Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
A tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue, as opposed to leiomyoma, a tumor derived from smooth muscle.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into smooth muscle myocytes (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Pentacyclic triterpene saponins, biosynthesized from protoaescigenin and barringtogenol, occurring in the seeds of AESCULUS. It inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.

Increment of calcium-activated and delayed rectifier potassium current by hyposmotic swelling in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pig. (1/4387)

AIM: To observe the effect of hyposmotic swelling on calcium-activated potassium current [IKCa] and delayed rectifier potassium current [IKV] in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pig. METHODS: The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used, and the myocytes were isolated by collagenase. Cells were swelled by the hyposmotic solution (200 Osmmol/kg). RESULTS: The hyposmotic solution markedly increased IKCa and IKV. The increase of IKCa was markedly inhibited by tetrathylammonium (TEA) 4 mmol/L and charybdotoxin (ChTX) 200 nmol/L. The increase of IKV was incompletely blocked by TEA and completely blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) 10 mmol/L. There was no significant difference between the amplitudes of the increase of IKCa and IKV (P < 0.05). IKCa increased (17.0 +/- 4.8) s after the cells were perfused with the hyposmotic solution, whereas IKV increased (30.7 +/- 13.7) s after the cells exposed to the hyposmotic solution. There was significant difference between the latency of IKCa and IKV (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hyposmotic swelling increased both IKCa and IKV, and the increment was likely related to the cell volume regulation.  (+info)

Antiproliferative effects of D-polymannuronic sulfate on rat vascular smooth muscle cells and its related mechanisms. (2/4387)

AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of D-polymannuronic sulfate (DPS) on the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and its related mechanisms. METHODS: The effects of DPS on Ang II-induced proliferation of VSMC were evaluated by MTT assay. The intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations, protein contents, and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: DPS 0.001 - 100 mg/L blocked the cell cycle at the G0/G1-->S transit and prevented the cells from entering into the G2/M phase, and its inhibitory effects on an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations and the protein synthesis of VSMC were also observed. Also, the suppressing actions of DPS on intracellular Ca2+ were completely blocked by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, indicating that the counteracting effects on a rise in intracellular free Ca2+ contents by DPS might be mediated by participation of NO. CONCLUSION: DPS exerted an inhibitory effect on Ang II-induced proliferation of VSMC and its related mechanisms were considered to be related to its inhibition on the increment of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, which subsequently suppressed the synthesis of DNA and protein of VSMC.  (+info)

Stretch-induced calcium release in smooth muscle. (3/4387)

Smooth muscle cells undergo substantial increases in length, passively stretching during increases in intraluminal pressure in vessels and hollow organs. Active contractile responses to counteract increased transmural pressure were first described almost a century ago (Bayliss, 1902) and several mechanisms have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. We report here that elongation of smooth muscle cells results in ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in individual myocytes. Mechanical elongation of isolated, single urinary bladder myocytes to approximately 120% of slack length (DeltaL = 20) evoked Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores in the form of single Ca(2+) sparks and propagated Ca(2+) waves. Ca(2+) release was not due to calcium-induced calcium release, as release was observed in Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution and when free Ca(2+) ions in the cytosol were strongly buffered to prevent increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Stretch-induced calcium release (SICR) was not affected by inhibition of InsP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) release, but was completely blocked by ryanodine. Release occurred in the absence of previously reported stretch-activated currents; however, SICR evoked calcium-activated chloride currents in the form of transient inward currents, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for the generation of spontaneous currents in smooth muscle. SICR was also observed in individual myocytes during stretch of intact urinary bladder smooth muscle segments. Thus, longitudinal stretch of smooth muscle cells induces Ca(2+) release through gating of RYR. SICR may be an important component of the physiological response to increases in luminal pressure in smooth muscle tissues.  (+info)

K+-induced hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery: identification, localization and role of Na+/K+-ATPases. (4/4387)

1. Mechanisms underlying K(+)-induced hyperpolarizations in the presence and absence of phenylephrine were investigated in endothelium-denuded rat mesenteric arteries (for all mean values, n=4). 2. Myocyte resting membrane potential (m.p.) was -58.8+/-0.8 mV. Application of 5 mM KCl produced similar hyperpolarizations in the absence (17.6+/-0.7 mV) or presence (15.8+/-1.0 mV) of 500 nM ouabain. In the presence of ouabain +30 microM barium, hyperpolarization to 5 mM KCl was essentially abolished. 3. In the presence of 10 microM phenylephrine (m.p. -33.7+/-3 mV), repolarization to 5 mM KCl did not occur in the presence or absence of 4-aminopyridine but was restored (-26.9+/-1.8 mV) on addition of iberiotoxin (100 nM). Under these conditions the K+-induced repolarization was insensitive to barium (30 microM) but abolished by 500 nM ouabain alone. 4. In the presence of phenylephrine + iberiotoxin the hyperpolarization to 5 mM K(+) was inhibited in the additional presence of 300 nM levcromakalim, an action which was reversed by 10 microM glibenclamide. 5. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical techniques collectively showed the presence of alpha(1)-, alpha(2)- and alpha(3)-subunits of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the myocytes. 6. In K(+)-free solution, re-introduction of K(+) (to 4.6 mM) hyperpolarized myocytes by 20.9+/-0.5 mV, an effect unchanged by 500 nM ouabain but abolished by 500 microM ouabain. 7. We conclude that under basal conditions, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases containing alpha(2)- and/or alpha(3)-subunits are partially responsible for the observed K(+)-induced effects. The opening of myocyte K(+) channels (by levcromakalim or phenylephrine) creates a 'K(+) cloud' around the cells which fully activates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and thereby abolishes further responses to [K(+)](o) elevation.  (+info)

MEK/ERK pathway mediates cell-shape-dependent plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene expression upon drug-induced disruption of the microfilament and microtubule networks. (5/4387)

Changes in cellular morphology induced as a consequence of direct perturbation of cytoskeletal structure with network-specific targeting agents (i.e. microfilament- or microtubule-disrupting drugs) results in the stimulated expression of a specific subset of genes. Transcription of c-fos, collagenase, transforming growth factor-beta, actin, urokinase plasminogen activator and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) appears to be particularly responsive to shape-activated signaling pathways. Cytochalasin D (CD) or colchicine treatment of contact-inhibited and serum-deprived vascular smooth muscle (R22) cells was used, therefore, as a model system to evaluate morphology-associated controls on PAI-1 gene regulation in the absence of added growth factors. PAI-1 transcript levels in quiescent R22 cells increased rapidly and in a CD-concentration-dependent fashion, with kinetics of expression paralleling the morphological changes. Colchicine concentrations that effectively disrupted microtubule structure and reduced the cellular 'footprint' area (to approximately that of CD treatment) also stimulated PAI-1 synthesis. Shape-related increases in PAI-1 mRNA synthesis were ablated by prior exposure to actinomycin D. Unlike the mechanism of induction in growth-factor-stimulated cells, CD- and colchicine-induced PAI-1 expression required on-going protein synthesis (i.e. it was a secondary response). Although PAI-1 is a TGF-beta-regulated gene and TGF-beta expression is also shape dependent, an autocrine TGF-beta loop was not a factor in CD-initiated PAI-1 transcription. Since CD exposure resulted in actin microfilament disruption and subsequent morphological changes, with uncertain effects on interactions between signaling intermediates or 'scaffold' structures, a pharmacological approach was selected to probe the pathways involved. Signaling events leading to PAI-1 induction were compared with colchicine-treated cells. CD- as well as colchicine-stimulated PAI-1 expression was effectively and dose dependently attenuated by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 (in the 10 to 25 microM concentration range), consistent with the known MAP kinase dependency of PAI-1 synthesis in growth-factor-stimulated cells. Reduced PAI-1 mRNA levels upon exposure to genistein prior to CD addition correlated with inhibition of ERK1/2 activity, implicating a tyrosine kinase in shape-dependent MEK activation. Src-family kinases, moreover, appeared to be specific upstream elements in the CD- and colchicine-dependent pathways of PAI-1 transcription since both agents effectively activated pp60(c-src) kinase activity in quiescent R22 cells. The restrictive (src-family) kinase inhibitor PP1 completely inhibited induced, as well as basal, ERK activity in a coupled immunoprecipitation myelin-basic-protein-phosphorylation assay and ablated shape-initiated PAI-1 mRNA expression. These data suggest that PP1-sensitive tyrosine kinases are upstream intermediates in cell-shape-associated signaling pathways resulting in ERK1/2 activation and subsequent PAI-1 transcription. In contrast to the rapid and transient kinetics of ERK activity typical of serum-stimulated cells, the ERK1/2 response to CD and colchicine is both delayed and relatively sustained. Collectively, these data support a model in which MEK is a focal point for the convergence of shape-initiated signaling events leading to induced PAI-1 transcription.  (+info)

Overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 protects smooth muscle cells against oxidative injury and inhibits cell proliferation. (6/4387)

To investigate whether the expression of exogenous heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene within vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) could protect the cells from free radical attack and inhibit cell proliferation, we established an in vitro transfection of human HO-1 gene into rat VSMC mediated by a retroviral vector. The results showed that the profound expression of HO-1 protein as well as HO activity was 1.8- and 2.0-fold increased respectively in the transfected cells compared to the non-transfected ones. The treatment of VSMC with different concentrations of H2O2 led to the remarkable cell damage as indicated by survival rate and LDH leakage. However, the resistance of the HO-1 transfected VSMC against H2O2 was significantly raised. This protective effect was dramatically diminished when the transfected VSMC were pretreated with ZnPP-IX, a specific inhibitor of HO, for 24 h. In addition, we found that the growth potential of the transfected cells was significantly inhibited directly by increased activity of HO-1, and this effect might be related to decreased phosphorylation of MAPK. These results suggest that the overexpression of introduced hHO-1 is potentially able to reduce the risk factors of atherosclerosis, partially due to its cellular protection against oxidative injury and to its inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation.  (+info)

Estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta expression in microvascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of myometrium and leiomyoma. (7/4387)

The two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, are likely to have roles in the pathophysiology of fibroid development. They have been detected in myometrial and leiomyoma (fibroid) tissue, but the cell types expressing ERalpha and ERbeta have not been determined. ERs have also been detected in human endothelial cells. The aims of the present study were to determine whether pure populations of myometrial microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) express ERalpha and ERbeta, to compare MEC ERalpha/ERbeta expression with that of pure populations of myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMC) and to determine if ERalpha/ERbeta are differentially expressed in MEC and SMC of myometrium and fibroids from nine paired samples. Using RT-PCR (for ERalpha and ERbeta) and Western blotting (for ERalpha only), we demonstrated that all cultures of early passage myometrial and fibroid SMC (>99% pure) expressed ERalpha but not ERbeta, while myometrial and fibroid MEC (>99% CD31+) constitutively expressed ERbeta. However, both myometrial and fibroid MEC showed variable expression of ERalpha, with approximately 60% of MEC samples expressing ERalpha. While the majority (6/9) of MEC from myometrial and fibroid pairs demonstrated the same pattern of ERalpha expression, 3/9 pairs showed discordant ERalpha expression. These results show that ERalpha and ERbeta are differentially expressed in SMC and MEC of human myometrium and fibroids. Since ERalpha and ERbeta mediate opposing transcriptional activities, any effect of estrogen on the growth and development of fibroids is likely to be complex and may involve both SMC and MEC.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution of a novel human gap junction-forming protein, connexin-31.9. Interaction with zona occludens protein-1. (8/4387)

A novel human connexin gene (GJA11) was cloned from a genomic library. The open reading frame encoded a hypothetical protein of 294 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 31,933, hence referred to as connexin-31.9 (Cx31.9) or alpha 11 connexin. A clone in GenBank containing the Cx31.9 gene localized to chromosome 17q21.2. Northern analysis of Cx31.9 showed a major 4.4-kilobase transcript, which was expressed at varying levels in all tissues analyzed. Two monoclonal antibodies generated against different domains of Cx31.9 recognized a 30-33-kDa protein from cells overexpressing Cx31.9. Immunofluorescence of overexpressing cells indicated the presence of Cx31.9 between adjacent cells, consistent with its localization to gap junctions. Double voltage clamp analyses of Cx31.9-overexpressing cells, and of paired Xenopus oocytes injected with Cx31.9 cRNA, demonstrated junctional currents indicative of gap junction channel formation. In contrast to previously characterized connexins, Cx31.9 showed no voltage-dependent gating within a physiologically relevant range. Cx31.9 was detected in human tissues by immunoblot analysis, and immunofluorescence localized Cx31.9 expression to vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Cx31.9 interacted with ZO-1. Thus, Cx31.9 represents a novel connexin gene that in vivo generates a protein with unique voltage gating properties.  (+info)

