Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Constriction: The act of constricting.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Mice, Inbred C57BLCats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Lidoflazine: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic action.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Dibenzocycloheptenes: A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Ischemic Postconditioning: The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Heat Stroke: A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Electroacupuncture: A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Nicotinic Acids: 2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Nerve Tissue ProteinsEvans Blue: An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Due to its involvement in hypoxia, HGTD-P has been implicated in cerebral ischemia and myocardial infarction, as well as ... it has been associated with cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction, and various cancers. HGTD-P contains two transmembrane ... In the case of hypoxia-ischemia brain damage, the microRNA agomir, miR-139-5p, attenuates HGTD-P expression and brain damage, ... A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 40 (8): 2843-8. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.553644. PMID 19520982. Cho YE, Ko JH, Kim YJ, Yim ...
"Therapeutic benefit of intravenous administration of bone marrow stromal cells after cerebral ischemia in rats". Stroke. 32 (4 ... Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone ... Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells, but other ... Kuswardhani R. A.; Soejitno A. (2011). "Bone marrow-derived stem cells as an adjunctive treatment for acute myocardial ...
... including cerebral ischemia/infarction, myocardial infarction, complete heart block, and death. As a result of this, the FDA ...
... lack of histamine liberation and protection from myocardial and cerebral ischemia. Thus, etomidate is a good induction agent ...
... as well as secondary degeneration resulting from acute cellular stress following myocardial ischemia, cerebral (neuronal) ... protects neuronal cells from cerebral ischemia-induced damage in mice". Neuroscience. 157 (2): 309-18. doi:10.1016/j. ... As a few of the many examples supporting the therapeutic potential of calpain inhibition in ischemia, calpain inhibitor AK275 ... ischemia, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. Excessive amounts of calpain can be activated due to Ca2+ influx after ...
Congestive heart failure Extrasystoles Low cardiac output Myocardial infarct (heart attack) Myocardial ischaemia Pallor ... chest pain Ulcer Angina pectoris Arrhythmia Atrial arrhythmia Atrial fibrillation Bundle branch block Cerebral ischaemia ...
Cerebral ischemia is a frequently disputed possible cause, at least for some segment of the TGA population, and until the 1990s ... In fact, "in comparison with TIA patients, TGA patients had a significantly lower risk of combined stroke, myocardial infarct, ... One current hypothesis is that TGA may be due to venous congestion of the brain, leading to ischemia of structures involved ... cerebral blood circulation, in patients with TGA. A history of migraine is a statistically significant risk factor identified ...
April 2001). "Therapeutic benefit of intravenous administration of bone marrow stromal cells after cerebral ischemia in rats". ... Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone ... Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone-marrow stem cells (a specific ... Kuswardhani R. A.; Soejitno A. (2011). "Bone marrow-derived stem cells as an adjunctive treatment for acute myocardial ...
... leading to loss of cerebral and local autoregulation, organ system ischemia and dysfunction, and myocardial infarction. It is ... Hypertensives also have an increased cerebrovascular resistance which puts them at greater risk of developing cerebral ischemia ... Excessive reduction in blood pressure can precipitate coronary, cerebral, or renal ischemia and, possibly, infarction. The ... Cardiovascular system damage can include myocardial ischemia/infarction, acute left ventricular dysfunction, acute pulmonary ...
Angioplasty and stenting have begun to be looked at as possible viable options in treatment of acute cerebral ischaemia. In a ... In last decade, similar to myocardial infarction treatment, thrombolytic drugs were introduced in the therapy of cerebral ... Results of the multi Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI) trial, part I". AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27 (6): ... Another intervention for acute cerebral ischaemia is removal of the offending thrombus directly. This is accomplished by ...
Conduct differential diagnosis of coma patients Manage patients with seizures Manage patients with cerebral ischemia Initiate ... myocardial rupture) Provide care for the patient with abdominal injuries (e.g., diaphragm, liver and spleen) Provide care for ... Indications, limitations, and contraindications Signs and symptoms of head injuries, ICP, cerebral perfusion pressures ... acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, primary arrhythmias, hemodynamic instability) Use invasive ...
... suggested that dipyridamole may reduce the risk of further vascular events in patients presenting after cerebral ischemia. A ... It can be used for myocardial stress testing as an alternative to exercise-induced stress methods such as treadmills. A ... electrocardiogram and echocardiography when it causes ischemia. Flow heterogeneity (a necessary precursor to ischemia) can be ... It has been shown to increase myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. It ...
