Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Epilepsies, Myoclonic: A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).Myoclonic Epilepsies, Progressive: A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.Lafora Disease: A form of stimulus sensitive myoclonic epilepsy inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. The most common presenting feature is a single seizure in the second decade of life. This is followed by progressive myoclonus, myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, focal occipital seizures, intellectual decline, and severe motor and coordination impairments. Most affected individuals do not live past the age of 25 years. Concentric amyloid (Lafora) bodies are found in neurons, liver, skin, bone, and muscle (From Menkes, Textbook of Childhood Neurology, 5th ed, pp111-110)Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome: An autosomal recessive condition characterized by recurrent myoclonic and generalized seizures, ATAXIA, slowly progressive intellectual deterioration, dysarthria, and intention tremor. Myoclonic seizures are severe and continuous, and tend to be triggered by movement, stress, and sensory stimuli. The age of onset is between 8 and 13 years, and the condition is relatively frequent in the Baltic region, especially Finland. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp109-110)Cystatin B: An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Myoclonic Cerebellar Dyssynergia: A condition marked by progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA combined with MYOCLONUS usually presenting in the third decade of life or later. Additional clinical features may include generalized and focal SEIZURES, spasticity, and DYSKINESIAS. Autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been reported. Pathologically, the dentate nucleus and brachium conjunctivum of the CEREBELLUM are atrophic, with variable involvement of the spinal cord, cerebellar cortex, and basal ganglia. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, pp60-1)Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.MERRF Syndrome: A mitochondrial encephalomyopathy characterized clinically by a mixed seizure disorder, myoclonus, progressive ataxia, spasticity, and a mild myopathy. Dysarthria, optic atrophy, growth retardation, deafness, and dementia may also occur. This condition tends to present in childhood and to be transmitted via maternal lineage. Muscle biopsies reveal ragged-red fibers and respiratory chain enzymatic defects. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p986)Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Hiccup: A spasm of the diaphragm that causes a sudden inhalation followed by rapid closure of the glottis which produces a sound.Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome: A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile: A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Extrapyramidal Tracts: Uncrossed tracts of motor nerves from the brain to the anterior horns of the spinal cord, involved in reflexes, locomotion, complex movements, and postural control.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Frontotemporal Dementia: The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Lewy Bodies: Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.

Effect of riluzole on the neurological and neuropathological changes in an animal model of cardiac arrest-induced movement disorder. (1/194)

Posthypoxic myoclonus and seizures precipitate as secondary neurological consequences in ischemic/hypoxic insults of the central nervous system. Neuronal hyperexcitation may be due to excessive activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, an effect that has been shown to follow ischemic/hypoxic events. Therefore, riluzole, an anticonvulsant that inhibits the release of glutamate by stabilizing the inactivated state of activated voltage-sensitive sodium channels, was tested for its antimyoclonic and neuroprotective properties in the cardiac arrest-induced animal model of posthypoxic myoclonus. Riluzole (4-12 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated the audiogenic seizures and action myoclonus seen in this animal model. Histological examination using Nissl staining and the novel Fluoro-Jade histochemistry in cardiac-arrested animals showed an extensive neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Riluzole treatment almost completely prevented the neuronal degeneration in these brain areas. The neuroprotective effect was more pronounced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. These effects were seen at therapeutically relevant doses of riluzole, and the animals tolerated the treatment well. These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of posthypoxic myoclonus and seizure may involve excessive activation of glutamate neurotransmission, and that riluzole may serve as an effective pharmacological agent with neuroprotective potential for the treatment of neurological conditions associated with cardiac arrest in humans.  (+info)

Coherent cortical and muscle discharge in cortical myoclonus. (2/194)

