Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction: Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Creatine Kinase, MB Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Heart Rupture: Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Edema, Cardiac: Abnormal fluid retention by the body due to impaired cardiac function or heart failure. It is usually characterized by increase in venous and capillary pressure, and swollen legs when standing. It is different from the generalized edema caused by renal dysfunction (NEPHROTIC SYNDROME).Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Ventricular Septal Rupture: Laceration or tearing of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, usually caused by MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Death, Sudden: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Anistreplase: An acylated inactive complex of streptokinase and human lysine-plasminogen. After injection, the acyl group is slowly hydrolyzed, producing an activator that converts plasminogen to plasmin, thereby initiating fibrinolysis. Its half-life is about 90 minutes compared to 5 minutes for TPA; (TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR); 16 minutes for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR and 23 minutes for STREPTOKINASE. If treatment is initiated within 3 hours of onset of symptoms for acute myocardial infarction, the drug preserves myocardial tissue and left ventricular function and increases coronary artery patency. Bleeding complications are similar to other thrombolytic agents.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.No-Reflow Phenomenon: Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.United StatesIntra-Aortic Balloon Pumping: Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Technetium Tc 99m Pyrophosphate: A radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in scintigraphy or tomography of the heart to evaluate the extent of the necrotic myocardial process. It has also been used in noninvasive tests for the distribution of organ involvement in different types of amyloidosis and for the evaluation of muscle necrosis in the extremities.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Time-to-Treatment: The interval of time between onset of symptoms and receiving therapy.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Enoxaparin: Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.JapanAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.DenmarkIschemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.SwedenCollateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Propensity Score: Conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Vectorcardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Ambulances: A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Secondary Prevention: The prevention of recurrences or exacerbations of a disease or complications of its therapy.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Hirudin Therapy: Use of HIRUDINS as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (1/19124)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (2/19124)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

Anti-heart autoantibodies in ischaemic heart disease patients. (3/19124)

One hundred and ninety-nine ischaemic heart disease (IHD) patients were studied with regard to the prevalence of anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA). The incidence of AHA in IHD patients was 1%: one out of 102 patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI), one out of seventy-two patients who suffered from acute coronary insufficiency (ACI), and none out of twenty-five patients with other signs and symptoms of IHD, had AHA in their sera. An additional 2% of patients who suffered from AMI developed detectable antibody levels during a follow-up period of 15 days. In comparison,, 53% of patients (eight out of fifteen) who underwent heart surgery and who had no AHA prior to operation, developed these antibodies in their sera during 1-2 weeks following operation.  (+info)

Is hospital care involved in inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality? Results from the French WHO-MONICA Project in men aged 30-64. (4/19124)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess whether possible disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) management between occupational categories (OC) in men might be observed and contribute to the increasing inequalities in CHD morbidity and mortality reported in France. METHODS: The data from the three registers of the French MONICA Collaborative Centres (MCC-Lille, MCC-Strasbourg, and MCC-Toulouse) were analysed during two period: 1985-87 and 1989-91. Acute myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths concerning men, aged 30-64 years, were included. Non-professionally active and retired men were excluded. Results were adjusted for age and MCC, using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 605 and 695 events were analysed for 1985-87 and 1989-91, respectively. Out of hospital cardiac arrests, with or without cardiac resuscitation, and 28 day case fatality rates were lower among upper executives in both periods. A coronarography before the acute event had been performed more frequently in men of this category and the proportion of events that could be hospitalised was higher among them. In both periods, the management of acute myocardial infarctions in hospital and prescriptions on discharge were similar among occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who could be admitted to hospital, the management was found to be similar among OCs, as was the 28 day case fatality rate among the hospitalised patients. In contrast, lower prognosis and higher probability of being hospitalised after the event among some categories suggest that pre-hospital care and the patient's conditions before the event are the primary factors involved.  (+info)

Optimal thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction--bolus administration. (5/19124)

Optimal strategies for thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) are still being sought because the TIMI 3 flow rates achievable using standard regimens average approximately 60%. Double bolus administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a novel approach with potential for earlier patency combined with ease of administration. We reviewed total patency rates, TIMI 3 patency rates, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates in the major trials of accelerated infusion tPA/bolus tPA/reteplase in acute myocardial infarction. A direct comparison was performed with results of two recent trials of double bolus (two 50 mg boli, 30 min apart) vs. accelerated infusion tPA: the Double Bolus Lytic Efficacy Trial (DBLE), an angiographic study, and the COBALT Trial, a mortality study. The DBLE trial showed equivalent patency rates for accelerated infusion and double bolus administration of tPA. Reviewing other angiographic trials, total patency and TIMI 3 patency rates achievable with double bolus tPA were comparable to those with accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase administration. The COBALT study demonstrated a 30-day mortality of 7.53% in patients treated with accelerated infusion tPA compared with 7.98% for double bolus tPA treated patients. The small excess in mortality with double bolus treatment was confined to the elderly; in those < or = 75 years, mortality rates were 5.6% and 5.7%, for double bolus and accelerated infusion, respectively, and rates for death or non-fatal stroke were 6.35% and 6.3%, respectively. Comparison with other trials demonstrated mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates with double bolus treatment similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase treatment. Double bolus administration of tPA to patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with total patency, TIMI 3 patency, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion of tPA or bolus reteplase.  (+info)

Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. (6/19124)

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE.  (+info)

Expression of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase is reduced in rats with postinfarction heart failure. (7/19124)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether heart failure in rats is associated with altered expression of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). METHODS: SERCA protein and mRNA were examined in the soleus muscles of eight female rats with heart failure induced by coronary artery ligation, six weeks after the procedure (mean (SEM) left ventricular end diastolic pressure 20.4 (2.2) mm Hg) and in six sham operated controls by western and northern analyses, respectively. RESULTS: SERCA-2a isoform protein was reduced by 16% (112 000 (4000) v 134 000 (2000) arbitrary units, p < 0.001), and SERCA-2a messenger RNA was reduced by 59% (0.24 (0. 06) v 0.58 (0.02) arbitrary units, p < 0.001). Although rats with heart failure had smaller muscles (0.54 mg/g v 0.66 mg/g body weight), no difference in locomotor activity was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results may explain the previously documented abnormalities in calcium handling in skeletal muscle from animals with the same model of congestive heart failure, and could be responsible for the accelerated muscle fatigue characteristic of patients with heart failure.  (+info)

Recurring myocardial infarction in a 35 year old woman. (8/19124)

A 35 year old woman presented with acute myocardial infarction without any of the usual risk factors: she had never smoked; she had normal blood pressure; she did not have diabetes; plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fibrinogen, homocysteine, and Lp(a) lipoprotein were normal. She was not taking oral contraceptives or any other medication. Coronary angiography showed occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery but no evidence of arteriosclerosis. Medical history disclosed a previous leg vein thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. Coagulation analysis revealed protein C deficiency. The recognition of protein C deficiency as a risk factor for myocardial infarction is important as anticoagulation prevents further thrombotic events, whereas inhibitors of platelet aggregation are ineffective.  (+info)

Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research; December 2013: Vol.-3, Issue-1 , 80-87 Original article : Effect of acute myocardial infarction on serum zinc level * DR. PRAVIN P. SHEKOKAR 1, DR. MRS. S. D. KAUNDINYA2 1Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Akola, Collector Office Road, Akola. Pin 444001 (Maharashtra), India 2Professor & Head of Dept, Department of Physiology, Grant Government Medical College And Sir J.J. Hospital, Mumbai-8, India *Corrersponding author : Email: [email protected] Abstract: Introduction: Myocardial infarction is a common presentation of coronary artery disease. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is of vital importance from the management and prognosis point of view. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate serum zinc level in acute myocardial infarction patients and to correlate it with biochemical parameter SGOT. Methods: In the present study 30 patients suffering from acute myocardial ...