View Rat Genome Database annotations to negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell differentiation involved in phenotypic switching
Osteoprotegerin (tnfsf11b, OPG) is a soluble member of the TNF superfamily originally described as an important regulator of osteoclastogenesis almost 20years ago. OPG is a heparin-binding secreted glycoprotein that exists as a 55-62kDa monomer or a 110-120kDa disulphide-linked homodimer. Acting as a soluble decoy receptor for RANKL, OPG actively regulates RANK signalling, and thereby osteoclastogenesis. OPG has subsequently been shown to also be a decoy receptor TNF related apoptosis inducing-ligand (tnfsf10, TRAIL, Apo2L). TRAIL is a type II transmembrane protein that is widely expressed in a variety of human tissues, including the spleen, lung, and prostate. Through binding to TRAIL, OPG can inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. More recently OPG has been demonstrated to be secreted by, and influence, vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype particularly related to vascular calcification and pulmonary vascular remodelling. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) suppression of ...
Endothelial cell signaling in cardiovascular development and disease. Our laboratory helped to establish endoglin functions in non-endothelial cell niches during embryonic development and in adult disease: we established: a functional role for endoglin in vascular smooth muscle cells arising from the neural crest, cell autonomous roles for endoglin in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells of developing blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.. Tang Y, Urs S, Boucher J, Bernaiche T, Venkatesh D, Spicer DB, Vary CP, Liaw L. Notch and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathways cooperatively regulate vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(23):17556-63. PMCID:2878520.. Mancini ML, Verdi JM, Conley BA, Nicola T, Spicer DB, Oxburgh LH, Vary CP. Endoglin is required for myogenic differentiation potential of neural crest stem cells. Dev Biol. 2007;308(2):520-33. PMCID:2041841.. Mouta-Bellum C, Kirov A, Miceli-Libby L, Mancini ML, Petrova TV, Liaw L, Prudovsky ...
Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation is a very important process during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, and it is recognized that alterations in S...
Nutrition for Muscle Cell Function. When you think of muscles, you likely think of your skeletal muscle tissue -- the type that attaches to your bones to allow for movement. However, you also have other types of muscle. Cardiac muscle keeps your heart pumping strong, driving your circulation, while the smooth muscle ...
Blirando, K. et al. The stellate vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype is induced by IL-1β via the secretion of PGE2 and subsequent cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1853, 3235-3247 (2015 ...
Principal Investigator:SOBUE Kenji, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:General medical chemistry
Muscle cells serve a remarkable variety of functions in your body, many of them occurring involuntarily. The specialized structure of the 3 types of muscle cells in the human body enables their functional purposes.
February 14, 2016 Heart (noun, verb, idioms) heart [hahrt] noun 1. Anatomy. a hollow, pumplike organ of blood circulation, composed mainly of rhythmically contractile smooth muscle, located in the chest between the lungs and slightly to the left and consisting of four chambers: a right atrium that…
muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 photo, muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 image, muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 gallery
TY - JOUR. T1 - Krüppel-like factor 4, Elk-1, and histone deacetylases cooperatively suppress smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in response to oxidized phospholipids. AU - Yoshida, Tadashi. AU - Gan, Qiong. AU - Owens, Gary K.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), such as increased proliferation, enhanced migration, and downregulation of SMC differentiation marker genes, is known to play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the factors and mechanisms controlling this process are not fully understood. We recently showed that oxidized phospholipids, including 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions, are potent repressors of expression of SMC differentiation marker genes in cultured SMCs as well as in rat carotid arteries in vivo. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial NO synthase deficiency promotes smooth muscle progenitor cells in association with upregulation of stromal cell-derived factor-1α in a mouse model of carotid artery ligation. AU - Zhang, Le Ning. AU - Wilson, Dennis W. AU - Da Cunha, Valdeci. AU - Sullivan, Mark E.. AU - Vergona, Ronald. AU - Rutledge, John C. AU - Wang, Yi Xin. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Background - Endothelial NO deficiency (endothelial NO synthase [eNOS]-knockout [KO]) enhanced smooth muscle cell (SMC)-rich neointimal lesion formation in a mouse model of carotid artery ligation (CAL). Recent evidence indicated that stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-mediated recruitment of circulating SMC progenitor cells substantially contributed to the SMC-rich neointimal hyperplasia induced by vascular injury. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of eNOS deficiency on the expression of SDF-1α and mobilization of circulating SMC progenitor cells in CAL model. Methods and Results - ...
Nitric oxide (NO), which is known to inhibit systemic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, is used in the management of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if endogenous NO production by neonatal porcine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) varied with oxygen tension in vitro, and (2) the effect of exogenous NO and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) stimulators and inhibitors on PASMC proliferation and apoptosis. PASMCs were exposed to different conditions (varying PO2, NO donors and scavengers, iNOS stimulators and inhibitors) and proliferation, apoptosis, and cyclic guanosine 5-monophosphate (cGMP) assessed. PASMCs proliferated best between 5 and 10% O2 but cGMP levels were similar at all oxygen levels. NO donors (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine, NOC-12, NOC-18) inhibited PASMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with associated cGMP increases, while NO scavengers (carboxy-PTIO), iNOS stimulators (interleukin-1β, lipopolysaccharide), and iNOS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term zinc deprivation accelerates rat vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation involving the down-regulation of JNK1/2 expression in MAPK signaling. AU - Alcantara, Ethel H.. AU - Shin, Mee Young. AU - Feldmann, Jörg AU - Nixon, Graeme F.. AU - Beattie, John H.. AU - Kwun, In Sook. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - Background: The accelerated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a contributor for atherosclerosis by thickening the vascular wall. Since zinc modulation of VSMC proliferation has not been clarified, this study investigated whether zinc affects VSMC proliferation. Methods and results: Both a rat aorta origin vascular smooth muscle cell line (A7r5 VSMCs) and primary VSMCs which were collected from rat aorta (pVSMCs) were cultured with zinc (0-50 µM Zn) for short- (=12 d) and long-term (28 d) periods under normal non-calcifying (0 or 1 mM P) or calcifying (,2 mM P) P conditions. Mouse vascular endothelial cells (MS I cells) were also cultured ...
Vascular smooth muscle cells contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques by proliferating in response to vascular injury and releasing growth-promoting factors. Because their autocrine and paracrine effects are not fully understood, expression of such growth factor genes in specific cell types in vivo would help to determine their mechanism of action. We describe a method to transfer vascular smooth muscle cells expressing recombinant gene products to localized segments of the arterial wall. Vascular smooth muscle cells from the inbred Yucatan minipig were infected in vitro with an amphotropic, replication-defective retrovirus transducing the gene for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. Vascular smooth muscle cells expressing this recombinant gene were implanted, using a catheter, into denuded iliofemoral artery segments of pigs in vivo. These arteries subsequently demonstrated beta-galactosidase activity in cells of the intima and media. This method, which provides for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits the migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. AU - Sarkar, Rajabrata. AU - Meinberg, Eric G.. AU - Stanley, James C.. AU - Gordon, R. David. AU - Webb, R Clinton. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Augmentation of nitric oxide (NO) production in vivo decreases lesions in a variety of models of arterial injury, and inhibition of NO synthase exacerbates experimental intimal lesions. Both vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration contribute to lesion formation. Although NO inhibit VSMC proliferation, its effects on VSMC migration are unknown. To test the hypothesis that NO inhibits VSMC migration independent of inhibition of proliferation, we examined migration of rat aortic VSMCs after wounding of a confluent culture in the presence of chemical donors of NO. Hydroxyurea was used to eliminate any confounding effect of NO on proliferation. Three NO donors, diethylamine NONOate, spermine NONOate, and S-nitrosoglutathione, ...
Cysteine-containing leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs) are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. In particular, cysteinyl-LTs exert a variety of effects with relevance to the aetiology of asthma such as smooth muscle contraction, eosinophil recruitment, increased microvascular permeability, enhanced mucus secretion and decreased mucus transport and, finally, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) proliferation. We used human ASMC (HASMC) to identify the signal transduction pathway(s) of the leukotriene D4 (LTD4)-induced DNA synthesis. Proliferation of primary HASMC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGF-R) and ERK1/2 was assessed with a polyclonal anti-EGF-R or anti-phosphoERKl/2 monoclonal antibody. A Ras pull-down assay kit was used to evaluate Ras activation. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by measuring dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential roles of tyrosine phosphatase mkp-1 in the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. AU - Lai, K.. AU - Wang, H.. AU - Lee, W. S.. AU - Lee, M. E.. AU - Haber, E.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The proliferation and migration of arterial smooth muscle cells plays an important role in the pathological process of arteriosclerosis. A number of cytokines and growth factors are upregulated and bind to their respective receptors, which in turn activate multiple signal transduction pathways leading ultimately to the activation of MAP kinases. These kinases in turn relay signals to the nucleus that result in activation of the previously quiescent smooth muscle cell. The activity of MAP kinases is countered by phosphatases. In this report we investigate the potential role of a dual tyrosine phosphatase, MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. We show that MKP-1 is highly expressed in vascular tissues. In situ hybridization ...
Diabetic complications largely affect the circulation and are associated with resistance to insulin and altered levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Insulin resistance and altered IGF-I levels are also associated with vascular disease. Insulin and IGF-I are highly homologous peptides and can cross react with each others respective receptors, insulin receptors (IR) and IGF-I receptors (IGFIR), which also share homology to a large extent and can form hybrid IR/IGF-IR. Cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells from different vascular beds express considerably more IGF-IR than IR. Since the direct action of insulin and IGFs on the vasculature remains poorly understood, our aim was to study mechanisms behind insulin resistance and IGF-I sensitivity and the possible impact of hybrid IR/IGF-IR in vascular cells.. This thesis is based on four papers investigating the presence of IR and IGF-IR in cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, and in tissue specimens from ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - Curvature-induced spontaneous detachment of vascular smooth muscle cell sheets. T2 - Towards vascular self assembly in microchannels. AU - Yamashita, Tadahiro. AU - Kollmannsberger, P.. AU - Mawatari, K.. AU - Vogel, V.. AU - Kitamori, T.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - A new model is proposed which describes the spontaneous detachment of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by surface curvature. Growing tubular structures from smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro is a key challenge in microvascular tissue engineering. SMC growth is however significantly suppressed on curved substrates. We show that this is caused by mechanical interaction between adhering cells and the surrounding geometry, which compromises the adhesion of growing tissue. Our model opens up new strategies for engineering luminal vasculature in microdevices, and gives new insights for controlling tissue formation in micro environments.. AB - A new model is proposed which describes the spontaneous detachment of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 170 Mitochondrial-dependent signalling in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. AU - Al-Sulti, Zuhair. AU - Kingsmore, David. AU - Coats, Paul. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - UNLABELLED: A hallmark of vascular disease is the cellular adaptive response characterised by proliferation and migration. Although many studies have identified the signalling pathways involved in cell proliferation and migration (p38, p44/42 MAP Kinase and JNK), the mechanisms initiating cell de-differentiation, proliferation/ apoptosis and migration are yet to be fully elucidated. Mitochondria are one of the organelles that have received growing attention in vascular and pulmonary vascular proliferative disease.(1) Mitochondria are classically known to be responsible for cellular energy production. However growing evidence suggests a role in cell de-differentiation and the fine balance between cell apoptosis and proliferation.(2) The aim of this work was to expand our understanding of the potential ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mesenchymal stem cells expressing eNOS and a Cav1 mutant inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Maspin is a serpin that has multiple effects on cell behavior, including inhibition of migration. How maspin mediates these diverse effects remains unclear, as it is devoid of protease inhibitory activity. We have previously shown that maspin rapidly inhibits the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), suggesting the involvement of direct interactions with cell surface proteins. Here, using immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that maspin binds specifically to the surface of VSMC in the dedifferentiated, but not the differentiated, phenotype. Ligand blotting of VSMC lysates revealed the presence of several maspin-binding proteins, with a protein of 150 kDa differentially expressed between the two VSMC phenotypes. Western blotting suggested that this protein was the beta1 integrin subunit, and subsequently both alpha3beta1 and alpha5beta1, but not alphavbeta3, were shown to associate with maspin by coimmunoprecipitation. Specific binding of these integrins was also observed ...
Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play crucial roles in the development of vascular restenosis. Our previous study showed that CCN4, namely Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), significantly promotes proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs, but its mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether and how WISP1 stimulates proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Western blot analysis showed that FBS treatment increased WISP1 protein levels in human VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of WISP1 using adenovirus encoding WISP1 (AD-WISP1) significantly increased proliferation rate of human VSMCs by 2.98-fold compared with empty virus (EV)-transfected cells, shown by EdU incorporation assay. Additionally, Scratch-induced wound healing assay revealed that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of WISP1 significantly increased cell migration compared with EV-transfected cells from 6h (4.56±1.14% vs. 11.23±2.25%, P,0.05) to ...
Little, Peter J., Ballinger, Mandy L., Survase, Soniya, Osman, Narin, Ogru, Esra, Geytenbeek, Stephen, Bruemmer, Dennis and Nigro, Julie (2008) Phosphorylated troglitazone activates PPAR gamma and inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 51 3: 274-279. ...
Actin, Muscle Specific (Muscle Cell Marker) Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone HHF35 + MSA/953 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH13010-7), Abgent
Diabetic Mouse Brain Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the brain vessel of Diabetic (db/db) mice (8 weeks). Diabetic Mouse Brain Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 1 are detached from the culture flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
