The response of cells in sensing a difference in OSMOTIC PRESSURE between the inside and outside of the cell. This response includes signaling from osmotic sensors to activate transcription factors, which in turn regulate the expression of osmocompensatory genes, all functioning to maintain CELL VOLUME and the water concentration inside the cells.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Anterior midline brain, cranial, and facial malformations resulting from the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to undergo segmentation and cleavage. Alobar prosencephaly is the most severe form and features anophthalmia; cyclopia; severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY; CLEFT LIP; CLEFT PALATE; SEIZURES; and microcephaly. Semilobar holoprosencepaly is characterized by hypotelorism, microphthalmia, coloboma, nasal malformations, and variable degrees of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Lobar holoprosencephaly is associated with mild (or absent) facial malformations and intellectual abilities that range from mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY to normal. Holoprosencephaly is associated with CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.

Muscle specific fragile X related protein 1 isoforms are sequestered in the nucleus of undifferentiated myoblast. (1/1504)

BACKGROUND: The family of Fragile X Mental Retardation Proteins is composed of three members: Fragile Mental Retardation 1, Fragile X Related 1 and X Related 2 proteins. These proteins are associated with mRNPs within translating ribosomes and have the capacity to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Great attention has been given to FMRP due to its implication in human hereditary mental retardation while FXR1P and FXR2P have only recently been studied. RESULTS: Using antibodies directed against several epitopes of FXR1P, we have detected protein isoforms generated by small peptides pocket inserts. Four isoforms of MW 70, 74, 78, 80 kDa are widely distributed in mouse organs, while in striated muscles these isoforms are replaced by proteins of 82 and 84 kDa containing an extra pocket of 27 aa. Expression of these muscle isoforms is an early event during in vitro differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes and correlates with the activation of muscle-specific genes. However, while FXR1P82,84 are associated with cytoplasmic mRNPs in myotubes, they are sequestered in the nuclei of undifferentiated myoblasts. These observations suggest that, in addition to a cytoplasmic function yet to be defined, FXR1P82,84 may play a nuclear role in pre-mRNA metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of subcellular partitioning of FXR1P isoforms during myogenesis is unique among the family of the FXR proteins. The model system described here should be considered as a powerful tool for ongoing attempts to unravel structure-function relationships of the different FMR family members since the potential role(s) of FXR1P as a compensatory factor in Fragile X syndrome is still elusive.  (+info)

Nuclear genetic control of mitochondrial translation in skeletal muscle revealed in patients with mitochondrial myopathy. (2/1504)

Oxidative phosphorylation deficiencies can be caused by mutations in either the nuclear genome or the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA); however, most pathogenic mutations reported in adults occur in mtDNA. Such mutations often impair mitochondrial translation, and are associated with a characteristic muscle pathology consisting of a mosaic pattern of normal fibres interspersed with fibres that show mitochondrial proliferation (ragged-red fibres) and little or no complex IV (COX) activity. We investigated two adult patients with a severe mitochondrial myopathy in whom all muscle fibres showed mitochondrial proliferation with barely detectable COX activity - a pattern never before reported. Biochemical studies of the respiratory chain in muscle showed decreased activities of complexes I and IV (5% of control) and complex II+III (41% of control). Immunoblot analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial subunits of complexes I, III and IV showed a greater than 90% decrease in the steady-state level of these subunits in mature muscle, but no change in nuclear-encoded subunits of complexes II and V. A generalized mitochondrial translation defect was identified in pulse-label experiments in myotubes, but not in myoblasts cultured from both patients. This defect moved with the nucleus in patient cybrid cells. Myoblasts from one patient transplanted into the muscle bed of SCID mice differentiated into mature human muscle fibres that displayed a defect similar to that seen in the patient muscle. These results suggest a defect in a developmentally regulated nuclear factor important for mitochondrial translation in skeletal muscle.  (+info)

Mouse PeP: a novel peroxisomal protein linked to myoblast differentiation and development. (3/1504)

The identification of several peroxisomal proteins in the past decade has deepened our understanding of the biology of peroxisomes and their involvement in human disorders. We report the cloning and expression pattern during the mouse development of a cDNA encoding a novel protein, named PeP, and show that its product is imported specifically to the peroxisome matrix in a variety of cell types. We also demonstrate that PeP is imported to the organelle through the PEX5 receptor pathway, which indicates that the C-terminal tripeptide SKI behaves as a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). PeP expression is tightly regulated, as shown by Northern and in situ hybridization experiments. Thus during embryonic development in the mouse, PeP mRNA is detected almost exclusively in the skeletal muscle, whereas in adult mice, strong expression is also found in the heart and brain. In addition, PeP mRNA accumulation is induced after myoblast differentiation in vitro, when myotube formation is promoted. Sequence analysis reveals that PeP has no significant homology to any known protein, except for a short stretch of amino acids containing the fingerprint of the fibronectin type III superfamily, a domain present in proteins often related to molecular and cellular recognition and binding processes. Thus our data suggest a connection between the function of PeP and murine cell differentiation and development.  (+info)

The small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin negatively regulates apoptosis during myogenic differentiation by inhibiting caspase-3 activation. (4/1504)

Myoblasts respond to growth factor deprivation either by differentiating into multinucleated myotubes or by undergoing apoptosis; hence, the acquisition of apoptosis resistance by myogenic precursors is essential for their development. Here we demonstrate that the expression of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin is selectively induced in C2C12 myoblasts that are resistant to differentiation-induced apoptosis, and we show that this induction occurs at an early stage in their differentiation in vitro. In contrast, the expression of several known anti-apoptotic proteins (FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-x(L)) was not altered during myogenesis. We also demonstrate that ectopic expression of alpha B-crystallin, but not the closely related small heat shock protein Hsp27, renders C2C12 myoblasts resistant to differentiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that the myopathy-causing R120G alpha B-crystallin mutant is partly impaired in its cytoprotective function, whereas a pseudophosphorylation alpha B-crystallin mutant that mimics stress-induced phosphorylation is completely devoid of anti-apoptotic activity. Finally, we demonstrate that alpha B-crystallin negatively regulates apoptosis during myogenesis by inhibiting the proteolytic activation of caspase-3, whereas the R120G and pseudophosphorylation mutants are defective in this function. Taken together, our findings indicate that alpha B-crystallin is a novel negative regulator of myogenic apoptosis that directly links the differentiation program to apoptosis resistance.  (+info)

Effect of insulin-like growth factor II on protecting myoblast cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis through p70 S6 kinase pathway. (5/1504)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and has both mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity. Although the mechanisms of IGF-II-induced proliferation have been well studied, the mechanisms underlying its survival signaling have been less well characterized. In this report, we investigated the role of IGF-II on cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We found that IGF-II overexpression was associated with an increase in p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70 S6K). Cisplatin treatment of C2C12 mouse myoblasts led to cell death associated with an inhibition of p70 S6K activity. Endogenous or exogenous IGF-II addition to C2C12 cells caused protection to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This protection was associated in both cases with an increase in p70 S6K basal activity as well as resistance to cisplatin-induced decreased activity. Blockade of p70 S6K activation by rapamycin abrogated the IGF-II-mediated protection of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of IGF-II-overexpressing Rh30 and CTR rhabdomyosarcoma cells with rapamycin restored sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. These data together suggest that IGF-II-associated protection to cisplatin-induced apoptosis is mediated through an activation of the p70 S6K pathway. Thus, inhibition of the p70 S6 pathway may enhance chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in the treatment of IGF-II-overexpressing tumors.  (+info)

Delivery of erythropoietin by encapsulated myoblasts in a genetic model of severe anemia. (6/1504)

BACKGROUND: Existing animal models of anemia inadequately reflect the hematocrit usually present in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients and do not permit long-term treatment studies. The transgenic mouse strain 134.3LC (Epo-TAg(H)) displays a severe chronic anemia resembling that observed clinically during CRF, while displaying an active, normal life span. This phenotype makes it a particularly interesting mouse model for testing erythropoietin (Epo)-based gene transfer strategies. METHODS: Ex vivo gene therapy was employed to administer mouse Epo to homozygous anemic Epo-TAg(H) mice. Encapsulated C(2)C(12) myoblasts genetically engineered to secrete 163 IU mouse Epo/10(6) cells/day were subcutaneously transplanted on the dorsal flank of the mice. Efficacy of delivered Epo was monitored by weekly measurements of animal hematocrit. RESULTS: Most treated homozygous Epo-TAg(H) mice displayed only a transient rise in hematocrit before eventually decreasing to levels as low as 3%. Administering the immunosuppressor anti-CD4+ monoclonal antibody (mAb) to homozygous Epo-TAg(H) mice, beginning at the time of implantation, permitted a rise in hematocrit that remained stable at elevated levels in cases of continued immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Mice having the T antigen insertion in both Epo alleles appeared to develop an immune response to the natural mouse Epo delivered by encapsulated cells. By preventing this reaction using immunosuppression, we demonstrate that encapsulated myoblasts can deliver therapeutic doses of mouse Epo systemically and restore hemopoiesis in a genetic model of severe anemia.  (+info)

Two mammalian UNC-45 isoforms are related to distinct cytoskeletal and muscle-specific functions. (7/1504)

Previous studies have shown that the UNC-45 protein of C. elegans is required for normal thick filament assembly, binds Hsp90 and the myosin head, and shows molecular chaperone activity. We report here that mice and humans each have two genes that are located on different chromosomes, encode distinct UNC-45-like protein isoforms, and are expressed either in multiple tissues or only in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Their expression is regulated during muscle differentiation in vitro, with the striated muscle isoform mRNA appearing during myoblast fusion. Antisense experiments in C2C12 skeletal myogenic cells demonstrate that decreasing the general cell isoform mRNA reduces proliferation and fusion, while decreasing the striated muscle isoform mRNA affects fusion and sarcomere organization. These results suggest that the general cell UNC-45 isoform may have primarily cytoskeletal functions and that the striated muscle UNC-45 isoform may be restricted to roles in muscle-specific differentiation.  (+info)

The LIM-only protein FHL2 interacts with beta-catenin and promotes differentiation of mouse myoblasts. (8/1504)

FHL2 is a LIM-domain protein expressed in myoblasts but down-regulated in malignant rhabdomyosarcoma cells, suggesting an important role of FHL2 in muscle development. To investigate the importance of FHL2 during myoblast differentiation, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using a cDNA library derived from myoblasts induced for differentiation. We identified beta-catenin as a novel interaction partner of FHL2 and confirmed the specificity of association by direct in vitro binding tests and coimmunoprecipitation assays from cell lysates. Deletion analysis of both proteins revealed that the NH2-terminal part of beta-catenin is sufficient for binding in yeast, but addition of the first armadillo repeat is necessary for binding FHL2 in mammalian cells, whereas the presence of all four LIM domains of FHL2 is needed for the interaction. Expression of FHL2 counteracts beta-catenin-mediated activation of a TCF/LEF-dependent reporter gene in a dose-dependent and muscle cell-specific manner. After injection into Xenopus embryos, FHL2 inhibited the beta-catenin-induced axis duplication. C2C12 mouse myoblasts stably expressing FHL2 show increased myogenic differentiation reflected by accelerated myotube formation and expression of muscle-specific proteins. These data imply that FHL2 is a muscle-specific repressor of LEF/TCF target genes and promotes myogenic differentiation by interacting with beta-catenin.  (+info)