BACKGROUND: The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Risk Score has been shown to predict prognosis in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) comprised of unstable angina (UA) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to evaluate the impact of newer antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapies for ACS, such as glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), on in-hospital outcomes over time in patients (pts) with similar TIMI risk scores.. METHODS: The baseline demographics and clinical outcomes of pts with ACS (UA and non-STEMI) in 1998 (Group 1998) and 2000 (Group 2000) at a single large university medical center were compared using a prospectively collected database. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) included death, MI, or recurrent angina that resulted in urgent revascularization. Risk was estimated by utilizing the TIMI Risk Score, which uses 7 predictor variables: age , 65 years, at least 3 risk factors for coronary ...
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular events, and there are consistence evidences about worse short- and long-term outcomes in CKD patients with acute myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and safety of triple antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel plus cilostazol) in CKD patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared with dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel).. Methods and results: Among over 21,000 patients in Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) data, 5,138 STEMI patients who underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents were enrolled in this study. They were divided by estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl); ≥ 60 ml/min (n=3,445; dual = 2169, triple = 1276) and , 60 ml/min (n=1693; dual = 1120, triple = 573). Various major adverse cardiac events including major bleeding at 12 months were evaluated. The triple ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of delay times between Symptom onset of an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction and hospital arrival in men and women ,65 years versus ≥65 years of age. T2 - Findings from the multicenter Munich Examination of Delay in Patients Experiencing Acute Myocardial Infarction (MEDEA) study. AU - Ladwig, Karl-Heinz. AU - Fang, Xiaoyan. AU - Wolf, Kathrin. AU - Hoschar, Sophia. AU - Albarqouni, Loai. AU - Ronel, Joram. AU - Meinertz, Thomas. AU - Spieler, Derek. AU - Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig. AU - Schunkert, Heribert. N1 - Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/12/15. Y1 - 2017/12/15. N2 - Early administration of reperfusion therapy in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) is crucial to reduce mortality. Although female sex and old age are key factors contributing to an inadequate long prehospital delay time, little is known whether women ≥65 years are a particular risk population. Hence, we studied the interaction of sex and age (,65 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sonothrombolysis in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. AU - MRUSMI Investigators. AU - Mathias, Wilson. AU - Tsutsui, Jeane M.. AU - Tavares, Bruno G.. AU - Fava, Agostina M.. AU - Aguiar, Miguel O.D.. AU - Borges, Bruno C.. AU - Oliveira, Mucio T.. AU - Soeiro, Alexandre. AU - Nicolau, Jose C.. AU - Ribeiro, Henrique B.. AU - Chiang, Hsu Po. AU - Sbano, João C.N.. AU - Morad, Abdulrahman. AU - Goldsweig, Andrew. AU - Rochitte, Carlos E.. AU - Lopes, Bernardo B.C.. AU - Ramirez, José A.F.. AU - Kalil Filho, Roberto. AU - Porter, Thomas R.. PY - 2019/6/11. Y1 - 2019/6/11. N2 - Background: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that high mechanical index (MI)impulses from a diagnostic ultrasound transducer during an intravenous microbubble infusion (sonothrombolysis)can restore epicardial and microvascular flow in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objectives: This study tested the clinical ...
I read the article by Yang JH,et al with great interest, in which the authors compared 1-year prognostic impacts of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with preserved left ventricular systolic function who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) [1]. I believe it would be appreciated if authors discuss the long-term survival benefit of ARBs before concluding that ARBs are as beneficial as ACEIs in STEMI patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function after PCI.. Although ARBs could be an alternative to ACEIs, a recent observational study using inverse probability of treatment weighting and propensity score matching methods revealed that patients treated with ACEIs had significantly lower long-term mortality compared with those treated with ARBs from 2 to 5 years after acute myocardial infarction [2]. This study also demonstrated that crude ...
According to data from randomized, controlled trials, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the treatment of choice for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). In these trials, 1 life was saved and 2 other life-threatening complications, including stroke and reinfarction, were prevented for every 50 patients with ST-segment elevation MI treated with primary PCI rather than thrombolytic therapy. Only 1 major bleeding episode occurred.. How can these superior results be realized outside the context of randomized trials? We anticipate 4 obstacles to instituting primary PCI as the universal treatment of ST-segment elevation MI: 1) lack of timely availability, 2) technical expertise of center and operator, 3) the need to address patient subgroups that are not studied in randomized trials, and 4) comparisons of primary PCI to newer pharmacologic regimens.. We propose 3 strategies to increase the availability of this procedure: 1) perform primary PCI in qualified community ...
List of Tables. Table 1: Clinical subtypes of Indication. Table 2: Risk Factors. Table 3: Prevalence cases (%) Region wise. Table 4: Sources used for forecasting the data. Table 5: Myocardial Infarction Global Epidemiology, (2013-2023). Table 6: Prevalent Cases of Myocardial Infarction (Ages =XX Years), US (2013-2023). Table 7: Prevalent Cases of Myocardial Infarction By Sex (Males & Females), US (2013-2023). Table 8: Prevalent Cases By Myocardial Infarction Sub-population, US (2013-2023). Table 9: Prevalent Cases of Myocardial Infarction (Ages =XX Years), United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 10: Prevalent Cases of Myocardial Infarction By Sex (Males & Females), United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 11: Prevalent Cases By Myocardial Infarction Sub-population, United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 12: Prevalent Cases of Myocardial Infarction (Ages =XX Years), Germany (2013-2023). Table 13: Prevalent Cases of Myocardial Infarction By Sex (Males & Females), Germany (2013-2023). Table 14: Prevalent Cases By ...
