Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Ischemic Postconditioning: The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Constriction: The act of constricting.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Mice, Inbred C57BLPeroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 184.108.40.206.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.IodobenzenesCreatine Kinase, MB Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac-Gated Single-Photon Emission Computer-Assisted Tomography: Tomography using single-photon emitting RADIONUCLIDES to create images that are captured in times corresponding to various points in the cardiac cycle.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vectorcardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardioplegic Solutions: Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Receptors, Histamine H3: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Myocardial Bridging: A malformation that is characterized by a muscle bridge over a segment of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Systolic contractions of the muscle bridge can lead to narrowing of coronary artery; coronary compression; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase. (1/6685)The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle is activated by vigorous exercise and ischaemic stress. Under these conditions AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase causing increased oxidation of fatty acids. Here we show that AMPK co-immunoprecipitates with cardiac endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylates Ser-1177 in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) to activate eNOS both in vitro and during ischaemia in rat hearts. In the absence of Ca2+-calmodulin, AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS at Thr-495 in the CaM-binding sequence, resulting in inhibition of eNOS activity but Thr-495 phosphorylation is unchanged during ischaemia. Phosphorylation of eNOS by the AMPK in endothelial cells and myocytes provides a further regulatory link between metabolic stress and cardiovascular function. (+info)
Differential regulation of Bcl-2, AP-1 and NF-kappaB on cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemic stress adaptation. (2/6685)Acute ischemia followed by prolonged reperfusion has been shown to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that myocardial adaptation to ischemia induced by repeated cyclic episodes of short-term ischemia each followed by another short duration of reperfusion reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. This was associated with the induction of the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and translocation and activation of NF-kappaB. Another transcription factor, AP-1, remained unaffected by repeated ischemia and reperfusion, but exhibited significant upregulation by a single episode of 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. This activation of AP-1 was inhibited by a scavenger of oxygen free radicals, DMTU. Thirty minutes ischemia and 120 min reperfusion downregulated the induction of the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, but moderately activated NF-kappaB binding activity. This was associated with an increased number of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation in cardiomyocytes which were attenuated by DMTU. The results of this study indicate that Bcl-2, AP-1 and NF-kappaB differentially regulate cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by acute ischemia and prolonged reperfusion. (+info)
Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (3/6685)OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. (+info)
Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly prospective heart disease study. (4/6685)OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in primary ischaemic heart disease. METHODS: Plasma specimens collected during 1979-83 from men in Caerphilly, south Wales, were analysed for IgG antibodies to CMV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and latex tests. Incident ischaemic heart disease events were ascertained after five and 10 years from death certificates, hospital records, and ECG changes; 195 incident ischaemic heart disease cases were compared with 216 controls of a similar age drawn from the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: 164 cases (84%) and 180 controls (83%) were seropositive for CMV. Optical density, an indicator of CMV antibody titre, was similar for cases and controls. Among controls, seropositivity was not associated with age, socioeconomic status currently or in childhood, smoking, height, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, or leucocyte count. The unadjusted odds ratio relating CMV seropositivity to incident ischaemic heart disease was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.79) and was little changed (1.11, 0.63 to 1.97) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and socioeconomic status currently and in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is unlikely to be a strong risk factor for development of myocardial infarction in middle aged men. (+info)
Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the activation of heat shock factor 1 in ischemic-reperfused heart. (5/6685)BACKGROUND: The myocardial protective role of heat shock protein (HSP) has been demonstrated. Recently, we reported that ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant activation of heat shock factor (HSF) 1 and an accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90. We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in the induction of stress response in the ischemic-reperfused heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat hearts were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer by the Langendorff method. Whole-cell extracts were prepared for gel mobility shift assay using oligonucleotides containing the heat shock element. Induction of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90 was examined by Northern blot analysis. Repetitive ischemia/reperfusion, which causes recurrent bursts of free radical generation, resulted in burst activation of HSF1, and this burst activation was significantly reduced with either allopurinol 1 mmol/L (an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase) or catalase 2x10(5) U/L (a scavenger of H2O2). Significant activation of HSF1 was observed on perfusion with buffer containing H2O2 150 micromol/L or xanthine 1 mmol/L plus xanthine oxidase 5 U/L. The accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 or HSP90 after repetitive ischemia/reperfusion was reduced with either allopurinol or catalase. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that ROSs play an important role in the activation of HSF1 and the accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90 in the ischemic-reperfused heart. (+info)
Bradykinin promotes ischemic norepinephrine release in guinea pig and human hearts. (6/6685)We previously reported that bradykinin (BK; 1-1000 nM) facilitates norepinephrine (NE) release from cardiac sympathetic nerves. Because BK production increases in myocardial ischemia, endogenous BK could foster NE release and associated arrhythmias. We tested this hypothesis in guinea pig and human myocardial ischemia models. BK administration (100 nM) markedly enhanced exocytotic and carrier-mediated NE overflow from guinea pig hearts subjected to 10- and 20-min ischemia/reperfusion, respectively. Ventricular fibrillation invariably occurred after 20-min global ischemia; BK prolonged its duration 3-fold. The BK B2 receptor antagonist HOE140 (30 nM) blocked the effects of BK, whereas the B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9-Leu8-BK (1 microM; i.e., 2.5 x pA2) did not. When serine proteinase inhibitors (500 KIU/ml aprotinin and 100 microg/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor) were used to prevent the formation of endogenous BK, NE overflow and reperfusion arrhythmias were diminished. In contrast, when kininase I and II inhibitors (DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid and enalaprilat, each 1 microM) were used to prevent the degradation of endogenous BK, NE overflow and reperfusion arrhythmias were enhanced. B2 receptor blockade abolished these effects but was ineffective if kininases were not inhibited. B2 receptor stimulation, by either exogenous or endogenous BK, also markedly enhanced carrier-mediated NE release in the human myocardial ischemia model; conversely, inhibition of BK biosynthesis diminished ischemic NE release. Because atherosclerotic heart disease impairs endothelial BK production, in myocardial ischemia BK could accumulate at sympathetic nerve endings, thus augmenting exocytotic and carrier-mediated NE release and favoring coronary vasoconstriction and arrhythmias. (+info)
Labeling of the internal pool of GP IIb-IIIa in platelets by c7E3 Fab fragments (abciximab): flow and endocytic mechanisms contribute to the transport. (7/6685)Abciximab is a new antiplatelet therapeutic in ischemic cardiovascular disease. The drug, chimeric Fab fragments of a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (c7E3), blocks GP IIb-IIIa function. However, its capacity to reach all receptor pools in platelets is unknown. Electron microscopy and immunogold labeling were used to localize abciximab in platelets of patients receiving the drug for up to 24 hours. Studies on frozen-thin sections showed that c7E3 Fab, in addition to the surface pool, also labeled the surface-connected canalicular system (SCCS) and alpha-granules. Analysis of gold particle distribution showed that intraplatelet labeling was not accumulative and in equilibrium with the surface pool. After short-term incubations of platelets with c7E3 Fab in vitro, gold particles were often seen in lines within thin elements of the SCCS, some of which appeared in contact with alpha-granules. Little labeling was associated with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia platelets, confirming that the channels contained bound and not free c7E3 Fab. Endocytosis of abciximab in clathrin-containing vesicles was visualized by double staining and constitutes an alternative mechanism of transport. The remaining free pool of GP IIb-IIIa was evaluated with the MoAb AP-2; flow cytometry showed it to be about 9% on the surface of nonstimulated platelets but 33% on thrombin-activated platelets. The ability of drugs to block all pools of GP IIb-IIIa and then to be associated with secretion-dependent residual aggregation must be considered when evaluating their efficiency in a clinical context. (+info)
An inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase protects neonatal cardiac myocytes from ischemia. (8/6685)Cellular ischemia results in activation of a number of kinases, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); however, it is not yet clear whether p38 MAPK activation plays a role in cellular damage or is part of a protective response against ischemia. We have developed a model to study ischemia in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. In this model, two distinct phases of p38 MAPK activation were observed during ischemia. The first phase began within 10 min and lasted less than 1 h, and the second began after 2 h and lasted throughout the ischemic period. Similar to previous studies using in vivo models, the nonspecific activator of p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, anisomycin, protected cardiac myocytes from ischemic injury, decreasing the release of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase by approximately 25%. We demonstrated, however, that a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB 203580, also protected cardiac myocytes against extended ischemia in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect was seen even when the inhibitor was present during only the second, sustained phase of p38 MAPK activation. We found that ischemia induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and that SB 203580 reduced activation of caspase-3, a key event in apoptosis. These results suggest that p38 MAPK induces apoptosis during ischemia in cardiac myocytes and that selective inhibition of p38 MAPK could be developed as a potential therapy for ischemic heart disease. (+info)
Stable Ischemic Heart Disease - Guideline Central
The Stable Ischemic Heart Disease (SIHD) GUIDELINES Pocket Card is endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA). It is based on their latest guidelines. This practical quick-reference tool contains screening, risk assessment and diagnostic recommendations; multiple diagnostic and treatment tables and algorithms, drug and interventional therapy, patient education and follow-up recommendations. The Stable Ischemic Heart Disease GUIDELINES Pocket Cards provides all that is needed to make accurate clinical decisions at the point of care.. Whats Inside:. ...
Updated Appropriate Use Criteria Address Coronary Revascularization for Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease | STS
Document is the second of the updated two-part criteria for coronary revascularization WASHINGTON (March 10, 2017) - The American College of Cardiology, along with several partnering organizations, today released updated appropriate use criteria for performing coronary revascularization in patients with stable ischemic heart disease.
At Issue: ISCHEMIA trials provoke debate on treatment of stable ischemic heart disease
Human cardiosphere-derived cells from patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease can be routinely expanded from atrial but...
To investigate the effects of age and disease on endogenous cardiac progenitor cells, we obtained right atrial and left ventricular epicardial biopsies from patients (n = 22) with chronic ischaemic heart disease and measured doubling time and surface marker expression in explant- and cardiosphere-derived cells (EDCs, CDCs). EDCs could be expanded from all atrial biopsy samples, but sufficient cells for cardiosphere culture were obtained from only 8 of 22 ventricular biopsies. EDCs from both atrium and ventricle contained a higher proportion of c-kit+ cells than CDCs, which contained few such cells. There was wide variation in expression of CD90 (atrial CDCs 5-92 % CD90+; ventricular CDCs 11-89 % CD90+), with atrial CDCs cultured from diabetic patients (n = 4) containing 1.6-fold more CD90+ cells than those from non-diabetic patients (n = 18). No effect of age or other co-morbidities was detected. Thus, CDCs from atrial biopsies may vary in their therapeutic potential.
Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Stable Ischemic Heart Disease
This overview provides a guideline for the management of stable ischemic heart disease. It represents the work of a primary and secondary panel of participants from across Canada who achieved consensus on behalf of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society. The suggestions and recommendations are intended …
Is it Form or Function? | JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Treatment selection for stable ischemic heart disease patients remains a work in progress. The stable ischemic heart disease guidelines published in 2012 (1) address 2 pathways to progress from medical therapy only toward revascularization: unsatisfactorily controlled symptoms or high-risk features on the basis of noninvasive testing. For patients without compelling symptoms, the risk stratification by noninvasive ischemia testing provides the gateway to move beyond medical therapy only. The ongoing ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches) trial (2) is using this measure in an attempt to identify a relatively high-risk group in whom revascularization may be beneficial. Much of the rationale for the trial springs from the failure of the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial (3) or the BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) trial (4) to show a ...
Environmental Health Perspectives - Associations of Mortality with Long-Term Exposures to Fine and Ultrafine Particles,...
Our analysis of long-term exposure to the mass and constituents of PM2.5 and UF particles revealed several statistically significant associations with all-cause, cardiovascular, and IHD mortality. For PM2.5, high-sulfur content fuel combustion was associated with all three end points, and nitrates were associated with cardiovascular and IHD mortality. Several other constituents reached statistical significance with IHD mortality including PM2.5 mass, Cu, EC, and the SOAs, as well as the sources including gas- and diesel-fueled vehicles, meat cooking, and high-sulfur fuel combustion. Among the PM2.5 constituents, based on their associated IQRs, nitrate had the highest HR and provided the best fit of the data. For UFs, constituents such as SOA_ant, EC, and "other" metals exhibited statistically significant associations with IHD mortality, as did all of the mobile sources and high-sulfur fuel combustion. For both PM2.5 and UF particles, several constituents generated higher HRs based on their ...
Increased calcium intake was associated with decreased risk of ischaemic heart disease mortality in postmenopausal women |...
The results of Bostick et al suggest that among postmenopausal women, the risk of dying of IHD may be reduced by consuming relatively high concentrations of calcium. This association seems plausible given the findings of previous research showing that higher consumption of calcium lowers blood cholesterol concentrations,1 may reduce blood pressure,2 and may prevent hypertension.. The strengths of this study are that it was prospective and included a large, well defined cohort derived from a general population. In addition, the validity of the nutritional questionnaire is impressive and well supported by published data. The limitations of the study are the many confounders related to the evaluation of the effects of vitamins and minerals on health or disease states. Data on possible confounders, such as sunlight exposure as a source of vitamin D, were not provided.. The findings suggest that there is no increase in IHD mortality as a result of increased calcium intake, provided the calcium does ...
Global myocardial ischemia in the newborn, juvenile, and adult isolated isovolumic rabbit heart. Age-related differences in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global myocardial ischemia in the newborn, juvenile, and adult isolated isovolumic rabbit heart. Age-related differences in systolic function, diastolic stiffness, coronary resistance, myocardial oxygen consumption, and extracellular pH. AU - Parrish, M. D.. AU - Payne, A.. AU - Fixler, David E. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Controversy persists over the relative tolerance of the immature myocardium to global ischemia. Thus, we evaluated the physiologic effects of 30, 60, and 180 minutes of global ischemia in an isolated, isovolumic rabbit heart model, at 3 different ages: newborns (less than 1 week of age) (n = 36), juveniles (4 to 6 weeks old) (n = 36), and adults (5 to 7 months old) (n = 36). Following 30 and 60 minutes of ischemia, respectively, adults recovered 87 ± 4% (mean ± SEM) and 90 ± 7% of baseline systolic function, and juveniles recovered 91 ± 10% and 85 ± 8%. In contrast, newborns recovered only 27 ± 6% and 28 ± 4% of baseline systolic function (p , ...
Imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. | Circulation
Cardiac anatomy was defined by gated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging at a magnetic field strength of 3.5 kGauss in eight normal subjects and 10 patients with chronic myocardial infarctions. Multisectional imaging was performed with the spin-echo technique and encompassed most of the left ventricle in an imaging time of 5 to 12 min. In all subjects internal cardiac structure was well delineated without the use of any type of contrast medium. The myocardial wall-blood interface was sharply defined, resulting in visualization of trabeculations, papillary muscle, and chordal structures in both ventricles. In patients with ischemic heart disease, the extent of postinfarctional wall thinning, aneurysms, and mural thrombi were depicted on NMR images. Images obtained with the second spin-echo (delay time = 56 msec) demonstrated high signal intensity in regions of the left ventricular chamber adjacent to the site of aneurysms or infarctions; this finding suggested stasis of blood in a region of ...
ACCEL: The Guidelines for Managing Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease - American College of Cardiology
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has recently emerged as a noninvasive method to image the coronary arteries. CCTA has a negative predictive value of nearly 100% for the detection of coronary artery disease (demonstrated in the trial known as ROMICAT). This approach has been investigated recently as a means of helping sort out which patients presenting to an emergency department with chest pain are safe to treat and then discharge as opposed to treat urgently and then admit. It is a huge challenge.. In a nonurgent setting, the guidelines state CCTA may be reasonable for patients with an intermediate pretest probability of SIHD who have at least moderate physical functioning or no disabling comorbidity. CCTA is reasonable for these same patients with an intermediate pretest probability of SIHD who a) have continued symptoms with prior normal test findings, or b) have inconclusive results from prior exercise or pharmacological stress testing, or c) are unable to undergo stress with ...
Quantification of Myocardial Segmental Function in Acute and Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease and Implications for Cardiovascular...
Assessment of improvement in LV function after cell therapy may be a more difficult task than simply assessing a change in overall LVEF. This may be particularly true in the setting of acute myocardial infarction where hyperdynamic contraction of remote regions may elevate LVEF. Quantified measures of LV segmental myocardial strain may allow for better recognition of these early and subtle improvements in myocardial function in the peri-infarct region following cell therapy. For example, early after reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction, there was no significant difference in the improvement in LVEF comparing patients treated with cells and controls (9). However, strain of infarcted segments improved significantly more in the cell-treated group. In another pilot study, 12 patients who received intramyocardial autologous cells during coronary artery bypass surgery were evaluated with echocardiography before and 1 year after injection (44). On average, longitudinal strain increased 40% in ...
Risk factors for ischaemic heart disease mortality among men with different occupational physical demands. A 30-year...
When Is Concern About Silent Myocardial Ischemia Justified? | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Primary physicians need to know more about the prognostic and therapeutic implications of silent (asymptomatic, painless) myocardial ischemia. There is growing concern that certain asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease, who repeatedly have silent ischemia, may be at increased risk for a serious cardiac event. This concern is based on the large number of patients with coronary artery disease whose first clinical manifestation of that disease is sudden death or a myocardial infarction.. What is silent myocardial ischemia? Usually, we equate angina with myocardial ischemia, but the former is merely the subjective manifestation of the latter, and chest pain or ...
What does Reversible Myocardial Ischaemia mean ? - Doctor's insight on HealthcareMagic
Signal peptide increases the efficacy of angiogenic gene transfer for treatment of myocardial ischemia. | PubFacts.com
We have previously shown that intracoronary delivery of recombinant adenoviruses encoding angiogenic proteins that contain signal peptides (fibroblast growth factor-4 and fibroblast growth factor-5) ameliorate myocardial ischemia. In the present paper, we test the hypothesis that the presence of the signal peptide is an important element in the favorable effects that transgene expression has on regional flow and function in an animal model of myocardial ischemia. We performed intracoronary delivery of two different recombinant adenoviruses encoding a fibroblast growth factor-2 variant, one with a signal peptide, FGF-2LI(+sp), and one without a signal peptide, FGF-2LI(-sp). In a model of stress-induced myocardial ischemia, intracoronary injection of these recombinants resulted in mRNA and protein expression of the transferred gene. Two weeks after gene transfer, regional abnormalities in stress-induced function and blood flow were improved after delivery of FGF-2LI containing the signal peptide. ...
Ischaemic heart disease - definition of Ischaemic heart disease by The Free Dictionary
Define Ischaemic heart disease. Ischaemic heart disease synonyms, Ischaemic heart disease pronunciation, Ischaemic heart disease translation, English dictionary definition of Ischaemic heart disease. n. Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, often leading to angina pectoris or heart attack, and associated with risk factors such as hypertension,...
Does Dobutamine Stress Perfusion Imaging Solve the Riddle of Ischemia in LBBB? | JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
In patients with an intermediate likelihood for the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), most of todays guidelines require proof of myocardial ischemia before invasive angiography. Similarly, significant myocardial ischemia should be demonstrated before revascularization. The most recent European Society of Cardiology guidelines for patients with stable coronary artery disease leave the choice of the test to the practitioner on the basis of local expertise (1). The recently published multimodality appropriateness criteria for detection and risk assessment in stable ischemic heart disease have rated various imaging modalities on the basis of existing evidence, assuming they are equally available with appropriate quality and expertise, while suggesting to keep cost-effectiveness and value in mind when ordering such tests (2).. Direct comparisons between different imaging modalities are rare, as patients have to undergo both imaging modalities as well as an invasive reference standard to ...
Ischaemic Heart Disease: Causes, Signs and Symptoms
Ischaemic heart disease is the number one cause of death in the United States, and it is one of the leading reasons for admittance to hospitals. Also known as myocardial ischaemia, it is the condition of restricted blood flow to the heart. This is typically the result of other heart disease, including atherosclerosis.. CAUSES OF ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE. "Ischaemic" refers to a restriction in blood supply to any organ, and the cause of ischaemic heart disease is restricted blood flow to the heart. This is typically caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, in which plaque (cholesterol) attaches to the walls of the arteries and impedes blood flow. When the heart does not get enough blood, parts of it can die or become dysfunctional. When blood cannot flow to the heart, fresh oxygen cannot be supplied.. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE. Ischaemic heart disease is frequently known as "the silent killer," as it affects fourteen million Americans every year, and three to ...
Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality Associations with Long-Term... : Epidemiology
The major U.S. PM2.5 sources identified, their key tracer elements, and their mean nationwide PM2.5 impacts were: Soil (Ca, Si) 0.8 ug/m3; Metals (Pb, Zn) 0.2 ug/m3; Traffic (OC, EC, NO2) 4.6 ug/m3 ; Steel (Fe, Mn) , 0.1 ug/m3; Coal Combustion (As, Se) 1.1 ug/m3; Oil Combustion (V, Ni) 0.9 ug/m3; Salt (Na, Cl) 0.1 ug/m3; Biomass burning 1.3 ug/m3; Other Sulfates (S) 4.3 ug/m3; Other Nitrates (NO3 -) 0.6 ug/m3; and, Other Organic Carbon (OC) 0.5 ug/m3. While most industrial and fossil fuel combustion categories had relative risk (RR) estimates above 1.0 for IHD deaths, coal combustion and traffic emission-related particles were among the largest and strongest PM2.5-mortality associations.. ...
Diet and incident ischaemic heart disease : the Caerphilly Study -ORCA
The Caerphilly Prospective Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD) Study is based on a sample of 2512 men aged 45-59 years when first seen. Nutrient intakes, estimated using a self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, are available for 2423 men (96 %). Amongst these, 148 major IHD events occurred during the first 5 years of follow-up. Associations were examined between these events and baseline diet. Incident IHD (new events) was negatively associated with total energy intake: men who went on to experience an IHD event had consumed 560 kJ (134 kcal)/d (6%) less at baseline than men who experienced no event (P = 0.01). The relative odds of an IHD event was 1.5 among men in the lowest fifth of energy intake, compared with 1.3,1.2,0.9 and 1.0 respectively for the other four fifths (P , 0.05). The difference in energy intake was reflected in lower intakes of every nutrient examined. When expressed as a percentage of total energy, mean intakes of men who experienced an IHD event were ...
International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) - Full Text View -...
The purpose of the ISCHEMIA trial is to determine the best management strategy for higher-risk patients with stable ischemic heart disease. This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with a target enrollment of ~5000 patients with at least moderate ischemia on stress imaging. Patients will be assigned at random to a routine invasive strategy (INV) with cardiac catheterization (cath) followed by revascularization plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) or to a conservative strategy (CON) of OMT, with cath and revascularization reserved for those who fail OMT.. SPECIFIC AIMS. A. Primary Aim The primary aim of the ISCHEMIA trial is to determine whether an initial invasive strategy of cardiac catheterization followed by optimal revascularization, if feasible, in addition to OMT, will reduce the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction in participants with SIHD and at least moderate ischemia over an average follow-up of approximately 4 years compared with ...
International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) - Full Text View -...
BACKGROUND:. Evidence supporting a routine invasive practice paradigm for patients with SIHD is outdated. In strategy trials conducted in the 1970s, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) improved survival as compared with no CABG in SIHD patients with high-risk anatomic features. The relevance of these studies today is speculative because contemporary secondary prevention-aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, ACE inhibitors, and lifestyle interventions-were used minimally if at all. Subsequent trials have compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with medical therapy, as PCI has replaced CABG as the dominant method of revascularization for SIHD. To date, PCI has not been shown to reduce death or myocardial infarction (MI) compared with medical therapy in SIHD patients.. COURAGE and BARI 2D, the two largest trials comparing coronary revascularization vs. medical therapy in SIHD patients, found that among patients selected on the basis of coronary anatomy after cardiac catheterization, an ...
Relationship among mental stress-induced ischemia and ischemia during daily life and during exercise: the Psychophysiologic...
Our study sheds light on why patients with mental stress ischemia were more likely to experience AECG ischemia during daily life activities. The heightened resting hemodynamics and more exaggerated peak hemodynamic response to mental stress in patients who experience daily life ischemia suggest that they may be in a chronic state of increased sympathetic arousal, and more prone to an exaggerated sympathetic systemic response to mental or exercise stress as well. The HR at rest and in response to stress was lower in our patients with daily life ischemia compared with the patients without daily life ischemia, which may represent a reflex response to the chronically increased EF and SV. We found no correlation between the level of serum epinephrine or norepinephrine at rest or at peak stress and the presence or absence of daily life ischemia, but these may not be an adequate gauge of either a chronic or an acute state of arousal or associated vascular effects.. The strong association between the ...
Global Myocardial Ischemia Market 2018 : Emerging Trend In Cardiology World Facts and Forecasts 2023 | Medgadget
Speckle tracking Echocardiography is a sensitive tool for the detection of myocardial ischemia : A pilot study from the...
Analysis of rotational myocardial motion has been reported to be a sensitive index of myocardial ischemia. In this study, circumferential and radial myocardial strain and displacement was monitored during angioplasty balloon-induced myocardial ischemia in 8 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The circumferential and radial variables were measured simultaneously in parasternal short-axis view at the papillary muscle level using the recently introduced speckle tracking echocardiography technique that allows 2-dimensional, angle-independent, real-time evaluation of the myocardial motion (2-dimensional strain modality). Acute regional myocardial ischemia caused a significant reduction of circumferential (-35.6 +/- 23.1%) and radial (-27.1 +/- 23.2%) strain and displacement (-49.6 +/- 27.2% and -43.2 +/- 26.8%, respectively). Simultaneously, time to the respective peak systolic values became significantly prolonged, the circumferential ischemic response in temporal domain being ...
BMJ Best Practice
The guidelines described here specifically address the clinical syndrome of stable ischaemic heart disease (SIHD), which is defined by the presence of confirmed obstructive coronary artery disease without recent (,1 year) acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous intervention.  Fihn SD, Blankenship JC, Alexander KP, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64:1929-1949. http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1891717 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077860?tool=bestpractice.com This clinical syndrome includes patients with stable angina pain syndromes and patients with low-risk unstable angina. Angina is considered unstable if it occurs at rest, is new in onset, and is severe (occurs with walking 1 flight of stairs, or similar low level of exertion), or if it is increasing in severity or frequency requiring markedly less provocation in patients ...
Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. AU - Fragasso, G.. AU - Sciammarella, M. G.. AU - Rossetti, E. E.. AU - Xuereb, R. G.. AU - Xuereb, M.. AU - Bonetti, F.. AU - Carandente, O. M.. AU - Margonato, A.. AU - Chierchia, S. L.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, ...
An Unexpected Etiology of Myocardial Ischemia in Young - An Unexpected Etiology of Myocardial Ischemia in Young - Open Access...
Introduction The cardiac localization of hydatid cyst (HC) is rare and little known. It is exceptionally primary and isolated. Myocardial ischemia remains an exceptional and unusual manifestation of this localization. We report the original observation of cardiac HC revealed by acute myocardial ischemia in a young subject. Observation A 35-year-old patient with no notable pathological history was admitted to our department via the emergency room for acute anterior chest pain. The somatic examination was without abnormalities as well as the baseline biological tests. The electrocardiogram demonstrated epicardial ischemia in the infero-lateral territory without other abnormalities. The cardiac troponin I was slightly elevated (32ng/l, N|19ng/l). Subsequent controls after 30min, 60min and 180min did not show significant variations. Subsequent investigations (CT, coro-CT, coronary angiography) led to the diagnosis of intramyocardial HC of the left ventricle, with no abnormalities of the coronary arteries.
Intracardiac electrode detection of early ischaemia in man. | Heart
We have evaluated an intracardiac technique for the study of the electrophysiological patterns of early or subendocardial ischaemia in man. Simultaneous recordings of the paced endocardial evoked response and monophasic action potentials were obtained during pacing stress testing in 10 patients with reversible myocardial ischaemia. Early patterns of change occurred in both these recordings in response to regional ischaemia. Abnormal rate corrected shortening of the local repolarisation time in the paced endocardial evoked response from the left ventricular ischaemic zone diverging from control non-ischaemic values by a mean of 10.6% was paralleled by decreases in the simultaneous paced monophasic action potentials duration. A differential delay in the local activation time and conduction was also documented by the paced endocardial evoked response and monophasic action potential electrodes. Non-ischaemic control zones showed no changes in the pattern of activation and repolarisation. Disparate ...
JCI - Stable ischemic heart disease: how to keep it that way
During the more than 15 years since the conduct of the COURAGE trial, the evaluation and management of coronary disease continued to evolve, and our assessment of the risk of transitioning from stable to unstable ischemic disease shifted from the importance of what has been termed hemodynamically significant stenoses, even as defined using fractional flow reserve (12), to total atherosclerotic burden, which can be assessed noninvasively with coronary calcium scoring (13, 14). At the same time, invasive and medical therapies for stable disease significantly improved with the use of drug-eluting stents, better antithrombotic regimens, and more aggressive lipid-lowering therapies and goals.. Thus, the stage was set then for the ISCHEMIA trial, addressing the same questions in the current era (2). Dr. Hochman and her collaborators studied, in stable patients with moderate or severe ischemia on a stress test, whether there was a benefit of performing coronary angiography and, if feasible, ...