... cerebral arteriosclerosis, thrombosis and cerebral embolism, transitory cerebral ischaemia). Acute and chronic peripheral ... Persons suffering from acute bleeding, myocardial infarction (heart conditions), hypertension, bradycardia or using alpha or ... It is used for vascular disorders such as cerebral thrombosis and atherosclerosis, arterial blockages in the limbs, Raynaud's ... Nicerogline is used in the following cases: Acute and chronic cerebral metabolic-vascular disorders ( ...
Peart JN, Gross ER, Gross GJ (March 2004). "Effect of exogenous kappa-opioid receptor activation in rat model of myocardial ... A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 34 (6): 1533-8. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000072512.30658.E7. PMID 12738895. Zhang Z, Chen TY, ... "Neuroprotective kappa-opioid receptor agonist BRL 52537 attenuates ischemia-evoked nitric oxide production in vivo in rats". ... A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 35 (5): 1180-5. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000125011.93188.c6. PMID 15031456. ...
Cerebral vasospasm may arise in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Symptomatic vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia is a ... Ischemia in the heart due to prolonged coronary vasospasm can lead to angina, myocardial infarction and even death. The ... Along with physical resistance, vasospasm is a main cause of ischemia. Like physical resistance, vasospasms can occur due to ... Since vasospasms can be caused by atherosclerosis and contribute to the severity of ischemia there are some surgical options ...
Algra A; Halkes, PH; Van Gijn, J [et al] «Medium intensity oral anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of ... Yerman T, Gan WQ, Sin DD «The influence of gender on the effects of aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction». BMC Med, 5, ... vessament cerebral o ictus cerebral, és un episodi agut d'afectació de la circulació cerebral;[1] es produeix una lesió ... El terme accident vascular cerebral és una traducció de l'anglès cerebral vascular accident, denominació que en l'actualitat és ...
... resulting in extremity ischemia and/or infarction. Myocardial infarction, in the absence of severe coronary artery disease ... Cerebral vein thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis, hepatic vein, or other intra-abdominal thrombotic events. Jugular vein ...
CAD can lead to ischemia (angina pectoris) or infarction (myocardial infarction). Treatment of CAD includes angioplasty, ... Cerebral aneurysm - Aneurysms of the arteries in the brain most commonly affect the anterior cerebral artery. Rupture of the ... Myocardial infarction (a.k.a. heart attack) - A myocardial infarction is the death of a part of the heart which is typically ... The top three causes of ACS are ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 30%), non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI ...
... leading to angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack) may occur.[2] Cerebral ischaemia in PXE is caused by small vessel ...
Myocardial ischemia. Mayo Clinic (25 July 2015). Retrieved on 2016-05-28. Zvejniece, L; Svalbe, B; Makrecka, M; Liepinsh, E; ... It is also used in cases of cerebral ischemia, ocular ischemic syndrome and other ocular disease caused by disturbed arterial ... specifically in myocardial mitochondria) to survive ischemic stress conditions. This is done by adapting myocardial cells to ... These heart problems may sometimes lead to ischemia, a condition where too little blood flows to the organs in the body, ...
The second window begins at 24 hours lasting up to 72 hours post the ischaemia and reperfusion stimulus. In an experimental ... Such injury would occur when a patient has an acute myocardial infarct followed by reperfusion by either percutaneous coronary ... Some research also suggests that ischemic conditioning is also beneficial following a stroke or chronic cerebral hypoperfusion ... In the heart, IPC is an intrinsic process whereby repeated short episodes of ischaemia protect the myocardium against a ...
... myocardial infarction, or other global cerebral hypoxic events. This diagnosis can then be supported by neuroimaging ... pressure brought upon by an acute anoxic episode in conjunction with carbon monoxide poisoning often leads to cerebral ischemia ... If it is severe enough, it is known to cause preferential damage to cerebral white matter due to excessive swelling of glial ... This results in lesions to a great deal of subcortical cerebral white matter but leaves axons, U-fibers, and perivascular ...
... such as myocardial infarction, stroke (cerebral infarction), shock-resuscitation, replantation surgery, frostbite, burns, and ... The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, ... Stroke caused by cerebral infarction should be distinguished from two other kinds of stroke: cerebral hemorrhage and ... Heart: Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is an infarction of the heart, causing some heart cells to ...
Szekeres L, Udvary E, Vegh A. Nifedipine effects in severe myocardial ischaemia in the dog due to left anterior descending ... In 1963 he spent two months in the "Istituto Superiore di Sanitá" in Rome to study methods concerning cerebral circulation with ... Udvary E, Vegh A, Szekeres L. 7-oxo-PGI2 induced late protective action from arrhythmias due to local myocardial ischemia. ... L. Szekeres (1995) Drug induced delayed cardiac protection against the effects of myocardial ischemia Pharmacology and ...