Skeletal muscle formation depends on the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Myoblast fusion is also the basis of muscle growth and repair during postnatal life. The ability of myoblasts to fuse and thereby inject their nucleus into existing muscle fibers led to several preclinical and clinical trials aimed at treating both muscle and non-muscle-related disorders. Identifying the pattern of events that induce myoblast differentiation and their commitment to fuse would benefit the search for improving myoblast-based therapies.. Using primary myoblast cultures derived from single human satellite cells (Baroffio et al., 1993), we have previously shown that membrane potential and the biophysical properties of specific ionic channels are important actors in the fusion process. We found that human myoblasts hyperpolarize before fusion through the sequential expression of two different K+ channels, ether-à-go-go (EAG) K+ channels (Bijlenga et al., 1998; Occhiodoro et al., ...
Using gene KO experiments, we uncovered the crucial function of MymX, MymK, and MRF regulators during human myoblast differentiation and fusion. With these unique gene KO reagents, we also carefully compared the fusogenic activities of human and mouse MymX/MymK orthologs. Contrary to a protein homology-assisted prediction, human MymK, instead of MymX, showed higher activities compared with their mouse orthologs. Even in the absence of MymX, MymK protein can induce low-level myoblast fusion in a dosage-dependent manner. Future endeavors are needed to study the biochemical basis underlying the functional gain of human MymK protein.. MymX and MymK expression ought to be tightly controlled for proper multinucleations of myoblasts in coordination with differentiation program. Our functional studies of MyoD, MyoG, and other MRFs highlight the distinct contributions of these factors in governing human myoblast fusion. Specifically, MyoD is essential and sufficient to transactivate the fusion program. ...
I am working on primary myoblast culture and differentiation but now I have some problems. One of my big problems is that after thawing the isolated myoblast (from legs of neonatal mice), the morphology and the growth rate of the cells change extremely. So I can not control the cells after thawing. If you have had this kind of experiments, could you give me some advices ...
Myoblast implantation is a unique, patented technology of muscle regeneration being tested in Phase III clinical trials of muscular dystrophy, ischemic cardiomyopathy, Phase II trial of cancer, and Phase I trial of Type II diabetes. Differentiated and committed, myoblasts are not stem cells. Implanted myoblasts fuse spontaneously among themselves, replenishing genetically normal myofibers. They also fuse with genetically abnormal myofibers of muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, or Type II diabetes, transferring their nuclei containing the normal human genome to provide stable, long-term expression of the missing gene products. They develop to become cardiomyocytes in the infracted myocardium. Myoblasts transduced with VEGF165 allow concomitant regeneration of blood capillaries and myofibers. They are potent biologics for treating heart failure, ischemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic ischemia, erectile dysfunction, and baldness. Myoblasts, because of their small size, spindle shape, and
Аннотация доклада: INTRODUCTION: IGF1 plays an important role in the regulation of connective tissue, bone and muscle homeostasis in adults. Experiments in rodents demonstrated that leucine (Leu) intake increases the systemic IGF1 level (Teodoro et al., 2012; Pedrosa et al., 2013; Pedroso et al., 2014). Studies in HeLa, HEK293T and COS7 cells revealed an obligate two-step mechanism of mTORC1 regulation: pre-activation (priming) by arginine (Arg) and then activation by Leu (Dyachok et al., 2016). The aim of our research was to investigate effect of Leu on expression of IGF1 and IGF-1-dependent genes in human myoblasts. We have assumed that Leu may regulate the gene expression in human myotubes, and this effect may be improved by pre-activation with Arg. METHODS: After starvation (1 h), myotubes were incubated with Arg (0,4 mM, 30 min), or Leu (0,8 mM, 30 min), or Arg and then Leu. The 4E-BP1Thr37/46 and S6K1Thr389 phosphorylation (targets of mTORC1) was evaluated by Western blot. ...
Myoblast migration is an essential step during muscle embryogenesis and muscle regeneration. Yet, it still represents one bottle-neck in myoblast transplant therapy, an alternative for the treatment of muscular dystrophies, which has given variable clinical benefits for patients depending on the disease [45, 54]. The movement to reach another myoblast or a damaged fiber, to fuse or to regenerate muscle, including potential association of activated and/or proliferating satellite cells creating oriented doublets which can have an influence on their fate, as suggested by Siegel et al. [55], occurs in the context of an extracellular milieu rich in soluble factors and ECM proteins [6, 7]. The role of Eph/ephrin in this context has been suggested by Stark et al. [56], as well as that of CD34 since CD34 defective murine satellite cells display a decreased motility [57]. HGF is also involved in the migration of different cell types, including myoblasts [36, 58-60]. This molecule acts via the specific ...
The p38 MAPK has emerged in the last years as a fundamental pathway in myogenesis. This conclusion has relied largely on studies performed in immortalized myogenic cell lines, by using pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors such as SB203580, which are inhibitors of both p38α and p38β kinases, and by overexpressing constitutively active and kinase‐dead forms of components of the signaling pathway. Thus, the relative contribution of the four p38 MAPKs to myogenesis is unknown. In addition, no in vivo studies beyond the embryonic stages have been performed. Here, we demonstrate that p38 kinases play distinct roles in myogenesis, p38α being the crucial kinase. Myoblasts obtained from mice lacking p38α showed delayed cell‐cycle exit and continued proliferation, as well as impaired myoblast differentiation and fusion. Moreover, skeletal muscle from neonatal mice deficient in p38α displayed increased myoblast proliferation, reduced myofiber growth and delayed maturation. In contrast, lack of the p38β ...
Jamb and Jamc are an essential cell surface receptor pair that interact to drive fusion between muscle precursor cells during zebrafish development.
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In this application note, GFP labelled actin and β-actin fluorescence in situ hybridiation (FISH) images were taken at specific wavelengths with a CoolSNAPHQ camera to show expression of actin in mouse myoblast cells. In addition, individual chromosomes are viewed in metaphase using triple-wavelength fluorescence illumination and detection. FISH image are taken with a CoolSNAPcf camera.
Androgens have anabolic actions in skeletal muscle and could potentially act to: (a) increase proliferation of myoblasts; (b) delay differentiation to myotubes; and (c) induce protein accretion in pos
In our studies, we explored a model of myoblasts, i.e. activated satellite cells that are located on the surface of myofiber. At the time of muscle injury, these cell are activated, undergoing the changes supervised by transcription factors (Myf5, MyoD) when myoblasts multiply and transform into myotube by myogenin and then as the muscle fiber (Mrf4). We have performed two clinical trials of I/II phase studying the role of myoblasts in regeneration of post-infarction heart. Each trial contained 10 patients. The first attempt included delivery of autologous myoblasts directly to myocardium at the opportunity of bypass surgery (CABG) on the open heart. Myoblasts were then implanted to post-infarction scar. We have obtained the improvement of basic hemodynamic heart parameter, which is ejection fraction (EF) in the all studied patients, however, it was impossible to say which factor was primarily responsible for the observed improvement - CABG or myoblast delivery, and in which proportion? We ...
W3Techs compares the usage and its trend of Capillary and Geeklog and Enterprise Feedback Suite and fCMS and Public CMS on websites
Rapsyn, a scaffold protein, is required for the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at contacts between motor neurons and differentiating muscle cells. between rapsyn, lysosome positioning, exocytosis and plasma membrane integrity. myoblasts, lysosomes in myoblasts [29828?m2, means.e.m., (0.0340.004, means.e.m., myoblasts (mean velocity is 0.15?m/s, see Movie 4) compared to C2C12 myoblasts (Movie 2). Fig. 7. …Read More. ...
Plays a role in myoblast fusion; probable mediator of endocytic recycling for membrane trafficking events during myotube formation.
Axleboxes are the link between the rotating wheelset and the quasi-static frame of the bogie or running gear of a railway vehicle. Axleboxes and axlebox bearings/units have always been a vital component in the reliability and safety of railway rolling stock ...
Effects of Three-dimensional Culture Conditions on Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts\r\n\r\nPublication No._____________\r\n\r\n\r\nMichele Lynn Marquette, Ph.D.\r\nThe University of Texas Medical Branch, 2007\r\n\r\nSupervisor: Marguerite A. Sognier\r\n\r\nThe objectives of this research were to: 1) develop a three-dimensional in vitro model; and 2) subsequently, utilize this model to investigate mechanisms of myoblast adhesion, fusion, and differentiation. C2C12 cells were examined as pre-aggregated single cells and multicellular aggregates in the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS). At the time intervals tested, RCCS cultured cells maintained viability and did not exhibit increased apoptosis markers such as Caspase 3 (activated) and phosphatydylserine. In contrast, increases in cell death and apoptotic markers were noted in suspension culture (SC) control cells. RCCS cultured cells fused to form multinucleated syncitia and expressed sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MHC) in significantly higher levels ...
Cell transplantation therapy is emerging as a promising mode of treatment following myocardial infarction. Of the various cell types that can potentially be used for transplantation, autologous skeletal myoblasts appear particularly attractive, because this would avoid issues of immunogenicity, tumorigenesis, ethics and donor availability. Additionally, skeletal myoblasts display much higher levels of ischemic tolerance and graft survival compared to other cell types. There is some evidence for improvement in heart function with skeletal myoblast transplantation. However, histological analysis revealed that transplanted myoblasts do not transdifferentiate into functional cardiomyocytes in situ. This is evident by the lack of expression of cardiac-specific antigens, and the absence of intercalated disc formation. Instead, there is differentiation into myotubes that are not electromechanically coupled to neighboring cardiomyocytes. This could in turn limit the clinical efficacy of treatment. This ...
Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Temporal and spatial appearance of α-dystroglycan in differentiated mouse myoblasts in culture. AU - Kostrominova, Tatiana. AU - Tanzer, M. L.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex plays an important role in muscle function. One of the components of the complex, a 156-kDa cell surface glycoprotein (α-dystroglycan) binds to laminin, thereby connecting the basal lamina and muscle cells. We have examined the progressive appearance of α- dystroglycan and laminin in muscle cells that differentiate in culture. We find that nondifferentiated cultures of C2C12 myoblasts express low amounts of dystroglycan mRNA and, in contrast, this gene is prominently expressed in differentiated myotubes. Immunofluorescence analysis with a monoclonal antibody against α-dystroglycan shows its progressive appearance during myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody against laminin shows that it is not present on the surface of ...
In vertebrates, all skeletal muscles of trunk and limbs originate from somites, which are formed sequentially in a rostral-caudal direction through segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm during embryogenesis (Buckingham et al., 2003). In response to signals from the neural tube, notochord, and ectoderm, somites further differentiate into ventral-medially positioned sclerotome and dorsally located dermatome with the muscle-forming myotome sandwiched in between (Buckingham et al., 2003). In myotome, the muscle precursor cells establish their myogenic fate to form proliferating myoblasts by selectively expressing one or a few myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). Under appropriate conditions, the myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle to differentiate into mononucleated myocytes, which, in turn, align with each other and fuse to form multinucleated myotubes or myofibers.. Muscle stem cells, which are also called muscle satellite cells (MSCs), start to form at the late stage of vertebrate embryo ...
The CC genotype of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism TaqI rs731236 has previously been associated with a higher risk of developing myopathy compared to TT carriers. However, the mechanistic role of this polymorphism in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The effects of vitamin D on patients genotyped for the VDR polymorphism TaqI rs731236, comparing CC and TT carriers were evaluated. Primary human myoblasts isolated from 4 CC carriers were compared with myoblasts isolated from four TT carriers and treated with vitamin D in vitro. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect on myoblast proliferation and differentiation was observed concurrent with modifications of key myogenic regulatory factors. RNA sequencing revealed a vitamin D dose-response gene signature enriched with a higher number of VDR-responsive elements (VDREs) per gene. Interestingly, the greater the expression of muscle differentiation markers in myoblasts, the more pronounced was the vitamin D-mediated response to suppress genes ...
The differentiation of chick embryonic skeletal myoblasts results in the formation of myotubes which are the precursors of muscle fibres. The fusion of mononucleated myoblasts represents an apparent switching point in differentiation since it results in both the formation of multinucleated myotubes and the stimulation of muscle specific protein synthesis. The aim of this project has been to examine the biochemical events involved in this process of terminal differentiation by using primary cultures of chick embryonic myoblasts as a model system.. ...
The objective of this study is to determine if exuberant sympathetic nerve activity is involved in muscle satellite cell differentiation and myoblast fusion. By using immunoassaying and western blot analyses, we found that β1 and β2-adrenergic receptors (AdR) were expressed in C2C12 cells. The differentiated satellite cells exhibited an increased expression of β2-AdR, as compared with the proliferating cells. Continuous exposure of isoprenaline (ISO), a β-AdR agonist, delayed C2C12 cell differentiation, and myoblast fusion in time- and dose-dependent manner. ISO also increased short myotube numbers while decreasing long myotube numbers, consistent with the greater reduction in MyHC1, MyHC2a, and MyHC2x expression. Moreover, continuous exposure of ISO gradually decreased the ratio of PKA RI/RII, and PKA RI activator efficiently reversed the ISO effect on C2C12 cell differentiation and myoblast fusion while PKA inhibitor H-89 deteriorated the effects. Continuous single-dose ISO increased β1-AdR