Current perspectives therapeutic approach in patients with stable angina<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current perspectives therapeutic approach in patients with stable angina. AU - Lettino, Maddalena. AU - Falcone, Colomba. AU - Tavazzi, Luigi. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Which therapeutic strategy among medical, interventional and surgical options should be preferred in patients with chronic stable ischemic heart disease is an important public health problem. The available scientific evidence does not help much to facilitate the choice among the three available strategies of medical treatment, percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting. In this area practice-based medicine overwhelms evidence-based medicine. However, existing findings are discussed. The present experience in diabetic patients is highlighted; in such patients surgery is generally recommended but the results obtained by percutaneous coronary intervention with the currently available tools are improving markedly. Pharmacological therapy is also improving, particularly in the ...
Abstract 12808: Transendocardial Cell Injection is Not Superior to Intracoronary Infusion in a Porcine Model of Chronic...
Introduction: Stem cell therapy is a new strategy for chronic ischemic heart disease in patients, however, no consensus exists on the most optimal delivery strategy.. Hypothesis: This randomized study was designed to assess cell delivery efficiency of intracoronary (IC), transendocardial (TE) and surgical delivery in a chronic pig model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.. Methods: Twenty-one animals underwent delivery of 107 autologous Indium-oxine labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) 4 weeks after infarction and were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n=7 each group): IC, TE using electromechanical mapping guidance (NOGA) or surgical delivery. Primary endpoint was defined as percentage (%) of injected dose per organ and assessed by in vivo gamma-emission counting.. Results: No significant difference in hemodynamics was observed. Troponin and intracoronary flow (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction score) did not differ between the percutaneous groups. Blinded endpoint analysis ...
The pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes | Heart
It is difficult now to perceive why coronary thrombosis was regarded 25 years ago as an inconstant and irrelevant consequence of acute infarction rather than its prime cause. Once angiography was carried out soon after the onset of infarction, and it was realised that the subtending artery was totally blocked but spontaneously reopened with time in many cases (and that this reopening was accelerated by fibrinolytic treatment), thrombosis was seen as a major causal factor in occlusion. Suddenly the clinical world found thrombi to be both dynamic and important. Pathologists had thought thrombi were important but did not realise how dynamic they could be. Sequential angiograms taken over some years in patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease also changed perceptions. It was realised that a significant proportion of the thrombotic occlusions causing infarction did not develop at sites where there was pre-existing high grade stenosis, or even a plaque identified at all. Sixty eight per cent of ...
Table of Contents
Antioxidant intervention before and during myocardial ischemia may exacerbate post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction:...
PCI and Bypass for Stable CVD: Where's the Benefit? - Newsemia
Major Study Casts Doubt on Routine Use of Stents, Bypass
TUESDAY, March 31, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Folks with clogged arteries do as well with medication and lifestyle changes as they do after undergoing invasive procedures to reopen their blood vessels, a major new clinical trial reports.. Bypass surgery, balloon angioplasty and stenting are no better than drugs, eating right and exercising at reducing the risk of heart attack and death in people with stable ischemic heart disease, a condition where theres been no heart attack but the heart is under strain from clogged arteries, trial results show.. "No matter how you look at it, theres no statistically significant difference overall," said study chair Dr. Judith Hochman, senior associate dean for clinical sciences at the NYU Grossman School of Medicine.. These results indicate that tens of thousands of elective procedures to reopen clogged arteries are performed on people whose health wont benefit from it, Hochman noted.. The best that can happen is people suffering daily or weekly chest pain ...
NIH-funded studies show stents and surgery no better than medication, lifestyle changes at reducing cardiac events -...
Intracoronary gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor in experimental and clinical myocardial ischemia » Brill Online
An animal model of stress-induced regional myocardial ischemia was used to test the hypothesis that intracoronary delivery of an adenovirus encoding fibroblast growth factor Type 5 (FGF5) would result in improved blood flow, function and neovascularization in the ischemic region of the heart. These data indicated that this approach could be used safely and effectively in resolving regional myocardial ischemia in the ameroid model. Additional unpublished studies confirmed that a similar effect was achievable through use of other angiogenic transgenes, including FGF Type 4 (FGF4). The published studies using direct intracoronary delivery of adenovirus vectors to the heart is reviewed, with a focus on safety and efficacy. A multicenter Phase 1/Phase 2 clinical trial of intracoronary delivery of FGF4 in patients with angina pectoris was initiated under joint sponsorship of Collateral Therapeutics, Incorporated, Berlex Biosciences and Schering AG. Results of this trial are reviewed. The results of this
News from the Interventional Section Leadership Council: Why Patient Preference Matters in Clinical Decision Making - American...
As a member of the AUC technical panel, I am familiar with the reasoning that underlies the matrix constructed for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD): according to the COURAGE trial, there should be no incremental survival benefit to a stent versus optimal medical therapy in my patients circumstances despite greater cost. But are body and greenback counts the only endpoints we should recognize? Reducing or eliminating symptoms and enhancing quality of life (irrespective of whether the symptoms are disabling or if medical therapy has been attempted first) are important from our patients perspective and ought to be part of the decision-making process. Why shouldnt patients participate in defining the goals of their treatment? And, why should physicians have to choose between serving the patients expectations or violating the AUC criteria? Shouldnt these be on a parallel path? From my patients viewpoint, the treatment strategy I advised was truly a patient-centered approach, and one he ...
Discussion -- Case 178
The patient presented in the first case developed ECG changes that were initially interpreted as nonspecific, until elevated cardiac enzymes were found. At that time, he was asymptomatic, and remained that way during his hospital course. He experienced only intraoperative and brief postoperative hypotension. Nevertheless, his laboratory results indicated the presence of "silent" myocardial infarction. The ECG, is a cornerstone in the diagnosis of acute and chronic ischemic heart disease, when it fails to show conclusive evidence of infarction, the crucial step in ruling in/out the diagnosis of AMI is the measurement of myocardial enzymes in the serum. The rate of release of specific proteins differs depending on their intracellular location, molecular weight, and the local blood and lymphatic flow. The temporal pattern of marker protein release is of diagnostic importance (Graph 1). Ruling out AMI requires a test with high diagnostic sensitivity, whereas ruling in AMI requires a test with high ...
Gender differences in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial ischemia and infarction in england. | Base documentaire ...
We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on a case note review to determine whether there are differences in the treatment pathways followed for men and women admitted with acute myocardial ischemia and infarction after adjusting for differences in case mix. Women were as likely as men to receive thrombolysis, but were less likely...
Ludwig Angina - To tell or not to tell? Dr. Cecilia Young 楊幽幽醫生
Abstract: Mental stress-induced myocardial ischaemia is a recognized phenomenon in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Ludwig Angina is rapidly progressive and lethal in nature. This is a case report of a 74-year-old Chinese male with ischaemic heart disease presented with severe dental infection and early signs of Ludwig Angina. The patient underestimated the severity of his own dental condition and was uncooperative. The operator attempted to inform the patient of the consequences of Ludwig Angina progression, but was stopped by the patients wife, who insisted that it would cause emotional stress and provoke acute cardiovascular event. Ultimately, the operator complied to the wifes request of not telling the patient the truth. Extraction of the infected tooth with drainage of pus via socket, antibiotics prescription and close monitoring of the patient were performed. The acute infection eventually subsided, but the patient still had not heard of the term Ludwig Angina or how his underestimation
Cathepsin A Mediates Ventricular Remote Remodeling and Atrial Cardiomyopathy in Rats With Ventricular Ischemia/Reperfusion |...
In our rat model for ICM, pharmacological inhibition of CatA activity did not significantly improve LV global systolic function at rest; however, it did prevent wall thinning and preserve more viable myocardium in the LV infarct area and the LV noninfarcted remote myocardium without reducing LV fibrosis. In each of these parameters, SAR was more efficacious than ramipril.. We showed that this antiremodeling effect occurred not only in the ventricular infarct area and noninfarcted remote myocardium but also in the atrium. Inhibition of CatA activity hampered LA fibrosis formation and reduced gene expression of fibrillary collagen types I and III, which are known to be dysregulated in cardiac disease (14,30,31). In the heart, the predominant fibrillary collagens are the rigid type I (80%) and the elastic type III (11%), providing structure and elasticity to the ECM (14,31). The extent of this remodeling process is controlled by the balance between ECM synthesis and degradation, which is tightly ...
Ebook 978-0898383805 Silent Myocardial Ischemia: Proceedings of the Symposium on New Drugs and De
Long Term Survival of Ischemic Heart Disease Patients Who Undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - InpharmD™
Aaron Nethercott, Mercer University College of Pharmacy Ischemic heart disease (IHD) accounted for almost 380,000 deaths in 2010. According to the 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/American Association for Thoracic Surgery/Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association/Society of Thoracic Surgeons guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patents with stable ischemic heart disease,…
Xenon and isoflurane improved biventricular function during right ventricular ischemia and reperfusion.
BACKGROUND: Although anesthetics have some cardioprotective properties, these benefits are often counterbalanced by their negative inotropic effects. Xenon, on the other hand, does not influence myocardial contractility. Thus, xenon may be a superior treatment for the maintenance of global hemodynamics, especially during right ventricular ischemia, which is generally characterized by a high acute complication rate. METHODS: The effects of 70 vol% xenon and 0.9 vol% isoflurane on biventricular function were assessed in a porcine model (n=36) using the conductance catheter technique, and the expression of the type B natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene was measured. The animals underwent 90 min of right ventricular ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. A barbiturate-anesthetized group was included as a control. RESULTS: Cardiac output was compromised in unprotected animals during ischemia by 33+/-18% and during reperfusion by 53+/-17%. This was mainly due to impaired contractility in the left ...
Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease | IRIS UNIPV
Exercise may induce ventricular arrhythmias (VA) in patients with coronary artery disease. Exercise-induced VA can identify a subset of patients at higher risk of cardiac sudden death. The role of myocardial ischaemia and/or left ventricular disease in the appearance of VA during exercise is not completely understood. The incidence of VA during exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia was investigated in patients with suspected CAD or those undergoing a stress exercise test after a previous myocardial infarction (MI). Patients were divided in four groups. Group A, 836 patients without a previous MI showing exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia associated with ST-segment depression--group B, 72 patients without a previous MI and exercise-induced ST-segment elevation--group C, 50 patients survivors of a recent (1 month) MI and exercise-induced ST-segment depression--group D, 580 patients with an old MI (greater than 3 months) and a positive exercise test associated with ST-segment depression. ...
Coronary Artery Disease CAD Ischemic Heart Disease, Pipeline Review, H1 2015
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 8. List of Figures 9. Introduction 10. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 10. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease) Overview 11. Therapeutics Development 12. Pipeline Products for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Overview 12. Pipeline Products for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Comparative Analysis 13. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Therapeutics under Development by Companies 14. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Therapeutics under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 17. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Pipeline Products Glance 18. Late Stage Products 18. Clinical Stage Products 19. Early Stage Products 20. Unknown Stage Products 21. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Products under Development by Companies 22. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Products under ...
Coronary CT Angiographic and Flow Reserve-Guided Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease - Research - Aarhus...
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes following coronary computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) testing in clinical practice are unknown.. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to assess real-world clinical outcomes following a diagnostic strategy including first-line coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) with selective FFRCT testing.. METHODS: The study reviewed the results of 3,674 consecutive patients with stable chest pain evaluated with CTA and FFRCT testing to guide downstream management in patients with intermediate stenosis (30% to 70%). The composite endpoint (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, and unplanned revascularization) was determined in 4 patient groups: 1) CTA stenosis ,30%, optimal medical treatment (OMT), and no additional testing; 2) FFRCT ,0.80, OMT, no additional testing; 3) FFRCT ≤0.80, OMT, no additional testing; and 4) FFRCT ≤0.80, OMT, and referral to invasive coronary angiography. Patients were followed for a ...
The Ketogenic Diet for Health: The Ketogenic Diet Reverses Indicators of Heart Disease
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the independent effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level on cardiovascular risk in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) while on optimal medical therapy (OMT). BACKGROUND: While low HDL-C level is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, recent data suggest that this may not apply when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is reduced to optimal levels using intensive statin therapy. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis in 2,193 men and women with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) from the COURAGE trial. The primary outcome measure was the composite of death from any cause or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). The independent association between HDL-C levels measured after 6 months on optimal medical therapy (OMT) and the rate of cardiovascular events after 4 years was assessed. Similar analyses were performed separately in subjects with LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dL (1.8 ...
The Ketogenic Diet for Health: September 2013
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the independent effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level on cardiovascular risk in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) while on optimal medical therapy (OMT). BACKGROUND: While low HDL-C level is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, recent data suggest that this may not apply when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is reduced to optimal levels using intensive statin therapy. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis in 2,193 men and women with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) from the COURAGE trial. The primary outcome measure was the composite of death from any cause or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). The independent association between HDL-C levels measured after 6 months on optimal medical therapy (OMT) and the rate of cardiovascular events after 4 years was assessed. Similar analyses were performed separately in subjects with LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dL (1.8 ...
Women and Cardiovascular Heart Disease: Clinical Implications From the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study | JACC...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the U.S. More women than men have died annually from ischemic heart disease (IHD) since 1984, and coronary artery disease (CAD) is the cause of over 250,000 deaths in women each year. The evaluation of IHD in women presents a unique and sometimes difficult challenge for clinicians, owing to the greater symptom burden, greater functional disability, and lower prevalence of obstructive coronary disease as compared to men. Objective evidence of ischemia, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, identifies individuals with an adverse prognosis. The results of older trials largely defined the relative places of medical therapy and coronary surgery for the era in which they were conducted. A number of significant changes in selection of patients for surgery, in surgical methods, and in medical therapies have occurred. New pharmacologic and revascularization strategies are now available to relieve ischemia. However, the ...
Near-fatal neonatal coronary ischaemia associated with intermittent aortic regurgitation: successful surgical treatment |...
Transient myocardial ischaemia after acute myocardial infarction.
Electrophysiologic Effects of Acute Myocardial Ischemia | Circulation Research
Acute myocardial ischemia is implicated in many cases of fatal arrhythmias.1 2 The basis of ischemic arrhythmogenesis is alteration in the electrical properties of ventricular tissue, leading to changes in action potential conduction.3 4 Altered electrical properties are a result of the pathophysiological conditions of ischemia, which directly affect membrane ionic currents and intracellular and extracellular ionic concentrations.5 6 Therefore, there exist cause-and-effect relationships between ischemia modification of membrane currents and ionic concentrations and ischemia-related changes in action potential conduction. We investigated these cause-and-effect relationships to determine the ionic mechanisms of depressed conduction and development of conduction block during acute ischemia.. Our investigative tool is a theoretical multicellular fiber model that accounts for the major conditions of ischemia at the level of individual ionic currents and concentrations. The fiber is composed of LRd ...