There is increasing evidence in man that the cortical drive to motor neurons is rhythmic. This oscillatory drive may be exaggerated in patients with cortical myoclonus. Spectral analysis of surface bipolar EEG and EMG activity was performed in eight such patients. Only three cases had evidence of giant cortical evoked potentials or a cortical correlate on back-averaging at the time of study. In six subjects, significant coherence between contralateral and vertex EEG and EMG was observed in ranges similar to that previously reported for normal subjects (15-30 and 30-60 Hz). Three out of these six subjects also had significant coherence at higher frequencies (up to 175 Hz). All eight patients had a correlate in the cumulant density estimate between EEG and contralateral EMG. EMG lagged EEG by about 14, 25 and 35 ms for the muscles of the forearm, hand and foot, respectively. These delays were estimated from the slope of the phase curves and the timing of the peaks in the cumulant density estimates, and are appropriate for conduction in fast pyramidal pathways. The results provide clear evidence of a cortical drive synchronizing muscle discharge over a broad range of frequencies in patients with cortical myoclonus. Fourier analysis is a promising technique in the diagnosis and investigation of such patients.  (+info)

Quantization of continuous arm movements in humans with brain injury. (3/194)

Segmentation of apparently continuous movement has been reported for over a century by human movement researchers, but the existence of primitive submovements has never been proved. In 20 patients recovering from a single cerebral vascular accident (stroke), we identified the apparent submovements that composed a continuous arm motion in an unloaded task. Kinematic analysis demonstrated a submovement speed profile that was invariant across patients with different brain lesions and provided experimental verification of the detailed shape of primitive submovements. The submovement shape was unaffected by its peak speed, and to test further the invariance of shape with speed, we analyzed movement behavior in a patient with myoclonus. This patient occasionally made involuntary shock-like arm movements, which occurred near the maximum capacity of the neuromuscular system, exhibited speed profiles that were comparable to those identified in stroke patients, and were also independent of speed.  (+info)

Association of a missense change in the D2 dopamine receptor with myoclonus dystonia. (4/194)

Hereditary autosomal dominant myoclonus dystonia (MD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary lightning jerks and dystonic movements and postures alleviated by alcohol. Although various large families with MD have been described, no positive linkage has been found to a chromosomal location. We report a family with eight members with MD. Linkage analysis identified a 23-centimorgan region on chromosome 11q23 that cosegregates with the disease state (maximum multipoint logarithm of odds score = 2.96 at D11S897). This region contains an excellent candidate gene for involvement in the etiology of MD, the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene. Neurotransmission mediated by DRD2 is known to have a key role in the control of movement and also has been implicated in reward and reinforcement mechanisms and psychiatric disorders. Sequencing of the coding region of DRD2 indicated that all affected and obligate carriers were heterozygous for a Val154Ile change in exon 3 of the protein, which is highly conserved across species. This change was found neither in other unaffected members of the pedigree nor in 250 control chromosomes. Our finding provides evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in a disorder of the central nervous system and should lead to further insight into the function of the dopaminergic system in dystonia and other movement and mood disorders.  (+info)

Palatal myoclonus in postinfectious opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome : a case report. (5/194)

An adult male presenting with acute onset opsoclonus, myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia is being reported. Patient had myoclonus involving limbs and palate. There are only a few reported cases associated with palatal myoclonus. Patient showed gradual spontaneous recovery. Possibility of underlying malignancy was excluded by detailed investigations.  (+info)

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration: metaanalysis of the temporal evolution of MR findings. (6/194)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is usually caused by a lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret and presents clinically as palatal tremor. Although the imaging features have been well described, the temporal course of hypertrophy and T2 signal increase in the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) has not been fully characterized. Our purpose was to evaluate the time course of MR imaging features of HOD caused by a lesion within the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. METHODS: The temporal progression of HOD in 45 patients with symptomatic palatal tremor was obtained by extrapolation of combined MR imaging data from six patients treated at our institution and 39 patients reported in the literature. The MR examinations and reports were reviewed for presence of hyperintense signal in the ION on T2-weighted images, hypertrophy of the ION, and an inciting lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. The interval between the MR examination and the inciting lesion was determined. RESULTS: Increased olivary signal on T2-weighted images first appeared 1 month after the inciting lesion and persisted for at least 3 to 4 years. Olivary hypertrophy initially developed 6 months after the acute event and resolved by 3 to 4 years. CONCLUSION: Visible changes on MR images in the ION in patients with a lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret correlate well with the described sequential histopathologic findings.  (+info)

Role of primary sensorimotor cortices in generating inhibitory motor response in humans. (7/194)