Aims. The TRA·CER trial compared vorapaxar, a novel platelet protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 antagonist, with placebo in 12 944 patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). In this analysis, we explored the effect of vorapaxar on myocardial infarction (MI).. Methods and results. A blinded, independent central endpoint adjudication committee prospectively defined and classified MI according to the universal MI definition, including peak cardiac marker value (creatine kinase-MB [CK-MB] and/or troponin). Because the trial failed to meet its primary endpoint, these analyses are considered exploratory. During a median follow-up of 502 days, 1580 MIs occurred in 1319 patients. The majority (n = 1025, 64.9%) were type 1 (spontaneous) MI, followed by type 4a [percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related] MI (n = 352; 22.3%). Compared with placebo, vorapaxar reduced the hazard of a first MI of any type by 12% [hazard ratio (HR), 0.88; 95% confidence ...
Since indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the detection of left ventricular thrombosis often shows considerable non-specific blood pool activity a subtraction method using simultaneous technetium-99m blood pool scintigraphy was undertaken in 11 subjects with well documented remote myocardial infarction, who served as positive or negative controls, and in 18 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. The results were compared with those of cross sectional echocardiography. Thirteen patients had transmural myocardial infarction and the calculated count per pixel in the left ventricle of the subtracted indium-111 platelet scintigram was (mean (SD)) 0.28(0.35), but five patients with subendocardial myocardial infarction had a mean count of 0.04(0.06). In seven patients with transmural myocardial infarction (two anterior and five inferior) left ventricular thrombosis was detected by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy but in only one of these by cross sectional echocardiography. None of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal trends in the severity of acute myocardial infarction. T2 - A population study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. AU - Hellermann, Jens P.. AU - Reeder, Guy S.. AU - Jacobsen, Steven J.. AU - Weston, Susan A.. AU - Killian, Jill M.. AU - Roger, Véronique L.. PY - 2002/8/1. Y1 - 2002/8/1. N2 - The mechanisms of the decline in coronary heart disease mortality are not fully elucidated. In particular, little is known about the trends in severity of myocardial infarction, which may have contributed to the mortality decline. This study examines indicators of myocardial infarction severity including Killip class, electrocardiogram descriptors, and peak creatine kinase values in a population-based, myocardial infarction incidence cohort to test the hypothesis that the severity of myocardial infarction declined over time. Between 1983 and 1994, 1,295 incident cases of myocardial infarction (mean age, 67 (standard deviation, 6) years; 43% women) occurred in Olmsted County, ...
Introduction: ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is largely due to plaque rupture (60-70% of cases) and plaque erosion (30-40%). Coronary inflammation plays a pivotal role in rupture, but the pathophysiology of erosion is unknown. Autopsy studies have shown that inflammatory infiltrates are much less abundant in erosion compared to rupture. We explored the hypothesis that differences in intracoronary cytokines can be demonstrated in vivo in the early phase of STEMI in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).. Methods: We recruited 40 STEMI patients undergoing PPCI with in less than 6 hours of chest pain in a single-centre observational study. Blood samples were taken from the infarct-related artery using thrombus aspiration. Culprit plaques were imaged using optical coherence tomography (OCT) before PCI and classified by two blinded observers. The expression profiles of 102 cytokines were measured using an array, and comparisons of the two ...
Emerging evidence indicate that progenitor stem cells derived from bone marrow can be used to improve cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction patients. There is a great potential for stem cell therapy, using a variety of cell precursors to contribute to new blood vessel formation and muscle preservation in the myocardial infarct zone. The administration of cells via an infusion through the infarct related artery appears to be feasible and result in a clinical effect in some studies. Across the globe AMI is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This cannot be prevented by optimal standard therapies i.e. balloon or stent dilation of the infarct vessels.. The study is a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized, multicenter trial. Male or female patients between 18-75 years with first incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction(AMI) and LVEF less than or equal to 40% are included in the study. Patients who have undergone successful percutaneous intervention (PCI) within ≤ 24 hours ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of Six-Month Outcomes for Primary Percutaneous Revascularization for Acute Myocardial Infarction With Drug-Eluting Versus Bare Metal Stents (from the APEX-AMI Study). AU - Patel, Manesh R.. AU - Pfisterer, Matthias E.. AU - Betriu, Amadeo. AU - Widmisky, Petr. AU - Holmes, David R.. AU - ONeill, William W.. AU - Stebbins, Amanda. AU - Van de Werf, Frans. AU - Armstrong, Paul W.. AU - Granger, Christopher B.. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - We evaluated the use and outcomes of drug-eluting stents (DESs) and bare metal stents (BMSs) in a large primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) trial. Recently concerns have been raised with "off-label" use of DESs for short- and long-term clinical outcomes. Limited randomized data exist evaluating DESs versus BMSs in ST-elevation MI. Patients (n = 5,745) in the Assessment of Pexelizumab in Acute Myocardial Infarction (APEX-AMI) trial were categorized by stent type used. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assisted ventilation during bystander CPR in a swine acute myocardial infarction model does not improve outcome. AU - Berg, Robert A.. AU - Kern, Karl B.. AU - Hilwig, Ronald W.. AU - Ewy, Gordon A.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Background: Mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing is a barrier to the performance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We evaluated the need for assisted ventilation during simulated single-rescuer bystander CPR in a swine myocardial infarction model of prehospital cardiac arrest. Methods and Results: Steel cylinders were placed in the mid left anterior descending coronary arteries of 43 swine. Two minutes after ventricular fibrillation, animals were randomly assigned to 10 minutes of hand-bag-valve ventilation with 17% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide plus chest compressions (CC+V), chest compressions only (CC), or no CPR (control group). Standard advanced life support was then provided. Animals successfully resuscitated received 1 hour of ...
RRH: Rural and Remote Health. Published article number: 2013 - Thrombolysis for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: a pilot study comparing results from GP led small rural health emergency departments with results from a physician led sub-regional emergency department
Objectives. This study was designed to reassess the prediction of recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction after thrombolysis.. Background. Recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction is a strong and independent predictor of subsequent mortality. Current knowledge of risk factors for nonfatal reinfarction is still largely based on data gathered before the advent of thrombolysis. Thus, this prospective study was planned to identify harbingers of nonfatal reinfarction in the postinfarction patients of the multicenter Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nellInfarto Miocardico (GISSI-2) trial.. Methods. Predictors of nonfatal reinfarction at 6 months were analyzed by multivariate technique (Cox model) in 8,907 GISSI-2 survivors of myocardial infarction with clinical follow-up, relying on a set of prespecified variables reflecting residual ischemia, left ventricular failure or dysfunction, complex ventricular arrhythmias, comorbidity ...