Myogenesis is the formation of muscular tissue, particularly during embryonic development. Muscle fibers generally form the fusion of myoblasts into multi-nucleated fibers called myotubes. In the early development of an embryo, myoblasts can either proliferate, or differentiate into a myotube. What controls this choice in vivo is generally unclear. If placed in cell culture, most myoblasts will proliferate if enough fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or another growth factor is present in the medium surrounding the cells. When the growth factor runs out, the myoblasts cease division and undergo terminal differentiation into myotubes. Myoblast differentiation proceeds in stages. The first stage, involves cell cycle exit and the commencement of expression of certain genes. The second stage of differentiation involves the alignment of the myoblasts with one another. Studies have shown that even rat and chick myoblasts can recognise and align with one another, suggesting evolutionary conservation of the ...
Next, rapamycin (mTOR-specific inhibitor) was used to block mTOR [32], which is a downstream molecule in PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling [33]. Rapamycin has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of many cell lines [34,35]. Additionally, it was reported that rapamycin can inhibit the induction process of muscle hypertrophy [36], suggesting that mTOR plays an essential role in regulating muscle development. Our results showed that inhibiting mTOR with rapamycin in duck myoblasts led to a reduction in their capability for proliferation. Rapamycin can significantly reduce the expression of mTOR, S6K, MSTN, ACVR2 and increase the expression of FoxO1, MuRF1, without any influence on upstream regulators, including PI3K and Akt. These results indicate that in duck myoblasts, rapamycin could modulate the level of mTOR expression. This finding is consistent with previous researches, which demonstrated that rapamycin could inhibit the protein expression of mTOR and phospho-mTOR (serine 2448) in human primary ...
Myogenic differentiation proceeds through a highly coordinated cascade of gene activation that necessitates epigenomic changes in chromatin structure. Using a screen of small molecule epigenetic probes we identified three compounds which inhibited myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts; (+)-JQ1, PFI-1, and Bromosporine. These molecules target Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (BET) proteins, which are epigenetic readers of acetylated histone lysine tail residues. BETi-mediated anti-myogenic effects were also observed in a model of MYOD1-mediated myogenic conversion of human fibroblasts, and in primary mouse and human myoblasts. All three BET proteins BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 exhibited distinct and dynamic patterns of protein expression over the course of differentiation without concomitant changes in mRNA levels, suggesting that BET proteins are regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Specific BET protein knockdown by RNA interference revealed that BRD4 was required for myogenic differentiation
Analysis of MM14 mouse myoblasts demonstrates that terminal differentiation is repressed by pure preparations of both acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Basic FGF is approximately 30-fold more potent than acidic FGF and it exhibits half maximal activity in clonal assays at 0.03 ng/ml (2 pM). FGF repression occurs only during the G1 phase of the cell cycle by a mechanism that appears to be independent of ongoing cell proliferation. When exponentially growing myoblasts are deprived of FGF, cells become postmitotic within 2-3 h, express muscle-specific proteins within 6-7 h, and commence fusion within 12-14 h. Although expression of these three terminal differentiation phenotypes occurs at different times, all are initiated by a single regulatory commitment event in G1. The entire population commits to terminal differentiation within 12.5 h of FGF removal as all cells complete the cell cycle and move into G1. Differentiation does not require a new round of DNA synthesis. Comparison ...
Moreover, little is well known about the precise function of syndecan-4 in mammalian myoblast migration. Syndecan-4 was proven to have an effect on migration in a variety of cell types previously, including fibroblasts (Bass et al., 2007), endothelial cells (Chaudhuri et al., 2005), and hepatic stellate cells (Yin et al., 2017). syndecan-4 in cell polarity….. Read More Moreover, little is well known about the precise function of syndecan-4 in mammalian myoblast migration ». ...
To evaluate the apoptotic propensity to high and low cell densities, C2C12 myoblasts were seeded in six-well plates at either 2.0×103/cm2 to obtain a low density (~20-30% confluent) or 2.1×104/cm2 to reach a high cell density (~100% confluent) within 48 hours. The phase-contrast images in the top panel of Fig. 1A show typical morphology of C2C12 myoblasts at low or high cell densities. The protein abundance of cleaved caspase-3 and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was markedly increased in fully confluent cells when compared with cells that were plated at a low density (Fig. 1, middle panel). The cleavage of PARP by caspases leads to nuclear DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, a cell-death ELISA assay showed an elevation of cytosolic nucleosomes at full cell confluence (Fig. 1A, bottom panel). This provided additional evidence for an increase in apoptotic DNA fragmentation in confluent cells compared with non-confluent cells. We next explored the expression pattern and level of M-cadherin at ...
Some myoblasts cell nuclei from the AD-EDMD patient 99-3 are negative for antibodies to lamin A/C. Immunolabelling of myoblasts cells with mutation LMNA R377H (
The 11th Conference on Health Care of the Chinese in North AmericaDinner GalaConference Proceedings Host:The Chinese Hospital Medical StaffDate:May 25 - May 26, 2002 (Saturday/Sunday)Lo
One of the main aims of ChIP‐based studies is to identify functionally direct target genes of a TF, to gain insights into its biology and the downstream pathways that it activates. These approaches have been applied successfully to several important areas of biology, including: the contribution of octamer‐binding protein 4 (OCT4), SRY box‐containing gene 2 (SOX2) and NANOG to pluripotency in embryonic stem cells; myoblast differentiation focusing on myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), myogenin and myocyte‐enhancer factor 2 (MEF2); and epigenetic marks (Blais et al, 2005; Boyer et al, 2005; Fischer et al, 2008). Epigenetic data are useful as an additional tier of analysis to correlate TF binding with transcriptional activation, as there is often no robust way of predicting this process based on TF‐binding profiles alone. Nonetheless, the complexity of these data makes network analysis a huge challenge. Many TFs drive the expression of others, which complicates the integration of ...
DNA methylation analysis of human myoblasts during in vitro myogenic differentiation: de novo methylation of promoters of muscle-related genes and its involvement in transcriptional down- ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Scleraxis messenger ribonucleic acid is expressed in C2C12 myoblasts and its level is down-regulated by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
When the team added NO to cells but blocked production of cGMP, a known mediator of NO signaling, fusion was inhibited in a cGMP-reversible manner. Significantly, prolonged exposure of the myoblasts to a nonhydrolysable analogue of cGMP induced the formation of abnormally large muscle fibers in culture. A similar effect was not observed with extended exposure to an NO donor. ...
Anti-Pax7 reactivity was found in the majority of satellite cells but a small population was Pax7 negative. Neither could we identify Pax7-positive nuclei in freshly regenerating myotubes or in presumed myoblasts in these biopsies. Similarly, in myogenic cell cultures derived from the explantation of human foetal muscle Pax7 expression was low or undetectable at the proliferative myoblast stage but it became prominent in an increasing proportion of mononucleate cells after the induction of differentiation. Despite this, in the biopsy samples, we occasionally found Pax7-positive nuclei in muscle fibres that seemed to be undergoing degenerative changes. Most of these were found to be the nuclei of cells engaged in focal regenerative processes, but Pax7 re-expression by myonuclei in distress cannot be ruled out entirely. PMID: 14648195 ...
FUNCTION: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ferlin family of proteins, which have been implicated in fusion events in muscle tissue. Members of this family have a carboxy-terminal single pass transmembrane domain and multiple C2 domains, which bind negatively charged phospholipids in the presence of calcium ions. This gene is expressed at high levels in myoblasts and upregulated in damaged skeletal muscle. Mice deficient in this protein display defects in myoblast fusion, muscle regeneration, and angiogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014 ...
Online Cover This week features a Research Article that suggests that the noncanonical NF-κB pathway promotes the fusion of myoblasts into multinuclear myotubes during muscle generation. In mice, loss of cIAP1, an inhibitor of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, resulted in enhanced fusion of myoblasts compared to that in wild-type mice. The image shows a primary myotube from a mouse deficient in cIAP1, with the myotube stained in red and the nuclei in green. [Image: Emeka Enwere, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Canada] ...
J:113423 Martinez-Fernandez S, Hernandez-Torres F, Franco D, Lyons GE, Navarro F, Aranega AE, Pitx2c overexpression promotes cell proliferation and arrests differentiation in myoblasts. Dev Dyn. 2006 Nov;235(11):2930-9 ...
Harrelson plays a middle-aged loner curmudgeon in a comedy based on a graphic novel by Daniel Clowes, the creator of Ghost World.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of diseases that result in progressive muscle weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive form of MD that results from the absence of the protein dystrophin. As a result, muscle fibre membranes are damaged upon contraction to the extent that the natural regenerative properties of muscle, normally provided by primary myoblasts, are exhausted. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role that primary myoblasts play in muscle inflammation that is observed in DMD patients. Primary myoblasts were isolated from the new murine model of DMD, D2.B10-Dmdmdx (DBA/mdx), and a purification procedure was standardized based on the adherence properties of primary myoblasts. Cultures were treated with five inflammatory stimulating treatments: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 agonist, TLR-8 agonist and TLR-9 agonist. Cultures were also treated with a commercially available inflammatory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drosophila Myoblast Fusion. T2 - Invasion and Resistance for the Ultimate Union. AU - Lee, Donghoon M.. AU - Chen, Elizabeth H.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants R01 AR053173 and R01 GM098816, an American Heart Association Established Investigator Award, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Faculty Scholar Award to E.H.C. D.M.L. is supported by a Canadian Institute of Health Research postdoctoral fellowship. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 Annual Reviews Inc.. All rights reserved.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Cell-cell fusion is indispensable for creating life and building syncytial tissues and organs. Ever since the discovery of cell-cell fusion, how cells join together to form zygotes and multinucleated syncytia has remained a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. In the past two decades, Drosophila myoblast fusion has been used as a powerful genetic model to unravel mechanisms underlying cell-cell ...
Myoblast fusion in has turned into a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. intermediates and specific membrane events at sites of fusion. With this chapter we describe standard chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods for visualizing fusion intermediates during myoblast fusion. Furthermore we describe an immunoelectron microscopic method for localizing specific proteins relative Omecamtiv mecarbil to the fusion apparatus. is definitely functionally equivalent to vertebrate skeletal muscle mass yet the take flight musculature is much simpler and requires only a short time to develop (1). These features together with the great genetic tools available for embryo happens between two types of muscle mass cells: muscle mass founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (2 3 Muscle mass founder cells determine the position orientation and size of the future muscle mass materials whereas fusion-competent myoblasts migrate ...
There is compelling experimental evidence to show that transplantation of skeletal myoblasts (SMBs) improves the function of failing hearts via paracrine effects. However, clinical application of this strategy has been curtailed due to arrhythmia occurrence and inconsistent outcomes observed in previous clinical trials of intramyocardial (IM) injection of SMBs. Severe inflammation and resultant global reduction of connexin43 have been reported to be causes of the arrhythmogenicity. Recent developments in bioengineering technology enabled production of cell sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes, which allows retrieval of cells without enzymatic dissociation-related damages. We hypothesized that epicardial attachment of cell sheets would enhance retention, survival, and maintenance of functions of donor SMBs in the heart, with less myocardial injury, and therefore overcome the drawbacks of IM injection.. Methods & Results: After left coronary artery ligation in female Lewis rats, ...
HSPGs play critical roles in regulating growth factor signaling pathways via a variety of mechanisms, including coreceptor functions, ligand sequestration, morphogenetic boundary regulation, and stem cell fate determination (Rapraeger et al., 1991; Lander, 1998; Muñoz et al., 2006; Dombrowski et al., 2009). Syndecan-3, a transmembrane HSPG expressed in adult SCs, has been previously described as playing a role in adult myogenesis (Fuentealba et al., 1999; Cornelison et al., 2001; Cornelison et al., 2004), but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. An in-depth characterization of sdc3−/− phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, combined with an unbiased analysis of gene expression and signaling, have allowed us to further explore the mechanisms involved in Syndecan-3-mediated regulation of adult myogenesis.. To identify signaling pathways contributing to the sdc3−/− phenotype, we performed a global gene expression analysis comparing wild-type and sdc3−/− SCs in uninjured muscle ...
The second day the conference focused on newer aspects of treatment for heart failure. Philippe Menasche (Paris) described the results of skeletal myoblast transfer in man. Based upon previous studies in animals, they had been able to optimise cell survival of thigh muscle myoblasts grown in culture. After 16 days culture a suspension containing 150 × 106 cells/ml is injected into scar tissue at the time of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Although some 90% of these cells die early after transplantation, those that survive remain committed to skeletal muscle form, but are resistant to ischaemia. To date, there is no evidence that skeletal myoblast transplantation leads to the formation of connexin 43 junctions, but arrhythmias remain a potential complication. Nevertheless, initial results in eight patients have shown evidence of improved cardiac function. A trial is proposed which will compare CABG grafting and injection of medium with CABG surgery and transplanted cells in 70-75 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutathione-peroxidase-1 null muscle progenitor cells are globally defective. AU - Lee, Sukkyoo. AU - Shin, H. Stella. AU - Shireman, Paula K.. AU - Vasilaki, Aphrodite. AU - Van Remmen, Holly. AU - Csete, Marie E.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Mice lacking glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1) have decreased resistance to systemically administered oxidants as well as infections, and sustain increased damage after ischemia-reperfusion injuries. However, stem or progenitor cell function in these animals has not been studied. We characterized patterns of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of primary muscle progenitor cells (myoblasts) from Gpx1-/- mice. Myoblasts are the transit amplifying compartment of skeletal muscle. All aspects of myoblast biology are negatively affected by deletion of Gpx1. In particular, passaged, proliferating Gpx1-/- myoblasts, when induced to differentiate into fused multinucleated myotubes, show significant impairment, and form only a few ...