The present study may have important pathological and therapeutic implications because overgrowth of VSMCs is a pivotal etiologic factor in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty.26-28 To date, inhibiting VSMC proliferation is among the most effective strategies for preventing their overgrowth and controlling neointimal thickening.14 Previous studies have shown that targeting Ras with negative regulators or blocking the Ras downstream pathways is able to effectively attenuate restenosis from balloon catheterization.14,15,29-33 Our recent studies have demonstrated that rMfn-2 is a powerful endogenous Ras inhibitor and that somatic gene transfer of rMfn-2 profoundly inhibits rat VSMC proliferation and balloon injury-induced neointima thickening in vivo by inhibiting the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.17. In addition to inhibition of cell proliferation, growing evidence has indicated that apoptosis also plays an essential role in the control of neointimal ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as important participants in the development of atherosclerosis (AS). The present study explored the role of miR-128-3p in the dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the underlying mechanism. Human VSMCs and ApoE knockout (ApoE−/−) C57BL/6J mice were used to establish AS cell and animal models, respectively. Expression levels of miR-128-3p, forkhead box O4 (FOXO4) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) were detected using qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. CCK-8, BrdU, and Transwell assays as well as flow cytometry analysis were performed to detect the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of VSMCs. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and lipids in human VSMCs, mice serum and mice VSMCs were also determined. The binding site between miR-128-3p and 3′UTR of FOXO4 was confirmed using luciferase reporter gene assay. MiR-128-3p was found to be decreased in AS patient serum, ox-LDL-treated VSMCs, AS mice serum and VSMCs of AS mice. Transfection
Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation are regulated by signaling through the Rho family GTPases, RhoA and Rac, which are activated by GTP exchange factors (GEFs). One such Rho-GEF was recently associated with human atherosclerosis by genetic epidemiology: kalirin, a 340 kDa protein containing both Rac- and RhoA-GEF domains. We tested the hypothesis that SMC kalirin promotes Rac or RhoA signaling, and thereby atherogenic SMC activity. By immunoblotting (IB) and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that kalirin is expressed abundantly in SMCs, and is up-regulated 1.6±0.2-fold (p,0.03) in the media of atherosclerotic, as compared with normal arteries. To test kalirins role in regulating SMC signaling, we compared 3 independent lines of SMCs from congenic WT and kalirin−/+ mice (with 45±5% of WT kalirin levels), as well as SMCs transfected with non-targeting or kalirin-targeting siRNA (43±9% protein knockdown). We assessed Rac and RhoA activation by ...
The recognition that cells of the vascular wall can secrete cytokines such as IL-1 suggests new mechanisms for initiating or sustaining inflammatory responses in blood vessels. We report that purified human monocyte-derived IL-1 or recombinant human IL-1 (rIL-1 beta and rIL-1 alpha) induce cultured human smooth muscle cells derived from veins or arteries to synthesize IL-1 beta mRNA and produce and release biologically active IL-1. rIL-1 beta also stimulated the production of PGE2 by smooth muscle cells. Exposure to rIL-1 beta (1-100 ng/ml), or rIL-1 alpha (0.01-10 ng/ml) increased IL-1 beta mRNA levels within 30 min. Actinomycin D (1 microgram/ml) prevented the induction of IL-1 beta mRNA by rIL-1. IL-1 alpha mRNA was detected in SMC treated with cycloheximide (1 microgram/ml) and rIL-1 beta, or cycloheximide alone. rIL-1 alpha and rIL-1 beta produced maximal levels of IL-1 beta mRNA after 4 h, and intracellular IL-1 biological activity after 6 h of exposure. Release of IL-1 activity in the ...
292653345 - EP 1085880 A2 2001-03-28 - USE OF ALKYLATING COMPOUNDS FOR INHIBITING PROLIFERATION OF ARTERIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS - [origin: WO9963981A2] The present invention provides methods and compositions for inhibiting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells at a site of vascular injury. The methods include intravascular administration of a reactive compound to the site of injury, without the requirement for activation or sustained release of the compound.[origin: WO9963981A2] The present invention provides methods and compositions for inhibiting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells at a site of vascular injury. The methods include intravascular administration of a reactive compound to the site of injury, without the requirement for activation or sustained release of the compound.
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Coronary artery bypass grafting using autologous saphenous veins is a standard surgical therapy for coronary artery diseases. However, post-procedure vein graft restenosis impedes its effectiveness and often leads to a high morbidity and mortality, and a reduction in the quality of life. Neointimal …
To isolate specific markers of both differentiated and proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we used the technique of differential cDNA screening using RNA from cultured rat aortic VSMCs. The tissue specificity of expression of all of the cDNAs isolated was determined by Northern analysis. We isolated seven distinct cDNAs that were more strongly expressed in freshly dispersed, differentiated, aortic VSMCs compared with dedifferentiated late-passage cells. These were the cDNAs for tropoelastin, a matrix protein; alpha-smooth muscle (SM) actin, gamma-SM actin, calponin, and phospholamban, which are all proteins associated with the contractile function of differentiated VSMCs; SM22 alpha, a smooth muscle-specific protein of unknown function, and CHIP28, a putative membrane channel protein that is not highly expressed in other SM tissues and may therefore be a new VSMC marker. Two cDNAs that were expressed preferentially in late-passage dedifferentiated VSMCs were also isolated. These ...
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral aneurysm is a common vascular disease with high morbidity and mortality. Vascular smooth muscle deletion or dysplasia is an important r
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Angiotensin II enhances AT ,sub,1,/sub,-Nox1 binding and stimulates arterial smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation through AT ,sub,1,/sub,, Nox1, and interleukin-18. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Original Research. T2 - Role of phosphodiesterases in modulation of BK Ca channels in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. AU - Zhu, Shu. AU - White, Richard E.. AU - Barman, Scott A. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - BK Ca channels regulate pulmonary arterial pressure, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits BK Ca channels, but little is known about PKC-mediated modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Studies were carried out to determine mechanisms of PKC modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) of the fawn-hooded rat (FHR), an animal model of pulmonary hypertension. Forskolin opened BK Ca channels in FHR PASMC, which was blocked by PKC activation, and reversed by the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors IBMX, milrinone, and zaprinast. PDE inhibition also blocked the vasoconstrictor response to PKC activation in FHR pulmonary arteries. These results indicate that PKC inhibits cAMP-induced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biphasic effect of p21Cip1 on smooth muscle cell proliferation: Role of PI 3-kinase and Skp2-mediated degradation. AU - Bond, M. AU - Sala-Newby, GB. AU - Wu, Y-J. AU - Newby, AC. N1 - Publisher: Elsevier. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. U2 - 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.08.020. DO - 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.08.020. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 69 (1). SP - 198. EP - 206. JO - Cardiovascular Research. JF - Cardiovascular Research. SN - 0008-6363. ER - ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of carvedilol alone and in the presence of cyclosporine A on the DNA synthesis of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Serum response factor (SRF) controls [smooth muscle cell] SMC gene transcription via binding to CArG box DNA sequences found within genes that exhibit SMC-restricted expression.[2] SMC genes examined in this study display SMC-specific histone modifications at the 5′-CArG boxes.[2] The SRF-CArG association is required for transcriptional activation of SMC genes [...] the SMC genes examined in this study display SMC-specific histone modifications at the 5′-CArG boxes. [...] enrichment of H4 and H3 acetylation [...] were relatively low from positions -2,800 to -1,600 in the 5′ region. However, at position -1,600 to -1,200, there was a sharp rise in these modifications, which was increased even further at +400 in the coding region. We observed similar patterns for H3K4dMe and H3 Lys79 di-methylation [...]. SRF, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II displayed enrichments that were consistent with the positions of the CArG boxes, TATA box, and coding region, respectively.[2] The CArG boxes occur ...
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are transcriptional coregulators. Recently, we demonstrated that HDAC4, one of class IIa family members, promotes reactive oxygen species-dependent vascular smooth muscle inflammation and mediates development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pathogenesis of hypertension is, in part, modulated by vascular structural remodeling via proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Thus, we examined whether HDAC4 controls SMC proliferation and migration. In rat mesenteric arterial SMCs, small interfering RNA against HDAC4 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced SMC proliferation as determined by a cell counting and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay as well as migration as determined by Boyden chamber assay. Expression and activity of HDAC4 were increased by PDGF-BB. HDAC4 small interfering RNA inhibited phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 27 and expression of cyclin D1 ...
These findings point to a role of LTB4 in atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia, by identifying the vascular SMC as targets for this potent chemotactic molecule. The expression of the human BLT1 receptor on vascular SMC was demonstrated by immunohistochemical stainings of arterial samples, as well as in cultured human coronary SMC by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together, these findings provide evidence that human vascular SMC express BLT1 receptors in vivo as well as in vitro, and they suggest that these cells may represent an additional target for LTB4.. Patch-clamp analysis and functional studies of SMC clarified that BLT1 receptors transduce a signal that leads to important functional responses in human vascular SMC. Membrane currents in human coronary artery SMC were increased significantly in the presence of either LTB4 or the selective BLT1 receptor partial agonist U75302. Also, another characteristic pharmacological feature of the BLT1 receptor (namely, its rapid desensitization by an ...
The relationship between aging and restenosis are unclear. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible pathological role and mechanism of aging on formation of restenosis. Our data indicated that cell proliferation and migration of the oxidative stress-induced senescent vascular smooth muscle cells were obviously desensitized to stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, which may have been caused by suppression of promoter activity, transcription, translation, and activation levels of PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-β. The analyzed data obtained from the binding array of transcription factors (TFs) showed that binding levels of eighteen TFs on the PDGFR-β promoter region (-523 to -1) were significantly lower in senescent cells compared to those of non-senescent cells. Among these TFs, the bioinformatics prediction suggested that the putative binding sites of ten TFs were found in this promoter region. Of these, transcriptional levels of seven TFs were markedly reduced in
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) viability and homeostasis is regulated by cell-matrix and cell-cell contact: disruption of these interactions are responsible of a switch from a mature to a high proliferative phenotype. VSMCs migration, rate of growth and apoptosis, and the extent of their extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition can be also modulated by proatherogenic peptides. Among them, ATII induces the transactivation of IGF I R, which, together with the binding protein IGFBP3, represents a determinant of cell survival, growth and proliferation. Aim of our in vitro study was to verify the role of elective cell-cell bond in moulating the response to ATII. Thus, we evaluated viability, proliferation, IGFIR, IGFBP3 expression and the long term survival and production of ECM in a provisional tissue. A7r5 cell-line was used in adherent cultures or incubated in agarose-coated culture plates to inhibit cell-matrix interactions. Cells, treated or not with ATII 100 nM, were evaluated for apoptosis ...
Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells induces features of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis. Connexin37 protects against atherosclerosis by regulating monocyte adhesion
TY - CONF. T1 - Import and signaling of oxidized phospholipids in vascular smooth muscle cells. AU - Hermetter, Albin. AU - Loidl, Alexandra. AU - Morak, Maria. AU - Moumtzi, Alexandra. AU - Trenker, Michael. PY - 2006/6/16. Y1 - 2006/6/16. M3 - (Old data) Lecture or Presentation. T2 - HNE-Club Meeting. Y2 - 16 June 2006 through 18 June 2006. ER - ...
The Microcirculatory Core Laboratorys primary mission is to study regulation of cardiovascular resistance at the vascular level. Our experties contribute to the mission of the Consortium for Integrative Cardiovascular Research by providing a intermediate level of investigation between integrative (intact animal and whole organ) and vascular biology (isolated endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell) studies.. Research Interests The Microcirculatory Core Laboratory specialises in isolated vascular preparations to study intrinsic regulation of vascular tone. We are interested in endothelial and smooth muscle cell function in health and disease. We predominantly study resistance vessels (arterioles and small arteries), since these are primary determinants of resistance in the cardiovascular circuit. We use disease models where resistance vascular function is altered, such as experimental models of hemorrhagic shock, hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. ...
In this study, we demonstrated that Bo-Gan-Whan (BGH), a Korean polyherbal medicine, has an inhibitory effect on VSMC migration and proliferation in response to PDGF-BB as revealed by the results obtained from the scratch-wound healing and Boyden chamber assay and sprout aortic ring assays, respectively. Moreover, it was demonstrated through western blot analysis that the modulation of MAPKs is the major signal that is activated in the pathogenesis of VSMCs through activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. These results were confirmed from the ex vivo analysis of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation. The data on ex vivo analysis, through outgrowth of vessel sprouts from the aortic strips assay, show that BGH treatment can significantly reduce VSMC migration and proliferation after PDGF-BB stimulation.. Abnormal proliferation of VSMCs is a key to the vascular pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Moreover, excessive migration of VSMCs in vascular ...
By Andrew R Bond, Dominga Iacobazzi, Safa Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed Ghorbel, Kate Heesom, Mariangela Wilson, Christopher Gillett, Sarah J George, Massimo Caputo, Saadeh Suleiman and Robert M R Tulloh ...
Pyne, Nigel and Pyne, Susan; Giembycz, M and Raeburn, D, eds. (1994) G-proteins in airway smooth muscle. In: Airways Smooth Muscle. Birkhauser Velaag, pp. 187-213. ISBN 9780817650438 Full text not available in this repository.Request a copy from the Strathclyde author ...
In vertebrates, gut coiling proceeds left-right asymmetrically throughout growth of the gastrointestinal tract with extremely organized muscular buildings facilitating peristalsis. In this report, we explored the mechanisms of larval gut coiling morphogenesis related to its nascent smooth muscle cells utilizing extremely clear Xenopus early larvae.. First, to visualise the dynamics of intestinal smooth muscle cells, whole-mount specimens had been immunostained with anti-smooth muscle-specific actin (SM-actin) antibody. We discovered that the nascent gut of Xenopus early larvae steadily expands the SM-actin-positive area in a stage-dependent method. Transverse orientation of smooth muscle cells was first established, and subsequent, the mobile longitudinal orientation alongside the gut axis was adopted to make a meshwork of the contractile cells.. Finally, anisotropic torsion by the smooth muscle cells was generated in the heart of gut coiling, suggesting that twisting drive may be concerned in ...