To clarify the mechanism by which inhibitory motor responses such as cortical negative myoclonus are generated in humans, three patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy (two with frontal lobe epilepsy and one with parietal lobe epilepsy) were studied by means of direct cortical stimulation with a single electric pulse through subdural electrodes. All underwent chronic long-term video/EEG monitoring, cortical mapping by 50 Hz electric cortical stimulation and recording of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials with chronically implanted subdural grid electrodes (3 mm in diameter and centre-to-centre distance of 1 cm) to map both epileptogenic and functional zones. After these clinical evaluations, cortical stimulation by single electric pulse (0.3 ms duration, 1 Hz) was carried out through pairs of subdural electrodes located at the primary sensorimotor area (MI-SI), pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and lateral negative motor area (lateral NMA), while surface EMG was recorded from the muscles of the contralateral hand. The results showed that (i) in all subjects, single pulse stimulation of MI-SI elicited a motor evoked potential (MEP) followed by a silent period (SP) in the contralateral distal hand muscles, the latter lasting 300 ms after the stimulus. The duration of SP was proportional to the size of the preceding MEP. In one subject, SP without any preceding MEP was elicited, and, in another subject, there was a short SP immediately before MEP in the contralateral thenar muscle. (ii) Following the stimulation of either pre-SMA or lateral NMA, no SP was observed. It is concluded that the inhibitory mechanism within the MI-SI, but probably not in the non-primary motor areas, either closely linked to or completely independent of excitation, most likely plays an important role in eliciting brief negative motor phenomena such as cortical negative myoclonus or SP.  (+info)

Palatal myoclonus: report of two cases. (8/194)

We describe two cases of palatal myoclonus (PM), one essential and another secondary to a stroke. Case 1: a 64 years old female who developed clicking sounds in both ears after a stroke and three years later on noticed a progressive involuntary movement of the throat associated with rhythmic contractions of the soft palate, muscles of tongue and throat. MRI showed an ischemic area in brainstem. The patient had a partial response to the use of sumatriptan 6 mg subcutaneously. Case 2: a 66 years old female who began with ear clicking at left ear that worsed slowly associated with tinnitus and arrhythmic movements of soft palate and an audible click at left ear. Brain MRI was normal; audiometry showed bilateral neurosensory loss. She was prescribed clonazepan 1 mg daily with complete recovery. Primary and secondary palatal myoclonus share the same clinical features but probably have different pathophysiological underlying mechanisms.  (+info)