Transcription factor that binds to DNA at the 5-AACAATG-3 consensus sequence (By similarity). Acts as a transcriptional activator and repressor (By similarity). Binds synergistically with POU5F1 (OCT3/4) to gene promoters (By similarity). Binds to the FOXK1 promoter and recruits FHL3, resulting in transcriptional activation of FOXK1 which leads to myoblast proliferation (By similarity). Acts as an inhibitor of myoblast differentiation via transcriptional repression which leads to down-regulation of the muscle-specific genes MYOD and MYOG (By similarity). Involved in trophoblast giant cell differentiation via enhancement of HAND1 transcriptional activity (By similarity). Regulates transcription of HRC via binding to it proximal enhancer region (By similarity). Involved in skeletal muscle regeneration (By similarity). Also plays a role in the development of myogenic precursor cells (By similarity).
Ye, L., Esa, W.B., Haider, H.Kh., Law, P.K., Zhang, W., Su, L., Zhang, Y., Sim, E.K.W. (2007). Nonviral vector-based gene transfection of primary human skeletal myoblasts. Experimental Biology and Medicine 232 (11) : 1477-1487. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.3181/0706-RM- ...
Data Availability StatementAll components and data can be accessible on demand. avoid artefactual results caused by pre-senescent adjustments. Since these cells ought to be researched within a firmly controlled pre-senescent division count ( 21 divisions), and yields of myoblasts per muscle biopsy are low, it is difficult or impossible to amplify sufficiently large cell numbers (some 250 106 myoblasts) to obtain sufficient conditioned medium for the standard ultracentrifugation approach to exosome isolation. Thus, an optimized strategy to extract and study secretory muscle vesicles is needed. In this study, conditions are optimized for the in vitro cultivation of human myoblasts, and the quality and yield of exosomes extracted using an ultracentrifugation protocol are compared with a modified polymer-based precipitation strategy combined with extra washing steps. Both vesicle extraction methods successfully enriched exosomes, as vesicles were positive for CD63, CD82, CD81, floated at identical ...
Objective: Owing to the public availability of complete genome sequences, including avian species, massive bioinformatics analyses may be conducted for computational gene prediction and the identification of gene regulatory networks through various informatics tools. However, to evaluate the biofunctional activity of a predicted target gene, in vivo and in vitro functional genomic analyses should be a prerequisite. Methods: Due to a lack of quail genomic sequence information, we first identified the partial genomic structure and sequences of the quail SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 (SH3RF2) gene. Subsequently, SH3RF2 was knocked out using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology and single cell-derived SH3RF2 mutant sublines were established to study the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in quail myoblast (QM7) cells during muscle differentiation. Results: Through a T7 endonuclease I assay and genotyping analysis, we established an SH3RF2 knockout (KO) QM7#4
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 00 948 918.8 with the title Muscle cells and their use in cardiac repair filed as a International application PCT/US 00/20129 was published under No. WO 01/07568. It was refused by the examining division in a decision dated 15 September 2006.. II. The decision of the examining division was taken on the basis of a main request and seven auxiliary requests which were all found to lack of novelty.. Claim 1 of said main request read as follows:. 1. A transplantable composition comprising isolated adult skeletal myoblast cells and isolated fibroblast cells, wherein the composition comprises from 20 to 70% skeletal myoblast cells. (see decision of the examining division, section X). The examining division observed, in particular, that document (4) on file (infra) described a composition of skeletal myoblast and fibroblast cells which were adult cells since the donor was identified as the subject of myocardial treatment. The ...
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma and outcomes have stagnated, highlighting a need for novel therapies. Genomic analysis of RMS has revealed that alterations in the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/RAS/PI3K axis are common and that FGFR4 is frequently mutated or overexpressed. Although FGFR4 is a potentially druggable receptor tyrosine kinase, its functions in RMS are undefined. This study tested FGFR4-activating mutations and overexpression for the ability to generate RMS in mice. Murine tumor models were subsequently used to discover potential therapeutic targets and to test a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor in a preclinical setting. Specifically, we provide the first mechanistic evidence of differential potency in the most common human RMS mutations, V550E or N535K, compared to FGFR4wtoverexpression as murine myoblasts expressing FGFR4V550Eundergo higher rates of cellular transformation, engraftment into mice, and rapidly form sarcomas that highly resemble human ...
Video articles in JoVE about syndecan 3 include Isolation, Culture, and Transplantation of Muscle Satellite Cells, Preparation and Culture of Myogenic Precursor Cells/Primary Myoblasts from Skeletal Muscle of Adult and Aged Humans, Minimally Invasive Muscle Embedding (MIME) - A Novel Experimental Technique to Facilitate Donor-Cell-Mediated Myogenesis.
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In HAECs, the molecular diversity of Kir2 subunits at the transcript level is higher than the diversity of functional Kir. While for Kir2.3 this discrepancy could be explained by undetectable levels of protein expression due to very low transcription, the transcript level of Kir2.4 is similar to that of Kir2.1, suggesting that Kir2.4 functional expression is regulated at a posttranscriptional level. A discrepancy between the heterogeneity of K+ channels at the transcript and functional levels was reported previously for Kir2.x channels in human myoblasts (8) and for voltage-gated K+ channels in rat cardiomyocytes (2, 49), and it has been proposed that translational-posttranslational steps may contribute a rate-limiting step to channel expression (38). Protein expression of Kir2.x subunits in HAECs is consistent with the functional expression of the channels.. The peak IK unitary conductance levels in HAECs (25 and 35 pS) are similar to previously reported values in human umbilical vein ...
The fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes is a crucial step of muscle growth during development and of muscle repair in the adult. While multiple genes were shown to play a role in this process, a vertebrate model where novel candidates can be tested and analyzed at high throughput and relative ease has been lacking. Here, we show that the early chicken embryo is a fast and robust model in which functional testing of muscle fusion candidate genes can be performed. We have used known modulators of muscle fusion, Rac1 and Cdc42, along with the in vivo electroporation of integrated, inducible vectors, to show that the chicken embryo is a suitable model in which their function can be tested and quantified ...
Foxo-1, a member of the Foxo forkhead type transcription factors, is markedly upregulated in skeletal muscle in energy-deprived states such as fasting, cancer and severe diabetes. In this study, we target the Foxo-1 mRNA in a mouse skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 ...
Compositions and methods of treating mammalian diseases using myoblasts, and/or their physical, genetic, chemical derivatives. Myogenic cells that are normal, or genetically or phenotypically altered are cultured and transplanted into malfunctioning and/or degenerative tissues or organs to alleviate conditions that are hereditary, degenerative, debilitating, undesirable, and/or fatal. Treatment of these conditions is not limited to the usage of mechanical, electrical or physical properties of these myogenic cells, but includes the usage of biochemicals secreted/released by the latter. The present invention discloses the use of normal myoblasts to deliver the complete normal genome to effect genetic repair, or to augment the size, or the function of tissues or organs. Certain conditions may be better served with genetically altered myogenic cells derived from gene transduction, whereas others may be better served with cytoclimes converter cells. Endogenous biochemical(s) are used to control cell fusion
Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
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He was a quiet, withdrawn loner. A young man who would stare at the floor and press himself against the wall, gripping his briefcase, if others approached him. This is how Adam Lanza - the gunman who ...
Described are preferred myocardial grafts of skeletal myoblasts or cardiomyocytes, and cellular compositions and methods useful in obtaining the grafts. The myocardial grafts are stable and can be use
Long-Lasting Plasticity of Slow-Twitch Skeletal Myoblasts with Connexin-43 for the Efficient Engraftment and Functional Improvement of Failing ...
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Blau, H. M.; Dhawan, J.; Pavlath, G. K. (1993-08-01). "Myoblasts in pattern formation and gene therapy". Trends in Genetics. 9 ... Blau, H. M.; Webster, C.; Pavlath, G. K. (1983-08-01). "Defective myoblasts identified in Duchenne muscular dystrophy". ...
... is an immortalized mouse myoblast cell line. The C2C12 cell line is a subclone of myoblasts that were originally obtained ... Normal mouse myoblasts were cultured from 2-month old C3H mice after crush injury. Within two days, the normal cells ... Mononucleated myoblasts can later fuse to form multinucleated myotubes under low serum conditions or starvation, leading to the ... Developed for in vitro studies of myoblasts isolated from the complex interactions of in vivo conditions, C2C12 cells are ...
1998). "Cloning of a human ether-a-go-go potassium channel expressed in myoblasts at the onset of fusion". FEBS Lett. 434 (1-2 ... This gene is not expressed in differentiating myoblasts. Alternative splicing results in three transcript variants encoding ...
Recently, phosphorylation of ceramide via CERK has been shown to stimulate myoblast proliferation. It was demonstrated that C-1 ... "Ceramide 1-phosphate stimulates proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts". Biochimie. 94 (3): 597-607. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2011.09.009 ...
Although MyoD marks myoblast commitment, muscle development is not dramatically ablated in mouse mutants lacking the MyoD gene ... In Setdb1 depleted myoblasts that are treated with exogenous MyoD, myoblastic differentiation is successfully restored. In one ... The function of MyoD in development is to commit mesoderm cells to a skeletal myoblast lineage, and then to regulate that ... MyoD, also known as myoblast determination protein 1, is a protein in animals that plays a major role in regulating muscle ...
When the growth factor runs out, the myoblasts cease division and undergo terminal differentiation into myotubes. Myoblast ... c-Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is required for the survival and proliferation of migrating myoblasts. A lack of c-Met ... The second stage of differentiation involves the alignment of the myoblasts with one another. Studies have shown that even rat ... If placed in cell culture, most myoblasts will proliferate if enough fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or another growth factor is ...
Doherty KR, Cave A, Davis DB, Delmonte AJ, Posey A, Earley JU, Hadhazy M, McNally EM (December 2005). "Normal myoblast fusion ... However, it has been shown experimentally that loss of myoferlin results in reduced myoblast fusion and muscle size. There is ...
... with each cell nucleus originating from a single myoblast. The fusion of myoblasts is specific to skeletal muscle (e.g., biceps ... this multinuclear condition results from multiple myoblasts fusing to produce each muscle fiber, where each myoblast ... A myoblast is a type of embryonic progenitor cell that differentiates to give rise to muscle cells. Differentiation is ... Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into myosatellite cells. These satellite cells ...
Davis RL, Weintraub H, Lassar AB (1987). "Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts". Cell. 51 ...
Davis, R. L.; Weintraub, H.; Lassar, A. B. (1987). "Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts ... "Transfection of a DNA locus that mediates the conversion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts". Cell. 47 (5): 649-656. doi: ...
It is activated at the onset of myoblast differentiation. The gene is highly expressed in brain and in myoblasts. ... "Cloning of a human ether-a-go-go potassium channel expressed in myoblasts at the onset of fusion". FEBS Lett. 434 (1-2): 177-82 ...
Ahmad, Hajira F.; Sambanis, Athanassios (2013). "Cryopreservation effects on recombinant myoblasts encapsulated in adhesive ... cellular preservation technologies which show that adherent cells such as stem cells and myoblasts have better outcomes than ...
Forcing mouse embryonic fibroblasts to express MyoD was found to be sufficient to turn those cells into myoblasts. The only ... Davis, R. L.; Weintraub, H.; Lassar, A. B. (1987). "Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts ... 5-azacytidine is also known to promote phenotypic transdifferentiation of cardiac cells to skeletal myoblasts. In prostate ...
Davis, R. L.; Weintraub, H.; Lassar, A. B. (1987). "Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts ... myoblasts (MyoD) Fibroblasts → melanocytes (MITF) Glial cells → neurons (Pax6) Erythorid-megakaryocytic cells → monocytic cells ...
"Autologous skeletal myoblasts transplanted to ischemia-damaged myocardium in humans". Journal of the American College of ...
"Mirk/Dyrk1B mediates survival during the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (27): 25788-801. doi:10.1074/ ...
E-box required for maximal expression in neuroblastoma and myoblasts". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (22): 16560-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... is required for myoblast fusion". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (18): 13933-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.18.13933. PMID 10788519. Shi Z, Xu W, ... is required for myoblast fusion". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (18): 13933-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.18.13933. PMID 10788519. Iba K, ... "A metalloprotease-disintegrin participating in myoblast fusion". Nature. 377 (6550): 652-6. Bibcode:1995Natur.377..652Y. doi: ...
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"Apoptosis and differentiation of Xenopus tail-derived myoblasts by thyroid hormone". Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 54 (3 ...
