin transcripts. (biologists.org)
  • RESULTS: An increase in myogenin transcripts and a decrease in nNOS transcript expression was observed 48- hours post-strain injury by RT-PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutation of Thr115 in MyoD positively regulates function in murine fibroblasts and human rhabdomyosarcoma cells -- Liu et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chakraborty T, Martin JF, Olson EN (September 1992). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992 ). MyoD and Myogenin are coexpressed in regenerating skeletal muscle of the mouse. (biologists.org)
  • The first of these to be identified was MyoD , which was isolated by subtractive hybridization approaches in an inducible differentiation system in which multipotential 10T1/2 cells were converted to skeletal muscle through treatment with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transcript levels for neuronal (n) NOS, endothelial (e) NOS, inducible (i) NOS, MyoD and myogenin were assessed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and kinetic PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • Hindlimb suspension will induce myofiber atrophy, and a slow to fast myofiber type transition with corresponding changes in myogenin and MyoD expression. (nih.gov)
  • In cell culture, myogenin can induce myogenesis in a variety of non-muscle cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former site is analogous to Thr85 within the highly conserved basic domain of myogenin that has been demonstrated to negatively regulate the myogenic differentiation functions of myogenin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also show that expression of MyoD and myogenin are regulated by electrical activity in primary myotube cultures and that all nuclei within a myotube express similar levels of MyoD and similar levels of myogenin. (elsevier.com)
  • MyoD is not detected in normal adult tissue, but is highly expressed in the tumor cell nuclei of rhabdomyosarcomas. (fishersci.com)
  • The rate of somite formation increased with increasing temperature, and the expression of MyoD , myogenin and MyHC followed the cranial-to-caudal somite formation. (biologists.org)
  • The expression of myogenin resembled that previously described for other fish species, and preceded the MyHC expression by approximately five somites. (biologists.org)
  • Down-regulation of myogenin can reverse terminal muscle cell differentiation. (uniprot.org)
  • In contrast, MyoD is not expressed in quiescent MSCs. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to the results in fibroblasts, when overexpressed in malignant Rh30 RMS cells, mutant MyoD arrested cell growth without inducing p21cip1 and caused cell fusion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Next we used antibodies to decrease MyoD and/or myogenin function. (scirp.org)
  • By CRISPR mutagenesis and biochemical assays, we identified MyoD as the key molecular switch of fusion that is required and sufficient to initiate Myomixer and Myomaker expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1993 ). Selective accumulation of MyoD and myogenin mRNAs in fast and slow adult skeletal muscle is controlled by innervation and hormones. (biologists.org)
  • Myogenin, MyoD, and Akt protein expressions were lower in control muscles of OZR than in those of the LZR, but they were all elevated to similar levels in the loaded plantaris muscles of OZR and LZR. (physiology.org)
  • 13 14 One potential cardiac determination factor has been reported by Litvin et al, 15 with homology to the second helix of MyoD. (ahajournals.org)
  • MyoD expression appears to increase at the same time as the phenotypic transition. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, MyoD expression or the Myogenin: MyoD mRNA ratio may be important in the phenotypic transition. (nih.gov)