In vertebrates, gut coiling proceeds left-right asymmetrically throughout growth of the gastrointestinal tract with extremely organized muscular buildings facilitating peristalsis. In this report, we explored the mechanisms of larval gut coiling morphogenesis related to its nascent smooth muscle cells utilizing extremely clear Xenopus early larvae.. First, to visualise the dynamics of intestinal smooth muscle cells, whole-mount specimens had been immunostained with anti-smooth muscle-specific actin (SM-actin) antibody. We discovered that the nascent gut of Xenopus early larvae steadily expands the SM-actin-positive area in a stage-dependent method. Transverse orientation of smooth muscle cells was first established, and subsequent, the mobile longitudinal orientation alongside the gut axis was adopted to make a meshwork of the contractile cells.. Finally, anisotropic torsion by the smooth muscle cells was generated in the heart of gut coiling, suggesting that twisting drive may be concerned in ...
In the current study in T2DM patients, indices of vascular function were found to be inter-related suggesting that they probably reflect overlapping pathophysiological aspects of the vascular atherosclerotic damage in T2DM patients. Further to this finding, markers of endothelial function (FMD), smooth muscle cell function (NMD) and large artery stiffness (PWV) were shown to share common correlates. Older age, longer duration of diabetes and treatment with insulin were associated with all markers of vascular dysfunction, although each marker appeared to be independently associated with specific distinct parameters.. Previous studies comparing patients with T2DM to healthy controls have shown that T2DM is an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction [14, 16, 17]. The greater cardiovascular mortality risk observed in T2DM patients has been mainly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction [17]. In T2DM patients without macrovascular or microvascular disease, we found that endothelial ...
"The contractile strength of vascular smooth muscle myocytes is shape dependent." Integrative Biology 6.2 (2014): 152-163. ...
In contrast to smooth and skeletal muscle MLCKs, cMLCK expression is restricted to cardiac myocytes. Overexpression of cMLCK ... and myocyte-myocyte interactions. The sarcomeric effects of NRG-1 protects myocytes against structural disarray induced by ... Treatment of cardiac myocytes with rhNRG-1 significantly upregulated cMLCK expression or activity??? in CHF rat models, ... NRG-1 treatment of adult rat ventricular myocytes stimulate the formation of a multiprotein complex between ErbB2, FAK, and ...
In vitro studies demonstrated that this interaction leads to the activation of the smooth muscle α-actin promoter. TEAD ... proteins and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) interact physically. The binding of MEF2 on the DNA induces and potentiates TEAD2 ... Mar JH, Ordahl CP (September 1988). "A conserved CATTCCT motif is required for skeletal muscle-specific activity of the cardiac ... Finally in Xenopus, it has been demonstrated that the homolog of TEAD regulates muscle differentiation. Regulation of mouse ...
T and X showed no contractile effects on the rat arterio smooth muscle. There was only a relaxing effect on the muscle. In ... This influx of calcium can leads to contraction in the myocytes. Probably the influx of calcium is mediated by the ... In all animals tested and also in the rat aorta and extravascular smooth muscle tissue, NRB exhibits vasorelaxant properties in ... has shown that in respiratory, urinary and gastrointestinal smooth muscle there was no contraction by norbormide. The symptoms ...
... myocytes and smooth muscle cells". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 28 (4): 735-42. doi:10.1006/jmcc.1996.0068. ... ECM deposition and myocyte hypertrophy. The increase in TGF-beta 1 expression in a pressure-overloaded heart correlates with ...
Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, bone (osteoblasts), ventricular myocytes** (responsible for prolonged action potential in ... Muscle physiology[edit]. When a smooth muscle cell is depolarized, it causes opening of the voltage-gated (L-type) calcium ... When these cells are depolarized, the L-type calcium channels open as in smooth muscle. In skeletal muscle, the actual opening ... Phosphorylated myosin is able to form crossbridges with actin thin filaments, and the smooth muscle fiber (i.e., cell) ...
... sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle to cause smooth muscle relaxation. The combined inotropic and ... Levosimendan exerts its positive inotropic effect by increasing calcium sensitivity of myocytes by binding to cardiac troponin ...
This gene encodes a spectrin repeat containing protein expressed in skeletal and smooth muscle, and peripheral blood ... Enaptin is a nuclear envelope protein found in human myocytes and synapses, which is made up of 8,797 amino acids. Enaptin is ... Grady RM, Starr DA, Ackerman GL, Sanes JR, Han M (March 2005). "Syne proteins anchor muscle nuclei at the neuromuscular ...
... alpha-actin of skeletal muscles),) Smooth muscle development (alpha-actin of smooth muscles), Regulation of myosin heavy chain ... TEAD proteins and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) interact physically. The binding of MEF2 on DNA induces and potentiates ... Carlini LE, Getz MJ, Strauch AR, Kelm RJ (March 2002). "Cryptic MCAT enhancer regulation in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells ... to regulate smooth muscle α-actin expression. PARP can also ADP-ribosylate the TEAD proteins and make the chromatin context ...
The presence of EETs relaxes vascular smooth muscle cells by hyperpolarizing the cell membrane, thus highlighting the ... CYP2J2 is readily expressed in the cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells of the coronary artery where various EETs are ...
V1 receptors (V1Rs) are found in high density on vascular smooth muscle and cause vasoconstriction by an increase in ... Cardiac myocytes also possess V1R. Additionally V1R are located in brain, testis, superior cervical ganglion, liver, blood ... AVPR1A are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, hepatocytes, platelets, brain cells, and uterus cells. AVPR1B are ...
Magnesium is needed for the adequate function of the Na+/K+-ATPase pumps in cardiac myocytes, the muscles cells of the heart. A ... Through relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle it causes bronchodilation. The neurological effects are: reducing electrical ... Furthermore, it makes skeletal and muscle receptors less sensitive to parathyroid hormone. ... muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, ...
Hsp20 appears significant in development of the smooth muscle phenotype during development. Hsp20 also serves a significant ... role in preventing platelet aggregation, cardiac myocyte function and prevention of apoptosis after ischemic injury, and ... Salinthone S, Tyagi M, Gerthoffer WT (July 2008). "Small heat shock proteins in smooth muscle". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. ... Hsp20 phosphorylation correlates well with smooth muscle relaxation and is one significant phosphoprotein involved in the ...
... signaling is required for differentiation of CNCCs to vascular smooth muscle cells and for proliferation of cardiac myocytes ( ... The CNCCs themselves are the precursors to vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac neurons. For example, CNCCs are required ... This phenotype (anomaly) was also observed when GATA6 was inactivated within vascular smooth muscle cells. GATA6 in combination ... Into the pharyngeal arches and Truncus arteriosus (embryology), forming the aorticopulmonary septum and the smooth muscle of ...
... consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes) but also of supporting stromal and vascular ... The molecular structure of the smooth muscle of myometrium is very similar to that of smooth muscle in other sites of the body ... The excitation-contraction coupling of uterine smooth muscle is also very similar to that of other smooth muscle in general, ... In uterine smooth muscle, there is approximately 6-fold more actin than myosin. A shift in the myosin expression of the uterine ...
Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, bone (osteoblasts), ventricular myocytes** (responsible for prolonged action potential in ... However, in many smooth muscle tissues, depolarization is mediated primarily by calcium influx into the cell. L-type calcium ... Calcium-induced calcium release in myocytes[4]. Two-pore channel. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP). TPCN1 ... channel blockers selectively inhibit these action potentials in smooth muscle which leads to dilation of blood vessels; this in ...
... myocytes, smooth muscle and endothelial vascular cells. They express several markers of stemness (i.e. Oct3/4, Bmi-1, Nanog) ... Moreover, it is now accepted that myocyte death and myocyte renewal are the two sides of the proverbial coin of cardiac ... Nadal-Ginard B, Kajstura J, Leri A, Anversa P (2003). "Myocyte death, growth and regeneration in cardiac hypertrophy and ... Nadal-Ginard B, Kajstura J, Leri A, Anversa P (2003). "Myocyte death, growth and regeneration in cardiac hypertrophy and ...
... endothelial cells and smooth vascular muscle cells, and clonogenicity. These stem cells are capable of becoming myocytes, which ... smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. The most promising results come from recellularized rat hearts. After only 8 days of ...
... but not in cardiac and vascular myocytes. Specifically, in smooth muscle tissue, PKG promotes the opening of calcium-activated ... PKG-I has been detected at high concentrations (above 0.1 μmol/L) in all types of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) including vascular ... It phosphorylates a number of biologically important targets and is implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle relaxation, ... and both isoforms are present in smooth muscle. PKG-II has been detected in renal cells, zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal ...
PDE III is present in cardiac muscle, vascular smooth muscle and platelets. PDE III degrades the phosphodiester bond in cAMP to ... a special type of smooth ER) and decreasing the calcium available for contraction. In myocytes, the increase of cAMP ... An increase in cAMP with the administration of amrinone in vascular smooth muscle produces vasodilation by facilitating calcium ... levels fall in vascular smooth muscle. This impairs relaxation in the vasculature and is a part of the vicious cycle of CHF. ...
SUR1/Kir6.2 Cardiac myocytes - SUR2A Skeletal muscle - SUR2A Smooth muscle - SUR2B Brain - SUR1, SUR2A and SUR2B The SUR1 ...
PARP1 is required for the induction of ICAM-1 gene expression by cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle cells, in response to TNF. ... and cellular energy depletion are involved in the cytotoxicity of macrophages and smooth muscle cells exposed to peroxynitrite ... expression in TNF-stimulated smooth muscle cells: Differential requirement for PARP-1 expression and interaction". Cellular ...
There are three distinct types of muscles: skeletal muscles, cardiac or heart muscles, and smooth (non-striated) muscles. ... Skeletal muscles, like other striated muscles, are composed of myocytes, or muscle fibers, which are in turn composed of ... Skeletal muscles, viewed from the front Skeletal muscles, viewed from the back Heart muscles are distinct from skeletal muscles ... Heart muscles are controlled by the sinus node influenced by the autonomic nervous system. Smooth muscles are controlled ...
A muscle cell also known as a myocyte when referring to a cardiac muscle cell (cardiomyocyte), or a smooth muscle cell as these ... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... A skeletal muscle cell is long and threadlike with many nuclei and is called a muscle fiber. Muscle cells including myocytes ... A cell from the biceps muscle may contain 80,000 sarcomeres. The myofibrils of smooth muscle cells are not arranged into ...
This structure is found in vertebrates and in some cephalopods.[citation needed] All the myocytes are of the smooth muscle type ... The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in ... traveling between the sclera and the choroid to innervate the iris sphincter muscle. Iris dilator muscle Miosis Gest, Thomas R ... the muscle cells themselves are photosensitive causing iris action without brain input. It is controlled by parasympathetic ...
Similarly, sarcKATP regulates vascular smooth muscle tone, and deletion of the kir6.2 or sur2 genes leads to coronary artery ... Absence of sarcKATP, in addition to attenuating the benefits of IPC, significantly impairs the myocyte's ability to properly ... Noma, A. (1983). "ATP-regulated K+ channels in cardiac muscle". Nature. 305 (5930): 147-148. doi:10.1038/305147a0. PMID 6310409 ... KATP channels were first identified in cardiac myocytes by the Akinori Noma group in Japan. They have also been found in ...
2003). "Molecular basis and characteristics of KATP channel in human corporal smooth muscle cells". Int. J. Impot. Res. 15 (4 ... 2003). "Distribution of Kir6.0 and SUR2 ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunits in isolated ventricular myocytes". J. Mol. ... and vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. Protein structure suggests a role as the drug-binding channel-modulating subunit ...
Some examples include: Diazoxide vasodilator used for hypertension, smooth muscle relaxing activity Minoxidil vasodilator used ... "Myocyte volume and function in response to osmotic stress: observations in the presence of an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive ... analgesic with muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties Potassium channel blocker Mizutani S, Prasad SM, Sellitto AD, ...
... cells known as myocytes, have a fusiform shape and, like striated muscle, can tense and relax. However, smooth ... Atromentin has been shown to be a smooth muscle stimulant. Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle "10.8 Smooth Muscle - Anatomy and ... BBC - baby born with smooth muscle condition has 8 organs transplanted Smooth muscle antibody Stomach smooth muscle identified ... Smooth muscle-containing tissue needs to be stretched often, so elasticity is an important attribute of smooth muscle. Smooth ...
... s are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ... Muscle spindle. Mammalian muscle spindle showing typical position in a muscle (left), neuronal connections in spinal cord ( ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ...
It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle.[8] The protein encoded ... "L-type calcium channel targeting and local signalling in cardiac myocytes". Cardiovascular Research. 98 (2): 177-86. doi ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... Cav1.2 is widely expressed in the smooth muscle, pancreatic cells, fibroblasts, and neurons.[9][10] However, it is particularly ...
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • positive ... cardiac myocytes, adipose tissue, fibroblasts, and neurons.[5] Large amounts of TNF are released in response to ... positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation of gene expression. • protein ... "The diseasome of physical inactivity - and the role of myokines in muscle-fat cross talk". J Physiol. 587 (23): 5559-5568. doi ...
The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle. (Same ... The threadlike muscle fibers are the individual muscle cells (myocytes), and each cell is encased within its own endomysium of ... Deep muscles, superficial muscles, muscles of the face and internal muscles all correspond with dedicated regions in the ... smooth muscle is not under conscious control.. *Cardiac muscle (myocardium), is also an "involuntary muscle" but is more akin ...
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • cell maturation. • extrathymic T cell selection. • positive ... myocyte and nerve cells.[7] As a pleiotropic cytokine, it plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity.[8] ... skeletal muscle atrophy. • signal transduction. • aging. • NK T cell proliferation. • positive regulation of immune response. • ... Pedersen BK (January 2011). "Muscles and their myokines". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 214 (Pt 2): 337-46. doi:10.1242/ ...
Some dog breeds (especially the Rough Collie, the Smooth Collie, the Shetland Sheepdog, and the Australian Shepherd), though, ... The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ... GluCls are invertebrate-specific members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels present in neurons and myocytes. ... Ivermectin kills by interfering with nervous system and muscle function, in particular by enhancing inhibitory ...
This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or ... Studies of muscle physiology suggest that the perimysium plays a role in transmitting lateral contractile movements. This ... in ungulate flexor carpi radialis muscles constructed by Emilie Passerieux.[1] The overall comprehensive organization of the ...
... such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle), obliquely striated muscle (found in some invertebrates), and smooth muscle. ... Striated muscle has transverse bands of filaments. In obliquely striated muscle, the filaments are staggered. Smooth muscle has ... Muscle contraction consists of the simultaneous shortening of multiple sarcomeres.[3] Muscle fiber contraction[edit]. The axon ... Muscle fiber relaxation[edit]. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine and this ceases muscle fiber ...