Main article: Myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ischemia, (restriction in the ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosisEdit. Main article: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) ... in a feline model of intestinal ischemia, four hours of ischemia resulted in less injury than three hours of ischemia followed ... Limb ischemiaEdit. An arterial thrombus or embolus can also form in the limbs, which can lead to acute limb ischemia.[6] ...
... diffuse cerebral hypoxia (DCH), focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is being evaluated with the reduction in total and myocardial creatine phosphokinase levels showing a ... a b Richmond, T. S. (May 1997). "Cerebral Resuscitation after Global Brain Ischemia", AACN Clinical Issues 8 (2). Retrieved on ... Focal cerebral ischemia - A stroke occurring in a localized area that can either be acute or transient. This may be due to a ...
There are also hints that myocardial ischemia and stress activate several heat shock proteins (HSP). These are thought to have ... Another RCT was published in 2011 looking at cerebral and myocardial protection in patients undergoing CABG. This is a ... A 2011 paper shows a research protocol using rat myocardium and permanent ischemia. They demonstrated that myocardial infarct ... Preconditioning with repeated hyperbaric oxygen induces myocardial and cerebral protection in patients undergoing coronary ...
Pulmonary Dysfunction after Ischemia-Reperfusion -- Understanding the Incidence and Long-term Outcome of ARDS -- Improved ... Assessment of Cerebral Dysfunction -- Myasthenia Gravis -- New Trends in the Treatment of Advanced Neurological Disease ... Myocardial Dysfunction Following Successful Cardiac Resuscitation -- The CPR Continuing Education Programme and Its Goals -- ...
Neubauer RA, James P: Cerebral oxygenation and the recoverable brain. Neurol Res. 1998, 20 (Suppl 1): S33-36.PubMedGoogle ... Nie H, Xiong L, Lao N, Chen S, Xu N, Zhu Z: Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning induces tolerance against spinal cord ischemia by ... Usefulness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to inhibit restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial ... Golden ZL, Neubauer R, Golden CJ, Greene L, Marsh J, Mleko A: Improvement in cerebral metabolism in chronic brain injury after ...
Myocardial Ischemia.. Myocardial ischemia was induced as described in ref. 31. Mice were given gentamicin (0.7 mg/kg i.m.), ... Neuroglobin-overexpressing transgenic mice are resistant to cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Adil A. Khan, Yaoming Wang, ... Neuroglobin-overexpressing transgenic mice are resistant to cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Adil A. Khan, Yaoming Wang, ... Neuroglobin-overexpressing transgenic mice are resistant to cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Adil A. Khan, Yaoming Wang, ...
Impact of acute propranolol administration on dobutamine-induced myocardial ischemia as evaluated by myocardial perfusion ... encoded search term (Myocardial Perfusion SPECT) and Myocardial Perfusion SPECT What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Fukuda T, Akagi T, Ishibashi M, Inoue O, Sugimura T, Kato H. Noninvasive evaluation of myocardial ischemia in Kawasaki disease ... 2] and more accurate than exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischemia. Special indications include determination of the ...
AMI, acute myocardial infarction; CABG, coronary arterial bypass grafting; CHF, chronic heart failure; TCI, transitory cerebral ... ischaemia; PAS, peripheral arterial surgery. aPatients with one or more fatal or non-fatal events ...
... myocardial infarction, n=12; and cerebral ischemia, n=8. Myocardial infarction was provoked by ligation of the left anterior ... PFC Infiltration Into the Brain After Focal Cerebral Ischemia. In another set of experiments, focal cerebral ischemia was ... In the present study, we demonstrate in murine models of myocardial and cerebral ischemia that nanoemulsions of ... In Vivo Monitoring of Inflammation After Cardiac and Cerebral Ischemia by Fluorine Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ulrich Flögel, ...
Neuroprotective activity of lavender oil on transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice.Dec 31, 2011. ... Diseases : Myocardial Infarction. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antioxidants, Cardioprotective, ... Diseases : Ischemia. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, Renoprotective, ... Diseases : Drug-Induced Toxicity , Myocardial Infarction. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Cardioprotective ...
Diseases : Myocardial Infarction. Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective. [+] Diosmin protects against cerebral ischemia/ ... Diseases : Myocardial Ischemia. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Apoptotic, Antioxidants, Cardioprotective, Superoxide Dismutase ... Diseases : Eye Damage, Ischemia. Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Malondialdehyde Down-regulation, Superoxide Dismutase ... Diseases : Liver Injury: Ischemia/reperfusion , Oxidative Stress. Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Gastroprotective, ...
Bernard Drive, myocardial infarction.. Longstreet, Darwin, 90, Gatewood Drive, Waterville, cerebral ischemia. ...