"Involvement of Ras and Ral in Chemotactic Migration of Skeletal Myoblasts". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (13): 4658-65. doi:10.1128/MCB. ...
"Involvement of Ras and Ral in chemotactic migration of skeletal myoblasts". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (13): 4658-65. ...
Gartner TK, Podleski TR (December 1975). "Evidence that a membrane bound lectin mediates fusion of L6 myoblasts". Biochemical ...
... may also interact with Akt and insulin in myoblasts in vitro. Mutations in PLD3 have been studied for their potential role ... Increased PLD3 expression was shown to increase myotube formation in differentiated mouse myoblasts in vitro, and ER stress ... Overexpression of PLD3 in mouse myoblasts in vitro may inhibit Akt phosphorylation and block signal transduction during insulin ... Over-expression of phospholipase D3 inhibits Akt phosphorylation in C2C12 myoblasts]". Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao = Chinese ...
... isoforms in differentiating myoblasts". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 20 (7): 669-79. doi:10.1023/A:1005524623337. PMID 10672515 ...
"Apoptosis and differentiation of Xenopus tail-derived myoblasts by thyroid hormone". J Mol Endocrinol. 54 (3): 185-192. doi: ...
"Pax3 inhibits myogenic differentiation of cultured myoblast cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (20): 11719-11722 ...
Splicing and cleavage of the terminal (most telomeric) 4q D4Z4 DUX4 transcript in primary myoblasts and fibroblasts from FSHD ... DUX4 is expressed in extremely small amounts, detectable in 1 out of every 1000 immature muscle cells (myoblast), which appears ... When expressed in primary myoblasts, DUX4-fl acted as a transcriptional activator, producing a > 3-fold change in the ... Researchers identify DUX4 mRNA in primary FSHD myoblasts and identify in D4Z4-transfected cells a DUX4 protein, the ...
In fact, inhibition of IFRD1 function in C2C12 myoblasts, by antisense IFRD1 cDNA transfection or microinjection of anti-IFRD1 ... Guardavaccaro D, Ciotti MT, Schäfer BW, Montagnoli A, Tirone F (1995). "Inhibition of differentiation in myoblasts deprived of ... "PC4/Tis7/IFRD1 stimulates skeletal muscle regeneration and is involved in myoblast differentiation as a regulator of MyoD and ...
In the body, a possible role in myoblast development has been described. Furthermore, mechanically gated ion channels are also ... "Cytoskeleton/stretch-activated ion channel interaction regulates myogenic differentiation of skeletal myoblasts". J. Cell. ...
... Jordi Perez Tur jpereztur at ibv.csic.es Sat Jan 22 03:57:59 EST 2000 *Previous message: myoblast ... yinxin escribió: , , Hi all there, , , I am trying to isolate and culture myoblast from the neonatal mouse , limb. i have tried ... do anyone have any protocol for isolation, culture and , differeniation of myoblast? Thank you. , Hi, I used to culture ... We also noticed that myoblasts/myotubes were happier with a limited amount of fibroblasts keeping them company. I never ...
"Drosophila myoblast city encodes a conserved protein that is essential for myoblast fusion, dorsal closure, and cytoskeletal ... myoblast+city+protein,+Drosophila at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... Myoblast city (Mbc) is the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of the mammalian protein Dock180. Mutant mbc embryos exhibit ... Nolan KM, Barrett K, Lu Y, Hu KQ, Vincent S, Settleman J (November 1998). "Myoblast city, the Drosophila homolog of DOCK180/CED ...
Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts.. Davis RL1, Weintraub H, Lassar AB. ... Assuming such loci to be differentially expressed as poly(A)+ RNA in proliferating myoblasts, we prepared proliferating ... 5-azacytidine treatment of mouse C3H10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts converts them to myoblasts at a frequency suggesting ... is sufficient to convert them to stable myoblasts. Myogenesis also occurs, but to a lesser extent, when this cDNA is expressed ...
Interestingly, the rejuvenating effects of NANOG on senescent myoblasts were sustained after withdrawal of Dox. The myoblasts ... 630g) NANOG Restores the Myogenic Differentiation Potential of Senescent Myoblasts. *Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting ... these results shed light on the potential of NANOG to restore the myogenic differentiation potential of senescent myoblasts and ... of the embryonic transcription factor NANOG restored the impaired myogenic differentiation potential of senescent myoblasts. ...
Myoblast growth factor receptor egl-15 [Caenorhabditis elegans] Myoblast growth factor receptor egl-15 [Caenorhabditis elegans] ... Different isoforms of the C. elegans FGF receptor are required for attraction and repulsion of the migrating sex myoblasts. [ ... Different isoforms of the C. elegans FGF receptor are required for attraction and repulsion of the migrating sex myoblasts.. Lo ... Myoblast growth factor receptor egl-15 [Caenorhabditis elegans]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_001300354.1 ...
AMPK inhibits myoblast differentiation through a PGC-1 alpha-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297: E304-E314 ... Treating C2C12 myoblast cultures with 1 mM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR) for up to 24 h ... AMPK inhibits myoblast differentiation through a PGC-1 alpha-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297: E304-E314 ... AICAR-treated myoblasts undergoing differentiation also had reduced p21 protein expression, reduced myotube formation, and ...
NF- κ B-dependent expression of nitric oxide synthase is required for membrane fusion of chick embryonic myoblasts Biochem J ( ... Regulation of calpain and calpastatin in differentiating myoblasts: mRNA levels, protein synthesis and stability Biochem J ( ... Developmental regulation of neuraminidase-sensitive lectin-binding glycoproteins during myogenesis of rat L 6 myoblasts Biochem ... M J Wakelam; The fusion of myoblasts. Biochem J 15 May 1985; 228 (1): 1-12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2280001 ...
Myoblast fusion in skeletal muscle is a complex process but how this is regulated is unclear. Here, the authors identify Ash1L ... a histone methyltransferase, as modulating myoblast fusion via activation of the myogenesis gene Cdon, and observe decreased ... Myoblast fusion (MF) is required for muscle growth and repair, and its alteration contributes to muscle diseases. The ... Furthermore, primary myoblasts isolated from both Cdon68 and Ash1L GT mice display a myoblast fusion defect. Importantly, we ...
... muscle cell lines are cultured on glass coverslips and differentiated to investigate myoblast fusion and differentiation. ... 2). C1F myoblasts showed the greatest ability to fuse, while human skeletal myoblasts (HuSK) and C2C12 myoblasts were less ... HuSK myoblasts were similar to C2C12 myoblasts in terms of fusion.. Open image in new window. ... The presence of α-dystroglycan in myoblasts is known to promote myoblast adhesion (Thompson et al. 2010). ...
The differentiation of mononucleate myoblast cells into postmitotic multinucleated myotubes is accompanied by the activation ... To determine whether the myoblast lineage can be subdivided further, four Abs that react with myoblasts were studied in detail ... Satellite Cell Human Skeletal Muscle Cryostat Section Motor Neuron Disease Myoblast Cell These keywords were added by machine ... The chosen test systems were cell cultures of human muscle that contain myoblasts, fibroblasts and myotubes and cryostat ...
Differentiated and committed, myoblasts are not stem cells. Implanted myoblasts fuse spontaneously among themselves, ... Myoblasts, because of their small size, spindle shape, and resilience, can grow within wrinkles and on skin surfaces, thus ... Myoblasts transduced with VEGF165 allow concomitant regeneration of blood capillaries and myofibers. They are potent biologics ... Myoblast implantation is a unique, patented technology of muscle regeneration being tested in Phase III clinical trials of ...
Biological: Myoblast transplantation 30 million myoblasts will be transplanted per centimeter cube in the Extensor carpi ... Experimental: Myoblast transplantation & strength 30 million myoblasts will be transplanted per centimeter cube in the Extensor ... Transplantation of Myoblasts to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Patients. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Thirty million myoblasts will be injected per cm cube in a progressively higher surface of the radialis (i.e., 3, 6 and 9 cm2 ...
Biological: Myoblast transplantation 30 million myoblasts will be transplanted per centimeter cube in the Extensor carpi ... Experimental: Myoblast transplantation & strength 30 million myoblasts will be transplanted per centimeter cube in the Extensor ... The patients will be transplanted with myoblasts grown from the muscle biopsy of a healthy donor. Thirty million myoblasts will ... Biological: Myoblast transplantation Procedure: Saline injection Phase 1 Phase 2 Hide Detailed Description Detailed Description ...
Human myoblasts were embedded in a fibrin matrix cast between two posts, cultured until confluence, and then induced to ... Myoblasts in 3D aligned along the longitudinal axis of the gel. They displayed actin stress fibers evenly distributed around ... Myoblasts and myotubes in 3D exhibited thicker and ellipsoid nuclei instead of the thin disk-like shape of the nuclei in 2D (p, ...
... suppressed myotube formation and expression of acetylcholine receptors in cultures of Day 15 mouse embryo presumptive myoblasts ... Differential response of satellite cells and embryonic myoblasts to a tumor promoter Dev Biol. 1983 Aug;98(2):520-4. doi: ... Thus, limb presumptive myoblasts are a heterogeneous population, and part of the distinct TPA-resistant subpopulation may ... suppressed myotube formation and expression of acetylcholine receptors in cultures of Day 15 mouse embryo presumptive myoblasts ...
Proteome dynamics during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Thomas Kislinger, Anthony O. Gramolini, Yan Pan, Khaled Rahman, David ... Proteome dynamics during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Thomas Kislinger, Anthony O. Gramolini, Yan Pan, Khaled Rahman, David ... Proteome dynamics during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Thomas Kislinger, Anthony O. Gramolini, Yan Pan, Khaled Rahman, David ... Proteome dynamics during C2C12 myoblast differentiation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Molecular & ...
... Martina ... Expression of MLC/SOD1G93A in C2C12 cells resulted in dramatic inhibition of myoblast differentiation. Transfected SOD1G93A ... in postmitotic skeletal myocytes downregulated the expression of relevant markers of committed and differentiated myoblasts ...
gene in myoblast differentiation we stably transfected the C2C12 cells line with the MLC/. expression cassette (Figure 1(a)) ... cells compared to C2C12 myoblasts, suggesting that expression not only inhibits muscle differentiation but also confers to ... L. Willkomm, S. Schubert, R. Jung et al., "Lactate regulates myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts in vitro," Stem Cell Research, vol. ... expression prevents myoblasts differentiation and retains C2C12 cells in an undifferentiated state that show features common to ...
Isolation of primary myoblasts - (May/22/2011 ). Hey,. looking for a protocol to isolate myoblasts from my Knockout and WT mice ... Yup, I got a couple of protocols for that... In my experience myoblasts are best isolated by first isolating satellite cells ...
Ive only been able to find one paper so far using cardiotoxin to injure myoblasts in culture (they used it on C2C12 myotubes ... Is there a particular reason people seem to only use it in muscle and not on C2C12s or primary myoblasts? Thanks. ... Cardiotoxin on myoblasts - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: ... Primary mouse myoblast immortalization Started by Emanuele Loro ... Proper controls/design for comparing primary myoblasts? Started by assembler01, 21 Jun 2012 primary, myoblast, variation and 2 ...
After injection of genetically engineered myoblasts into mouse muscle, hGH could be detected in serum for 3 months. The fate of ... A recombinant gene encoding human growth hormone (hGH) was stably introduced into cultured myoblasts with a retroviral vector. ... These results provide evidence that myoblasts, which can fuse into preexisting multinucleated myofibers that are vascularized ... Systemic delivery of human growth hormone by injection of genetically engineered myoblasts ...
... mouse C2C12 myoblasts were induced with insulin. Immunoprecipitation experiments on nuclei of C2C12 myoblasts were performed ... eEF1A Phosphorylation in the Nucleus of Insulin-stimulated C2C12 Myoblasts. Manuela Piazzi, Alberto Bavelloni, Irene Faenza, ... eEF1A Phosphorylation in the Nucleus of Insulin-stimulated C2C12 Myoblasts. Manuela Piazzi, Alberto Bavelloni, Irene Faenza, ... Western blotting revealed that the nuclear fraction of C2C12 myoblasts possessed cPKCα and -βI (Fig. 3A) but not cPKCβII and -γ ...
This growth response is dependent in part upon myoblast proliferation. Although skeletal muscles are responsive to mechanical ... forces, the effect on myoblast proliferation remains unknown. To investigate the effects of … ... Treating myoblasts with a COX2-specific inhibitor blocked stretch-induced proliferation. Likewise, stretched COX2-/- myoblasts ... To investigate the effects of mechanical stretch on myoblast proliferation, primary myoblasts isolated from Balb/c mice were ...
myoblast fusion Source: FlyBase ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking ... Myoblast cityImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... Myoblast city, isoform AImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p ... tr,Q9VCH4,Q9VCH4_DROME Myoblast city OS=Drosophila melanogaster OX=7227 GN=mbc PE=2 SV=2 ...
Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblasts (A-10 Line). Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblasts (A-10 Line ... The cells grow adherently and exhibit myoblast morphology, possessing many of the properties characteristic of smooth muscle ...
... myoblast cells that were transfected with a pEYFP-Actin plasmid subcellular localization vector. Cells were transiently ... Rat Thoracic Aorta Myoblast Cell Actin. YFP Bandpass Emission (Narrow Bandwidth Excitation) Blue-Green Set. Fluorescence ... emission intensity from a culture of embryonic rat thoracic aorta medial layer (A-10 line) myoblast cells that were transfected ...
... we used myoblasts isolated from affected patients compared with myoblasts from healthy individuals. Four myoblast cell cultures ... E2 enhances differentiation of primary FSHD-isolated myoblasts. (A) Percentage of MHC+ myoblasts from indicated healthy ... Here, we have utilized myoblasts isolated from FSHD patients (FSHD myoblasts) to investigate the effect of estrogens on muscle ... in control myoblasts, no significant change was evident, indicating that the observed effects are specific for FSHD myoblasts ( ...
Here, we have utilized myoblasts isolated from FSHD patients (FSHD myoblasts) to investigate the effect of estrogens on muscle ... During myoblast differentiation, we observed that the levels and activity of DUX4 increased progressively and were associated ... Pink bars represent female, blue bars male myoblasts. (. N. ) Fusion index in the same fields analyzed in M. . Fusion index = ... Estrogens enhance myoblast differentiation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy by antagonizing DUX4 activity. ...
Induces fibroblasts to differentiate into myoblasts. Interacts with and is inhibited by the twist protein. This interaction ... positive regulation of myoblast differentiation Source: GO_Central. *positive regulation of myoblast fusion Source: RGDInferred ... Myoblast determination protein 1Add BLAST. 318. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... myoblast differentiation Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity,br />Used for any analysis based ...