Verapamil in a new model of severe local myocardial ischaemia due to combined coronary occlusion and stenosis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Verapamil in a new model of severe local myocardial ischaemia due to combined coronary occlusion and stenosis. AU - Végh, A.. AU - Szekeres, L.. AU - Udvary, Éva. PY - 1987/11/24. Y1 - 1987/11/24. N2 - The effect of verapamil was studied in a new canine model of local myocardial ischaemia. In this model in addition to the critical constriction of the left circumflex coronary artery, the left anterior descending branch was suddenly occluded. Experiments were performed in the anaesthetized, thoracotomized and artificially respired dog. The model represents a severe form of myocardial ischaemia and mimics the clinical situation in which usually more than one coronary artery is involved in the stenotic process. Verapamil (0.15 mg kg -1 i.v.) moderated the extent of the ischaemic changes (indicated by the ST segment elevation in the epicardial and endocardial ECG) as well as their consequences e.g. the incidence and severity of early postocclusion and reperfusion arrhythmias. This ...
Abstract: ISSUES WITH COST-EFFECTIVENESS MODELLING OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTS CASE STUDY OF ISCHAEMIC CARDIOMYOPATHY
Purpose: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic pathways for assessing patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy to identify patients with viable myocardium with a view to revascularisation Method: A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for assessing patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The different diagnostic pathways were applied to a hypothetical cohort of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and the probability of successful identification of viable myocardium and non-viable myocardium was determined by the accuracy of the diagnostic pathway. It was assumed that patients diagnosed with viable myocardium would be managed promptly by revascularisation and that the patients diagnosed with non-viable myocardium would be on medical therapy. The model assigned each patient a risk of death and rehospitalisation depending upon whether they are truly viable and whether they had revascularisation or not. Each patient then ...
Socioenvironmental characteristics associated with the onset of decline of ischemic heart disease mortality in the United...
Current Management of Stable Angina Pectoris | MedReviews
Angina is the clinical manifestation of myocardial ischemia and is most often due to coronary stenosis. The management of stable ischemic heart disease requires treatment aimed at both symptom relief and reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality related to atherosclerosis. Risk-factor modification and medical therapy to prevent acute ischemic events and disease progression should be initiated after diagnosis. Patients with symptoms refractory to medical therapy, high-risk stress test results, or anatomic findings have an indication for coronary revascularization.
OPUS at UTS: Persistent comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety predict mortality in heart disease - Open Publications of...
Background: Incident anxiety and depression are associated separately with cardiac events and mortality in patients after acute coronary syndromes, but the influence of persistent comorbid depression and anxiety on mortality remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of comorbid persistent depressive and anxious symptoms in individuals with ischemic heart disease and to evaluate effects on mortality. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal cohort design in the context of a randomized trial to decrease patient delay in seeking treatment for ischemic heart symptoms (PROMOTION trial) was used, with twelve-month follow-up of 2325 individuals with stable ischemic heart disease. Participants were assessed on enrollment and at 3 months using the Multiple Adjective Affect Checklist and the Brief Symptom Inventory for depressive and anxious symptoms, respectively. Results: At 3 months, 608 individuals (61.7%) reported persistent symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both. Three ...
Left ventricular energy model predicts adverse events in women with suspected myocardial ischemia: results from the NHLBI...
Faculty Profile - Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences - University at Buffalo
My research group conducts bench to bedside translational studies directed at advancing our mechanistic understanding of cardiac pathophysiology as well as developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the management of patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. Our ongoing areas of preclinical investigation apply proteomic approaches to identify intrinsic adaptive responses of the heart to ischemia and studies examining the ability of intracoronary stem cell therapies to stimulate endogenous cardiomyocyte proliferation and improve heart function. We are particularly interested in understanding how elevations in heart filling pressures and reversible ischemia lead to cardiomyocyte cell death and heart dysfunction. We also conduct basic and patient-oriented research to understand how chronic ischemia modifies the cellular composition and sympathetic innervation of the heart to help develop new approaches to identify patients at risk of sudden cardiac arrest from ventricular ...
ISCHEMIA-CKD | The ISCHEMIA Study
Click here to view ISCHEMIA-CKD study results. The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches-Chronic Kidney Disease trial (ISCHEMIA-CKD) is an international comparative effectiveness study to determine the best way to manage stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (eGFR ,30 or on dialysis). Prior trials of strategy trials of revascularization versus medical therapy alone for SIHD have routinely excluded patients with CKD or enrolled a small proportion of such patients. As such, the evidence from randomized trials to drive decision making in this cohort is weak at best.. This is a multicenter clinical trial which has randomized 777 participants with advanced CKD with moderate to severe ischemia on stress testing. Participants were randomly assigned to a routine invasive strategy (INV) with cardiac catheterization (cath) followed by revascularization (if feasible) plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) or ...
The purpose of the ISCHEMIA-CKD trial is to determine the best management strategy for patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD), at least moderate ischemia and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ,30 or on dialysis). This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with a target randomization of ~1000 patients with advanced CKD and at least moderate ischemia on stress testing. Participants will be assigned at random to a routine invasive strategy (INV) with cardiac catheterization (cath) followed by revascularization plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) or to a conservative strategy (CON) of OMT, with cath and revascularization reserved for those who fail OMT. The trial is designed to run seamlessly in parallel to the main ISCHEMIA trial as a companion ancillary trial. SPECIFIC AIMS A. Primary Aim. The primary aim of the ISCHEMIA-CKD trial is to determine whether an invasive strategy of routine early catheterization followed by optimal ...
Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function following Myocardial Ischemia by Reducing Oxidative Stress - pdf descargar
Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function following Myocardial Ischemia by Reducing Oxidative Stress. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Release of tissue-specific proteins into coronary perfusate as a model for biomarker discovery in myocardial ischemia...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Release of tissue-specific proteins into coronary perfusate as a model for biomarker discovery in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. AU - Cordwell, Stuart J.. AU - Edwards, Alistair V G. AU - Liddy, Kiersten A.. AU - Moshkanbaryans, Lia. AU - Solis, Nestor. AU - Parker, Benjamin L.. AU - Yong, Andy S C. AU - Wong, Clement. AU - Kritharides, Leonard. AU - Hambly, Brett D.. AU - White, Melanie Y.. PY - 2012/4/6. Y1 - 2012/4/6. N2 - Diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is based on protein biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponins (cTnI/cTnT) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) that are released into the circulation. Biomarker discovery is focused on identifying very low abundance tissue-derived analytes from within albumin-rich plasma, in which the wide dynamic range of the native protein complement hinders classical proteomic investigations. We employed an ex vivo rabbit model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using Langendorff buffer perfusion. Nonrecirculating ...
Genetically reduced antioxidative protection and increased ischemic heart disease risk : The Copenhagen City Heart Study.
The role of clopidogrel in the secondary prevention of recurrent ischemic vascular events after acute myocardial ischemia : a...
Association between antipsychotic use and acute ischemic heart disease in women but not in men: a retrospective cohort study of...
Research comparing sex differences in the effects of antipsychotic medications on acute ischemic heart disease (IHD) is limited and the findings ambiguous. This study aimed to investigate these associations within a primary care setting. Hong Kong public general outpatient electronic records of patients aged 45+ during 2007-2010 were extracted, with the last consultation date as the baseline for a 4-year follow-up period to observe acute IHD hospitalizations (2011-2014). Antipsychotic use was defined as any prescription over the previous 12 months from a list of 16 antipsychotics, while acute IHD was defined by ICD-9: 410.00-411.89. Both sex-specific and sex-combined (both sexes) mixed-effects Cox models (random intercept across 74 clinics) were implemented to examine the association and test the interaction between antipsychotics and sex. Among 1,043,236 included patients, 17,780 (1.7%) were prescribed antipsychotics, and 8342 (0.8%) developed IHD. In sex-specific analyses, antipsychotic prescription
Heart rate, ischaemic heart disease, and sudden cardiac death in middle-aged British men. | Base documentaire | BDSP
Objective-To examine the relation between resting heart rate and new major ischaemic heart disease events in middle aged men with and without pre-existing ischaemic heart disease. Design-Prospective study of a cohort of men with eight years follow up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for all men. Setting-General practices in 24 British...
OpenEmory | Search Results
Background: Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We measured the inflammatory response to acute laboratory mental stress in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and its association with MSIMI. We hypothesized that patients with MSIMI would have a higher inflammatory response to mental stress in comparison to those without ischemia. Methods: Patients with stable CAD underwent 99mTc sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging during mental stress testing using a public speaking stressor. MSIMI was determined as impaired myocardial perfusion using a 17-segment model. Inflammatory markers including interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at rest and 90 min after mental stress. Results were validated in an independent sample of 228 ...
Evaluation of the relationship between left atrial volume and myocardial ischemia: a systematic review - Mashhad University of...
Introduction: The pathophysiology of ischemia involves the cellular effect of myocardial ischemia, reactive oxygen species, and reactive inflammatory enzymes. Left atrial (LA) ischemia has been shown to have several mechanisms through which it can lead to abnormalities in left ventricular filling in early diastole and thus reduces LA passive functional reserve. In this review, we evaluated the physiological mechanisms of LA during myocardial ischemia, as previously demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies.Methods: Several databases were searched in order to find related articles. The outcome of interest included LA function measurements (measurement of LA volume) during ischemia. By applying a standardized protocol, reviewers independently extracted and assessed the studies.Results: The literature review indicated 50 publications, among which 15 studies were eligible for analysis. Assessment of LA dimension and function is essential for clinical evaluation and prognostic purposes. ...
C-Reactive Protein, Fibrin D-Dimer, and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
By assaying CRP in stored plasma samples from the Caerphilly study, we have been able to compare CRP and D-dimer in the prediction of major IHD events in the combined Caerphilly-Speedwell studies (which shared a common protocol), comprising 3213 men, of whom 351 had events over an average follow-up period of almost 8 years. Our principal findings from this combined study were: (1) that both CRP and D-dimer were strong predictors of IHD events (P,0.00001), of similar magnitude to total cholesterol and blood pressure; (2) that the combination of CRP and D-dimer appeared a potentially useful predictor of IHD (incidence of IHD in men in the highest third of CRP and D-dimer 19.3%, compared with 7.0% in men in the lowest third of both variables, Figure); and (3) that on multivariate analyses including each other, as well as classic IHD risk factors and fibrinogen, D-dimer remained a significant predictor of IHD, whereas CRP did not.. As expected, men in the Caerphilly-Speedwell studies in whom IHD ...
Influence of patients sex and clinical history on working capacity and myocardial ischemia after coronary artery bypass surgery
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is generally accepted as effective in relieving patients from angina pectoris, and in improving survival in subgroups. However, subset evaluations of myocardial ischemia and exercise capacity after CABG are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of CABG in terms of exercise capacity and stress ECG findings in subgroups of patients. METHODS: A stepwise bicycle exercise ECG (in most cases computerized) was performed on 362 patients within 1 year before and 2 years after CABG. RESULTS: Exercise capacity increased from a median value of 90 to 130 W (P , 0.0001), more marked (P , 0.0001) in men (100-140 W) than in women (75-90 W). Improvement was not significantly related to age. Occurrence of ST-segment depression at exercise decreased, 76% showing ST-segment depression of at least 1 mm before the operation and 35% (P , 0.0001) 2 years after. Exercise-induced signs of ischemia on ECG did not differ between men and women. Maximum ...
Increased Regional Epicardial Fat Volume Associated with Reversible Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Suspected Coronary...
Maan Malahfji Vol 14, Issue 4. Keywords: cardiac imaging , coronary artery disease , atherosclerosis , computed tomography coronary angiography , myocardial ischemia , coronary artery calcium scoring , CACS , diabetes , myocardial ischemia Malahfji M, Mahmarian JJ. Imaging to Stratify Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Asymptomatic Patients with Diabetes. Methodist DeBakey Cardiovasc J. 2018;266-72. ...
Myocardial ischemia common in young women with CHD under mental stress
CHICAGO — Women aged 55 years and younger with stable CHD under mental stress are more likely to develop myocardial ischemia than men of the same age. “Myocardial ischemia with mental stress is more common in young and middle-aged women with CHD than men of the same age. It is not explained by sociodemographics, disease severity, CHD risk factors or depression,” Viola Vaccarino,
Treatment of Exercise-Induced Ischemia with Bm14.190, a New Beta Blocker with Vasodilating Activity | Clinical Science |...
J. C. Kaski, L. Rodriguez-Plaza, A. Margonato, F. Crea, B. Freedman, A. Maseri; Treatment of Exercise-Induced Ischemia with Bm14.190, a New Beta Blocker with Vasodilating Activity. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1984; 66 (2): 53P-54P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs066053Pb_pt2. Download citation file:. ...
Treatment of Exercise-Induced Ischemia with Bm14.190, a New Beta Blocker with Vasodilating Activity | Clinical Science |...
J. C. Kaski, L. Rodriguez-Plaza, A. Margonato, F. Crea, B. Freedman, A. Maseri; Treatment of Exercise-Induced Ischemia with Bm14.190, a New Beta Blocker with Vasodilating Activity. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1984; 66 (2): 53P-54P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs066053Pb_pt2. Download citation file:. ...
'myocardial ischemia' Protocols and Video...
Video articles in JoVE about myocardial ischemia include Confirmation of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Mice Using Surface Pad Electrocardiography, A Research Method For Detecting Transient Myocardial Ischemia In Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome Using Continuous ST-segment Analysis, A Murine Model of Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion Injury through Ligation of the Left Anterior Descending Artery, A Murine Closed-chest Model of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion, In Vivo Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Structure, Function, Perfusion and Viability Using Cardiac Micro-computed Tomography, Primary Outcome Assessment in a Pig Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction, A Rat Model of Ventricular Fibrillation and Resuscitation by Conventional Closed-chest Technique, Isolation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Healthy Volunteers and Their Migratory Potential Influenced by Serum Samples After Cardiac Surgery, Minimal Invasive Surgical Procedure of Inducing
Myocardial ischemia in older patients
Exertional angina (chest pain) is the most common manifestation of myocardial ischemia in young and middle-age persons. Because of their more sedentary lifestyle or possibly a difference in pathophysiology, this may not be true in elderly patients. Instead of exertional chest pain, ischemia may be more commonly manifested as dyspnea in elderly patients. Other elderly patients with CAD may be completely asymptomatic, although silent ischemia may be demonstrated by stress testing or Holter monitoring ...