Lowers the rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine ... gall stones by inhibiting cholecystokinin which normally induce gallbladder myocytes to contract, and hypochlorhydria caused by ...
Sarcolemma in myocytes: "Sarcolemma" is the name given to the cell membrane of myocytes (also known as muscle cells).[42] ... The rough ER has ribosomes attached to it used for protein synthesis, while the smooth ER is used more for the processing of ... REED, R.; HOUSTON, T. W.; TODD, P. M. (30 July 1966). "Structure and Function of the Sarcolemma of Skeletal Muscle". Nature. ... For instance, the sarcolemma transmits synaptic signals, helps generate action potentials, and is very involved in muscle ...
... but has been observed in smooth muscles and is thought to contribute to contractility.[6] ... For HDACs 4, 5 and 7, conserved binding domains have been discovered that bind for C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), myocyte ... Binding of HDACs to MEF2 inhibits muscle differentiation, which can be reversed by action of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase ( ... been seen to be involved in cellular hypertrophy in muscle control differentiation as well as cellular hypertrophy in muscle ...
"Direct evidence for functional smooth muscle myosin II in the 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation in airway smooth muscle ... myocardial cells contain only NM IIB but NM IIA is more abundant in the non-myocyte cells. NM IIB is predominant in most parts ... Myosin-9 also known as myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle or non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIa (NMMHC-IIA) is a protein which in ... Eddinger TJ, Meer DP (August 2007). "Myosin II isoforms in smooth muscle: heterogeneity and function". American Journal of ...
... s are skeletal muscle fibers that serve as specialized sensory organs (proprioceptors) that detect the ... Intrafusal muscle fibers are walled off from the rest of the muscle by an outer connective tissue sheath consisting of ... Intrafusal muscle fibers are not to be confused with extrafusal muscle fibers, which contract, generating skeletal movement and ... This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
myocyte (smooth muscle). cardiovascular. *β2 adrenergic agonists → β-2 adrenergic receptor. *histamine → Histamine H2 receptor ... myocyte (skeletal muscle). muscular system. *epinephrine → β-adrenergic receptor. *produce glucose *stimulate glycogenolysis * ... myocyte (cardiac muscle). cardiovascular. *norepinephrine → β-adrenergic receptor. *sequester Ca2+ in sarcoplasmic reticulum * ... In cardiac muscleEdit. In a cascade mediated by a GPCR known as β1 adrenoceptor, activated by catecholamines (notably ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell)[1] is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that ... and smooth muscle cells. The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes ... A cell from the biceps brachii muscle may contain 80,000 sarcomeres.[11] The myofibrils of smooth muscle cells are not arranged ...
... skeletal muscle cells, called myocytes and syncytium, become multinucleated during development; the resulting arrangement of ... Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. *Mitochondrion. *Vacuole. *Cytosol (fluid that contains organelles, comprising the cytoplasm) ...
... smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle has no striations when examined microscopically. It contracts ... Muscle cells (myocytes) form the active contractile tissue of the body. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause ... Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the uterus, bladder, intestines, stomach, oesophagus, respiratory airways, and blood ... Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle ...
where ρ is the density of the muscle: ρ. =. muscle mass. muscle volume. .. {\displaystyle \rho ={{\text{muscle mass}} \over {\ ... muscle volume. fiber length. =. muscle mass. ρ. ⋅. fiber length. ,. {\displaystyle {\text{PCSA}}={{\text{muscle volume}} \over ... muscle volume. ⋅. cos. ⁡. Φ. fiber length. =. muscle mass. ⋅. cos. ⁡. Φ. ρ. ⋅. fiber length. ,. {\displaystyle {\text{PCSA}}_{2 ... One advantage of pennate muscles is that more muscle fibers can be packed in parallel, thus allowing the muscle to produce more ...
In cells lacking T-tubules such as smooth muscle cells, diseased cardiomyocytes, or muscle cells in which T-tubules have been ... "Excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes after formamide-induced detubulation". Am J Physiol. 277(2): H603-9 ... Muscle contraction. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f Hong, TingTing; Shaw, Robin M. (2017-01-01). "Cardiac T-Tubule ... They are found in ventricular muscle cells in most species, and in atrial muscle cells from large mammals.[4] In cardiac muscle ...
... is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated ... Main article: Myocyte. Muscle fibers are the individual contractile units within a muscle. A single muscle such as the biceps ... Arrangement of muscle fibersEdit. Main article: Muscle architecture. Muscle architecture refers to the arrangement of muscle ... Muscle Physiology Home Page - Skeletal Muscle Architecture, Effect of Muscle Architecture on Muscle Function ...
Sarcolemma in myocytes: "Sarcolemma" is the name given to the cell membrane of myocytes (also known as muscle cells).[43] ... The rough ER has ribosomes attached to it used for protein synthesis, while the smooth ER is used more for the processing of ... Reed R, Wouston TW, Todd PM (July 1966). "Structure and function of the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle". Nature. 211 (5048): 534 ... For instance, the sarcolemma transmits synaptic signals, helps generate action potentials, and is very involved in muscle ...
Both nitric oxide and hyperpolarization cause the smooth muscle to relax in order to regulate the amount of tone in blood ... myocytes. *contraction. *Activation of protein kinase C. Various. Activation of protein kinase C. Further reading: Function of ... Ca2+ ions can regulate several signaling pathways which cause the smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels to relax.[citation ... dysfunction within these Ca2+-activated pathways can lead to an increase in tone caused by unregulated smooth muscle ...
... is smooth ER found in myocytes. The only structural difference between this organelle and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is ... In muscle cells, it regulates calcium ion concentration. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both ... Specialized cells can have a lot of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in these cells the smooth ER has many functions.[6] It ... 1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 ...
Smooth muscleEdit. Main article: Smooth muscle tissue. Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into ... cardiac hypertrophy and ischemic cardiomyopathy do not affect the proportion of mononucleated and multinucleated myocytes in ... Muscle tissue. The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle ... Smooth muscle is found within the walls of blood vessels (such smooth muscle specifically being termed vascular smooth muscle) ...
Caffeine makes the RyR more sensitive to either the action potential (skeletal muscle) or calcium (cardiac or smooth muscle), ... "Termination of Ca2+ release by a local inactivation of ryanodine receptors in cardiac myocytes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... smooth muscle) or T-tubule membrane (cardiac muscle). These calcium ions bind to and activate the RyR, producing a larger ... In cardiac and smooth muscle an electrical impulse (action potential) triggers calcium ions to enter the cell through an L-type ...
Twarog BM (October 1976). "Aspects of smooth muscle function in molluscan catch muscle". Physiological Reviews. 56 (4): 829-38 ... Similar filament-forming myosin proteins were found in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. However, beginning ... The intermediate neck domain is the region creating the angle between the head and tail.[16] In smooth muscle, a single gene ( ... Matsuoka R, Yoshida MC, Furutani Y, Imamura S, Kanda N, Yanagisawa M, Masaki T, Takao A (April 1993). "Human smooth muscle ...
Our results suggest that a vascular smooth-muscle isoform (PDE3A2) is a product of the same gene as the longer myocardial ( ... Our results suggest that a vascular smooth-muscle isoform (PDE3A2) is a product of the same gene as the longer myocardial ( ... 118 kDa band in Western blots of homogenates of human aortic myocytes, whereas antibodies against residues 29-42 (nt 85-126) do ... 118 kDa band in Western blots of homogenates of human aortic myocytes, whereas antibodies against residues 29-42 (nt 85-126) do ...
Biomechanics Muscles - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. ... Smooth muscle is made of single, spindle-shaped cells. Smooth muscle is found in the media layer of arteries. o They control ... Muscle force is proportional to physiologic cross-sectional area. (PCSA), and muscle velocity is proportional to muscle fiber ... muscle tension to move a load. Isometric. o The contraction muscle tension is developed but it is not. enough to move the load ...
smooth muscle cells;. EF,. ejection fraction;. SO,. sham-operated;. LVFW,. LV free wall;. M,. myocyte;. MI,. myocardial ... and smooth muscle cells (SMC) were recognized with a mouse monoclonal anti-α-smooth muscle actin. The fractions of M, EC, and ... α-smooth muscle actin; blue fluorescence = propidium iodide (PI) labeling of nuclei. (A and E, ×1,200; B and F ×800; C, ×1,400 ... flk-1 and α-smooth muscle actin Abs (10, 28). Scar was detected by a mixture of collagen type I and type III Abs. ...
We used flow cytometry to compare smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) and smooth muscle-alpha-actin (sm-alpha-actin) ... Distribution of phenotypically disparate myocyte subpopulations in airway smooth muscle. Sign on to: ▾ * Submit to MSpace ... Distribution of phenotypically disparate myocyte subpopulations in airway smooth muscle. Halayko, AJ; Stelmack, GL; Yamasaki, A ... Immunohistochemistry revealed similar phenotype heterogeneity in human bronchial smooth muscle. Canine tracheal myocyte ...
Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits ... Arterial smooth muscle cell (myocyte) BK channels serve as a negative regulator of pressure-induced vasoconstriction (the ... Smooth muscle cells (myocytes) were dissociated from cerebral arteries as previously described (47). Experiments involving ... Smooth muscle cell a2d-1 subunits are essential for vasoregulation by CaV1.2 channels. Circ Res 105: 948-955, 2009. ...
VSMC, Vascular smooth muscle cell; VOC, voltage-operated Ca2+ channel; ICa, inward Ca2+ current.. ... Himpens B, Missiaen L & Casteels R (1995). Ca2+ homeostasis in vascular smooth muscle. Journal of Vascular Research, 32: 207- ... Hughes AD (1995). Calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Journal of Vascular Research, 32: 353-370. [ Links ]. 16. ... 3. Bohr DF & Webb RC (1984). Vascular smooth muscle function and its changes in hypertension. American Journal of Medicine, 77 ...
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular. *Myocytes, Smooth Muscle. *NF-kappa B. *Rats. *Rats, Wistar ... We tested the hypothesis that IL-10 may also inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation via the inhibition of the NF- ... IL-10 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell activation in vitro and in vivo.. *Mazighi M ...
Plays diverse roles in the control of cell growth, survival and apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling in muscle-specific and/or ... Mediates cellular functions not only in skeletal and cardiac muscle development, but also in neuronal differentiation and ... found in numerous muscle-specific, growth factor- and stress-induced genes. ... positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*. "MiR-665 ...
... channels in airway smooth muscle. Biophysical analyses of STOCs and Ca(2+) sparks acquired at 333 Hz demonstrate that these two ... Spatial organization of RYRs and BK channels underlying the activation of STOCs by Ca(2+) sparks in airway myocytes J Gen ...
Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells ...
Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells ...
... signaling in smooth muscle. Here, we investigated the interactions between these different factors in aortic aneurysm ... Muscle, Smooth, Vascular* * Myocytes, Smooth Muscle * Transforming Growth Factor beta Substances * Transforming Growth Factor ... Smooth Muscle Cell Reprogramming in Aortic Aneurysms Cell Stem Cell. 2020 Apr 2;26(4):542-557.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2020.02. ... signaling in smooth muscle. Here, we investigated the interactions between these different factors in aortic aneurysm ...
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/*drug effects/metabolism. *Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects/metabolism ... Human CASMCs (coronary artery smooth muscle cells) in culture exposed to IL (interleukin)-1beta or TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis ... Angiotensin II modulates CD40 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. *Souza H ...
Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Tissue: Pulmonary artery / Cell Type: Myocyte * General Information ... Primary Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells; Normal, Human (PASMC) (ATCC® PCS-100-023™) ... Serotonin inhibits apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell by pERK1/2 and PDK through 5-HT1B receptors and 5-HT ... Wall Stretch and Thromboxane A2 Activate No Synthase (eNOS) in Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Via H2O2 and Akt- ...
Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Tissue: Pulmonary artery / Cell Type: Myocyte * General Information ... Primary Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells; Normal, Human (PASMC) ATCC® PCS-100-023™ frozen 1 mL ... Primary Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells; Normal, Human (PASMC) (ATCC® PCS-100-023™) ... Passage normal vascular smooth muscle cells when culture has reached approximately 80% confluence. ...
ET-1 evoked depolarization in all three smooth muscle cell types. Depolarizing oscillations in membrane current also were ... in pulmonary and aortic myocytes, whereas in basilar myocytes ET-1 inhibited the Ca++-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)). ET-1 also ... Experiments with ET receptor ligands indicated that in basilar myocytes ETAreceptor stimulation is responsible for IK(Ca) ... Differential Electrophysiological Actions of Endothelin-1 on Cl- and K+ Currents in Myocytes Isolated from Aorta, Basilar and ...
Representative images of PAD staining of the cardiac myocytes. The second PAD6 image demonstrates vascular smooth muscle cell ... in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. PAD staining did not co-localize with anti-citrulline staining in the ...
Positive IHC staining of vascular smooth muscle cells.. Main Article. Page created: July 06, 2010 ... Positive intranuclear and intracytoplasmic immunolabeling of myocytes. C) Proventriculus. Strong positive immunolabeling of ...
Myocyte enhancer binding factor-2 expression and activity in vascular smooth muscle cells: Association with the activated ... Myocyte enhancer binding factor-2 expression and activity in vascular smooth muscle cells: Association with the activated ... Myocyte enhancer binding factor-2 expression and activity in vascular smooth muscle cells : Association with the activated ... title = "Myocyte enhancer binding factor-2 expression and activity in vascular smooth muscle cells: Association with the ...
Smooth Muscle Cells (10) * Fibroblast (9) * Myocyte (6) * Embryonic (3) * Erythroblast (1) ...
A fluorophore-conjugated anti-smooth muscle alpha-actin is paired with anti-HLA-ABC to examine smooth muscle cells. To ... Cardiac Myocytes flies the cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in a Techshot Bioreactor on the ISS and evaluates myocyte maturation ... Since , ETS-MESP1 myocytes is are influenced by forming 3D cardiospheres does maturation of rReprogrammed human myocytes under ... Conversion of Adipogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Mature Cardiac Myocytes (Cardiac Myocytes) - 09.27.17. Overview , ...
Natarajan R, Scott S, Bai W, Yerneni KK, Nadler J: Angiotensin II signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells under high glucose ... Glucose, losartan, pH, and myocyte apoptosis. A- I: Confocal images of different aspects of apoptosis in myocytes cultured at ... and smooth muscle cells (44,45). Conversely, ERK is not activated by high glucose concentrations in these cell populations, but ... In vascular smooth muscle cells, AT2 receptor activation opposes ERK function, promoting apoptosis (53). AT1 receptors induce ...
human bronchial smooth muscle primary cell. C2C12, differentiated myocyte mouse myoblastoma line. ...
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular. Myocytes, Cardiac / cytology, metabolism. Staining and Labeling. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/ ... 19875724 - Extracellular heat shock protein 60, cardiac myocytes, and apoptosis.. 12572894 - Part of cd68+ macrophages in the ...
Myocytes, Cardiac / drug effects. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / drug effects. PPAR gamma / drug effects*. Thiazolidinediones / ... and smooth muscle cells. PPARgamma plays a role in regulating cellular anti-inflammatory responses and is a mediator of insulin ... transgenic and knockout animal models provide further evidence regarding a role for endothelial-cell and vascular smooth muscle ...