  • O psoclonus myoclonus is a rare neurological disorder characterized by an unsteady, trembling gait, myoclonus (brief, shock-like muscle spasms), and opsoclonus (irregular, rapid eye movements). (
  • By definition, patients develop encephalo-pathy, which can be associated with seizures, myoclonus , hallucinations, and stroke-like episodes with normal or non-specific CSF and brain MRI abnormalities3. (
  • Results: Symptoms began at between 3 and 15 years of age (median = 9.5), with progressively severe myoclonus and rare tonic-clonic seizures. (
  • Two patients with coma, choreoathetoid movements, and myoclonus were found to be poisoned with tricyclic antidepressants. (
  • We aimed to evaluate and compare hemodynamic changes in controlled hypertensive patients during induction of anesthesia using propofol or etomidate as an induction agent and to study the incidence of adverse effects such as myoclonus , nausea, pain during injection and thrombophlebitis. (
  • The most common adverse effects of etomidate are myoclonus and adrenal suppression. (
  • In diagnosis of myoclonus, a physician is faced with two challenges: identifying the site of origin of the myoclonus within the nervous system, and establishing the cause. (
  • Sometimes myoclonus is precipitated by an external event, or when a person attempts to make a movement. (
  • It can be shown in this work that distinct patterns of cortico-muscular and/or intermuscular coherence can be identfied in a variety of movement disorders (cortical myoclonus, limb dystonia, myoclonus of CBD). (
  • Pathological myoclonus is usually caused by damage to the central nervous system . (
  • The complex origins of myoclonus may require the use of multiple drugs for effective treatment. (
  • Oral treatment with levodopacarbidopa (1000/100 mg) or subcutaneous administration of apomorphine (1 mg) abolished the visually-triggered myoclonus, without modifying reflex myoclonus to electrical or tactile stimulation. (
  • Intravenous administration of lisuride (0.1 mg) produced a marked reduction in both types of reflex myoclonus. (
  • Treatment with piracetam in 5 patients significantly improved myoclonus. (
  • Our findings indicate that the tremulous move- ment disorder of AS is related to a unique pattern of fast-bursting cortical myoclonus (FBCM) and that antimyoclonic treatment with piracetam can produce marked functional improvement. (
  • Surgery is indicated when the myoclonus is caused by pressure on nerves (usually from a tumor ). (
  • Das Actions Myoclonus-Nierenversagen-Syndrom wurde als solches erstmalig in einem Poster-Abstract 1981 beschrieben und später vom selben Autor, Andermann E., publiziert. (
  • A retrospective study (1996-2011) of 15 consecutive Japanese infants with benign neonatal sleep myoclonus, including 3 paired familial cases, suggests there may be an association with migraine. (
  • Here we describe a novel episodic neurologic disorder, which we term familial cortical myoclonus (FCM). (
  • People with myoclonus-dystonia often develop psychological disorders such as depression , anxiety, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (
  • For children, teens and young adults who develop more serious myoclonus disorders, there is a team of renowned neuroscientists at Cook Children's who are ready to treat them and help them have as active a life as possible. (
  • The NINDS supports and conducts research on movement disorders such as opsoclonus myoclonus. (
  • The polysomnogram will not only detect any other possible sleeping disorders, but may also indicate whether the myoclonus itself is causing restless sleep. (
  • Other treatments may also improve other nervous system disorders that may be present during sleep in addition to myoclonus. (
  • Recognition of myoclonus and determination of the underlying aetiology remains challenging given that both acquired and genetically determined disorders have varied manifestations. (
  • The large number of genes implicated in myoclonus and the wide clinical variation of these genetic disorders emphasize the need for novel diagnostic techniques. (
  • Myoclonus may develop in response to infection, head or or spinal cord injury, stroke, brain tumors, kidney or liver failure, lipid storage disease, chemical or drug poisoning, as a side effect of certain drugs (such as tramadol and the quinolones, or other disorders. (
  • We conclude that spontaneous, rhythmic, fast-bursting cortical myoclonus is a prominent feature of AS. (
  • Our findings indicate that the tremulous move- ment disorder of AS is related to a unique pattern of fast-bursting cortical myoclonus (FBCM) and that antimyoclonic treatment with piracetam can produce marked functional improvement. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pathologic abnormalities are paradoxically mainly located in the cerebellum in some patients with cortical myoclonus, despite clear electrophysiologic evidence of cortical dysfunction. (
  • To identify brain regions with metabolic changes in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11-MD) relative to control subjects and to compare metabolic abnormalities in DYT11-MD with those found in other forms of hereditary dystonia and in posthypoxic myoclonus. (
  • As a secondary analysis, overlapping abnormalities were identified by comparisons to hereditary dystonias ( DYT1 , DYT6 , dopa-responsive dystonia) and to posthypoxic myoclonus. (
  • Objective: To investigate the mechanisms underlying myoclonus in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). (