The current study examined the role(s) of autophagy in myotoxicity induced by bupivacaine in mouse myoblast C2c12 cells. C2c12 ... Impaired autophagosome clearance contributes to local anesthetic bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity in mouse myoblasts.. [Rongrong ...
  • Treating C2C12 myoblast cultures with 1 mM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR) for up to 24 h induced AMPK phosphorylation. (mendeley.com)
  • Expression of MLC/SOD1 G93A in C2C12 cells resulted in dramatic inhibition of myoblast differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • I've only been able to find one paper so far using cardiotoxin to injure myoblasts in culture (they used it on C2C12 myotubes). (protocol-online.org)
  • To identify novel interacting proteins of conventional PKC (cPKC) at the nuclear level during myogenesis and to find new PKC isozyme-specific phosphosubstrates, we performed a proteomics analysis of immunoprecipitated nuclear samples from mouse myoblast C2C12 cells following insulin administration. (mcponline.org)
  • The current study examined the role(s) of autophagy in myotoxicity induced by bupivacaine in mouse myoblast C2c12 cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While the effect of elastase on C2C12 cell survival correlates with the kinetics of elastase-mediated degradation of the substrate to which the cells adhere, the effect of elastase on satellite cell-derived primary myoblast growth and differentiation is substrate-independent and even more dramatic than the effect on C2C12 cells, suggesting a detrimental role for elastase on myogenesis in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Additionally, elastase impairs differentiation of both primary and C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. (nature.com)
  • The C2C12 cell line, a mouse myoblast line, was used here to study the regulatory factors in myogenic differentiation. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Here, we determined whether a low-therapeutic (0.5 mM) dose of lithium could promote myoblast fusion and myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, C2C12 cells represent an excellent cell culture model to study the proliferation and differentiation of MSC-derived myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • I detta protokoll presenterar vi procedurerna i upprättandet Dystrofia myotonika 1 myoblast modeller, inklusive optimerade C2C12 cell underhåll, gen transfektion / transduktion, och myocyt differentiering. (jove.com)
  • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. (osti.gov)
  • Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). (osti.gov)
  • The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. (osti.gov)
  • We show that expression of p57 Kip2 , a potent tight-binding inhibitor of several G 1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes, increases markedly during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Forced expression of p57 Kip2 correlated with hypophosphorylation of MyoD in C2C12 myoblasts. (asm.org)
  • Studies described here utilize high-density oligonucleotide arrays to characterize changes in global mRNA expression patterns during proliferation, cell cycle withdrawal, and terminal differentiation in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. (eurekamag.com)
  • C2C12 myoblasts are commonly used in biomedical laboratories as an in vitro system to study muscle development and differentiation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • This protocol explains the basic procedures of culture, transfection and differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In the present study, silicon based photovoltaic (PV) devices are used as a cell culturing substrate for the expansion of myoblast mouse cell (C2C12 cells) that offers an atmosphere for regular cell growth in vitro. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Using RNA interference in C2C12 myoblasts, we show for the first time that both NET25 and MAN1 are required for myogenic differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Disruption of M-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion by M-cadherin RNA interference in confluent C2C12 myoblasts sensitized the cells to mitochondria-associated intrinsic apoptosis induced by cell confluence or serum starvation. (biologists.org)
  • Overexpression of wild-type GSK-3β in confluent C2C12 myoblasts exacerbated the apoptosis, whereas chemical inhibition of GSK-3β using TDZD-8, or forced expression of constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), or a kinase-deficient GSK-3β mutant [GSK-3β(K85R)], attenuated apoptosis and rescued the impaired myogenic differentiation that is caused by M-cadherin RNA interference. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of M-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion on the survival of mouse C2C12 myoblasts as well as primary muscle progenitor cells during myogenic differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • The study was aimed to examine the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing based DMEM on myoblasts cells (C2C12) for mitochondrial mass content. (vixra.org)
  • In this study, gene expression profiling of C2C12 myoblasts reveals that transcripts involved in cell cycle and muscular development pathways are modulated by Fxr1 -depletion. (prolekare.cz)
  • We observed an increase of p21-a regulator of cell-cycle progression-in Fxr1 -knocked-down mouse C2C12 and FSHD human myoblasts. (prolekare.cz)
  • The growth-promoting activity of egg white proteins in the C2C12 myoblast cell line. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of several egg white proteins (ovalbumin, ovomucoid, ovotransferrin and lysozyme) on proliferation and myotube growth in C2C12 murine myoblast cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In C2C12 and primary mouse myoblasts, we show that MyoD can occupy an E-box within the promoter of Cdc6 and that this association, along with E2F3a, is required for its activity. (nih.gov)
  • MyoD and Cdc6 are both expressed after quiescent C2C12 myoblasts or satellite cells in association with myofibers are stimulated for growth, but MyoD appears at least 2-3 h earlier than Cdc6. (nih.gov)
  • A) ChIP of C2C12 myoblasts cultured in GM with antibodies (Ab) detecting E2F1, E2F3a, and E2F4. (nih.gov)
  • B and C) ChIP of C2C12 myoblasts cultured in DM at the indicated times using normal rabbit IgG and either anti-E2F3a or anti-E2F4, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Immunofluorescent staining of C2C12 myoblasts cultured in GM or DM for 96 h was performed by using a Cdc6-specific antibody. (nih.gov)
  • RT-PCR detection of Cdc6 transcripts in C2C12 myoblasts cultured in GM or in DM for 72 or 96 h. (nih.gov)
  • Here we identify the small GTPase Rab35 as a new regulator of cadherin trafficking and stabilization at cell-cell contacts in C2C12 myoblasts and HeLa cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • We also noticed that myoblasts/myotubes were happier with a limited amount of fibroblasts keeping them company. (bio.net)
  • These data demonstrate that AICAR-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibits cell cycle transition, reducing differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes, through PGC-1 alpha-FOXO3A-p21. (mendeley.com)
  • Efficient differentiation of myoblasts produces a dense network of myotubes with the correct organisation for contraction. (springer.com)
  • 1990 ). We have previously shown that myoblast survival and fusion into myotubes depends on laminin 111 (which is made up of α1, β1 and γ1 chains), and not on fibronectin or vitronectin (Clark et al. (springer.com)
  • The differentiation of mononucleate myoblast cells into postmitotic multinucleated myotubes is accompanied by the activation and repression of many gene families. (springer.com)
  • The chosen test systems were cell cultures of human muscle that contain myoblasts, fibroblasts and myotubes and cryostat sections of control and diseased human muscle. (springer.com)
  • Under appropriate conditions, the myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle to differentiate into mononucleated myocytes, which, in turn, align with each other and fuse to form multinucleated myotubes or myofibers. (rupress.org)
  • showed that normal myoblasts fuse with dystrophic myoblasts to form hybrid myotubes expressing dystrophin, and transplantation of normal myoblasts resulted in dystrophin expression at the muscle fiber plasma membrane in the injected dystrophic muscle (mdx). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The differentiation of chick embryonic skeletal myoblasts results in the formation of myotubes which are the precursors of muscle fibres. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The fusion of mononucleated myoblasts represents an apparent switching point in differentiation since it results in both the formation of multinucleated myotubes and the stimulation of muscle specific protein synthesis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Myostatin inhibits activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 protein synthesis pathway, which mediates both differentiation in myoblasts and hypertrophy in myotubes. (scialert.net)
  • It was concluded that the fate of CMR-I myoblasts is fusion to form myotubes. (biologists.org)
  • Localization of Mbc, active Rac1 and F-actin in fusion-competent myoblasts at points of contact with founder cells and myotubes in primary myoblasts. (biologists.org)
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from myoblasts and myotubes (differentiated myoblasts), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified and quantified using a microplate assay. (garvan.org.au)
  • Pure populations of beta1-null myoblasts and satellite cells isolated from beta1-null chimeric embryos and chimeric newborn mice, respectively, were able to differentiate in vitro and to fuse into multinucleated myotubes. (biologists.org)
  • This is followed by the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes and the expression of characteristic muscle proteins, like muscle creatine kinase and the skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MyHC) (reviewed in reference 8 ). (asm.org)
  • To understand the role of p107 and p130 in progression through or exit from the cell cycle, we have characterized the expression, phosphorylation state, cyclin-binding, and E2f-binding activity of p107 and p130 during terminal differentiation of rat myoblast cells into immature skeletal muscle (myotubes). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite both p107 and p130 becoming hypophosphorylated during myogenesis, the E2F-site DNA-binding complexes containing p107 observed in exponentially growing myoblasts are quantitatively replaced in myotubes with complexes containing only p130. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes is a crucial step of muscle growth during development and of muscle repair in the adult. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • AICAR-treated myoblasts undergoing differentiation also had reduced p21 protein expression, reduced myotube formation, and myosin accumulation. (mendeley.com)
  • The majority of these peptides promoted fusion and differentiation in two different mouse myogenic cell lines and in primary human myoblasts. (springer.com)
  • These data show that a mixture of short biomimetic peptides can reliably promote differentiation in mouse and human myoblasts. (springer.com)
  • Angiomyogenesis for cardiac repair using human myoblasts as carriers of human vascular endothelial growth factor. (springer.com)
  • During embryonic development, mononucleated muscle cells, termed myoblasts, undergo massive proliferation, providing the required number of precursor cells to build skeletal muscles. (nature.com)
  • Walsh F.S., Moore S.E., Nayak R. (1985) Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and Myoblasts. (springer.com)
  • Differentiated and committed, myoblasts are not stem cells. (scirp.org)
  • Treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) reversibly suppressed myotube formation and expression of acetylcholine receptors in cultures of Day 15 mouse embryo presumptive myoblasts, but was totally ineffective in cultures of adult mouse satellite cells. (nih.gov)
  • In my experience myoblasts are best isolated by first isolating satellite cells and then differentiating them into myocytes. (protocol-online.org)
  • The fate of injected myoblasts was assessed by coinfecting the cells with two retroviral vectors, one encoding hGH and the other encoding beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cells grow adherently and exhibit myoblast morphology, possessing many of the properties characteristic of smooth muscle cells. (microscopyu.com)
  • Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of embryonic rat thoracic aorta medial layer ( A-10 line) myoblast cells that were transfected with a pEYFP-Actin plasmid subcellular localization vector. (microscopyu.com)
  • Patient will receive injections of cultured, expanded skeletal myoblasts into the myocardium at a dose of 400 million cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myoblasts and examine the susceptibility of these cells to stress- induced apoptosis. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • These results indicate that a low-therapeutic dose of LiCl is sufficient to promote myoblast fusion and myogenic differentiation in muscle cells, which has implications for the treatment of several myopathic conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • In myotome, the muscle precursor cells establish their myogenic fate to form proliferating myoblasts by selectively expressing one or a few myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). (rupress.org)
  • Conclusions- Regardless of whether the cells were injected into the infarct or the noninfarcted myocardium early after an myocardial infarction or later, skeletal myoblasts improved cardiac function by preventing ventricular dilation and preserving matrix architecture in the remote region, likely mediated by paracrine effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • More than a decade of preclinical studies and initial clinical trials indicate that the progression of postmyocardial infarction (MI) cardiac failure can be limited by the implantation of either skeletal myoblasts or bone marrow cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such enhancements could be suitable for therapies involving myoblasts, bone marrow cells, or both. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dilute povidone-iodine (PVI) solutions on human osteoblast, fibroblast and myoblast cells in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • fu-1 cells, a line of rat myoblasts defective in differentiation, can be fused into multinucleate syncytia by Moloney murine leukemia virus. (asm.org)
  • We have investigated whether antiinflammatory treatment and use of different populations of skeletal muscle-derived cells may circumvent the poor survival of the injected myoblasts after implantation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since pure myoblasts obtained from isolated myofibers and myoblast cell lines also displayed a poor survival rate of the injected cells, we have concluded that the differential survival of the populations of muscle-derived cells is not only attributable to their content in desmin-positive cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • First, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a trinucleated precursor, which then recruits further FCMs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mbc is required in the fusion-competent myoblasts for fusion with founder cells. (biologists.org)
  • C ) Myoblast fusion remains severely impaired when Mbc is expressed in founder cells. (biologists.org)
  • Muscle fusion in Drosophila involves two distinct cell populations, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). (uni-marburg.de)