Methods All studies published on the risk of MI during OC2 and OC3 use were analysed. For DVT the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products public assessment report published in 2001 and more recent studies published on this topic were used. The estimates of odds ratios (OR) for risk of death from DVT or MI were extracted from the published manuscripts. ORs were used to calculate the aetiological fraction of risk for death from DVT and MI in the population; the relative impact of OC3 compared to OC2 use was expressed as an excess risk of death overall and by age group for French women.. ...
1. Aronson D, Nassar M, Goldberg T, Kapeliovich M, Hammerman H, Azzam ZS. The impact of body mass index on clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2010;145:476-480. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.12.029 20096942. 2. Kang WY, Jeong MH, Ahn YK, Kim JH, Chae SC, Kim YJ, et al. Obesity paradox in Korean patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. J Cardiol. 2010;55:84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2009.10.004 20122553. 3. Kragelund C, Hassager C, Hildebrandt P, Torp-Pedersen C, Kober L. Impact of obesity on long-term prognosis following acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2005;98:123-131. 15676176. 4. Lazzeri C, Valente S, Chiostri M, Attana P, Picariello C, Sorini Dini C, et al. Impact of age on the prognostic value of body mass index in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23:205-211. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2012.05.013 22901842. 5. OBrien EC, Fosbol EL, Peng SA, Alexander KP, ...
|p|The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram adjacent QTc dispersion, which is the maximum difference of corrected QT interval between two adjacent leads, is a simple method to determine regional variation in repolarization and refractoriness. The aim of this study is to evaluate adjacent QTc dispersion as a marker of susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. A total of 135 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled in the study. Adjacent QTc, measured by lens magnifier, was calculated on the first, second and third days after acute myocardial infarction. On the second day after acute myocardial infarction, adjacent QTc dispersion was significantly greater in patients with ventricular arrhythmias (P < 0.001). Adjacent QTc dispersion on the first and fifth day after acute myocardial infarction was not associated with development of ventricular arrhythmias. On the second day after acute myocardial infarction, adjacent QTc dispersion is
No beneficial effect of intravenous enalaprilat followed by oral enalapril on mortality when administered within 24 hours post myocardial infarction. It is important to note in this study that follow-up was for 6 months only, possibly missing a late benefit due to ACE inhibitor therapy. The benefit of ACE inhibition appears most prominent for patients with anterior myocardial infarctions. This was a "non-selective" post myocardial infarction study without heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction on entry criterion. In ISIS-4 and GISSI-3, mortality improved by 0.46% and 0.8%, respectively, with risk reductions of 9% and 11%. In view of the risk of hypotension (20% in ISIS-4, compared with placebo 10%), very early ACE inhibition may benefit a highly selected subset of patients.. ...
Objective - The cause of increased post-AMI (acute myocardial infarction) mortality associated with depression remains poorly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which self-reported cardiac functional status accounted for depression-mortality associations following AMI.. Methods - Using a prospective cohort design (n = 1941), the authors obtained self-reported measures of depression and developed profiles of the patients pre-hospitalization cardiac risks, co-morbid conditions and drugs and revascularization procedures during or following index AMI hospitalization. To create these profiles, the patients self-reports were retrospectively linked to no less than 12 years worth of previous hospitalization data. Mortality rates 2 years after acute MI were examined with and without sequential risk adjustment for age, sex, income, cardiovascular risk, co-morbid conditions, selected process-of-care factors and self-reported cardiac functional status.. Results - ...
Whereas thrombus aspiration in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is recommended by current guidelines, there are insufficient data to unequivocally support thrombectomy in patients with non-STEMI (NSTEMI). The Thrombus Aspiration in ThrOmbus containing culpRiT lesions in Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (TATORT-NSTEMI) trial is a 400 patient, prospective, controlled, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. The hypothesis is that under the background of early revascularization, adjunctive thrombectomy in comparison to conventional percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) alone leads to less microvascular obstruction (MO) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with NSTEMI. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to one of the two treatment arms. The primary endpoint is the extent of MO assessed by CMR. Secondary endpoints include infarct size and myocardial salvage assessed by CMR, enzymatic infarct size as well as angiographic ...
Acute Myocardial infarction (AMI) at a young age (below 45 years) is rare and difficult to predict. We reported a fatal myocardial infarction from advanced atherosclerosis in a healthy young man who had no other major coronary risk factors except mild hypercholesterolemia. Thus, all available systemic risk scores identified him as a low risk candidate for developing a cardiovascular event. Autopsy revealed advanced atherosclerosis in all three major coronary arteries causing acute and old myocardial infarction. Thick epicardial adipose tissue and myocardial bridging of the mid left anterior descending artery were also noted. He frequently used etoricoxib to treat knee and back pain for consecutive five years. Potential mechanisms of sudden death from atherosclerosis, myo- cardial bridging, epicardial adipose tissue and selective COXIB are discussed in more detail below.. ...
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Title:Intracoronary Injection of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, Abciximab, as Adjuvant Therapy in Primary Coronary Intervention. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Andrea Rognoni, Alessadro Lupi, Chiara Cavallino, Roberta Rosso, Alessia Veia, Sara Bacchini and Angelo Sante Bongo. Affiliation:Coronary Care Unit and Catheterization Laboratory, Hospital "Maggiore della Carita", Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara, Italy.. Keywords:STEMI, Acute coronary syndrome, adjuvant therapy, bleeding, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, in - stent restenosis, no - reflow phenomenon, percutaneous coronary intervention, platelet, thrombosis.. Abstract:Acute coronary syndromes and, in paticular, ST - segment elevation myocardial infarction are the principle causes or mortality and morbidity in the industrialized countries. The manadgement of acute myocadial infarction is much debated in the literature; primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the treatment of choice. In the recent years there has been an increasing interest in the ...
The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material is a population-based case-referent study having...
Patients with symptoms suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and having electrocardiographic evidence of an acute MI manifested by ST elevations (>1 mm in two contiguous leads afterto rule out coronary vasospasm) that is considered to rep
Patients with symptoms suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and having electrocardiographic evidence of an acute MI manifested by ST elevations (>1 mm in two contiguous leads afterto rule out coronary vasospasm) that is considered to rep
Background. Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and morbidity worldwide, both in women and in men. Up to the age of 70 the incidence of acute myocardial infarction is higher in men than in women. Although the incidence is lower in young women than in young men, young women are particularly vulnerable due to higher fatality rates. The lower incidence in women compared to men might underestimate womens risk. Women might also be less likely to identify themselves as possible sufferers and to take cardio-protective actions.. The treatment of acute myocardial infarction has changed dramatically the last decades and reperfusion therapy has great impact on myocardial damage. The most critical time of an acute myocardial infarction is the very early phase, as rapid treatment is significantly associated with reduced mortality. Time has therefore become an important issue regarding the patients prognosis. These patients often delay in seeking medical assistance, and this "patient ...