This compartmentalization of Ca2+ was demonstrated in coronary smooth muscle myocytes18 by probing the subsarcolemmal [Ca2+], ... Calcium currents in isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle myocytes. J Physiol (Lond). 1990;427:657-680. ... Indirect stimulation of Ca2+-activated Cl- current by Na+/Ca2+ exchange in rabbit portal vein smooth muscle. Am J Physiol. 1995 ... Metabolic inhibition enhances Ca2+-activated K + current in smooth muscle cells of rabbit portal vein. Am J Physiol. 1993;265: ...
In vitro studies demonstrated that this interaction leads to the activation of the smooth muscle α-actin promoter. TEAD ... proteins and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) interact physically. The binding of MEF2 on the DNA induces and potentiates TEAD2 ... Mar JH, Ordahl CP (September 1988). "A conserved CATTCCT motif is required for skeletal muscle-specific activity of the cardiac ... Finally in Xenopus, it has been demonstrated that the homolog of TEAD regulates muscle differentiation. Regulation of mouse ...
The increase of intracellular calcium concentration is essential for the uterine smooth muscle contraction [9]. ... R. C. Young, "Myocytes, myometrium, and uterine contractions," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1101, pp. 72-84 ... Myometrial contractility is a complex process based on myocytes function. It involves the presence of hormonal receptors, ions ...
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle. 1. 2014. 701. 0.100. Why? Recurrence. 3. 2012. 7521. 0.100. Why? ...
  • Phenotype and functional heterogeneity of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vitro is well known, but there is limited understanding of these features in vivo. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Immunoblotting confirmed smMHC and sm-alpha-actin were 10- and 5-fold greater, respectively, in large, elongate myocytes that comprised -60% of total cells. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Proliferation of subcultures established with myocytes exhibiting low levels of smMHC and sm-alpha-actin was 2 x faster than subcultures established with ASM cells with a high marker protein content. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Despite the demonstration that a subpopulation of cardiac muscle cells is able to replicate ( 1 ), and new vessels are formed ( 2 ), this regeneration is restricted to the viable myocardium. (pnas.org)
  • Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that modulate arterial contractility. (physiology.org)
  • For example, arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have an increased contractile sensitivity to extracellular Ca 2+ and intracellular Ca 2+ levels are elevated in aortic smooth muscle cells of SHR. (scielo.br)
  • smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Human CASMCs (coronary artery smooth muscle cells) in culture exposed to IL (interleukin)-1beta or TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) had increased superoxide generation and enhanced CD40 expression, detected by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) and immunoblotting respectively. (mendeley.com)
  • A complete solution to propagate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in low serum conditions. (atcc.org)
  • In contrast to citrullination, PADs 1 to 3 and 6 were detected in cardiomyocytes (primarily PADs 1 and 3), resident inflammatory cells (primarily PADs 2 and 4), and, to a smaller extent, in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Positive IHC staining of vascular smooth muscle cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Proliferation and phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are major components of the vessel's response to injury in experimental models of restenosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Conversion of Adipogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Mature Cardiac Myocytes (Cardiac Myocytes) uses the microgravity environment of space to examine how stem cells differentiate into specialized heart cells (cardiac myocytes). (nasa.gov)
  • Previous studies using microgravity chambers on Earth have found that low gravity environments help specially programmed stem cells move towards becoming new heart muscle cells. (nasa.gov)
  • The Cardiac Myocytes experiment delivers frozen stem cells in an experimental setup to the International Space Station where the cells are thawed, cultured under specific conditions, tagged and then returned to Earth for analysis and comparison with control batches. (nasa.gov)
  • Ground studies for Conversion of Adipogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Mature Cardiac Myocytes (Cardiac Myocytes) are complete and found that a pair of human transcription factors, ETS2 and MESP1, converted human fat stem cell into cardiac myocytes that were immature. (nasa.gov)
  • The experimental paradigm contributes to a novel regenerative strategy that enhanced myocyte maturation occurred from converted human fat stem cells. (nasa.gov)
  • Cardiac Myocytes flies the cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in a Techshot Bioreactor on the ISS and evaluates myocyte maturation under microgravity conditions. (nasa.gov)
  • Thus, research sponsored by the center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) supports the first conversion of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) into cardiac myocytes. (nasa.gov)
  • It is expressed in adipocytes, immune cells, and cardiovascular cells that include cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 50 mV to -30 mV) in arterial 2 3 4 and airway 5 smooth muscle cells, small changes in RMP can profoundly affect tension development in tonic vascular smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • The resulting reduction in cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) leads to relaxation of the smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Calcium Homeostasis In Skeletal Muscle Cells. (uglycc.com)
  • The team used smooth muscle cells from bovine aortas and skeletal muscle myoblasts from rabbits to create the lab-grown muscle. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Myoblasts are the embyronic cells that eventually grow into myocytes, or muscle cells. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Scientists cultured both forms of muscle cells in "gelatin fiber scaffolds," according to the paper. (popularmechanics.com)
  • To grow muscle tissues that resembled meat, we needed to find a 'scaffold' material that was edible and allowed muscle cells to attach and grow in 3D," Luke MacQueen, first author of the study and a research associate at SEAS and the Wyss Institute for Bioinspired Engineering, said in the statement. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Smooth muscle cells respond to Ins P 3 -generating (sarcolemma-acting) neurotransmitters and hormones by releasing Ca 2+ from the internal store. (portlandpress.com)
  • Voltage-gated calcium channels ( VGCCs ), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels ( VDCCs ), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells ( e.g. , muscle , glial cells , neurons , etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca 2+ . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium ions play a critical role in signaling in a wide variety of cells and tissues, including muscle, immune cells, neurons, the liver, and oocytes. (cshlpress.com)
  • Abstract -The amplitude of the whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel current recorded from vascular smooth muscle cells is reportedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • To further test the hypothesis that activation of L-type Ca 2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells would be enhanced in SHR, we recorded single Ca 2+ channel currents in resistance mesenteric artery cells from SHR and WKY (8 to 9 weeks of age) using a cell-attached patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results suggest that an increased amplitude of the whole-cell current can be attributed to the enhanced opening of single Ca 2+ channels in the arterial smooth muscle cells from SHR compared with WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • Changes in the properties of ion channels in vascular smooth muscle cells from hypertensive animals have been studied by use of the whole-cell patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 2 3 A greater amplitude of the whole-cell Ca 2+ channel current would be related with the increase in Ca 2+ influx into the cell, which may contribute to alterations in the function of vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 Two major classes of growth factors, synthesized by both myocytes and nonmuscle cells in the heart, have clear paracrine/autocrine roles in the development and differentiation of cardiac myocytes: FGF1, FGF2, and TGF-β. (ahajournals.org)
  • Calcitriol decreases expression of importin α3 and attenuates RelA translocation in human bronchial smooth muscle cells. (nextbio.com)
  • citation needed] In lower animals, the muscle cells themselves are photosensitive causing iris action without brain input. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac , skeletal , and smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] [6] Smooth muscle cells control involuntary movements such as the peristalsis contractions in the oesophagus and stomach . (wikipedia.org)
  • The unusual microstructure of muscle cells has led cell biologists to create specialized terminology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of CD38 expression in human airway smooth muscle cells: role of class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases. (nih.gov)
  • In human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, TNF-α mediates CD38 expression through mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB and AP-1. (nih.gov)
  • 7 Unlike vascular smooth muscle cells, myocytes can also express this enzyme. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 The inducible form of NO synthase is located in myocytes and endothelial cells 8 9 and presumably is involved in the depression in myocardial contractility of septic shock. (ahajournals.org)
  • Found in muscle tissue, myocytes are long, tubular cells that arise developmentally from myoblasts to form muscle. (xenbase.org)
  • CSPs in injured heart differentiated into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, or smooth muscle cells (4.4%, 6.7%, and 29% of total CSP-derived cells, respectively). (rupress.org)
  • Telmisartan modulates mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cells. (curehunter.com)
  • During embryonic development, epicardially-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple cardiac lineages, including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle and potentially other cell types. (mdpi.com)
  • A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION. (bioportfolio.com)
  • C 60 fullerenes selectively inhibit BK Ca but not K v channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • TRPV4 Channel Signaling in Macrophages Promotes Gastrointestinal Motility via Direct Effects on Smooth Muscle Cells. (nih.gov)
  • Muscle cells are divided into two groups, striated muscle and smooth muscle. (reference.com)
  • Striated muscle cells are characterized by protein arrays that form stripes. (reference.com)
  • Muscle cells form muscle tissue, and three types of muscle tissue are found in the human body: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle. (reference.com)
  • Individual muscle cells, or myocytes, are surrounded by a thin connective tissue sheath known as the endomysium. (reference.com)
  • What is the main difference between muscle cells and nerve cells? (reference.com)
  • We could not detect mRNA expression of FGF23 or its coreceptor, klotho, in human or mouse vascular smooth muscle cells, or normal or calcified mouse aorta. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of these molecules was also examined in myometrial smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, their expression was detected in myometrial smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • This study demonstrated for the first time the expression of the RHOGTPase regulators ARHGEF1, ARHGEF11, ARHGEF12, ARHGAP5, ARHGAP24, ARHGDIA and MSN in human myometrium, at term pregnancy, at labour, in the non-pregnant state and also in myometrial smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • To examine the underlying mechanisms, we measured L-type Ca 2+ channel current in arteriolar smooth muscle cells in response to integrin ligands. (rupress.org)
  • The signaling mechanisms downstream from integrin-ligand binding are poorly understood, particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). (rupress.org)
  • Macrophage-derived netrin-1 promotes abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by activating MMP3 in vascular smooth muscle cells. (abcam.com)
  • Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) express a wide variety of receptors involved in the immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recently, it has been proposed that migration of the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) 3 toward the epithelium might also contribute to this phenomenon ( 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These migrating cells could originate from deep smooth muscle bundles or from bone marrow cells, in a fashion similar to the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular diseases ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activated CD4 T cells connect to airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in vitro via lymphocyte-derived membrane conduits (LMCs) structurally similar to membrane nanotubes with unknown intercellular signals triggering their formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4 T cells have been shown in close proximity to airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in vivo, indicating the plausibility that contact-dependent communication of CD4 T cells and ASMCs may be responsible for altered functionality of these cells in airway diseases with increased lymphocyte infiltration ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We show that the sequence encompassing rs17293632 acts as a strong enhancer in human arterial smooth muscle cells. (dtu.dk)
  • The protective (T) allele of rs17293632 disrupts a consensus AP-1 binding site in a SMAD3 intron 1 enhancer, reduces enhancer activity and SMAD3 expression, altering human arterial smooth muscle cells proliferation. (dtu.dk)
  • channel properties in smooth muscle cells of the urinary bladder from pig and human'European Journal of Pharmacology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • the clinical features of toxicity from calcium-channel blockers arise from blockade of l-type calcium channels in myocardial cells, smooth-muscle cells, and beta cells. (allnurses.com)
  • hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy improves inotropy and peripheral vascular resistance and reverses acidosis, possibly by improving the uptake of carbohydrates by myocytes and smooth-muscle cells. (allnurses.com)
  • Angiotensin II signal transduction through small GTP-binding proteins: mechanism and significance in vascular smooth muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Histone demethylase KDM3a, a novel regulator of vascular smooth muscle cells, controls vascular neointimal hyperplasia in diabetic rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin II-induced activation of p21-activated kinase 1 requires Ca2+ and protein kinase C{delta} in vascular smooth muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most people don't know the difference between muscle cells and muscle fibers. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • muscle cells are shaped like fibers. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Collections of cells form muscle tissue. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Muscle fibers are the bundles of cells that form the muscle. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • These are like stem cells, they haven't differentiated into a specific type of muscle cell yet. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • This combination is what creates the red or rust color of blood, and red or type 1 muscle cells! (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Since it accelerates this reaction it depletes the type 1 muscle cells of their energy sources, in this case fat! (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from sensitized rats induced an increase in proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis of airway myocytes in naive recipients upon repeated antigen challenge, which resulted in an increase in ASM mass. (jci.org)
  • Coculture of antigen-stimulated CD4+ T cells with cell cycle-arrested ASM cells induced myocyte proliferation, dependent on T cell activation and direct T cell-myocyte contact. (jci.org)
  • Overall, our data demonstrate that activated CD4+ T cells drive ASM remodeling in experimental asthma and suggest that a direct cell-cell interaction participates in CD4+ T cell regulation of myocyte turnover and induction of remodeling. (jci.org)
  • Under the microscope, cardiac muscle is seen to consist of interlacing bundles of cardiac myocytes (muscle cells). (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, cardiac myocytes are narrower and much shorter than skeletal muscle cells, being about 0.02 mm wide and 0.1 mm long, and are more rectangular than smooth muscle cells, which are normally spindle-shaped. (encyclopedia.com)