Myocardial ischemia. Mayo Clinic (25 July 2015). Retrieved on 2016-05-28. Zvejniece, L; Svalbe, B; Makrecka, M; Liepinsh, E; ... specifically in myocardial mitochondria) to survive ischemic stress conditions. This is done by adapting myocardial cells to ... These heart problems may sometimes lead to ischemia, a condition where too little blood flows to the organs in the body, ... "Meldonium cannot improve athletic performance, but it can stop tissue damage in the case of ischemia," which is lack of blood ...
Silent Myocardial Ischemia. Berlin: SpringerVerlag; 1984; 29-36 The SoS Investigators: Coronary artery bypass surgery versus ... N Engl J Med 1987;316:701-706 Sigwart U: Non-surgical myocardial reduction for hypertrophic obstructive myocardial infarction. ... he created the basis for the automated analysis of hemodynamic data and studied the repercussions of myocardial ischemia and ...
Complications of hypertension
Murphy BP, Stanton T, Dunn FG (May 2009). "Hypertension and myocardial ischemia". The Medical Clinics of North America. 93 (3 ... and retinal ischemia. These changes are manifested in the retina as microaneurysms, hemorrhages, hard exudates, and cotton-wool ... cerebral ischemia, hemorrhagic or thrombotic stroke, seizure disorder, mass lesions, pseudotumor cerebri, delirium tremens, ... larger vessel or multiple lacunar infarcts due to occlusive small vessel disease resulting in subcortical white matter ischemia ...
Murphy BP, Stanton T, Dunn FG (May 2009). "Hypertension and myocardial ischemia". The Medical Clinics of North America. 93 (3 ... Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease (including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias ( ... myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most ... interventional cardiology procedure of primary angioplasty is now the gold standard of care for an acute myocardial infarction ...
... worsening myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, and worsening congestive heart failure. Amrinone has good ... May increase myocardial ischemia. Blood pressure, pulse, and EСG should be constantly monitored. Amrinone should only be ... There is a net decrease in myocardial wall tension, and O2 consumption when using amrinone. Amrinone also has beneficial ... Carabello B.A. (1980). "Effects of Amrinone on Myocardial Energy Metabolism and Hemodynamics in Patients with Severe Congestive ...
Michel, Thomas (2006) . "Treatment of Myocardial Ischemia". In Laurence L. Brunton; John S. Lazo; Keith L. Parker. ... primary percutaneous intervention early after ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the WEST (Which Early ST-elevation myocardial ... COURAGE concluded that in patients with stable coronary artery disease PCI did not reduce the death, myocardial infarction or ... The SYNTAX Trial is a manufacturer-funded trial with a primary endpoint of death, cardiovascular events, and myocardial ...
Electron beam tomography
Hollander, Judd (December 28, 2011). "Update on Cocaine Myocardial Ischemia". Casartelli, Alessandro; Dacome, Lisa; Tessari, ... and myocardial contractility, which are major determinants of myocardial oxygen demand. Cocaine and its metabolites may cause ... This can lead to death from acute myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, or heart failure. ... Freeman, Kalev; Feldman, James A. (2008-02-01). "Cocaine, myocardial infarction, and beta-blockers: time to rethink the ...
Alcohol and cardiovascular disease
Ely SW, Berne RM (March 1992). "Protective effects of adenosine in myocardial ischemia". Circulation. 85 (3): 893-904. doi: ... myocardial infarction ] risk in women; however, episodic intoxication was related to a substantial increase in risk." An ... moderate alcohol intake is associated with lower risk for myocardial infarction." Another study found that when men increased ... "Alcohol drinking pattern and non-fatal myocardial infarction in women". Addiction. 102 (5): 730-9. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007 ...
Proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha 1
HIV associated cardiomyopathy
Interferon-alpha can cause arrhythmia and myocardial infarction/ischemia. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with ... Myocardial toxoplasmosis causes an increase in the myocardial fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB). In situ hybridization or ... Circ Res 1994;74:344-8. Barbaro et.al., Incidence of Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Detection of HIV in Myocardial Cells of HIV- ... Furthermore, impaired myocardial growth and left ventricular dysfunction may be immunologically mediated as monthly intravenous ...
Randomized controlled trial
Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) Study Investigators (2001). "Effects of ... it was routine for physicians to prescribe hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women to prevent myocardial ... effect of encainide and flecainide on mortality in a randomized trial of arrhythmia suppression after myocardial infarction. ... "Intracoronary autologous bone-marrow cell transfer after myocardial infarction: the BOOST randomised controlled clinical trial ...
The most common mechanism of damage is ischemia causing infarction and scar formation. After myocardial infarction, dead ... Echocardiography can also help determine if acute myocardial ischemia is the precipitating cause, and may manifest as regional ... If myocardial infarction is suspected, various cardiac markers may be used.. According to a meta-analysis comparing BNP and N- ... Myocardial infarction ("Heart attack") refers to heart muscle damage due to insufficient blood supply, usually as a result of a ...
Ischemia and infarction. Main article: Electrocardiography in myocardial infarction. Ischemia or non-ST elevation ... It is usually isoelectric, but may be depressed or elevated with myocardial infarction or ischemia. ST depression can also be ... Inverted T waves can be a sign of myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, high intracranial pressure, or metabolic ... Suspected myocardial infarction (heart attack) or chest pain *ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) ...
... but can occur as a result of myocardial ischemia. Class III anti-arrhythmic drugs such as sotalol and amiodarone prolong the QT ... The most common cause of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia is scarring of the heart muscle from a previous myocardial ... if the individual has a past history of a myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or recent angina, the wide complex ...
Systolic heart murmur
Histaminski H3 receptor
Malaltia cardiovascular - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
Coronary artery disease
"Percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes in patients with stable obstructive coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia ... The heart's muscle cells may die from lack of oxygen and this is called a myocardial infarction (commonly referred to as a ... Limitation of blood flow to the heart causes ischemia (cell starvation secondary to a lack of oxygen) of the heart's muscle ... A region on chromosome 17 was confined to families with multiple cases of myocardial infarction. Other genome-wide studies ...
Cardiovascular system damage can include myocardial ischemia/infarction, acute left ventricular dysfunction, acute pulmonary ... organ system ischemia and dysfunction, and myocardial infarction. Single-organ involvement is found in approximately 83% of ... left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema or myocardial ischemia may occur.  ... The resulting ischemia prompts further release of vasoactive substances including prostaglandins, free radicals, and thrombotic ...
Main article: Myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ischemia, (restriction in the ... Limb ischemia. An arterial thrombus or embolus can also form in the limbs, which can lead to acute limb ischemia. ... in a feline model of intestinal ischemia, four hours of ischemia resulted in less injury than three hours of ischemia followed ... Targeting ischemia/reperfusion injury. Main article: Reperfusion injury. With reperfusion comes ischemia/reperfusion (IR ...
Hypercholesterolemia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A heart attack is also called a myocardial infarction. Myocardial means relating to the heart muscle. Infarction means death of ... If this is not done fast enough, the tissue or organ with ischemia may be too badly hurt, and it might not be able to be saved ... So a myocardial infarction or heart attack is when blood flow to part of the heart stops. Then that part of the heart dies. ... For all of these types of ischemia or infarction, doctors can try to reopen the blocked artery. This may be done by surgery or ...
... focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is being evaluated with the reduction in total and myocardial creatine phosphokinase levels showing a ... a b Richmond, T. S. (May 1997). "Cerebral Resuscitation after Global Brain Ischemia", AACN Clinical Issues 8 (2). Retrieved on ... Focal cerebral ischemia - A stroke occurring in a localized area that can either be acute or transient. This may be due to a ...
Ischemia in the heart due to prolonged coronary vasospasm can lead to angina, myocardial infarction and even death. ... This can lead to tissue ischemia and tissue death (necrosis). Cerebral vasospasm may arise in the context of subarachnoid ... Along with physical resistance, vasospasm is a main cause of ischemia. Like physical resistance, vasospasms can occur due to ... Other medications used to reduce the occurrence and severity of vasospasm and ultimately ischemia include L-type calcium ...
Hepatocyte growth factor
As with the A1, the A2A receptors are believed to play a role in regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood ... cardioprotective in cardiac ischemia. *inhibition of neutrophil degranulation. *2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ... The A1, together with A2A receptors of endogenous adenosine play a role in regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and ... The A2A receptor is responsible for regulating myocardial blood flow by vasodilating the coronary arteries, which increases ...
හෘද රෝග - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
Active ischemia. *Angina pectoris *Prinzmetal's angina. *Stable angina. *Acute coronary syndrome *Myocardial infarction ... Secondary AF - occurs in the setting of a primary condition that may be the cause of the AF, such as acute myocardial ... ischemia)). Other possible symptoms include congestive heart failure symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, or swelling ... or other underlying conditions such as chronic lung disease or coronary ischemia. An exercise stress test will evaluate the ...
Gainer, J (2008). "Trans-sodium crocetinate for treating hypoxia/ischemia". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 17 (6): ... myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke. ... transcrocetinate sodium might prove beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with hypoxia and ischemia ...
Campaign recommended packed red blood cells transfusion for hemoglobin levels below 70 g/L if there is no myocardial ischemia, ... Brain: encephalopathy symptoms including agitation, confusion, coma; causes may include ischemia, bleeding, formation of blood ... can cause myocardial depression, reducing cardiac contractility and causing heart failure. In the gastrointestinal tract, ...
Amoebic liver abscess
تفاوت میان نسخههای «فشار خون بالا» - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Rapid rates, though they may be compensating for ischemia elsewhere, increase myocardial oxygen demand and reduce coronary ... Acute myocardial infarction. Sinus tachycardia can present in more than a third of the patients with AMI but this usually ... Tachycardia in the presence of AMI can reduce coronary blood flow and increase myocardial oxygen demand, aggravating the ... Mercury poisoning Kawasaki disease Pheochromocytoma Sepsis Pulmonary embolism Acute coronary ischemia and myocardial infarction ...
ಹೃದಯಾಘಾತ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
1986). "Silent myocardial ischemia and infarction: insights from the Framingham Study". Cardiol Clin. 4 (4): 583-91. PMID ... ೧೯೮೭). "Diagnostic implications for myocardial ischemia of the circadian variation of the onset of chest pain". Am. J. Cardiol. ... "Apoptosis in myocardial ischaemia and infarction". J Clin Pathol. 55 (11): 801-11. doi:10.1136/jcp.55.11.801. PMC 1769793. PMID ... ೧೯೮೫). "Circadian variation in the frequency of onset of acute myocardial infarction". N. Engl. J. Med. ೩೧೩ (೨೧): ೧೩೧೫-೨೨. doi: ...
Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone ... "Therapeutic benefit of intravenous administration of bone marrow stromal cells after cerebral ischemia in rats". Stroke. 32 (4 ... Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells, but other ... Kuswardhani R. A.; Soejitno A. (2011). "Bone marrow-derived stem cells as an adjunctive treatment for acute myocardial ...
Shortness of breath
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic ... myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, or pneumothorax. Patients with COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have a ... cardiac ischemia, abnormal heart rhythms, kidney failure, pulmonary emboli, hypertension, and infections. Treatment efforts ... The most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary ...
... oxymatrine has been shown to decrease cardiac ischemia (decreased blood perfusion), myocardial injury, arrhythmias ( ... a b c Shen, X, Yang, Y, Xiao, T, Peng, J, Liu, X. (2011) Protective effect of oxymatrine on myocardial fibrosis induced by ... Oxymatrine protects against myocardial injury via inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in rat septic shock. Mol Mod Rep 7(4): ... Cardioprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of oxymatrine against Ischemic myocardial injuries of rats. Phytotherapy ...
Adult stem cell
Bai, Xiaowen; Alt, Eckhard (22 October 2010). "Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells". ... such as following tissue damage in ischemia, neurogenesis can be induced in other brain regions, including the neocortex. ... "Application of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in six patients with advanced chronic critical limb ischemia as a ...
Premature junctional contraction
... and silent myocardial ischemia and incidence of new coronary events in older persons with chronic renal insufficiency and with ... It was also known from the case history that the patient had twice suffered during the last ten years from myocardial ... 1 each: Myocardial infarct, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, chronic ... The patient was admitted to cardiac intensive care unit at a general hospital diagnosed for acute transmural myocardial ...
ECG tutorial: Myocardial ischemia and infarction
In order to recognize abnormalities that suggest ischemia or infarction, it is imp ... is an important test used in the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected or known myocardial ischemia or myocardial ... is an important test used in the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected or known myocardial ischemia or myocardial ... ECG tutorial: Myocardial ischemia and infarction. Author. Jordan M Prutkin, MD, MHS, FHRS. Jordan M Prutkin, MD, MHS, FHRS ...
Patente US4821735 - Method and apparatus for detecting myocardial ischemia - Google Patentes
... ischemia in a subject monitors the systemic vascular resistance of the subject and detects the presence of myocardial ischemia ... myocardial infarction). Myocardial ischemia is usually accompanied by chest pain (angina). In some cases, however, it is not ... are employed to detect myocardial ischemia. These other methods include:. a. Hemodynamic Changes Associated with Ischemia-- ... increase in the systemic vascular resistance is strongly indicative of myocardial ischemia, in most cases where myocardial ...
Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia. | Circulation
Myocardial structure of left ventricular segments with recurrent myocardial ischemia was evaluated by morphometry and compared ... Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia.. O M Hess, J Schneider, H Nonogi, J D Carroll, K Schneider, M ... Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia.. O M Hess, J Schneider, H Nonogi, J D Carroll, K Schneider, M ... Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia.. O M Hess, J Schneider, H Nonogi, J D Carroll, K Schneider, M ...
Myocardial ischemia - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Myocardial ischemia reduces blood flow to the heart and may cause chest pain - but not always. Learn all the signs and symptoms ... Causes of myocardial ischemia. Causes of myocardial ischemia. Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle ( ... Coronary artery spasm is an uncommon cause of myocardial ischemia.. Chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia can be ... Myocardial ischemia, also called cardiac ischemia, reduces the heart muscles ability to pump blood. A sudden, severe blockage ...
What Is Ischemia? What Causes Myocardial Ischemia?
Ischemia is a serious problem where some part of your body, like your heart or brain, isnt getting enough blood. Learn what ... Mayo Clinic: "Myocardial Ischemia," "Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)," "Intestinal Ischemia," "Stroke," "Stress Management." ... You may hear it called ischemic heart disease, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac ischemia. ... Some people have silent ischemia in the heart or brain. This is when you have ischemia, but no pain or any other signs or ...