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SUMMARY A seasonal pattern with winter peak in acute myocardial infarction incidence and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in studies worldwide. However, several previous studies have methodical limitations and few are performed in cold climate areas. The aim of this thesis is to assess the effect of season and meteorological factors on first-ever myocardial infarction and the seasonal variation in cardiovascular disease risk factors in a subarctic adult population with long-term follow-up, using appropriate methods with adjudicated outcomes and well-defined exposures. The population-based Tromsø Study consists of more than 40,000 individuals living in a subarctic climate in Northern Norway. The cohort members have been examined up to nine times in six repeated health surveys in the years between 1974 and 2008. Data on myocardial infarction and risk factors have been collected throughout follow-up. The thesis consists of three studies. The first study is an analysis of the ...
OBJECTIVE--The SAVE study showed that captopril improves mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction and that this benefit occurred even in patients with no clinically overt heart failure. On the basis of this, it seems important to identify correctly which patients have left ventricular dysfunction after a myocardial infarction. The objective was to compare various methods of identifying patients with left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF, , or = 40%) after acute myocardial infarction. The methods compared were echocardiography (quantitative and qualitative visual assessment), clinical evaluation (subjective assessment and three clinical score methods), and measurement of plasma concentrations of cardiac natriuretic peptide hormones (atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, ANP and BNP). DESIGN--Cross sectional study of left ventricular function in patients two to eight days after acute myocardial infarction. ...
Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the clinical outcome of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with MetS has not been well examined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of AMI patients with MetS. Subjects and Methods: We evaluated a total of 6352 AMI patients who had successful percutaneous coronary interventions and could be identified for MetS between 2005 and 2008 at 51 hospitals participating in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. They were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of MetS: the MetS group (n=2493, 39.2%) versus the Non-MetS group (n=3859, 60.8%). In addition, 4049 AMI patients with high levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (��100 mg/dL) among them, were divided into the MetS group (n=1561, 38.6%) versus the Non-MetS group (n=2488, 61.4%). Results: In the overall population, there was no significant difference in 12-month the ...
The HELP-AMI (Hepacoat for Culprit or Multivessel Stenting for Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial randomized 69 patients in a 3:1 ratio to MV or CVO primary PCI (17). There was a nonsignificant reduction in repeat revascularization with MV primary PCI (17% vs. 35%), but no differences in death or reinfarction rates.. Politi et al. (18) randomized 214 patients to CVO primary PCI, MV primary PCI, or staged PCI. Again, repeat revascularization rates were lower with MV primary PCI, but there were no differences in death or reinfarction rates.. The PRAMI (Preventive Angioplasty in Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial screened 1,922 patients and enrolled 465 patients at 5 sites over 5 years (16). Recruitment was stopped prematurely by the data safety and monitoring board with a mean follow-up of 23 months due to significant differences between groups. The sample size was on the basis of an expected annual MACE rate of 20% for CVO primary PCI and a 30% risk reduction for MV primary PCI at 80% power. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Echocardiography in acute myocardial infarction. AU - Corya, Betty C.. AU - Rasmussen, Susan. AU - Knoebel, Suzanne B.. AU - Feigenbaum, Harvey. PY - 1975/7. Y1 - 1975/7. N2 - Sixty-four patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction had daily echocardiograms while in the coronary care unit. Patients with previous infarction were excluded. The electrocardlographic site of infarction was anterior wall in 28, inferior wall in 33 and both anterior and inferior wall in 3 patients. Echocardiograms satisfactory for Interpretation were obtained in 92 percent of cases. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion corresponding to the electrocardiographic site of infarction was seen in the echocardiogram in 84 percent of cases. Exaggerated normal motion in noninfarcted areas was seen in 30 percent. The left ventricular internal dimension correlated with clinical heart failure (P , 0.005) and was increased in 50 percent. Abnormal mitral valve closure, which reflects increased left ...
Chest pain is a symptom of illnesses of different organs (heart, lung, stomach and intestines, muscles, and skeleton) or of psychiatric disorders, all of which require specific treatment. Due to the high mortality and morbidity of coronary disease, in the event of chest pain, a GP will always consider the possibility of an acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Moreover, fast treatment - such as thrombolysis, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft - can be life-saving and increase the patients life expectancy and quality of life.1. The annual incidence of acute myocardial infarction for persons aged 30-69 years is estimated by the British Heart Foundation at 0.6% for men and at 0.1% for women.2 In Belgium the figures are comparable: in the 45-75-year-old age group Bartholomeeussen et al3 found a yearly incidence of acute myocardial infarction of 0.55% for men and 0.19% for women. The incidence of severe heart disease in people complaining of chest pain is ...
Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries is a working diagnosis for several heart disorders. Previous studies on anxiety and depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries. Methods: We included 99 patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries together with age- and sex-matched control groups who completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 3 months after the acute event. Results: Using the Beck Depression Inventory, we found that the prevalence of depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (35%) was higher than in healthy controls (9%; P =.006) and similar to that of patients with coronary heart disease (30%; P =.954). Using the HADS anxiety ...
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the most common cause of heart failure (HF) worldwide. For almost 50 years HF has been recognised as a determinant of adverse prognosis after MI, but efforts to promote myocardial repair have failed to translate into clinical therapies. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has driven improved early survival after MI, but its impact on the incidence of downstream HF is debated. The effects of PPCI are confounded by the changing epidemiology of MI and HF, with an ageing patient demographic, an increasing proportion of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and the recognition of HF with preserved ejection fraction. Herein we review the mechanisms of HF after MI and discuss contemporary data on its incidence and outcomes. We review current and emerging strategies for early detection of patients at risk of HF after MI, with a view to identification of patient cohorts for novel therapeutic agents.
In 680 patients with acute myocardial infarction the prognosis during the following 5 years was related to observations made in a standard electrocardiogram (ECG) and 24 precordial chest leads. Patients with a Q-wave infarction (based on a 12-lead standard ECG) had a mortality rate during hospitalization of 10.2% which was much higher than that in patients with a non-Q-wave infarction (1.9%, p less than 0.001). At 5 years follow-up 33.6% of those with a Q-wave infarction had died versus 28.4% of those with a non-Q-wave infarction (p greater than 0.2). Corresponding mortality rate among patients with no previous infarction (n = 587) was 32.1% and 25.2%, respectively (p = 0.17). In patients with anterior infarction and no previous infarction there was no correlation between Q- and R-wave changes in the 24 chest leads 4 days after admission to hospital and 5-year mortality rate. We thus conclude that patients with a Q-wave infarction had a higher in-hospital mortality compared with non-Q-wave ...