  • PI anticipates these cells will differentiate to myocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells post transplant. (ca.gov)
  • We and others have demonstrated that human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express caveolin-1 (Cav-1), and that ASM caveolae contain a number of proteins involved in regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) [ 6 - 8 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • We also explore how stress affects components of the cardiovascular system, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, and platelets. (rochester.edu)
  • To define the role of GLUT1 in vascular biology, we established cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with constitutive upregulation of GLUT1, which led to a threefold increase in glucose uptake as well as significant increases in both nonoxidative and oxidative glucose metabolism as assessed by 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The mammalian heart is composed of different cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes (CMs). (springer.com)
  • Numerous studies have provided evidence that stromal cells derived from the adipose tissue (adipose tissue-derived stromal cells [ADSCs]) contain a population of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells that can differentiate into several lineages, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • We refer here to the term adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs), which identifies a plastic-adherent cell population that includes vascular (pericytes and endothelial progenitor cells)/adipocyte progenitor cells (preadipocytes) and adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), besides circulating blood cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes 27 ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, studies using PPARgamma mutant transgenic and knockout animal models provide further evidence regarding a role for endothelial-cell and vascular smooth muscle-cell PPARgamma in blood pressure regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MicroRNA26 attenuates vascular smooth muscle maturation via endothelial BMP signalling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Skeletal Muscle Function Testing. (uglycc.com)
  • Process Of Skeletal Muscle Contraction. (uglycc.com)
  • Excitation-contraction Coupling Of Skeletal Muscle. (uglycc.com)
  • CBTM-2 research has the potential to contribute to the development of an effective countermeasure for the negative effects of space on human skeletal muscle. (nasa.gov)
  • [4] Skeletal muscle fibers help support and move the body and tend to have peripheral nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histological analysis of these animals revealed a requirement for MEF2 in skeletal muscle patterning, although these animals had strikingly normal amounts of muscle tissue. (genetics.org)
  • Since this is a bodybuilding site I'm going to focus on skeletal muscle fibers. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Skeletal muscle is actually very complex and has a large neural component. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Like skeletal muscle it is striated with narrow dark and light bands, due to the parallel arrangement of actin and myosin filaments that extend from end to end of each myocyte. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This phase of the action potential is also seen in skeletal muscle and nerves. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The plateau means that cardiac muscle action potentials last much longer than those in skeletal muscle or nerves, where calcium does not enter the cell and there is therefore no plateau phase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) trigger the contraction of vascular myocytes and the level of free intracellular Ca 2+ within the myocyte is precisely regulated by sequestration and extrusion mechanisms. (scielo.br)
  • The increase of intracellular calcium concentration is essential for the uterine smooth muscle contraction [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The control of membrane voltage by K + channels serves as a negative feedback to oppose voltage-dependent calcium influx pathways that contribute to airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, these myofilaments work to produce a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum serves as reservoir for calcium ions, so when an action potential spreads over the T tubule, it signals the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium ions from the gated membrane channels to stimulate a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cardiac muscle has a unique structure, and differs in the way that contraction is initiated and regulated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The amount of calcium entering the myocyte during an action potential is not enough to cause contraction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A muscle that on contraction draws a part away from the median plane of the body or the axial line of an extremity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To determine whether enzymatic p53 glycosylation leads to angiotensin II formation followed by p53 phosphorylation, prolonged activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and apoptosis, ventricular myocytes were exposed to levels of glucose mimicking diabetic hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study was designed to examine the effect of infrasound exposure (5 Hz at 130 dB) on whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ currents (WLCC) in rat ventricular myocytes and the underlying mechanism(s) involved. (springer.com)
  • Fluo-3/AM fluorescence and the laser scanning confocal microscope techniques were used to measure [Ca 2+ ] i in freshly isolated ventricular myocytes. (springer.com)
  • Plays diverse roles in the control of cell growth, survival and apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling in muscle-specific and/or growth factor-related transcription. (uniprot.org)
  • Myocyte death by apoptosis directly correlated with glucose and angiotensin II levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, these in vitro results support the notion that hyperglycemia with diabetes promotes myocyte apoptosis mediated by activation of p53 and effector responses involving the local renin-angiotensin system. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Reciprocally, direct cell contact prevented postactivation T cell apoptosis, which suggests receptor-mediated T cell-myocyte crosstalk. (jci.org)
  • Mediates cellular functions not only in skeletal and cardiac muscle development, but also in neuronal differentiation and survival. (uniprot.org)
  • We examined the expression of the four members of the myocyte enhancer binding factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors in cultured rat aortic SMCs (RASMCs) and a rat model of restenosis because of their known importance in regulating the differentiated phenotype of skeletal and cardiac muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • In skeletal and cardiac muscle, the MEF2s are believed to be important for activating the expression of contractile protein and other muscle-specific genes. (elsevier.com)
  • THE myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors play a critical role in the development of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. (genetics.org)
  • Cardiac muscle is similar to smooth muscle but is only located within the heart. (reference.com)
  • Cardiac muscle tissue doesn't contain nerves, but electrical impulses pass through the tissue causing involuntary responses. (reference.com)
  • cardiac muscle Your heart beats about once a second for the whole of your life, and of course has no opportunity to rest. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The special requirements of the heart call for a special type of muscle, cardiac muscle , which is not found anywhere else in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cardiac muscle is in some ways similar to skeletal and smooth muscle . (encyclopedia.com)
  • A prominent and unique feature of cardiac muscle is the presence of irregularly-spaced dark bands between myocytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the myocytes are electrically connected, cardiac muscle is often referred to as a functional syncytium (continuous cellular material). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In cardiac muscle, however, the membrane potential then remains close to zero for about 0.3 sec - the plateau phase , which is largely due to entry of calcium ions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • ALDH1A3 Regulations of Matricellular Proteins Promote Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation promotes intimal hyperplasia (IH) in occluding vascular diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RhoGDI stability is regulated by SUMOylation and ubiquitination via the AT1 receptor and participates in Ang II-induced smooth muscle proliferation and vascular remodeling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Furthermore, recent in vitro studies demonstrate that Ang II causes myocyte hypertrophy 8 9 and fibroblast proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypoxia-induced ARHGAP26 deficiency inhibits the proliferation and migration of human ductus arteriosus smooth muscle cell through activating RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway. (abcam.com)
  • Increased vascular reactivity, i.e., increased sensitivity to vasoconstrictor agents and increased smooth muscle force generation ability, hypertrophy and remodeling, development of spontaneous tone, the presence of oscillatory contractile activity, and increased ionic permeability of the plasma membrane are some of the alterations observed in vessels from hypertensive animals (3-6). (scielo.br)
  • These data suggest that FGF2 in human PF is a major determining factor in normal myocyte growth, whereas unidentified LV mass-dependent factor(s), present in both PF and serum, participates in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3-5 Similarly, several factors (including polypeptide growth factors) may modulate the long-term adaptive quantitative and qualitative changes in cardiac myocyte gene expression and act on cardiac growth during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes synthesize and release Ang II, which is involved in mechanical stretch-induced hypertrophy of myocytes, thereby suggesting the important role of autocrine release of Ang II in cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by hypertension or pressure overload by aortic coarctation, is accompanied not only by quantitative changes (increase in cardiac myocyte size) but also by qualitative changes, including a shift to the fetal phenotype of myocytes 5 12 13 14 15 and cardiac remodeling such as interstitial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy results from clinical conditions that include hypertension and valvular heart disease, and can result in heart failure. (medscimonit.com)
  • The expression of lnc-FTX was associated with reduced hypertrophy of neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes and regulated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by sponging miRNA-22. (medscimonit.com)
  • We tested whether ASM is composed of myocyte subsets differing in contractile phenotype marker expression. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed similar phenotype heterogeneity in human bronchial smooth muscle. (umanitoba.ca)
  • These data suggest that the MEF2s are involved in the activated smooth muscle phenotype and not in the maintenance of contractile protein gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to evaluate their presence and biological activity, we studied the effect of PF and serum obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery on the phenotype and cell growth of isolated adult rat myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study demonstrates that Ang II in vivo, via the type 1 receptor, directly induces a shift to the fetal phenotype of cardiac myocytes and cardiac remodeling independent of blood pressure elevation. (ahajournals.org)
  • We obtained direct evidence that Ang II, via the type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor, can induce the shift to the fetal phenotype of cardiac myocytes and cardiac remodeling independent of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that IL-10 may also inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation via the inhibition of the NF-kappaB/I-kappaB system. (mendeley.com)
  • In voltage-clamp experiments ET-1 induced a gradual inhibition of the Ca ++ -independent outward current (I K ) in pulmonary and aortic myocytes, whereas in basilar myocytes ET-1 inhibited the Ca ++ -activated K + current (I K(Ca) ). ET-1 also evoked a transient enhancement of I K(Ca) and oscillations in inward current in aortic and pulmonary myocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Antagonism of transmembrane calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) influx from the extracellular medium as well as inhibition of release of intracellular Ca 2+ from Ca 2+ stores appear to mediate its inhibitory effects on vascular smooth muscle ( 9 ). (scielo.br)
  • [3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres that form the chambers of the heart, and have a single central nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell activation in vitro and in vivo. (mendeley.com)
  • In vitro studies demonstrated that this interaction leads to the activation of the smooth muscle α-actin promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Force fluctuations imposed on contracted airway smooth muscle (ASM) in vitro result in its relengthening, a phenomenon called force fluctuation-induced relengthening (FFIR). (ersjournals.com)
  • This hypothesis is supported by in vitro studies, in which cardiac myocytes cultured on collagen or laminin-coated deformable membranes, display hypertrophic responses when exposed to mechanical stretch [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In arterial myocytes, β1 subunits are stored within highly mobile rab11A-positive recycling endosomes. (physiology.org)
  • Trafficking pathways for BKα and whether physiological stimuli that regulate arterial contractility alter BKα localization in arterial myocytes are unclear. (physiology.org)
  • These data indicate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in arterial myocytes. (physiology.org)
  • These data describe a unique mechanism by which ANG II inhibits arterial myocyte BK currents, by reducing surface channel number, to induce vasoconstriction. (physiology.org)
  • Arterial smooth muscle cell (myocyte) BK channels serve as a negative regulator of pressure-induced vasoconstriction (the myogenic response) and are modulated by multiple vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists and stimuli ( 11 , 24 , 31 - 33 ). (physiology.org)
  • β1 Subunits elevate channel apparent Ca 2+ sensitivity into a micromolar concentration range sufficient to permit sensing of local intracellular Ca 2+ transients termed Ca 2+ sparks, which control BK channel activity in arterial myocytes ( 18 - 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • Arterial myocytes also express LRRC26, an auxiliary γ subunit that elevates channel voltage sensitivity to induce vasodilation ( 12 ). (physiology.org)
  • In contrast, mechanisms that regulate channel surface expression in native cell types, including arterial myocytes, are unclear. (physiology.org)
  • 3) intracellular Ca 2+ concentration is abnormally increased in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals following treatment with Ca 2+ channel agonists and depolarizing interventions, and 4) using the voltage-clamp technique, the inward Ca 2+ current in arterial myocytes from hypertensive rats is nearly twice as large as that from myocytes of normotensive rats. (scielo.br)
  • Our goal was to demonstrate that Ca 2+ entry through voltage-gated I CaL channels can stimulate adjacent K Ca channels by a localized interaction in enzymatically isolated rabbit coronary arterial myocytes voltage clamped in whole-cell or in cell-attached patch clamp mode. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have identified a new cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoform, PDE3A, and cloned its cDNA from cultured aortic myocytes. (lu.se)
  • 118 kDa band in Western blots of homogenates of human aortic myocytes, whereas antibodies against residues 29-42 (nt 85-126) do not react with any bands in these homogenates. (lu.se)
  • article{ed537726-b305-4972-b009-5950d1f53f7e, abstract = {We have identified a new cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoform, PDE3A, and cloned its cDNA from cultured aortic myocytes. (lu.se)
  • Depolarizing oscillations in membrane current also were observed in pulmonary and aortic myocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ion-exchange experiments indicated that in pulmonary myocytes oscillatory currents were caused solely by the movement of Cl − , whereas in aortic myocytes they were the consequence of both Ca ++ -activated Cl − (I Cl(Ca) ) and nonselective cation currents (I NS ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • These studies demonstrate broad phenotypic heterogeneity of myocytes in normal ASM tissue that is maintained in cell culture, as demonstrated by divergent proliferative capacity. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Through histology (the study of microscopic tissue), scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical testing, the researchers illustrated that cultured muscle did lack the "mature contractile architecture," seen in natural muscle tissue, but proved the engineered muscle had some of the same structural and mechanical features as regular meat products. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Studies have indicated expression of KCNQ channels in airway smooth muscle (ASM), a tissue that is predominantly regulated by muscarinic receptor signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell ) [1] is the type of cell found in muscle tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since MEF2 mutant adults were still capable of forming muscle tissue, we conclude that MEF2 is required for the expression of only a subset of muscle structural genes in the adult. (genetics.org)