Myocardial ischemia, cerebral ischemia as maintaining vascular graft patency Adverse effects • Acute renal failure • Interfere ... Contra indications • Cerebral edema, neuro surgical procedures • Acute ischaemic stroke • Hypovolemic shock • Hyponatremia , ...
"HMGB1 Detection in Patients with Cerebral and Myocardial Ischemia," J. Invest. Med., 53(2): S387 (2005) (Abstract From Joint ... myocardial ischemia, organic ischemia, reperfusion ischemia, Behcets disease, graft versus host disease, Crohns disease, ... myocardial ischemia, periarteritis nodosa, and rheumatic fever); diseases involving the central or peripheral nervous system ... Tsung, A., et al., "The Nuclear Factor HMGB1 Mediates Hepatic Injury After Murine Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion," Journal of ...
myocardial infarction; mRS=. modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS=. NIH Stroke Scale; OR=. odds ratio; SBP=. systolic blood pressure; ... 130 mm Hg had cerebral ischemia. Acute cerebral ischemia was significantly associated with worse discharge NIH Stroke Scale ... Cerebral ischemia and deterioration with lower blood pressure target in intracerebral hemorrhage. Andrew B. Buletko, Tapan ... The primary outcomes were presence of acute cerebral ischemia on MRI completed within 2 weeks of ICH and acute neurologic ...
Myocardial ischemia and cerebral ischemia may then set in shortly.. In some cases, even if air replacement has been adequately ...
middle cerebral artery. MI. myocardial infarction. MERCI. Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia. mRS. modified Rankin ... The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) trial: phase I findings-TIMI Study Group. N Engl J Med 1985;312:932-36. ... Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction. Endovascular treatments, including mechanical embolectomy and intra-arterial ... For example, in Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism II, a prospective study to determine the clinical efficacy and safety ...
Neuroglobin-overexpressing transgenic mice are resistant to cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006, ... Effects of neuroglobin overexpression on acute brain injury and long-term outcomes after focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 2008, ... The Effect of Treadmill Training Pre-Exercise on Glutamate Receptor Expression in Rats after Cerebral Ischemia ... of neuroglobin-expressing adeno-associated virus vector reduced infarct size in rats after focal cerebral ischemia, with ...
Brain Ischemia (Cerebral Ischemia). 11/2015. Suppression of mitochondrial fission in experimental cerebral ischemia: The ... Myocardial Infarction 07/2015 - 09/2003. 19. Leukemia 12/2015 - 07/2004. ... The effects of exercise preconditioning on cerebral blood flow change and endothelin-1 expression after cerebral ischemia in ... Alterations in the time course of expression of the Nox family in the brain in a rat experimental cerebral ischemia and ...
Caspase-3 has been reported to be overexpressed in myocardial infarction [19]. We found caspase-3 to be excessively expressed ... Localized reduction of brain blood flow can result in cerebral ischemia, and prolonged ischemia causes brain infarction, which ... triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by middle cerebral artery ... Neuroprotective Effect of DAHP via Antiapoptosis in Cerebral Ischemia. Yanhua Qin,1 Weiming Hu,2 Yang Yang,3 Zhiying Hu,4 ...
These changes can then result in myocardial or cerebral ischaemia or malignant arrhythmias." ... myocardial infarctions), and thus they have little faith in the use of drugs after an angry outburst to lessen the possibility ... increased myocardial oxygen demand, coronary vasospasm, and increased platelet aggregability, anger can cause transient ... ischaemia, disruption of vulnerable plaques, and increased thrombotic potential. ...
2006) Elevated high-mobility group box 1 levels in patients with cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Shock. 25:571-4.CrossRef ... transplantation and ischemia (rev. in 1). HMGB1 exerts proinflammatory effects by induction of cytokine production, recruitment ...
... cerebral ischemia, cardiomegaly, phlebitis, left heart failure.. Digestive System: frequent: vomiting, anorexia; infrequent: ... Cardiovascular System: frequent: hypertension, vasodilatation; infrequent: angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, bradycardia ... history of myocardial infarction, angina, or ischemic stroke) and conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension ( ... have not been systematically evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial ...
The most common ATEs were cerebral stroke and ischemia (2%) and myocardial infarction (1%). ... Patients with significant coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction within 6 months, uncontrolled hypertension, and ...
The most common ATEs were cerebral stroke and ischemia (2%) and myocardial infarction (1%). In an exploratory analysis of study ... Patients with significant coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction within six months, uncontrolled hypertension, and ... Patients with significant coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction within 6 months, uncontrolled hypertension, and ...
Serious, sometimes fatal, ATEs including myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, and cerebral ischemia ...
AUDA also renders protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and cerebral ischemia. ...

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