Nanog is a potential stem cell marker and is considered a regeneration factor during tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated expression patterns of nanog in the rat heart after acute myocardial infarction by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Our results show that nanog at both mRNA and protein levels is positively expressed in myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells in different myocardial zones at different stages after myocardial infarction, showing a spatio-temporal and dynamic change. After myocardial infarction, the nanog expression in fibroblasts and small round cells in the infarcted zone (IZ) is much stronger than that in the margin zone (MZ) and remote infarcted zone (RIZ). From day 7 after myocardial infarction, the fibroblasts and small cells strongly expressed nanog protein in the IZ, and a few myocardial cells in the MZ and the RIZ and the numbers of nanog-positive fibroblasts and small cells reached the highest peak at 21
Thrombolytic therapy is indicated to the treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism. Its indication should especially consider the risk of bleeding, but other complications might pose harm to patients. Although rarely reported, fibrinolysis can trigger thromboembolic phenomena from emboligenic sources such as aortic aneurysms. Clinicians should be aware of this life-threatening complication. In this case report, we present one patient admitted due to a ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction successfully treated with fibrinolytic treatment, but who evolved with a massive microembolism from an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite intensive medical care, the patient evolved with multiorganic failure due to distal microembolism to the guts and lower limbs, severe rhabdomyolysis and ultimately to death. In this challenging case, clinical, anatomical and histopathologic features are presented and discussed.
title: Clinical impact of thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry, doi: 22341434, category: Article
European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines on the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients with ST-segment elevation have been published and announced during the recent ESC Congress which took place in Barcelona.. The document provides recommendations on topics not covered by the 2012 Guidelines and changes some previous recommendations following new evidence.. For the first time there is a clear definition of when to start the clock for the 90 minute target to treat patients with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The clock should start at the time of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) diagnosis by electrocardiogram (ECG).. "Until now there was confusion over whether the clock starts when the patient has the first symptoms, when he or she calls the emergency services, when the ambulance arrives on the scene, or when the patient arrives at the hospital," said Task Force Chairperson Prof Stefan James (Sweden). "We dont know if the patient is suffering ...
Coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the non-infarcted myocardium is often impaired following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the clinical significance of CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium is not fully understood. The objective of the present
OBJECTIVES: We sought to directly compare primary stenting with accelerated tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Thrombolysis remains the standard therapy for AMI.
Background In ST-elevation myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has a superior clinical outcome, but it may increase costs in comparison to thrombolysis. The aim of the study was to compare costs, clinical outcome, and quality-adjusted survival between primary PCI and thrombolysis. Methods Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were randomized to primary PCI with adjunctive enoxaparin and abciximab (n = 101), or to enoxaparin followed by reteplase (n = 104). Data on the use of health care resources, work loss, and health-related quality of life were collected during a 1-year period. Cost-effectiveness was determined by comparing costs and quality-adjusted survival. The joint distribution of incremental costs and quality-adjusted survival was analyzed using a nonparametric bootstrap approach. Results Clinical outcome did not differ significantly between the groups. Compared with the group treated with thrombolysis, the cost of interventions was higher ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Renal impairment predicts long-term mortality risk after acute myocardial infarction. AU - Smith, Grace L.. AU - Masoudi, Frederick A.. AU - Shlipak, Michael G.. AU - Krumholz, Harlan M.. AU - Parikh, Chirag R.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - Renal function predicts mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it is unknown whether the prognostic importance of renal function persists over time. This study examined how the association between renal function and mortality changed in the 10 yr after AMI in a cohort of patients. In 118,753 patients (age ≥65 yr) from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, mean Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance was 55 ± 24 ml/min and estimated GFR was 57 ± 21 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline. By 10 yr, 68% of patients had died. Compared with normal renal function, even mild renal impairment increased the 10-yr risk for mortality risk by 10%. Severe renal impairment more than doubled the risk for mortality at 1 yr, and this increased ...
Based on the results of Morrow DA, Antman EM, Giugliano RP, et al. A simple risk index for rapid initial triage of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an InTIME II substudy. Lancet 2001; 358: 1571-5. Rathore, et al. Validation of a simple ST elevation acute myocardial infarction risk index. Circulation 2003; 107: 811-16. Rathore SS, Weinfurt KP, Gross CP, Krumholz HM. Validity of a simple ST-Elevation acute myocardial infarction risk index. Circulation 2003; 107: 811-6. ...
Myocardial infarction[edit]. Main article: Myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ... In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), IRI contributes up to 50% of final infarct size despite timely primary ... "Targeting reperfusion injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: trials and tribulations". European ... Ischaemia/infarction: if an arterial thrombus cannot be lysed by the body and it does not embolise, and if the thrombus is ...
Myocardial infarction[edit]. Main article: Myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ... Ischaemia/infarction: if an arterial thrombus cannot be lysed by the body and it does not embolise, and if the thrombus is ... This restriction gives an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle which then results in tissue death,(infarction). A ... an infarction) in the area past the occlusion. Venous thrombosis can lead to pulmonary embolism when the migrated embolus ...
... myocardial infarction; unanticipated reactions to the medications used during the procedure; damage to the conduction system, ... Myocardial perfusion imaging. Cardiovascular MRI. Ventriculography Radionuclide ventriculography. Cardiac catheterization/ ...
Acute myocardial infarction. Sinus tachycardia can present in more than a third of the patients with AMI but this usually ... Sinus tachycardia accompanying a myocardial infarction may be indicative of cardiogenic shock. Sinus tachycardia is usually a ... Tachycardia in the presence of AMI can reduce coronary blood flow and increase myocardial oxygen demand, aggravating the ... Rapid rates, though they may be compensating for ischemia elsewhere, increase myocardial oxygen demand and reduce coronary ...
non-fatal myocardial infarction. , death. ). 1.29 (1.02-1.63). 1.32 (1.02-1.72). 1.18 (0.70-1.97). 30. 23. 6. 37. 30. 7 ...
Suspected myocardial infarction (heart attack) or chest pain *ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI)[9] ... Main article: Electrocardiography in myocardial infarction. Ischemia or non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions (non-STEMIs) ... ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) have different characteristic ECG findings based on the amount of time elapsed ... It is usually isoelectric, but may be depressed or elevated with myocardial infarction or ischemia. ST depression can also be ...