  • There are 3 types of muscle tissue: Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • The uterus and heart share the important physiological feature whereby contractile activation of the muscle tissue is regulated by the generation of periodic, spontaneous electrical action potentials (APs). (jove.com)
  • In this study, we used a neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM) model to determine the role of focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) in β 1 integrin mediated MAP kinase activation in response to mechanical stretch in presence and absence of Ang II receptor blockade (ATB). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ca 2+ channels in cardiac myocytes: Structure and function in Ca influx and intracellular Ca 2+ release. (springer.com)
  • The data suggest that α v β 3 and α 5 β 1 integrins are differentially linked through intracellular signaling pathways to the L-type Ca 2+ channel and thereby alter control of Ca 2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle. (rupress.org)
  • This suggests a potential link between vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) glucose metabolism and the progression of lesion formation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Abstract -Large-conductance Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels (K Ca ), which are abundant on the sarcolemma of vascular myocytes, provide negative feedback via membrane hyperpolarization that limits Ca 2+ entry through L-type Ca 2+ channels ( I CaL ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Abstract Pericardial fluid (PF) may contain myocardial growth factors that exert paracrine actions on cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The dynamic adhesion of myocytes to PLGA scaffolds was investigated by fluorescence microscope and the viability of the myocytes was measured by MTT assay. (springer.com)
  • The electrophysiological effects of endothelin (ET)-1 were compared in myocytes isolated from rat small pulmonary artery, basilar artery and aorta. (aspetjournals.org)
  • TEAD proteins and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) interact physically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background - Vinculin and its isoform metavinculin are protein components of intercalated discs, structures that anchor thin filaments and transmit contractile force between cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of the mitochondrial fission mediator dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) contributes to dysfunction of RV myocytes in PAH through interaction with its binding partner, fission protein 1 (Fis1). (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that corticosteroids may exert part of their therapeutic effect through direct action on airway smooth muscle, by decreasing p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and thus increasing force fluctuation-induced relengthening. (ersjournals.com)
  • The muscle proteins that contract are the protein fibers actin and myosin. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • so you get the most satellite cell activation and the most nucleus donation, and subsequently the capacity to make more muscle protein, and thus more strength and size. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • In general, the beneficial effects of corticosteroids have been attributed to their anti-inflammatory actions, as pro-inflammatory cytokines can modulate airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractile and relaxant function. (ersjournals.com)
  • If you lose a lot of muscle mass cutting for a show, you're not losing your nucleuses, only the fuel and contractile proteins. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Uterine contractile patterns are controlled by the generation of complex electrical signals at the myometrial smooth muscle plasma membrane. (jove.com)
  • ANG II-mediated BK channel degradation reduced BK currents in isolated myocytes and functional responses to iberiotoxin, a BK channel blocker, and NS1619, a BK activator, in pressurized (60 mmHg) cerebral arteries. (physiology.org)
  • In this study, we use an integrated approach to tackling this issue on a prototypical local Ca(2+) signaling system composed of Ca(2+) sparks resulting from the opening of ryanodine receptors (RYRs) and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) caused by the opening of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels in airway smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • channel currents, and that the HVA current component is predominant in all smooth muscles. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Myocytes were collected from neonatal SD rat's lateral pterygoid muscle for primary cell culture. (springer.com)
  • Here, we investigated the interactions between these different factors in aortic aneurysm development and identified a key role for smooth muscle cell (SMC) reprogramming into a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like state. (nih.gov)
  • ET-1 evoked depolarization in all three smooth muscle cell types. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is concluded that α-actin expression is probably associated with cell adhesion ability in myocytes subjected to mechanical stimulation. (springer.com)
  • The sarcolemma is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber and receives and conducts stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane of a myocyte has several specialized regions, which may include the intercalated disk and the transverse tubular system . (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of mef2 expression can also be detected in the developing skeletal and smooth muscle cell lineages as well as in the developing central nervous system (reviewed in B lack and O lson 1998 ). (genetics.org)
  • What is the function of a muscle cell? (reference.com)
  • The two main functions of a muscle cell are to produce movement through force and to maintain posture, according to Science360. (reference.com)
  • They are frequently called muscle fibers because the length of a muscle cell is greater than the width. (reference.com)
  • What surrounds the individual muscle cell? (reference.com)
  • In rat afferent arterioles, RGD peptide causes a sustained constriction that is associated with an increase in smooth muscle cell [Ca 2+ ] i ( Yip and Marsh, 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • Airway smooth muscle was traditionally considered to be a structural cell involved primarily in bronchoconstriction. (jimmunol.org)
  • myo- muscle, -cyte cell. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • First and foremost, a lot of the organelles in a muscle cell are different than any other cell. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • A sarcoplasmic reticulum is the muscle cell or MYO name for an endoplasmic reticulum. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • The signal comes from the brain or spinal cord to the muscle and causes acetylcholine to be ejected from the motor neuron to the nicotinic receptors on the muscle cell. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • In a lot of ways a muscle cell is like the hydra of the body, It has tons of nucleuses, the brains of the cell. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • a supporting cell that surrounds the muscle also called a myoblast. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • The satellite cell donates a nucleus to a muscle cell after a satellite cell is recruited through IGF-1ec or MGF . (mindandmuscle.net)
  • IGF-1ec is created in the muscle cell by drop sets and other heavy training, the hormones estrogen and testosterone, or the anabolic steroid Trenbolone . (mindandmuscle.net)
  • The more nucleuses a myocyte has the more mitochondria, glycogen, actin and myosin the muscle cell can handle and subsequently the bigger it gets! (mindandmuscle.net)
  • It's just a matter of filling up the muscle with glycogen and giving the cell the amino acids it needs to lay down more muscle proteins. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • For example, all three contract when a rise in calcium inside the muscle cell allows interaction between actin and myosin filaments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, in many smooth muscle tissues, depolarization is mediated primarily by calcium influx into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each muscle cell is filled with parallel actin and myosin filaments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, FKBP12 might indirectly modulate Ca 2+ release through two effector proteins: (1) mTOR, which potentiates and (2) calcineurin, which inhibits Ca 2+ release from IP 3 R in smooth muscle. (biologists.org)
  • C 60 fullerenes disrupt cellular signalling leading to TRPC4 and TRPC6 channels opening by the activation of muscarinic receptors and G-proteins in small intestinal smooth muscles. (nih.gov)
  • This causes a electrochemical change that causes the muscle fiber proteins to contract! (mindandmuscle.net)
  • 21 It has been recently shown that isolated rat cardiac myocytes release FGF2 via sarcolemma transient disruption. (ahajournals.org)
  • At the end of each muscle fiber, the outer layer of the sarcolemma combines with tendon fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesize that these changes are due to an increase in membrane Ca 2+ channel density and possibly function in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals. (scielo.br)
  • Here, using biotinylation, immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer (immunoFRET) microscopy, and RNAi-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in myocytes of resistance-size cerebral arteries. (physiology.org)
  • Our data imply a novel sensitive mechanism for regulating resting membrane potential and tone in vascular smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, we were surprised to see that KCNQ had no affect on membrane voltage or muscle contractility following muscarinic activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cardiac myocytes contract when the voltage across the membrane, the resting membrane potential , is reduced sufficiently to initiate an action potential . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Excess calcium - the amount that entered during the action potential - is expelled from the myocyte during the interval between beats by pumps in the membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These BMC differentiated into myocytes and vascular structures, ameliorating the function of the infarcted heart. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report that, in addition to calcineurin, FKPBs modulate release through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that potentiates Ca 2+ release from the IP 3 R in smooth muscle. (biologists.org)
  • A major goal in this area has been to identify the mechanisms that link biomechanical forces to the activation of signaling pathways that mediate the hypertrophic as well as maladaptive responses of cardiac myocytes to mechanical stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The muscle changes that occur as a result of space flight must be understood and addressed in order to send humans on long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. (nasa.gov)
  • most of the muscle in humans is skeletal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Muscle fiber" and "Myofiber" redirect here. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum , a specialized type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum , forms a network around each myofibril of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • this multinuclear condition results from multiple myoblasts fusing to produce each muscle fiber, where each myoblast contributes one nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used flow cytometry to compare smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) and smooth muscle-alpha-actin (sm-alpha-actin) abundance in myocytes dispersed from canine trachealis. (umanitoba.ca)
  • This study was aimed to investigate the alteration of α-actin in three-dimensionally (3-D) cultured myocytes under cyclic tensile stress loading. (springer.com)
  • Consistent with the presence of MEF2-binding sites in the promoters of muscle-specific genes, a number of genes such as α-actin and α-myosin heavy chain are downregulated in mef2-c - and mef2-a -deficient animals. (genetics.org)
  • Immunofluorescence, with localization of an antibody to alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), was used to identify the neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes. (medscimonit.com)
  • An excitation signal travels along the efferent nervous pathways towards the muscle. (coursehero.com)
  • The electrical connection is made via special junctions ( gap junctions ) between adjoining myocytes, containing pores through which small ions and therefore electrical current can pass. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The action potential starts with a very rapid reduction in voltage toward zero, which is due to sodium ions entering the myocyte. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The death of cardiac myocytes resulting from myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart failure worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • 1,2 Both coronary vascular and endocardial endothelium release several diffusible agents that acutely modify cardiac myocyte function. (ahajournals.org)
  • in a state of shock, such as that associated with overdose of calcium-channel blockers, myocytes use glucose for fuel. (allnurses.com)
  • Finally in Xenopus, it has been demonstrated that the homolog of TEAD regulates muscle differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditional deletion of smooth muscle Cullin-3 causes severe progressive hypertension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Patients with mutations in Cullin-3 (CUL3) exhibit severe early onset hypertension but the contribution of the smooth muscle remains unclear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These results may suggest that eotaxin could be involved in the increased smooth muscle mass observed in asthmatics through the activation of CCR3. (jimmunol.org)
  • The mechanism of action of lnc-FTX in neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes was through suppression of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by promoting the release of PTEN by sponging miRNA-22. (medscimonit.com)
  • hypoinsulinemia may prevent the uptake of glucose by myocytes, causing a loss of inotropy, decreased peripheral vascular resistance, and shock.3 the exact mechanism of action of hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy is poorly defined. (allnurses.com)
  • Airway smooth muscle (ASM) growth contributes to the mechanism of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. (jci.org)
  • In human airway smooth muscle (ASM), store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) is a key component of [Ca 2+ ] i regulation, and contributes to increased [Ca 2+ ] i in inflammation. (ersjournals.com)
  • RHOGTPases play a significant role in modulating myometrial contractility in uterine smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • To identify novel targets to treat conditions associated with uterine dysfunction, we undertook a genome-wide screen of potassium channels that are enriched in myometrial smooth muscle. (jove.com)
  • We demonstrate Kir7.1 current hyper-polarizes uterine myocytes and promotes quiescence during gestation. (jove.com)
  • Canine tracheal myocyte subpopulations isolated by flow cytometry were used to seed primary subcultures. (umanitoba.ca)
  • This possibility was tested in the present study by measuring relengthening in contracted canine tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) strips. (ersjournals.com)
  • It is known that superimposing load fluctuations (that mimic those generated by breathing) upon isotonically contracted tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) strips causes them to relengthen 14 - 16 , a phenomenon termed force fluctuation-induced relengthening (FFIR). (ersjournals.com)
  • However, since these studies were conducted on rabbit tracheal and bronchial ring segments with intact epithelium, corticosteroids may have exerted their effect indirectly by acting on the epithelium or mucosa rather than on the smooth muscle itself. (ersjournals.com)
  • Sudden occlusion of a major coronary artery and acute myocardial ischemia lead to rapid death of myocytes (M) and vascular structures in the supplied region of the ventricle. (pnas.org)
  • This compartmentalization of Ca 2+ was demonstrated in coronary smooth muscle myocytes 18 by probing the subsarcolemmal [Ca 2+ ], which was inferred from the activity of K Ca , and the bulk cytosolic [Ca 2+ ], which was measured with fura 2. (ahajournals.org)