Ischemia-reperfusion myocardial injury]
... we present some considerations on the myocardial damage due to a deficit of oxygen supply. In fact, this damage properly ... Ischemia-reperfusion myocardial injury] Arch Cardiol Mex. Oct-Dec 2003;73(4):284-90. ... in a following phase of evolution of the myocardial infarction due to myocardial reperfusion. Its severity is related to the ... During the initial ischemia phase, as well as during reperfusion, metabolic therapy can be very useful as, for example, glucose ...
Myocardial ischemia - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
Myocardial ischemia reduces blood flow to the heart and may cause chest pain - but not always. Learn all the signs and symptoms ... Medications to treat myocardial ischemia include:. *Aspirin. A daily aspirin or other blood thinner can reduce your risk of ... The goal of myocardial ischemia treatment is to improve blood flow to the heart muscle. Depending on the severity of your ... If you dont have chest pain but are having other symptoms, or are concerned about your risk of myocardial ischemia, you might ...
Inflammation Is Associated With Myocardial Ischaemia
Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project - Wikipedia
The Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) (previously known as the "Myocardial Infarction National Audit Database ... This allowed clinicians to examine the management of myocardial infarction within their hospitals against targets specified by ... ") began in late 1998 when a broadly based steering group developed a dataset for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). ...
Evaluation of Myocardial Ischemia Using Perfusion Study | SpringerLink
... are that their ability to distinguish the physiologic effects of coronary artery stenosis and to detect myocardial ischemia is ... Kang JW., Ko S.M. (2015) Evaluation of Myocardial Ischemia Using Perfusion Study. In: Lim TH. (eds) Practical Textbook of ... With the advance of CT and MRI, myocardial perfusion is easily and reliably assessed. Myocardial blood flow and volume can be ... CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging using multidetector CT-a review. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2011;5:345-56.CrossRef ...
Scientists Develop Myocardial Ischemia Sensor | Medgadget
Heart Lung and Blood Institutes emphasis on promoting research on rapid detection of the symptoms of acute myocardial ischemia ... Thats a load of bollocks! His-Purkinje system is made of myocardial cells specialized for electrical conduction, hence no ... especially under ongoing ischemia/infarct. Weve contacted the university, who released the attached pictures and the following ...
PET/CT Imaging in Mouse Models of Myocardial Ischemia
JCI - Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: a neglected therapeutic target
Pathophysiology of myocardial reperfusion injury. After the onset of acute myocardial ischemia in patients with STEMI, timely ... This form of myocardial injury is characterized in STEMI patients who present with acute myocardial ischemia, in whom treatment ... Myocardial infarction and apoptosis after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion: role of the terminal complement components and ... Schematic illustrating the main proponents of acute myocardial IRI. During acute myocardial ischemia, the absence of oxygen ...
Steroid-induced recurrent myocardial ischemia.
Myocardial Ischemia: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Myocardial ischemia means your heart muscle is not getting enough blood (which contains oxygen and nutrients) to work as it ... Coronary artery blockage causes ischemia. What is myocardial ischemia?. Myocardial ischemia means your heart muscle is not ... What are symptoms of myocardial ischemia?. The most common symptom of myocardial ischemia is angina (also called angina ... What causes myocardial ischemia?. Ischemia is most likely to happen when your heart needs more oxygen and nutrients than it is ...
Neuroglobin-overexpressing transgenic mice are resistant to cerebral and myocardial ischemia | PNAS
Myocardial Ischemia.. Myocardial ischemia was induced as described in ref. 31. Mice were given gentamicin (0.7 mg/kg i.m.), ... Neuroglobin-overexpressing transgenic mice are resistant to cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Adil A. Khan, Yaoming Wang, ... Neuroglobin-overexpressing transgenic mice are resistant to cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Adil A. Khan, Yaoming Wang, ... Myocardial Ischemia.. Occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADA) produced a transmural infarct affecting ...
Electrocardiographic and scintigraphic imaging of myocardial ischemia - IEEE Conference Publication
The Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP). - PubMed - NCBI
Myocardial Ischemia - DrugBank
Changes in glycogenolysis in the zone of ischemia in experimental myocardial infarction | SpringerLink
Myocardial ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome oxidase in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. - PubMed -...
The effect of myocardial ischemia on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was investigated using isolated, buffer-perfused ... Myocardial ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome oxidase in subsarcolemmal mitochondria.. Lesnefsky ... The cytochrome c content was decreased in subsarcolemmal mitochondria after ischemia (ischemia: 0.111 +/- 0.013 vs. ... 0.156 +/- 0.007 nmol/mg protein, P , 0.05). Thus ischemia decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome ...
JCI - Inadequate ubiquitination-proteasome coupling contributes to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
More importantly, impaired UPS performance plays a major role in cardiac pathogenesis, including myocardial ischemia- ... When subject to regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, young Ubqln1-CKO mice showed substantially exacerbated cardiac ... Ubqln1-CKO impairs myocardial UPS performance without affecting proteasome peptidase activities at 3 weeks of age. ... Myocardial proteasomal peptidase activity assays. Crude protein extracts from the ventricular myocardium of homozygous Ubqln1- ...
Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Myocardial Ischemia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Ischemia. Myocardial Ischemia. Coronary Artery Disease. Ventricular Dysfunction. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left. Pathologic ... Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Myocardial Ischemia (MESAMI). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Chronic Myocardial Ischemia Left Ventricular Dysfunction Genetic: Mesenchymal stem cells Phase 1 Phase 2 ... mesenchymal stem cell therapy in patients with severe chronic myocardial ischemia.10 patients with reversible ischemia on a ...
Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Percentage of Participants With Overall Mental Stress-induced Myocardial Ischemia (MSIMI) Description MSIMI is defined by the ... Impaired resting myocardial annular velocities are independently associated with mental stress-induced ischemia in coronary ... Percentage of Participants With an Absence of Mental Stress-induced Myocardial Ischemia (MSIMI) During the 3 Mental Stressors ...
JCI - Inadequate ubiquitination-proteasome coupling contributes to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
More importantly, impaired UPS performance plays a major role in cardiac pathogenesis, including myocardial ischemia- ... When subject to regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, young Ubqln1-CKO mice showed substantially exacerbated cardiac ... and increased myocardial ubiquitinated proteins without altering proteasome activities, resulting in late-onset cardiomyopathy ... ubiquitination-proteasome coupling and that an inadequacy in the coupling represents a major pathogenic factor for myocardial ...
Detection of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetic Subjects | Diabetes Care
Detection of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetic Subjects. Frans J.Th. Wackers, Lawrence H. Young, Silvio E. ... Detection of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetic Subjects. Frans J.Th. Wackers, Lawrence H. Young, Silvio E. ... had evidence of silent myocardial ischemia, including 33 with moderate-to-large myocardial perfusion abnormalities and 30 with ... Detection of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetic Subjects Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
PET/CT Imaging in Mouse Models of Myocardial Ischemia : Figure 3
Prevalence of asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia in diabetic subjects. | The BMJ
Prevalence of asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia in diabetic subjects. British Medical Journal 1990; 301 :92 ... OBJECTIVE--To compare the prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia associated with coronary artery disease in diabetic ... INTERVENTIONS--Any subject showing signs of myocardial ischaemia was referred for cardiac catheterization. MAIN OUTCOME ... CONCLUSIONS--These results confirm the high prevalence of asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia in diabetics. Non-invasive ...
Frontiers | Intracoronary Levosimendan during Ischemia Prevents Myocardial Apoptosis | Physiology
Apoptosis was induced after ischemia-reperfusion in all groups (pre L-IV 0.002±0.004 % vs. post L-IV 0.020±0.017 % p=0.02, pre ... Apoptosis was induced after ischemia-reperfusion in all groups (pre L-IV 0.002±0.004 % vs. post L-IV 0.020±0.017 % p=0.02, pre ... L-IV group received intravenous infusion of levosimendan (65 μg/kg) 40 minutes before ischemia and L-IC group received ... L-IV group received intravenous infusion of levosimendan (65 μg/kg) 40 minutes before ischemia and L-IC group received ...
Response to myocardial ischemia as a regulated process. | Circulation
InfarctionCardiac ischemiaTreatment of myocardial ischemiaGlobal ischemiaFingerprintIntracoronary deliveryFibroblast growthTest the hypothesisPerfusionInfarctRatsLeft ventricularCause of myocardial ischemiaIschemic heartRegional myocardialCauses Myocardial IschemiaSilent myocardial ischaemiaArrhythmiasCoronary arteryMental Stress-induced Myocardial IschemiaPathophysiologyDiagnosisPrevalence of silent myocardialModels of Myocardial IschemiaIncidence of myocardial ischemiaConduction block durinSevere myocardial ischemiaExercise-induced myocardialPreventing myocardial reperfMitochondrialProtective effects on myocardialRecurrentHeartSeverityVentricularProtectsInterventionsDecreasesPatients with acuteMETHODSHypoxiaReperfusion inducedKnown as myocardialDevelopment of myocardialEffect against myocardialOxidativeNecrosisMechanismsAngina pectorisAsymptomatic patientsInjuryPerioperative
- The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important test used in the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected or known myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction (MI). (uptodate.com)
- In order to recognize abnormalities that suggest ischemia or infarction, it is important to understand the components of a normal ECG. (uptodate.com)
Treatment of myocardial ischemia2
- Controversy persists over the relative tolerance of the immature myocardium to global ischemia. (elsevier.com)
- Thus, we evaluated the physiologic effects of 30, 60, and 180 minutes of global ischemia in an isolated, isovolumic rabbit heart model, at 3 different ages: newborns (less than 1 week of age) (n = 36), juveniles (4 to 6 weeks old) (n = 36), and adults (5 to 7 months old) (n = 36). (elsevier.com)
- We have previously shown that intracoronary delivery of recombinant adenoviruses encoding angiogenic proteins that contain signal peptides (fibroblast growth factor-4 and fibroblast growth factor-5) ameliorate myocardial ischemia. (pubfacts.com)
- Intracoronary delivery of an adenovirus encoding fibroblast growth factor-4 in myocardial ischemia: effect of serum antibodies and previous exposure to adenovirus. (pubfacts.com)
- We therefore tested the hypothesis that intracoronary delivery of an adenovirus encoding human fibroblast growth factor type 4 (Ad5.FGF4) would improve regional myocardial function in an animal model of ischemia when high antibody levels preexist or after a prior intracoronary dose of Ad5. (pubfacts.com)
- Comparison of protein with DNA therapy for chronic myocardial ischemia using fibroblast growth factor-2. (pubfacts.com)
- The objective of our study was to compare the effectiveness of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as protein and as naked plasmid DNA in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. (pubfacts.com)
- In a model of stress-induced myocardial ischemia, intracoronary injection of a recombinant adenovirus expressing human fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5) resulted in messenger RNA and protein expression of the transferred gene. (pubfacts.com)
Test the hypothesis1
- With the advance of CT and MRI, myocardial perfusion is easily and reliably assessed. (springer.com)
- Coelho-Filho OR, Rickers C, Kwong RY, Jerosch-Herold M. MR myocardial perfusion imaging. (springer.com)
- CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging using multidetector CT-a review. (springer.com)
- A stepwise approach to the visual interpretation of CT-based myocardial perfusion. (springer.com)
- Ko S.M. (2015) Evaluation of Myocardial Ischemia Using Perfusion Study. (springer.com)
- The prevalence of ischemia in 522 patients randomized to stress testing was assessed by adenosine technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission-computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESULTS -A total of 113 patients (22%) had silent ischemia, including 83 with regional myocardial perfusion abnormalities and 30 with normal perfusion but other abnormalities (i.e., adenosine-induced ST-segment depression, ventricular dilation, or rest ventricular dysfunction). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of inducible myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes, using adenosine-stress single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging as well as clinical and laboratory predictors of abnormal test results. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Our results suggested that pigs received levosimendan displayed a markedly improved cell survival post I-R. The effect on cardiac contractility was only significant in our perfusion heart model when levosimendan was delivered intravenously before ischemia. (frontiersin.org)
- Silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is common in this population ( 1 ), and a large body of evidence attests to the high diagnostic yield of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the prediction of major coronary events ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Rest and stress myocardial perfusion images were acquired at the appropriate time intervals after intravenous radiopharmaceutical administration (10 mCi at rest and 30 mCi at peak stress). (appliedradiology.com)
- Myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and stress is a mainstay of noninvasive diagnosis to detect coronary artery stenosis requiring intervention. (appliedradiology.com)
- The study above demonstrates the improved accuracy of 128×128 myocardial perfusion SPECT-CT utilizing half the usual data. (appliedradiology.com)
- Improved outcome prediction by SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging after CT attenuation correction. (appliedradiology.com)
- Normal stress-only versus standard stress/rest myocardial perfusion imaging: similar patient mortality with reduced radiation exposure. (appliedradiology.com)
- The researchers used myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and during the stress tests to examine differences by sex and age. (healio.com)
- In isolated rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion injuries, perfusion with bradykinin (BK) reduces the duration and incidence of ventricular fibrillation, improves cardiodynamics, reduces release of cytosolic enzymes, and preserves energy-rich phosphates and glycogen stores. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used. (medscape.com)
- The assessment of myocardial perfusion and function using PET and hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging is becoming more available as the cost of the technology decreases and as positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals become more available. (medscape.com)
- One potentially important physiologic parameter obtained by these newer technologies is the myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR). (medscape.com)
- In patients with ischemic heart disease who undergo revascularization based on PET viability assessment with fludeoxyglucose F-18 (F-18 FDG), those with a low myocardial perfusion reserve were at an increased risk of adverse cardiac events. (medscape.com)
- Currently, nuclear myocardial scans include both perfusion and gated wall motion images. (medscape.com)
- Myocardial ischemia can be identified by metabolic alterations detected with PET imaging, perfusion defect reversibility detected by CMR with adenosine/Lexisan, dipyridamole or dobutamine, regional wall motion abnormalities seen by echocardiography and CMR, or ECG changes detected by standard stress test treadmill. (appliedradiology.com)
- Coronary vasodilators- Adenosine, regadenosine, and dipyrimadole are coronary vasodilators used for assessment of myocardial perfusion with CMR. (appliedradiology.com)
- Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the lesion in which the blood perfusion is restored after the myocardial blood supply is interrupted for a certain period, leading to the injury or dysfunction in ischemic area 1 . (scielo.br)
- Area of ischemia assessed by physicians and software packages from myocardial perfusion scintigrams. (lu.se)
- Animals were divided into three groups: normal controls (Group I - n = 6), total ischemia (Group II - n = 8), and stunning (Group III - n = 6) induced by coronary occlusion with distal coronary perfusion maintained via a perfusion catheter coupled to a roller pump (Group III). (diva-portal.org)
- The investigators believe that their sensor might open new possibilities to study the myocardium under a variety of conditions, especially under ongoing ischemia/infarct. (medgadget.com)
- Although the process of myocardial reperfusion continues to improve with more timely and effective reperfusion and with advances in PCI technology and antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents for maintaining the patency of the infarct-related coronary artery, there is still no effective therapy for preventing myocardial reperfusion injury. (jci.org)
- In studies on rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion ( 16 ), intraventricular administration of a Ngb antisense oligonucleotide increased infarct volume and associated neurological deficits, whereas a Ngb-expressing adeno-associated vector, delivered intracerebrally, reduced infarct size and neurological impairment. (pnas.org)