  • The article, Silicon substrate as a Novel Cell Culture Device for Myoblast Cells , is published online in the Journal of Biomedical Science and is free to access. (technologynetworks.com)
  • These features together with the great genetic tools available for embryo happens between two types of muscle mass cells: muscle mass founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (2 3 Muscle mass founder cells determine the position orientation and size of the future muscle mass materials whereas fusion-competent myoblasts migrate toward abide by and fuse with founder cells to generate multinucleated muscle mass fibers. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • 2016.). Muscle growth requires proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of myoblasts (muscle stem cells) to form muscle fibers early in gestation and to increase myonuclear content of existing fibers during late gestation and after birth (Yates et al. (unl.edu)
  • Initiation of muscle regeneration involves the activation of satellite cells to form a proliferating myoblast pool ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • L6 cells and primary myoblasts that were isolated from IUGR fetal sheep in a previous study were used to study the effects of stress hormones on myoblast proliferation and myoblast gene expression. (unl.edu)
  • Flow cytometry was used to analyze percentage of myogenic cells with a myoblast/myotube specific monoclonal antibody 5.1H11, and for determination of cell cycle stage. (k-state.edu)
  • However, its role in regulating the survival and death of muscle progenitor cells or myoblasts has never been addressed. (biologists.org)
  • The most commonly used immortalizing gene, the SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag), was extremely efficient at inducing the continuous growth of primary myoblasts, but the resulting cells rapidly accumulated major chromosomal aberrations and exhibited profound phenotypic changes. (epfl.ch)
  • Upon a growth stimulus or injury, satellite cells start proliferating and turn in committed myogenic cells (myoblasts). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Addition of an NO-releasing compound to cultures of embryonic myoblasts or satellite cells, which function as stem cells in adult muscles, stimulated cell fusion. (rupress.org)
  • RT-PCR analysis of NO-treated myoblasts showed that follistatin, a protein known to trigger myoblast fusion, was up-regulated relative to untreated cells. (rupress.org)
  • We show that positively charged carriers have an enhanced interaction with myoblast cells in the presence of shear stress. (dtu.dk)
  • Rigau, LH & Stadler, B 2013, ' Shear Stress and Its Effect on the Interaction of Myoblast Cells with Nanosized Drug Delivery Vehicles ', Molecular Pharmaceutics , vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 2707-2712. (dtu.dk)
  • ZBED6 Modulates the Transcription of Myogenic Genes in Mouse Myoblast Cells. (diagenode.com)
  • Here we show that ZBED6 acts as a transcriptional modulator in mouse myoblast cells, where more than 700 genes were differentially expressed after Zbed6-silencing. (diagenode.com)
  • Myoblasts are mononucleated undifferentiated muscle cells that express myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). (lifemapsc.com)
  • Myoblasts constantly proliferate to provide sufficient number of cells for myogenic differentiation and for continuous muscle growth. (lifemapsc.com)
  • The aim of this project has been to examine the biochemical events involved in this process of terminal differentiation by using primary cultures of chick embryonic myoblasts as a model system. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We determined the effects of supplemental L-carnitine on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in porcine embryonic myoblasts (PEM) from gilts. (k-state.edu)
  • However, the cellular signaling pathways controlling the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts are not fully understood. (rupress.org)
  • Additionally, it was shown that FST is important in promoting myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro studies [ 5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Both cytokines also regulate myoblast proliferation and differentiation outside of inflammatory states (Al-Shanti et al. (unl.edu)
  • In addition, we investigated BET role on myoblasts proliferation and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Implanted myoblasts fuse spontaneously among themselves, replenishing genetically normal myofibers. (scirp.org)
  • Following intramuscular injection, donor myoblasts fuse with the myofibers of the patient, introducing the normal dystrophin gene in them. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These results provide evidence that myoblasts, which can fuse into preexisting multinucleated myofibers that are vascularized and innervated, may be advantageous as vehicles for systemic delivery of recombinant proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Skeletal muscle fibres are made when myoblasts fuse together. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Eventually, these proliferating myoblasts irreversibly withdraw from cell cycles, differentiate, and fuse with existing myofibers. (rupress.org)
  • Trunk and limbs of beta1-null chimeric mice contained muscle tissue composed of normal and beta1-null myoblasts indicating that all myotomic sublineages can form, migrate to their peripheral targets and fuse in the absence of beta1 integrin expression. (biologists.org)
  • Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between normal and beta1-null myoblasts revealed no apparent difference in their capacity to terminally differentiate and fuse. (biologists.org)
  • As a result, both inhibitors rescued myogenesis in myoblasts treated with GDF8. (selleckchem.com)
  • These include Myf5 and MyoD, which are important for the early steps of myogenesis, including myoblast commitment, and MRF4 and myogenin, which control the late events of myoblast fusion and muscle-specific gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Our study describes a novel role of FXR1P that has crucial implications for the understanding of its role during myogenesis and muscle development, since we show here that in its absence a reduced number of myoblasts will be available for muscle formation/regeneration, shedding new light into the pathophysiology of FSHD. (prolekare.cz)
  • Myoblast city (Mbc) is the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of the mammalian protein Dock180. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a previous Phase 1A clinical trial, the investigators proved that transplantation of myoblasts grown from the muscle biopsy of a healthy donor introduced the normal dystrophin gene in the DMD myofibers, with the consequent expression of the normal dystrophin mRNA and restoration of the dystrophin protein in several myofibers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The C(2)C(12) mouse myoblast cell line was engineered to express CTLA4Ig, a soluble factor blocking T cell costimulation, in conjunction with erythropoietin (Epo), a reporter biotherapeutic protein. (epfl.ch)
  • Background: The p38\(\alpha\) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a critical mediator of myoblast differentiation, and does so in part through the phosphorylation and regulation of several transcription factors and chromatin remodelling proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • We sought to investigate whether FST promotes the proliferation of myoblasts through the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling. (portlandpress.com)
  • The results showed that FST promoted myoblast proliferation, induced the mRNA expression of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) and the protein expression of phospho-Akt (Thr 308 ), mTOR, phospho-mTOR (serine 2448), phospho-S6K (Ser 417 ), inhibited the mRNA expression of FoxO1, MuRF1 (muscle RING finger-1) and the protein expression of phospho-FoxO1 (Ser 256 ). (portlandpress.com)
  • To demonstrate that these protein interactions are relevant for myoblast fusion, I carried out double mutant experiments. (uni-marburg.de)
  • L6 myoblasts which had been transfected with the cDNA for a mutant protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit were used to look at the role of PKA. (uwo.ca)
  • We have examined the effects of the seco-steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on membrane phosphoinositide metabolism, protein kinase C (PKC) activation and influx of extracellular Ca2+ in chick-embryo muscle-cell (myoblast) cultures. (biochemj.org)
  • Differential cooperation between heterochromatin protein HP1 isoforms and MyoD in myoblasts. (inserm.fr)
  • Finally, ectopic expression of MARCKS significantly decreased the myoblast fusion process, while reduced expression of the protein with antisense oligonucleotides increased the fusion. (biochemj.org)
  • Altogether, these data demonstrate that MARCKS proteolysis is necessary for the fusion of myoblasts and that cleavage of the protein by calpains is involved in this regulation. (biochemj.org)
  • Expression and activity of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB)-family proteins, p107 and p130, during L6 myoblast differentiation -- Kiess et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Myoblast fusion takes place in two steps in mammals and in Drosophila. (diva-portal.org)
  • The somatic musculature of Drosophila is analogous to vertebrate skeletal muscles and is generated by the fusion of mononucleate myoblasts. (uni-marburg.de)
  • We therefore wanted to test if specific peptides derived from key components of the basal lamina would promote myoblast survival and differentiation in culture. (springer.com)
  • The presence of α-dystroglycan in myoblasts is known to promote myoblast adhesion (Thompson et al. (springer.com)
  • In light of the present results, we hypothesize that duck FST could promote myoblast proliferation, which is dependent on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling. (portlandpress.com)
  • Myoblasts transduced with VEGF 165 allow concomitant regeneration of blood capillaries and myofibers. (scirp.org)
  • Gersbach, C. A., Guldberg, R. E. and García, A. J. (2007), In vitro and in vivo osteoblastic differentiation of BMP-2- and Runx2-engineered skeletal myoblasts. (wiley.com)
  • The expression of GLUT4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in the skeletal muscle ex vivo and in myoblasts at 72 h after differentiation in vitro was higher in DM cattle than in NM cattle (P (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Proliferation of Human Primary Myoblasts Is Associated with Altered Energy Metabolism in Dependence on Ageing In Vivo and In Vitro. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Up to now, only the effects of in vitro ageing on energy metabolism of cultured myoblasts have been addressed [32, 33]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It is not clear how ageing in vitro affects the energy metabolism in the phase of myoblast proliferation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Clinically used concentration of PVI (0.35%) exerts a pronounced cytotoxic effect on osteoblasts, fibroblast, and myoblasts in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • Traditionally, muscle cell lines are cultured on glass coverslips and differentiated to investigate myoblast fusion and differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Thus, limb presumptive myoblasts are a heterogeneous population, and part of the distinct TPA-resistant subpopulation may represent satellite cell precursors. (nih.gov)
  • Stretch stimulated myoblast proliferation by 32% and increased cell number by 41% 24 and 48 h after stretch, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Our results demonstrated that estrogens counteract the differentiation impairment of FSHD myoblasts without affecting cell proliferation or survival. (jci.org)
  • Muscle myoblast (primitive embryonic muscle cell) differentiating in to a skeletal muscle cell, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • It is widely believed that rather than being intrinsically flawed, attempts at myoblast transplantation in human subjects were done prematurely, without a sufficiently thorough knowledge of the molecular and cell biological aspects of muscle regeneration. (europa.eu)
  • Several lectin-resistant mutants were isolated from a permanent rat skeletal myoblast cell line with the objectives of determining the role of cell surface carbohydrate in myoblast differentiation and of determining the mode of action of several lectins and how resistance to them is achieved. (uwo.ca)
  • Using an inducible knockout mouse model to generate dynamin 1- and 2-deficient primary osteoclast precursors and myoblasts, we found that fusion of both cell types requires dynamin. (rupress.org)
  • Osteoclast and myoblast cell-cell fusion involves the formation of actin-rich protrusions closely associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the apposed cell. (rupress.org)
  • Since dynamin is involved in both the formation of actin-rich structures and in endocytosis, our results indicate that dynamin function is central to the osteoclast precursors and myoblasts fusion process, and point to an important role of endocytosis in cell-cell fusion. (rupress.org)
  • have been identified and characterized, little is known about fusogens in osteoclast precursors (OCPs) and myoblasts cell fusion. (rupress.org)
  • Skeletal muscle stem cell-derived myoblasts are mainly responsible for postnatal muscle growth and injury-induced muscle regeneration. (rupress.org)
  • Deliberate knockdown of JAK1 in both primary and immortalized myoblasts induces precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • In response to muscle injury or exercise, these quiescent MSCs become activated, as indicated by the expression of MyoD, reenter the cell cycle, and actively proliferate to form myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Our results suggest that selection of specific muscle-derived cell populations or the control of inflammation can be used as an approach to improve cell survival after both myoblast transplantation and the myoblast-mediated ex vivo gene transfer approach. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A technique appropriate to investigation of the developmental fates of distinct embryonic cell types is described and the fate of a particular type of chick myoblast (CMR-I) examined. (biologists.org)
  • These data indicate that Dock functions in both myoblast populations during myoblast fusion and serves as a linker to transfer the fusion signal from the cell adhesion molecules Duf and Hbs to the actin cytoskeleton, e.g. by interacting with WASP and WIP. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The transfection efficiency of hPAMAM in myoblasts was 82.6 ± 7.0% with cell viability of 94.6 ± 1.4% under optimal conditions. (springer.com)
  • The hormone rapidly activates myoblast PKC, with maximal translocation of activity from the cytosol to the cell membrane occurring at 60 s. (biochemj.org)
  • Myoblast fusion in has turned into a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • To illustrate the fundamental relevance, we employ a microfluidic setup to evaluate the myoblast cell response to two prominent rug carrier systems, namely, liposomes and nanoparticles, in the presence of low shear stress. (dtu.dk)
  • In exponentially growing L6 myoblasts, p107 is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, and E2f-site binding complexes containing p107 is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, and E2f-site binding complexes containing p107 can be observed throughout the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, in myoblasts, p107 is normally involved in regulation of E2f-family proteins during cell cycle progression, while p130 is a differentiation-specific regulator of E2f activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In proliferating myoblasts, the levels of Myf5 and MyoD detected from cell to cell are very heterogeneous. (pasteur.fr)