Biyik, I.; Ergene, O. (January-February 2007). "Alcohol and acute myocardial infarction". J Int Med Res. 35 (1): 46-51. doi: ... blood pressure and vascular tone and is associated with embolic stroke and acute myocardial infarction. Due to these risks ... In individuals with an underlying cardiac disorder a binge on alcohol increases the risk of silent myocardial ischaemia as well ...
"Myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation: the acute management of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation [ ... "Regular aspirin intake and acute myocardial infarction". British Medical Journal. 1 (5905): 440-3. March 1974. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... Aspirin is an important part of the treatment of those who have had a myocardial infarction (heart attack).[38] ... aspirin has been thought to decrease the risk of a non-fatal myocardial infarction but not to change the overall risk of death. ...
"Acute myocardial infarction: Role of beta blocker therapy". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved August 10, 2019.. ... Agents with ISA are not used after myocardial infarctions, as they have not been demonstrated to be beneficial. They may also ... Agents specifically labeled for myocardial infarction[72] *Atenolol, metoprolol (immediate release), propranolol (immediate ... myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).[1] They are also widely used to treat high blood ...
Unstable cardiovascular status (angina, recent myocardial infarction, etc.). *Thoracic, abdominal, or cerebral aneurysms ...
MRL mice are not protected against myocardial infarction; heart regeneration in adult mammals (neocardiogenesis) is limited, ... "Evidence that human cardiac myocytes divide after myocardial infarction". The New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (23): 1750-7 ... and at a higher rate in adults following acute heart injury such as infarction.[95] Even in adult myocardium following ... infarction, proliferation is only found in around 1% of myocytes around the area of injury, which is not enough to restore ...
Its Joint Commission certifications include Acute Myocardial Infarction; Joint Replacement - Hip; and Joint Replacement - Knee ...
"Early menopause and the risk of myocardial infarction". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 139 (1): 47-51. PMID 7457520.. ...
Solomon DH, Glynn RJ, Levin R, Avorn J (May 2002). "Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and acute myocardial infarction". ... The plaintiff experienced a mild myocardial infarction and claimed that rofecoxib was responsible, after having taken it for ... previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, or coronary artery bypass). ... patients on Vioxx were observed to have a four to five fold increase in myocardial infarctions (MIs) compared to patients on ...
Interferon-alpha can cause arrhythmia and myocardial infarction/ischemia. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with ... Myocardial toxoplasmosis causes an increase in the myocardial fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB). In situ hybridization or ... Circ Res 1994;74:344-8. Barbaro et.al., Incidence of Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Detection of HIV in Myocardial Cells of HIV- ... Furthermore, impaired myocardial growth and left ventricular dysfunction may be immunologically mediated as monthly intravenous ...
The heart's muscle cells may die from lack of oxygen and this is called a myocardial infarction (commonly referred to as a ... A region on chromosome 17 was confined to families with multiple cases of myocardial infarction.[117] Other genome-wide studies ... Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction. In adults who go to the emergency department with an unclear cause of pain, ... In those with no previous history of heart disease, aspirin decreases the risk of a myocardial infarction but does not change ...
Strik JJ, Honig A, Maes M (May 2001). "Depression and myocardial infarction: relationship between heart and mind". Progress in ...
Beattie WS, Badner NH, Choi P (2001). "Epidural analgesia reduces postoperative myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis". Anesth ... The incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction ("heart attack") is reduced.[31][32] ...
In myocardial infarctionEdit. Further information: Timeline of myocardial infarction pathology. After a myocardial infarction ( ... Micrograph showing contraction band necrosis, a histopathologic finding of myocardial infarction (heart attack). ... deposition and decreased cellularity until the myocardial scarring is fully mature at approximately 2 months after infarction.[ ... Until the end of the first week after infarction there is beginning of disintegration of dead muscle fibres, necrosis of ...
"Influence of heart rate on mortality after acute myocardial infarction". The American Journal of Cardiology. 65 (9): 547-53. ... The mortality rate of patients with myocardial infarction increased from 15% to 41% if their admission heart rate was greater ...
They are also suitable when analyzing patients after myocardial infarction. Recordings from these 12-lead monitors are of a ... Myocardial perfusion imaging. Cardiovascular MRI. Ventriculography Radionuclide ventriculography. Cardiac catheterization/ ...
Filter Migration to Right Atrium: Resulting in acute myocardial infarction.[25]. *Filter Lodged in Heart: Causes life- ... Puram, B; Maley TJ; White NM; Rotman HH; Miller G (1990). "Acute myocardial infarction resulting from the migration of a ...
Myocardial infarction → 심근 경색 (B). *Respiratory failure → 호흡 부전 (E). *Shock (circulatory) → 쇼크 (E) ...
Main article: Myocardial infarction. Patients arriving to the emergency department with a myocardial infarction (heart attack) ... Both of these are effective in reducing significantly the mortality of myocardial infarction. Many centers are now moving to ...
Effect of carvedilol on outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction: the CAPRICORN ... Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol among 16,027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-1; ISIS-1 ... Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction; Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della ... or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2; ISIS-2 Collaborative Group - Zweite ...
The patient population consisted of those with congestive heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. We found no significant ...
The decision on whether to close the PFO found after myocardial infarction and specifically right ventricular... ... The dilemma of refractory hypoxemia after inferior wall myocardial infarction. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2018 Jan;31(1):67-69 ... The decision on whether to close the PFO found after myocardial infarction and specifically right ventricular infarction is ... Here we present the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with a myocardial infarction and was found to have PFO. He was ...
New physiological model of serum creatine phosphokinase activity in acute myocardial infarction ... model was applied to the serum creatine kinase CPK activity change of patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ...
There are many different causes of fatigue, and myocardial infarction is not a common cause. A myocardial infarction requires ... Many risk factors of myocardial infarction are shared with coronary artery disease, the primary cause of myocardial infarction ... it may be classified as an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) based ... Play media Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium). It is a type of ...
Myocardial rupture is most common three to five days after myocardial infarction, commonly of small degree, but may occur one ... A myocardial infarction may compromise the function of the heart as a pump for the circulation, a state called heart failure. ... Myocardial infarction complications may occur immediately following a heart attack (in the acute phase), or may need time to ... A complication that may occur in the acute setting soon after a myocardial infarction or in the weeks following is cardiogenic ...
a zip file of the full study records in XML for all studies in the search results table (max 10000 ...
Miettinen H; Salomaa V; Ketonen M; Niemelä M; Immonen-Räihä P; Mähönen M; FINMONICA Myocardial Infarction Register Group (1999) ... Trends in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization procedures in Finland during 1986 ...
Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Left Anterior Descending Artery Occlusion Following Minor Blunt Chest Trauma: A Case Report= ... Long-term Survival of a Patient with Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm after Acute Myocardial Infarction. 多重創傷合併急性心肌 ... Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report. Comparison of Three Infarct-related Coronary ... versus Intracoronary Administration of Tirofiban in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction. ...