- When subject to regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, young Ubqln1-CKO mice showed substantially exacerbated cardiac malfunction and enlarged infarct size, and conversely, mice with transgenic Ubqln1 overexpression displayed attenuated IRI. (jci.org)
- Also, no differences were observed in histological myocardial fibrosis, infarct size and myocyte hypertrophy between the groups.Blockade of the IL-6R receptor by the monoclonal MR16-1 antibody for four weeks started directly after I/R injury did not prevent the process of cardiac remodeling in mice, but rather associated with a deterioration in the process of adverse cardiac remodeling. (doaj.org)
- It is well known that the inhibition of ACE has cardioprotective effects, such as improvement in cardiac function under the condition of heart failure, attenuation of hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy, reduction in myocardial infarct size, and prevention of reperfusion injury. (ahajournals.org)
- Compared with sham-operated mice, cardiac function was significantly depressed, and myocardial infarct size and apoptosis increased in SN mice following MI/R. The aggravated MI/R injury was further intensified in APN-knockout mice and markedly ameliorated by treatment with gAd but not fAd. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Myocradial blood flow and heart function were monitored over the period of I/R. Myocardial infarct size, structure and apoptosis, energy metabolism, and change in RhoA signaling pathway were evaluated 90 min after reperfusion. (frontiersin.org)
- At the end of reperfusion, myocardial infarct size and biochemical changes were compared. (scielo.br)
- In a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) induced by I/R, administration of C1INH protected against cardiomyocytic apoptosis via normalization of ratio of the Bcl-2/Bax expression in the myocardial infarct area. (diva-portal.org)
- C1INH improved parameters of cardiac function and hemodynamics and reduced myocardial infarct size (MIS). (diva-portal.org)
- In conclusion, EMPA can trigger AMPK signaling pathways and modulate myocardial contractility and reduce myocardial infarct size caused by ischemia and reperfusion independent of hypoglycemic effect. (medworm.com)
- Curculigoside pre‑treatment significantly improved cell viability, decreased cell apoptosis and LDH activity, and reduced the infarct size and myocardial apoptosis in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Shiao Ding, Yang Yang, and Ju Mei, "Protective Effects of L-Malate against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , vol. 2016, Article ID 3803657, 9 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
- Adult male SD rats ( n = 8/each group) were randomized: group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 (IR, 30-min ischemia/72 h reperfusion), group 3 (IR-SS31 (2 mg intra-peritoneal injection at 30 min/24 h/48 h after IR)), group 4 (IR-mitochondria (2 mg/derived from donor liver/intra-venous administration/30 min after IR procedure)), and group 5 (IR-SS31-mitochondria). (mdpi.com)
- They had the same surgical procedures as the experimental rats, but did not have their coronary artery ligated (no ischemia). (life-enhancement.com)
- Bosentan significantly improved myocardial function during reperfusion in rats and in wild-type mice, but not in eNOS-deficient mice. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In anesthetized rats and dogs with coronary artery ligation and in human patients with myocardial infarction, kinin plasma levels are increased. (diabetesjournals.org)
- To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of the Heart Meridian on electrical activities of neck sympathetic and vagal nerves in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The left anterior descending branch (LADB) of the coronary artery was occluded to make an acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) model.For rats of the sham group, a surgical suture was simply threaded beneath the LADB without ligation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The phlogistic role of C3 leukotactic fragment in myocardial infarcts of rats. (springer.com)
- To identify the potential target proteins of XST, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics was utilized to analyze the protein profile of myocardium in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. (rsc.org)
- To investigate the effect of astragaloside IV (As-IV) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats and reltaed mechanisms. (scielo.br)
- As-IV can alleviate the myocardial I/R injury in rats through regulating PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathways. (scielo.br)
- Therefore, the study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of As-IV on myocardial I/R injury in rats and the relations with PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathways. (scielo.br)
- Using microdialysis technique in anesthetized rats, we monitored myocardial interstitial levels of 5-HT and its metabolite produced by monoamine oxidase (MAO), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), during 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 45-min reperfusion, and investigated the effects of local administration of the MAO inhibitor pargyline and the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine. (physiology.org)
- Longitudinal left ventricular contraction in pigs that received levosimendan before ischemia (0.75 ± 0.12 mm) was significantly higher than those received levosimendan during ischemia (0.53 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.003) or Control pigs (0.54 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.01). (frontiersin.org)
- Myocardial structure of left ventricular segments with recurrent myocardial ischemia was evaluated by morphometry and compared with that of segments with normal blood supply in 15 patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
- The relationship of electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial ischemia and left ventricular hypertrophy to the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was prospectively studied in 349 asymptomatic subjects who underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. (ahajournals.org)
- Logistic regression analysis, including standard risk factors, revealed that both ischemia and hypertrophy on the electrocardiogram remained significant independent predictors of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis, along with age and echocardiographic left ventricular mass. (ahajournals.org)
- These findings suggest that the associations of ischemia and left ventricular hypertrophy with carotid atherosclerosis may contribute to the increased incidence of coronary events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- We evaluated if IL-6R blockade by a monoclonal antibody (MR16-1) prevents the heart from adverse left ventricular remodeling in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R).CJ57/BL6 mice underwent I/R injury (left coronary artery ligation for 45 minutes) or sham surgery, and thereafter received MR16-1 (2mg/mouse) 5 minutes before reperfusion and 0.5mg/mouse weekly during four weeks, or control IgG treatment. (doaj.org)
- However, the study investigators did note that association between escitalopram and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia improvement disappeared after adjustment for sex and baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). (acc.org)
- 5. An integrated clinical classification for ischemic heart disease: A combined assessment of severity of coronary disease, left ventricular function and myocardial ischemia. (booktopia.com.au)
- To quantify motion and deformation asynchrony using Doppler myocardial imaging (DMI) during acute total ischemia, and stunning of the posterior left ventricular wall (PW) in comparison with the interventricular septum (IVS). (diva-portal.org)
- measured using Western blot) production were assessed in tissue samples obtained from the left ventricular wall both after the PC (two 5 min occlusions) procedure and at two time points (5 min and 25 min) during prolonged ischemia. (pulsus.com)
Cause of myocardial ischemia3
- Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of myocardial ischemia. (mayoclinic.org)
- Coronary artery spasm is an uncommon cause of myocardial ischemia. (mayoclinic.org)
- Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of myocardial ischemia because it is produced due to a reduced blood supply and these arteries are responsible for regulating the blood supply to the heart. (differencebetween.net)
- On the other hand, the recent advances in experimental cardiology emphasize the extremely complex and dynamie scenario of ischemic heart disease, involving endothelial damage, coagulation processes, metabolie and morphologie derangements, coronary constrictor mechanisms, blood flow redistribution, arrhythmogenesis, contraetile dysfunction during ischemia and reperfusion, and finally lack or presence of pain perception. (indigo.ca)
- Proof of concept had been achieved in animal models of both peripheral ischemia and regional myocardial ischemia in the early 1990's. (escardio.org)
- 6. Regional Myocardial Flow-Function Relationship in Ischemia. (indigo.ca)
- Visual assessment of echocardiographic images for asynchrony in regional myocardial motion during systolic contraction is an example of the need for better definition of limitations. (diva-portal.org)
Silent myocardial ischaemia1
- 7. Electrophysiologic and Biochemical Mechanisms Underlying Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias during Early Myocardial Ischemia. (indigo.ca)
- However, a new study 1 also reports very powerful protection against ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced cardiac arrhythmias by the flavonone hesperidin. (life-enhancement.com)
- Acute myocardial ischemia is implicated in many cases of fatal arrhythmias. (ahajournals.org)
- Indeed, NE overflow in myocardial ischemia directly correlates with the severity of arrhythmias. (aspetjournals.org)
- Because excess NE release can trigger severe arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, negative modulation of NE release by H 3 R agonists may offer a novel therapeutic approach to myocardial ischemia. (aspetjournals.org)
- These results suggest that exercise training in healthy individuals may decrease their likelihood of developing lethal arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia. (ovid.com)
- Limitations of CT angiography and invasive coronary angiography are that their ability to distinguish the physiologic effects of coronary artery stenosis and to detect myocardial ischemia is quite low. (springer.com)
- Further evaluation of myocardial function such as radioisotope scan or stress function tests is often required after identifying coronary artery stenosis lesions that also requires costs and additional radiation exposure. (springer.com)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -In the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study, 1,123 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 50-75 years, with no known or suspected coronary artery disease, were randomly assigned to either stress testing and 5-year clinical follow-up or to follow-up only. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In comparison to either of the control conditions, significantly more coronary artery disease (CAD) patients in the mindfulness meditation condition will demonstrate reductions in mental stress-induced ischemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 25 28 29 All 349 subjects were asymptomatic, had no clinical evidence of coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease, and were without Q-wave myocardial infarction or bundle branch block on their ECG. (ahajournals.org)
- Mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min and reperfusion for 3 h (I/R). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed using an In Situ Cell Death Detection kit on paraffin heart sections (5 mm). (bmj.com)
- Myocardial ischemia can be caused by conditions such as coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis), blood clot, coronary spasm and severe illnesses. (marketresearch.com)
- Group 2 were subjected to 30 minutes of coronary artery ligation (ischemia) and 60 minutes reperfusion. (life-enhancement.com)
- 3. Myocardial ischemia as a useful functional indicator of risk in patients with coronary artery disease. (booktopia.com.au)
- Myocardial ischemia is a disorder that is usually caused by a critical coronary artery obstruction, which is also known as atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). (medscape.com)
- The hemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenosis and its impact on ischemia are altered by a multitude of confounders ( Fig. 1 ), which limit the utility of coronary angiography and other tests. (onlinejacc.org)
- With the improved efficacy of medical treatment, interventional or surgical treatment of coronary artery stenosis is more and more considered not useful in patients without significant myocardial ischemia, even in the presence of significant coronary artery stenosis ( 6 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- Reduction by cobra venom factor of myocardial necrosis after coronary artery occlusion. (springer.com)
- Ischemia of the PW was induced in closed-chest pigs using an angioplasty balloon positioned in the circumflex coronary artery. (diva-portal.org)
- This theory hardly challenges the common assumptions of vascular physiology and, mostly, does not account for recent data (also obtained in our Institute) documenting that both primary and secondary ischemia were associated with a severe microcirculatory vasoconstriction, in patients with coronary artery disease. (cnr.it)
- Altogether, these findings bring us to hypothesize that microvascular constriction plays some role in the precipitation and maintenance of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. (cnr.it)
- ResuLts: Compared with the sham control group that was not subjected to ischemia, occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery resulted in an initial increase, followed by a significant decrease in NOS activity and nitrate/nitrite levels. (pulsus.com)
- After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery disease, both myocardial necrosis (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.82-9.87) and major bleeding (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.28-5.46) were associated with long-term death. (ahajournals.org)
Mental Stress-induced Myocardial Ischemia3
- The trial, which looked at 112 adults with documented coronary heart disease who also exhibited mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia during baseline screening, found that after six weeks, 34.2 percent of escitalopram patients had no mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia during the three mental stressors versus 17.5 percent in the placebo group. (acc.org)
- The odds ratio for mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia was 2.62 in the placebo group (p=0.04) compared to the drug group. (acc.org)
- According to the study investigators, their findings could have clinical implications in reducing cardiac events in patients with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia. (acc.org)
- In this article, the pathophysiology of myocardial lRI and the emerging therapeutic strategies for protecting the heart from its detrimental effects are reviewed. (jci.org)
- Laboratory of Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction, All-Union Cardiologic Scientific Center, Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. (springer.com)
- I am now very grateful that expert cliniealand experimental colleagues from around the world have joined me in the effort to provide a comprehensive textbook on the pathophysiology of myocar- dial ischemia and its rational pharmacotherapy. (indigo.ca)
- 2. Pathophysiology of ischemia: Why are some episodes silent? (booktopia.com.au)
- Because oxygen plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of myocardial injury during subsequent reperfusion, as well as ischemia, the accurate measurement of myocardial oxygen tension is crucial for the assessment of myocardial viability by ischemia-reperfusion ( IR ) injury. (rsc.org)
- The project will recruit patients with angina pectoris and non-obstructive CAD by CT- coronary angiography for further imaging with contrast stress echocardiography for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The global Myocardial Ischemia Market is segmented on the basis of type, diagnosis, treatment, and end-user. (medgadget.com)
Prevalence of silent myocardial1
Models of Myocardial Ischemia1
- PET/CT Imaging in Mouse Models of Myocardial Ischemia," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , vol. 2012, Article ID 541872, 12 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
Incidence of myocardial ischemia1
Conduction block durin2
- We investigated these cause-and-effect relationships to determine the ionic mechanisms of depressed conduction and development of conduction block during acute ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
- Adenosine and related compounds have been shown to produce atrioventricular (AV) conduction block during acute myocardial ischemia. (sigmaaldrich.com)
Severe myocardial ischemia1
Preventing myocardial reperf1
- All the mentioned phenomena are due to a defect of the myocardial energetic mechanisms, owing to the mitochondrial alterations in myocytes: early reduction of the nicotinamide adenine nucleotides, accumulation of calcium ("calcium overload") into mitochondria, and a drop in oxidative phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
- The absence of oxygen halts oxidative phosphorylation, leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarization, ATP depletion, and inhibition of myocardial contractile function. (jci.org)
- The effect of myocardial ischemia on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was investigated using isolated, buffer-perfused rabbit hearts. (nih.gov)
- Thioredoxin-interacting protein and myocardial mitochondrial function in ischemia-reperfusion injury. (harvard.edu)
Protective effects on myocardial2
- The current study investigated whether Que postconditioning has any protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo and its potential cardioprotective mechanisms. (scielo.br)
- In addition, the previous studies have shown that As-IV has the protective effects on myocardial I/R injury, and the mechanisms are various 12 - 16 . (scielo.br)
- Steroid-induced recurrent myocardial ischemia. (biomedsearch.com)
- Unfortunately, short-term treatment with prednisolone caused an unusual complication in the patient, i.e., recurrent myocardial ischemia. (biomedsearch.com)
- 1. Patients with recurrent ischemic-type chest discomfort after initial reperfusion therapy for STEMI should undergo escalation of medical therapy with nitrates and beta-blockers to decrease myocardial oxygen demand and reduce ischemia . (wikidoc.org)