  • The structural basis for the unique targeting behavior of GLUT4 was investigated in the insulin-sensitive L6 myoblast cell line. (rupress.org)
  • A) rac1 J11 rac2 Δ exhibit defects in myoblast fusion. (biologists.org)
  • Although skeletal muscles are responsive to mechanical forces, the effect on myoblast proliferation remains unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Together our findings show that increased exposure to stress hormones have a positive effect on myoblast proliferation, especially in relatively short durations (48-96 hours). (unl.edu)
  • Hi, I used to culture myoblasts from chicken embryos, fibroblasts were a random problem, sometimes there were more of them sometimes less. (bio.net)
  • Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • 5-azacytidine treatment of mouse C3H10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts converts them to myoblasts at a frequency suggesting alteration of one or only a few closely linked regulatory loci. (nih.gov)
  • We show that expression of one of these cDNAs transfected into C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts, where it is not normally expressed, is sufficient to convert them to stable myoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Induces fibroblasts to differentiate into myoblasts. (uniprot.org)
  • Here we employed a doxycycline (Dox) regulatable system to show that expression of the embryonic transcription factor NANOG restored the impaired myogenic differentiation potential of senescent myoblasts. (aiche.org)
  • In conclusion, these results shed light on the potential of NANOG to restore the myogenic differentiation potential of senescent myoblasts and to reverse the loss of muscle regeneration due to aging. (aiche.org)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) slows myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion partly by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Lithium, a common medication for bipolar disorder, inhibits GSK3 via Mg + competition and increased Ser21 (GSK3α) or Ser9 (GSK3β) phosphorylation, leading to enhanced myoblast fusion and myogenic differentiation. (mdpi.com)
  • Downstream of JAK1, of all the signal transducer and activator of transcriptions (STATs) present in myoblasts, we find that only STAT1 knockdown promotes myogenic differentiation in both primary and immortalized myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • After two weeks of culture CMR-I myoblast clones were collected, aggregated, and transplanted into the prospective dorsal thigh region of young quail embryos. (biologists.org)
  • A ) Unfused myoblasts are apparent in mbc D11.2 embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Rescue of rac1, rac2 mutant embryos by fusion-competent myoblast-specific expression of Rac1. (biologists.org)
  • One popular technique to monitor myoblast fusion is definitely imaging fixed or live embryos with light microscopy. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The results show that replicative senescence results in reduced capacities of myoblasts to differentiate, in association with defective glycose and lipid metabolism, decreased cellular mitochondrial and ATP contents, and increased ROS production, these changes accompanied with normal-to-increased ATP synthesis capacities of mitochondria [32, 33]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this system, terminal differentiation is initiated by the transcription factor MyoD, whose target genes remain mainly silent until myoblasts are induced to differentiate. (inserm.fr)
  • Antibody perturbation experiments suggested that migration, terminal differentiation and fusion of myoblasts are dependent on beta1 integrin expression. (biologists.org)
  • Because COX2 has been implicated in regulating muscle growth and regeneration, we hypothesized that stretched myoblasts may proliferate via a COX2-dependent mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Likewise, stretched COX2-/- myoblasts failed to proliferate compared to controls. (nih.gov)
  • Is there a particular reason people seem to only use it in muscle and not on C2C12s or primary myoblasts? (protocol-online.org)
  • Proper controls/design for comparing primary myoblasts? (protocol-online.org)
  • primary , myoblast , variation and 2 more. (protocol-online.org)
  • To investigate the effects of mechanical stretch on myoblast proliferation, primary myoblasts isolated from Balb/c mice were subjected to 25% cyclical uniaxial stretch for 5 h at 0.5 Hz. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the energy metabolism in primary myoblasts derived from muscle biopsies taken from vastus lateralis of young and older subjects. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the present study, we transfected the pEGFP-duFST plasmid and added PI3K and mTOR inhibitors to the medium of duck primary myoblasts. (portlandpress.com)
  • A-G′ ) Primary myoblasts 14 hours after plating were immunostained for Kirre (red), Sns (blue) and either Mbc (A-B′), active Rac1 (C-D′) or F-actin (E-G′), shown in green. (biologists.org)
  • CYTOO has developed a first-in-class myotube model by fully maturing human primary myoblasts. (cytoo.com)
  • The interventionalist uses an injection catheter via femoral artery to inject the myoblasts directly into the myocardium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Methods and Results- Skeletal myoblasts (5×10 6 ) or control media were injected into the infarct or noninfarcted myocardium at 5 or 30 days after coronary artery ligation in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • We expect that implanted skeletal myoblasts prevent progressive ventricular dilation by influencing the healing of not only the infarct scar, but also the remote, noninfarcted myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • The current study evaluated the effects on ventricular remodeling of varying the timing (early or late after MI) and site (into the infarct or noninfarcted myocardium) of skeletal myoblast delivery in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • To attempt to prevent this progression, we transplanted skeletal myoblasts into cryoinfarcted myocardium of the same rabbits (autologous transfer), monitored cardiac function in vivo for two to six weeks and examined serial sections of the hearts by light and electron microscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transfected SOD1 G93A gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes downregulated the expression of relevant markers of committed and differentiated myoblasts such as MyoD, Myogenin, MRF4, and the muscle specific miRNA expression. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the NH2 domain of p57 Kip2 necessary for inhibition of cyclin E-Cdk2 activity was sufficient to inhibit MyoD phosphorylation and to stabilize it, leading to its accumulation in proliferative myoblasts. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that repression of cyclin E-Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of MyoD by p57 Kip2 could play an important role in the accumulation of MyoD at the onset of myoblast differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that HP1alpha and HP1beta isoforms, but not HP1gamma, interact with MyoD in myoblasts. (inserm.fr)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show a preferential recruitment of HP1 proteins on MyoD target genes in proliferating myoblasts. (inserm.fr)
  • Mechanism of murine leukemia virus-induced fusion in rat myoblasts defective in differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor stimulates myoblast proliferation and represses differentiation via JAK1-STAT1-STAT3. (rupress.org)
  • add one more item to that list: NO stimulates myoblast fusion via cGMP signaling and follistatin. (rupress.org)
  • Here we have tested the ability of artificially generated, precisely controlled peptide surfaces to enhance the efficiency of myoblast differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Another aim of the project is to explore the potential use of SF in enhancing the efficiency of myoblast transplant. (europa.eu)
  • The transplantation of myoblasts obtained from a healthy donor is a potential treatment of DMD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Indeed, double-mutant analyses with scar/WAVE and with the WASP-interacting partner vrp1 (sltr, wip)/WIP show that the F-actin regulator scar also controls F-actin formation during myoblast fusion. (diva-portal.org)
  • From these findings we derived a new model for actin regulation during myoblast fusion. (diva-portal.org)
  • strong enrichment of all three proteins (Mbc, active Rac1, F-actin) in the fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). (biologists.org)
  • While we know extensively about the structural and signaling components required for myoblast fusion, the gene expression regulation underlying this important process is poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Transplantation of normal myoblasts into dystrophin-deficient muscle can potentially create a reservoir of normal myoblasts capable of fusing with dystrophic muscle fibers and restoring dystrophin ( Partridge, 1991 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A skeletal muscle myoblast that differentiates into slow muscle fibers. (zfin.org)
  • Significantly, prolonged exposure of the myoblasts to a nonhydrolysable analogue of cGMP induced the formation of abnormally large muscle fibers in culture. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, JAK1-STAT1-STAT3 constitutes a signaling pathway that promotes myoblast proliferation and prevents premature myoblast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Hey, looking for a protocol to isolate myoblasts from my Knockout and WT mice. (protocol-online.org)
  • In syngeneic C3H mice, myoblasts expressing only mouse Epo were mostly rejected within 2 weeks, as indicated by the transient increase in host hematocrit. (epfl.ch)
  • The homeobox containing transcription factor ladybird homeobox 1 (Lbx1) is a central regulator of limb myoblast migration, null mutations of Lbx1 result in severe disruptions to limb muscle formation, particularly in the distal region of the limb in mice (Gross et al. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of hyperbranched polyamidoamine (hPAMAM) mediated human vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (hVEGF 165 ) gene transfer into skeletal myoblasts for cardiac repair. (springer.com)
  • Our group has reported evidence for myoblast efficacy in the first five out of the 14 treated patients. (eur.nl)
  • Intramyocardial microdepot injection increases the efficacy of skeletal myoblast transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • B ) Fusion is restored to a wild-type pattern upon expression of Mbc in fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). (biologists.org)
  • Expression of RstΔPADVI in all myoblasts or exclusively in FCs as well as FCMs impaired myoblast fusion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cytokines on fetal myoblast function and to determine if altered responsiveness is intrinsic in IUGR myoblasts, which would represent a potential adaptive mechanism for reduced muscle mass in IUGR offspring. (unl.edu)
  • Impact of Stress Hormones and IUGR Fetal Conditions on Myoblast Functi" by Hannah E. Riley, Kristin A. Beede et al. (unl.edu)
  • Although IUGR fetal myoblasts showed greater proliferation rates than controls, proliferation rates didn't change with increasing amounts of norepinephrine or insulin in controls or IUGR myoblasts. (unl.edu)
  • Percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers in a muscle biopsy 3 or 6 months after myoblast transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The presence of dystrophin positive fibers will be assessed in a muscle biopsy done 6 months after the myoblast transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The myoblast nucleus, or core, provided a gene that allowed the fibre to begin producing dystrophin. (collinsdictionary.com)
  • During limb development Pax3 positive myoblasts delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome of limb level somites and migrate into the limb bud where they form the dorsal and ventral muscle masses. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation of Lbx1 controls lateral myoblast migration into the limb. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 2000). As such Lbx1 has been hypothesized to control lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb anlage. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Samples inside a and C are prepared … Fig. 3 Embryo staging during myoblast fusion. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • After injection of genetically engineered myoblasts into mouse muscle, hGH could be detected in serum for 3 months. (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally, we have observed that myoblasts genetically engineered to express an inhibitor of the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1, can improve the survival rate of the injected myoblasts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our findings evidence the importance of neutrophil-mediated inflammation in muscular dystrophy and indicate elastase-mediated regulation of myoblast behaviour as a potential mechanism underlying loss of regenerative capacity in dystrophic muscle. (nature.com)
  • A Type IV PDE isozyme was identified in L6 myoblasts using consensus sequence PCR primers, and its regulation by cAMP studied. (uwo.ca)
  • The results suggest that the rapid non-genomic actions of 1,25(OH)2D3 in myoblasts involve second-messenger systems associated with the generation of InsP3 and DAG and regulation of Ca2+ fluxes through voltage-operated channels. (biochemj.org)
  • These data suggest that the COX2 pathway is critical for myoblast proliferation in response to stretch. (nih.gov)
  • CMR-I myoblast clones are morphologically different from other chick myoblast clone types and can readily be identified in living cultures. (biologists.org)
  • In summary, this work demonstrates that increasing mitochondrial content in L6 myoblasts provides protection against stress-induced apoptosis. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Myostatin alters glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) expression in bovine skeletal muscles and myoblasts isolated from double-muscled (DM) and normal-muscled (NM) Japanese shorthorn cattle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether myostatin alters glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) expression in bovine skeletal muscles and myoblasts isolated from double-muscled (DM) and normal-muscled (NM) Japanese Shorthorn cattle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In differentiated myoblasts, the expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and MEF2c mRNAs was greater in DM cattle than in NM cattle (P (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The addition of myostatin decreased the expression of GLUT4 and MEF2c mRNAs in DM myoblasts (P (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CTLA4Ig expression significantly extended the survival of mouse Epo-secreting myoblasts in approximately half of syngeneic hosts, whereas it led only to a 1-week improvement effect in allogeneic recipients. (epfl.ch)
  • When combined with a transient anti-CD154 treatment, CTLA4Ig expression prevented Epo-secreting C(2)C(12)myoblasts from being rejected in allogeneic DBA/2J recipients for at least 1 month. (epfl.ch)
  • The transfected skeletal myoblasts gave stable hVEGF 165 expression for 18 days. (springer.com)
  • Myf5 is the earliest-known muscle-specific factor to be expressed in vivo and its expression is associated with determination of the myoblast lineage. (pasteur.fr)
  • On the short term: optimisation of myoblast transplantation techniques by enhancing their proliferative and migratory potential. (europa.eu)