Acute myocardial infarction. Prognostic utility of comparative methods for assessment of ST-segment resolution after primary ... angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. The controlled abciximab and device investigation to lower late angioplasty ...
Post-myocardial infarction; asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. E. Washington, D. R. Gourley, M. Carmen, G. Gerstenblith ... Post-myocardial infarction; asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. American Journal of Managed Care. 2000 Mar 7;6(3 SUPPL ... Post-myocardial infarction; asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. / Washington, E.; Gourley, D. R.; Carmen, M.; ... title = "Post-myocardial infarction; asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction",. author = "E. Washington and Gourley, {D. R.} ...
... or MI is commonly known as a heart attack.. The supply of blood to the heart is suddenly blocked, usually ...
... complications and mortality rate of young patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in Yazd.Methods- From a database of ... SOLTANI, M., SADR, M., RAFEEI, M., EMAMI, M., MOTAFAKER, M., ANDISHMAND, A., NEMAYANDEH, M. ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN THE ... "ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN THE YOUNG". Iranian Heart Journal, 6, 1.2, 2005, 52-54. ... SOLTANI, M., SADR, M., RAFEEI, M., EMAMI, M., MOTAFAKER, M., ANDISHMAND, A., NEMAYANDEH, M. (2005). ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION ...
... myocardial infarctionMyocardial Infarctionmyocardial infarction diagnosismyocardial infarction medicationmyocardial infarction ... medicinemyocardial infarction risk factorsMyocardial Infarction SymptomsMyocardial Infarction Treatmentprevention of myocardial ... How can Myocardial Infarction be Prevented?. In order to reduce your Risk of having a Myocardial Infarction, it is essential to ... What is Myocardial Infarction?. Myocardial Infarction, also known as a heart attack is caused when blood flow stops or ...
Treatment of shock following myocardial infarction. / Cohn, J. N.. In: South Dakota journal of medicine, Vol. 22, No. 7, 01.07. ... Cohn, J. N. / Treatment of shock following myocardial infarction. In: South Dakota journal of medicine. 1969 ; Vol. 22, No. 7. ... Cohn, JN 1969, Treatment of shock following myocardial infarction., South Dakota journal of medicine, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 19- ... Cohn, J. N. (1969). Treatment of shock following myocardial infarction. South Dakota journal of medicine, 22(7), 19-21. ...
... ... Yet, 147 of the participants were affected by an acute myocardial infarction or diagnosed with angina pectoris before 201. ... For each increase of 3.5 disease states, the risk of myocardial infarction or angina was 15 percent lower. ...
Thrombotic Stroke and Myocardial Infarction with Hormonal Contraception. Øjvind Lidegaard, Dr. Med. Sci., Ellen Løkkegaard, Ph. ... Although the absolute risks of thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction associated with the use of hormonal contraception ... and 1725 myocardial infarctions (10.1 per 100,000 person-years) occurred. As compared with nonuse, current use of oral ... for thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction, according to progestin type: norethindrone, 2.2 (1.5 to 3.2) and 2.3 (1.3 to ...
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common complex disease and the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The genetic ... Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common complex disease and the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The genetic ...
Cardiovascular and Bleeding Risks Associated With NSAID Treatment After Myocardial Infarction. JACC: Journal of the American ... Cardiovascular and Bleeding Risks Associated With Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs After Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll ...
Emergency; Patient assistance; Acute myocardial infarction Abstract. Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) represents an important ... Emergency interventions for patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction Authors. * Mariana Pereira Barbosa Silva ... Miranda, A. V. S. & Rampellotti, L. F. (2019). Incidence of chest pain as a symptom of acute myocardial infarction in an urgent ... Individuals who have an acute myocardial infarction need intervention as soon as possible, and the initial care provided ...
Retraction to: Electronic Cigarette Use and Myocardial Infarction Among Adults. News, Vaping 101 - February 20, 2020. ... Electronic Cigarette Use, and Myocardial Infarction Among Adults in the US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health. J Am ... During peer review, the reviewers identified the important question of whether the myocardial infarctions occurred before or ...
... and Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Myocardial Infarction Patients Health Status (TRIUMPH). ...
... Academic Article ... Objectives This study evaluated the risk for recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), CHD events, and all-cause mortality in ...
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Full Care Cycle and Patient Outcomes Web page - Posted on 30/04/2013 ...
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Full Care Cycle and Patient Outcomes Web page - Posted on 30/04/2013 ...
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Full Care Cycle and Patient Outcomes Web page - Posted on 30/04/2013 ...
  • The decision on whether to close the PFO found after myocardial infarction and specifically right ventricular infarction is debated, with no solid guidelines addressing this subject. (medworm.com)
  • Professor Nicholas Mills, principal investigator, University of Edinburgh, UK, said: 'These results are controversial because they suggest that the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction needs to move away from binary thresholds to diagnose and treat patients with myocardial infarction. (news-medical.net)
  • The Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction recommends that any increase in troponin above the 99th centile of a healthy reference population should be used as one of the diagnostic criteria. (news-medical.net)
  • This latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Myocardial Infarction - Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides an overview of the Myocardial Infarction (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Myocardial Infarction - Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Myocardial Infarction (Cardiovascular), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The extracellular matrix as a modulator of the inflammatory and reparative response following myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
  • In some cases, the cause of myocardial infarction may be atherosclerotic plaques which occurred in the human aorta. (hindawi.com)
  • Defibrillator implantation early after myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
  • Although the benefits of beta-adrenergic blockers after acute myocardial infarction have been apparent since the early 1980s, there has been, in recent years, a tremendous resurgence of interest in the use of beta blockers in the short- and long-term management of myocardial infarction. (aafp.org)
  • GDF-15 is an inhibitor of leukocyte integrin activation required for survival after myocardial infarction in mice. (springer.com)
  • Patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke are the highest risk group for further coronary and cerebral events. (who.int)
  • Population of adults aged 30-69, with documented evidence of previous myocardial infarction(s). (umich.edu)
  • What Does an Anterior Myocardial Infarction ECG Look Like? (reference.com)
  • Anterior myocardial infarction electrocardiograms, or ECGs, may contain convex patterns reminiscent of a row of tombstones, or simply exhibit particular J point, T-wave or ST-segment patterns that may be accompanied by inchoate tombstone forms with lateral and septal aspects, explains Healio. (reference.com)
  • What Are the Causes of an Inferior Myocardial Infarction? (reference.com)
  • An anomalous right coronary artery is one cause of inferior myocardial infarction, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information. (reference.com)
  • These individuals do, however, have an increased potential for subsequent myocardial infarction. (britannica.com)