- If the plaques rupture, you can have a heart attack (myocardial infarction). (mayoclinic.org)
- Myocardial ischemia might also cause serious abnormal heart rhythms. (mayoclinic.org)
- Treatment for myocardial ischemia involves improving blood flow to the heart muscle. (mayoclinic.org)
- Making heart-healthy lifestyle choices is important in treating and preventing myocardial ischemia. (mayoclinic.org)
- Some people have silent ischemia in the heart or brain . (webmd.com)
- The goal of myocardial ischemia treatment is to improve blood flow to the heart muscle. (mayoclinic.org)
- This allowed clinicians to examine the management of myocardial infarction within their hospitals against targets specified by the National Service Framework (NSF) for coronary heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Due in part to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's emphasis on promoting research on rapid detection of the symptoms of acute myocardial ischemia, various types of biosensor designs, including ion-selective optical fibers, wave-guides, nanoparticle fluorescence sensors and ion-selective electrodes, have been used to detect potassium and hydrogen in the blood stream. (medgadget.com)
- His-Purkinje system is made of myocardial cells specialized for electrical conduction, hence no neurons are involved in propagation of electrical impulses in the heart. (medgadget.com)
- It is possible to have ischemia ─ or even a heart attack ─ and not have any warning signs. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Here we report that Ngb transgenic (Ngb-Tg) mice show reduced sensitivity to ischemia both in brain, where Ngb is normally expressed, and in heart, where it is not. (pnas.org)
- This study will evaluate the safety of injecting MSCs directly into the heart to repair and restore heart function in people who have had a heart attack and who have chronic myocardial ischemia with heart failure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A successful myocardial protection during open heart surgery has an important clinical significance for overall short- and long-term outcome. (frontiersin.org)
- Which GI symptoms are associated with myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack)? (medscape.com)
- 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. (medscape.com)
- American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/World Heart Federation Universal definition of myocardial infarction classification system and the risk of cardiovascular death: observations from the TRITON-TIMI 38 Trial (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38). (medscape.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study we demonstrated that ATP-MgCl2 usage after one hour of arterial occlusion protects the heart from the adverse effects of ischemia/reperfusion. (biomedsearch.com)
- Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the heart is accompanied by the upregulation and posttranslational modification of a number of proteins normally involved in regulating cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
- We concluded that young and middle-aged women with heart disease, but not older women, had more myocardial ischemia with psychological stress than men of the same age. (healio.com)
- In this study, we evaluated the ability of combined SS31-mitochondria (Mito) therapy to protect heart cells from myocardial IR injury. (mdpi.com)
- We thus speculated that the protective effect of Rg1 on heart ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury implicates energy metabolism regulation. (frontiersin.org)
- In ischemia, the heart generates and releases kinins as mediators that seem to have cardioprotective actions. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction are both conditions defining the failing condition of the heart muscle. (differencebetween.net)
- While myocardial ischemia is characterized by a decrease in blood supply to the heart tissue which leads to chest pain or angina pectoris, myocardial infarction is the end point of this ischemia that results in death of heart tissue due to absence of blood supply. (differencebetween.net)
- Myocardial infarction is what is commonly termed as a heart attack and is often the result of a prolonged and untreated myocardial ischemia. (differencebetween.net)
- In case of ischemia, a coronary angiography can be done to detect any defect in coronary arteries that supply blood to heart that may be the cause of ischemia. (differencebetween.net)
- Levels of cardiac biomarkers help in diagnosing an ongoing heart attack or myocardial infarction. (differencebetween.net)
- When the blood flow is restored in case of ischemia, the pain decreases within a few minutes and there is no permanent injury to heart. (differencebetween.net)
- Hence, it is advisable to take prompt steps when the person is known to suffer from myocardial ischemia to prevent it from progressing to a full blown heart attack. (differencebetween.net)
- Diagnosing myocardial ischemia prior to a heart attack is important. (medscape.com)
- For many people suffering with myocardial ischemia - the reduction of blood flow to the heart - the underlying cause is a buildup of plaque within the coronary arteries. (worldwide.com)
- Consumption of classical complement components by heart subcellular membranes in vitro and in patients after acute myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
- Rossen RD, Swain JL, Michael LH, Weakley S, Giannini E, Entman ML. Selective accumulation of the first component of complement and leukocytes in ischemic canine heart muscle: A possible initiator of an extra myocardial mechanism of ischemic injury. (springer.com)
- Neither passage of time nor heart rate level during ischemia contributed to the outcome. (ovid.com)
- It is reported that As-IV can attenuate the viral myocarditis 9 , myocardial fibrosis 10 and heart failure 11 . (scielo.br)
- Myocardial ischemia may lead to significant changes in autonomic control of heart rate (HR) affecting its variability and alter beat-to-beat ventricular repolarization periods. (upc.edu)
- Our results suggest that the coronary vasodilation in the isolated rat heart after endotoxemia is caused by an increased release of NO. Coronary flow reduction with NNLA, MB, or direct vasoconstriction with vasopressin causes local areas of myocardial ischemia in endotoxin-treated hearts but not in untreated hearts. (ahajournals.org)
- These data suggest that endotoxemia promotes myocardial ischemia in vulnerable areas of the heart after inhibition of the NO pathway or direct vasoconstriction. (ahajournals.org)
- These heart problems may sometimes lead to ischemia, a condition where too little blood flows to the organs in the body, especially the heart. (wikipedia.org)
- Its severity is related to the duration of the initial ischemia period. (nih.gov)
- The 128×128 series more accurately depicted the extent and severity of ischemia as well as the presence of previous anterior infarction (not seen in 64×64). (appliedradiology.com)
- We suggest that these recovery parameters could be utilized as an index of tissue injury and severity of ischemia. (rsc.org)
- It is also used in cases of cerebral ischemia, ocular ischemic syndrome and other ocular disease caused by disturbed arterial circulation and may also have some effect on decreasing the severity of withdrawal symptoms caused by the cessation of chronic alcohol use. (wikipedia.org)
- A and B ) Representative image ( A ) and pooled densitometry data ( B ) of Western blot analyses for the indicated proteins in ventricular myocardial samples. (jci.org)
- A multicellular ventricular fiber model was used to determine mechanisms of slowed conduction and conduction failure during acute ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
- Seven conscious dogs documented to be at high risk by the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during acute myocardial ischemia were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either daily exercise training or cage rest followed by exercise training. (ovid.com)
- After exercise training, the incidence of ventricular fibrillation during acute myocardial ischemia decreased by 100%, as all animals survived. (ovid.com)
- Neuroglobin (Ngb), a protein related to myoglobin and hemoglobin but expressed predominantly in the brain, is induced by neuronal hypoxia and cerebral ischemia and protects against hypoxic or ischemic neuronal injury. (pnas.org)
- Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonism protects from ischemia-reperfusion injury. (unboundmedicine.com)
- VL - 286 IS - 5 N2 - Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonism protects from ischemia-reperfusion injury. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine whether C1INH protects against myocardial cell injury via an anti-apoptotic activity or anti-inflammatory effect. (diva-portal.org)
- The aim of the present study was to determine whether curculigoside protects against myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion injury (MIRI) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. (spandidos-publications.com)
- INTERVENTIONS--Any subject showing signs of myocardial ischaemia was referred for cardiac catheterization. (bmj.com)
- INTERVENTIONS: Myocardial ischemia was assessed by continuous ECG monitoring beginning 30 min before, and until 2 h after FOB. (omicsonline.org)
- If you're investigating interventions for myocardial ischemia and seek an uncommon team of experts with global reach and unparalleled experience, look no further than Worldwide Clinical Trials. (worldwide.com)
Patients with acute2
- This observation encourages the routine use of ECG and oximetry during FOB, allowing for early intervention to prevent the dangerous combination of hypoxia, tachycardia, and myocardial ischemia. (omicsonline.org)
- There are many conditions besides cardiovascular disease in which tissues can be exposed to ischemia/reperfusion, such as sleep apnea (intermittent hypoxia), emphysema and COPD, and clogged carotid arteries (TIA or stroke), where hesperidin (and omega-3 fatty acids) supplementation would appear to be a very good idea. (life-enhancement.com)
- In protracted myocardial ischemia, sympathetic nerve endings undergo ATP depletion, hypoxia and pH i reduction. (aspetjournals.org)
Known as myocardial2
- However, the process of reperfusion can itself induce cardiomyocyte death, known as myocardial reperfusion injury, for which there is still no effective therapy. (jci.org)
- However, coronary reperfusion can cause secondary damage to ischemic tissues, which is known as myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). (spandidos-publications.com)
Development of myocardial1
- In addition to the above causes, there are plenty of other risk factors which have a major impact in the development of myocardial ischemia like smoking, chewing tobacco, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, increased cholesterol levels, obesity, lack of physical exercise and a strong family history. (differencebetween.net)
Effect against myocardial2
- After 45 min of global ischemia, oxidative phosphorylation was decreased only in the subsarcolemmal population of mitochondria with all substrates tested. (nih.gov)
- Thus ischemia decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome oxidase selectively in intact subsarcolemmal mitochondria. (nih.gov)
- Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION). (ebi.ac.uk)
- However, the relationship between perioperative myocardial necrosis and major bleeding with long-term mortality is uncertain. (ahajournals.org)
- Myocardial necrosis was defined as any cardiac troponin T value ≥ 0.1 ng/ml and major bleeding was defined as requiring ≥2 units of blood within 24 hours of the operation. (ahajournals.org)
- Myocardial necrosis and major bleeding occurred in 25.2% and 14.9% of subjects, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions Perioperative myocardial necrosis and major bleeding, even at low cutoff levels, are independent and complementary predictors of long-term mortality following major vascular surgery. (ahajournals.org)
- The present study was designed to determine the role of APN in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in mice with renal failure and delineate the underlying mechanisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the potential mechanisms by which neutrophil-mediated inflammatory injury may complicate myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
- Rather, our goal is to describe mechanisms of reaction to injury and to present evidence suggesting that this secondary reaction might extend and complicate cardiac injury associated with ischemia. (springer.com)
- The most common symptom of myocardial ischemia is angina (also called angina pectoris). (clevelandclinic.org)
- OBJECTIVE -To assess the prevalence and clinical predictors of silent myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and to test the effectiveness of current American Diabetes Association screening guidelines. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS -Silent myocardial ischemia occurs in greater than one in five asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In patients with MI, the treatment of choice for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting MI size is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). (jci.org)
- The effects of CHD are usually attributable to the detrimental effects of acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). (jci.org)
- IRI typically arises in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom the most effective therapeutic intervention for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting the size of myocardial infarction (MI) is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). (jci.org)
- In this respect, myocardial reperfusion injury remains a neglected therapeutic target for cardioprotection in PPCI patients. (jci.org)
- Moreover, forced overexpression of Mb confers production from ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat liver ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
- More importantly, impaired UPS performance plays a major role in cardiac pathogenesis, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the molecular basis of UPS impairment remains poorly understood. (jci.org)
- Apoptotic mechanism has been implicated in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. (bmj.com)
- In this study, we investigated the potential role of tissue kallikrein in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through adenovirus-mediated human kallikrein gene delivery. (ahajournals.org)
- Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury contributes to adverse cardiac outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery, or circulatory arrest. (mdpi.com)
- Increased myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in renal failure involves cardiac adiponectin signal deficiency. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Although early reperfusion is essential for myocardial salvage, it induces reperfusion injury, which reduces the benefits of myocardial reperfusion ( 1 , 2 ). (scielo.br)
- Ischemic postconditioning, defined as brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) at the onset of reperfusion, has been shown to protect against lethal reperfusion injury in many species including humans ( 3 ). (scielo.br)
- In the present study, Que postconditioning was used as an adjuvant to attenuate myocardial I/R injury in an in vivo rat model. (scielo.br)
- Therefore, these studies support the hypothesis that C1INH, in addition to inhibition of activation of the complement and contact systems, improves outcome in I/R-mediated myocardial cell injury via an anti-apoptotic activity independent of serine protease inhibitory activity. (diva-portal.org)
- Treatment of STCelevation MI (STEMI) has improved enormously with the advent of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), but ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains an important complication. (bl.uk)
- Evidence from animal studies points to a role for lymphocytes, and in particular T cells, in myocardial I/R injury, but this has not yet been studied in humans. (bl.uk)
- Myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury results from severe impairment of coronary blood supply and leads to irreversible cell death, with limited therapeutic possibilities. (mdpi.com)
- It should be emphasized that no one seriously proposes that the primary injury associated with myocardial infarction is inflammatory in nature. (springer.com)
- Implications for pathogenesis of myocardial reperfusion injury. (springer.com)
- Reduction of the extent of ischemic myocardial injury by neutrophil depletion in the dog. (springer.com)
- Canine myocardial reperfusion injury: Its reduction by the combined administration of superoxide dismutase and catalase. (springer.com)
- Leukocytes and ischemia induced myocardial injury. (springer.com)
- The myocardial I/R injury model was constructed in later four groups. (scielo.br)
- Myocardial I/R injury can lead to the impairment of cardiac function and damage of myocardial cells, which increases the risk of cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and arrhythmia, and seriously affects the prognosis of underlying diseases 2 , 3 . (scielo.br)
- In addition, the myocardial I/R injury can limit the application of coronary thrombolysis treatment, interventional therapy and bypass surgery 4 . (scielo.br)
- Therefore, reducing myocardial I/R injury is of great significance to improve the curative effect of cardiovascular diseases. (scielo.br)
- Study has shown that, the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathways are involved in the occurrence of myocardial I/R injury 18 . (scielo.br)
- The object was to provide a basis for further clarifying the mechanism for the protective effect of As-IV on myocardial I/R injury. (scielo.br)
- In vitro and in vivo models were used to replicate conditions of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. (bl.uk)
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as crucial modulators in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. (termedia.pl)
- Cardioprotection by a novel recombinant serine protease inhibitor in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. (aspetjournals.org)
- The purpose of the paper was to review the evidence of the use of perioperative β-blockers for the reduction of myocardial ischemia in patients having noncardiac surgery. (eurekaselect.com)
- Method: Pubmed was searched for articles that included β-blockers and perioperative myocardial ischemia. (eurekaselect.com)
- Conclusion: The meta-analysis shows that the use of β-blockers, both as premedication and postoperatively, in noncardiac surgery is associated with a significant reduction in perioperative myocardial ischemia. (eurekaselect.com)
- S. Rajeev and D. T. Wong, " Effect of β-Blockers on Perioperative Myocardial Ischemia in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery", Current Drug Targets (2009) 10: 833. (eurekaselect.com)