  • Conclusions: Myoclonus and other comorbidities characterized our Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) families. (
  • Das Myoclonus-Nephropathie-Syndrom ist eine autosomal rezessive Erkrankung, die durch Mutationen des SCARB2-Gens hervorgerufen wird. (
  • A West Highland White Terrier was presented after development of hindlimb myoclonus and hyperalgesia following intended epidural administration of morphine at a referring veterinary practice. (
  • Myoclonus has been connected to several areas of the brain, and in many cases stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has been shown to be an overreaction of the brain in areas that control movement in response to startling events. (
  • The normal startle response is a form of physiological myoclonus. (
  • A 69-year old Caucasian man presented with a two-week history of a pronounced startle myoclonus, as well as a four-week history of double vision, gait disturbance and severe lancinating pain in his upper thoracic region. (
  • Patients with psychogenic myoclonus may have an excessive startle response to sensory stimuli, such as loud noises. (
  • Hi Lib, I'm familar with you posting regarding Middle-ear myoclonus and was hoping you could answer some questions for me. (
  • Could I be developing middle-ear myoclonus? (
  • Could it be nerve related and maybe induced by the use of klonopin (read this in my searches on middle-ear myoclonus)? (
  • Middle Ear Myoclonus (MEM) is a rare form of objective tinnitus that can actually be heard by another person. (
  • Bilateral tinnitus due to Middle-Ear Myoclonus. (
  • Although clonazepam and sodium valproate are effective in the majority of people with myoclonus, some people have adverse reactions to these drugs. (
  • [3-However, the incidence of myoclonus during induction was not affected by the solvent. (
  • We also pretreated volunteers and patients with small doses of etomidate in an effort to suppress subcortical activity and to reduce the incidence of myoclonus. (
  • 3) a dose-ranging study in patients to determine what pretreatment dose affected the incidence of myoclonus. (
  • There was a significant incidence of myoclonus in E group. (
  • At the age of 6 to 14 years, they present with myoclonus, which tends to progressively worsen with time. (
Myoclonus the muscle spasms that kick sleep and may be indicative of MS
Myoclonus the muscle spasms that kick sleep and may be indicative of MS (
Treatment for myoclonus
Treatment for myoclonus (
Laforin, EMP2A, Epilepsy progressive myoclonus type 2 Lafora disease (laforin) or MELF Antibody
Laforin, EMP2A, Epilepsy progressive myoclonus type 2 Lafora disease (laforin) or MELF Antibody (
Nervous system disease - Localization of neurological disease |
Nervous system disease - Localization of neurological disease | (
SGCE gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
SGCE gene: MedlinePlus Genetics (
Involuntary Movements: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Involuntary Movements: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment (
Involuntary movements: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis
Involuntary movements: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis (
Psychogenic Movement Disorders | Healthcare | Baylor College of Medicine | Houston, Texas
Psychogenic Movement Disorders | Healthcare | Baylor College of Medicine | Houston, Texas (
Research Institute for Neurosciences and Healthy Ageing (BCN-BRAIN) - Research database - University of Groningen
Research Institute for Neurosciences and Healthy Ageing (BCN-BRAIN) - Research database - University of Groningen (
Myoclonus | Ohio State Movement Disorders
Myoclonus | Ohio State Movement Disorders (
UT Health Physicians | UT Health San Antonio
UT Health Physicians | UT Health San Antonio (
What is Nocturnal Myoclonus? (with pictures)
What is Nocturnal Myoclonus? (with pictures) (
Pediatrics Help - Forums and Discussions - MedHelp  - Page 5
Pediatrics Help - Forums and Discussions - MedHelp - Page 5 (
Essentials of Clinical Examination Handbook, Seventh Edition by Thieme Publishers - Issuu
Essentials of Clinical Examination Handbook, Seventh Edition by Thieme Publishers - Issuu (
Side Effects of Mirapex (pramipexole): Interactions & Warnings
Side Effects of Mirapex (pramipexole): Interactions & Warnings (
Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders | SpringerLink
Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders | SpringerLink (
Movement Disorders | MedlinePlus
Movement Disorders | MedlinePlus (
Movement - uncontrollable: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Movement - uncontrollable: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (
Abnormal Facial Expressions: Check Your Symptoms and Signs
Abnormal Facial Expressions: Check Your Symptoms and Signs (
Multiple Sclerosis | MS | MedlinePlus
Multiple Sclerosis | MS | MedlinePlus (
PRICKLE1 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH
PRICKLE1 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH (
Oromandibular dystonia | The Dystonia Society
Oromandibular dystonia | The Dystonia Society (
Neurodegenerative Diseases  | MedlinePlus
Neurodegenerative Diseases | MedlinePlus (
Wiley: International Neurology: A Clinical Approach - Robert P. Lisak, Daniel D. Truong, William Carroll, et al
Wiley: International Neurology: A Clinical Approach - Robert P. Lisak, Daniel D. Truong, William Carroll, et al (
Neuromuscular Disorders | MedlinePlus
Neuromuscular Disorders | MedlinePlus (
Alphabetical Browse | Britannica
Alphabetical Browse | Britannica (