Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA arising primarily in the head and neck, especially the orbit, of children below the age of 10. The cells are smaller than those of other rhabdomyosarcomas and are of two basic cell types: spindle cells and round cells. This cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and has a high cure rate with multi-modality therapy. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults, affecting muscles of the extremities, trunk, orbital region, etc. It is extremely malignant, metastasizing widely at an early stage. Few cures have been achieved and the prognosis is poor. "Alveolar" refers to its microscopic appearance simulating the cells of the respiratory alveolus. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
MyoD and Myf5 enable the differentiation of myogenic progenitors into myoblasts, followed by myogenin, which differentiates the ... Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs): MyoD, Myf5, Myf6 and Myogenin. There are a number of stages (listed below) of muscle ... Meanwhile, Myf5 expression is regulated by Sonic hedgehog, Wnt1, and MyoD itself. By noting the role of MyoD in regulating Myf5 ... Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 are critical to its formation. ...
MRF family members include MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 (Myf6). MyoD is one of the earliest markers of myogenic commitment. ... This is likely due to functional redundancy from Myf5 and/or Mrf4. Nevertheless, the combination of MyoD and Myf5 is vital to ... Wnts are known to active the expression of Myf5 and MyoD by Wnt1 and Wnt7a. Wnt4, Wnt5, and Wnt6 function to increase the ... "MyoD or Myf-5 is required for the formation of skeletal muscle". Cell. 75 (7): 1351-1359. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90621-V. ...
Differentiation is regulated by myogenic regulatory factors, including MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4. GATA4 and GATA6 also ...
Other members in this family include myogenin, Myf5, Myf6, Mist1, and Nex-1. When MyoD binds to the E-box motif CANNTG, muscle ... Ramamoorthy, S; Donohue, M; Buck, M. (2009). "Decreased Jun-D and myogenin expression in muscle wasting of human cachexia". Am ... MyoG-E-Box binding is necessary for neuromuscular synapse formation as an HDAC-Dach2-myogenin signaling pathway in skeletal ... Dach2-myogenin signal transduction cascade". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 103 (45): 16977-16982. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10316977T. doi: ...
... (MRF) are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myogenesis: MyoD, Myf5 ... myogenin, and MRF4. These proteins contain a conserved basic DNA binding domain that binds the E box DNA motif. They dimerize ...
The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins, including myoD (MIM 159970), myogenin (MIM 159980), MYF5 (MIM 159990), and MRF4 ( ... Funk WD, Wright WE (1992). "Cyclic amplification and selection of targets for multicomponent complexes: myogenin interacts with ...
Myf5, MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 remains to be determined. There is some research indicating that satellite cells are negatively ... CD34 and Myf5 markers specifically define the majority of quiescent satellite cells. Activated satellite cells prove ... myogenin, and MRF4 - all responsible for the induction of myocyte-specific genes. HGF testing is also used to identify active ... "Expression of CD34 and Myf5 defines the majority of quiescent adult skeletal muscle satellite cells". J Cell Biol. 151: 1221-34 ...
... is a member of the MyoD family of transcription factors, which also includes MyoD, Myf5, and Mrf4. In mice, myogenin ... In cell culture, myogenin can induce myogenesis in a variety of non-muscle cell types. Myogenin has been shown to interact with ... Myogenin (myogenic factor 4), also known as MYOG, is a gene. Myogenin is a muscle-specific basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ... Myogenin is required for the proper differentiation of most myogenic precursor cells during the process of myogenesis. When the ...
MRF family members include Myf5, MyoD (Myf3), myogenin, and MRF4 (Myf6). This transcription factor is the earliest of all MRFs ... In fact, if Myf5 is not downregulated, differentiation does not occur. The regulation of Myf5 is dictated by a large number of ... Myf5 also has an indirect role controlling proximal rib development. Although Myf5 knockouts have normal skeletal muscle, they ... Haldar M, Karan G, Tvrdik P, Capecchi MR (March 2008). "Two cell lineages, myf5 and myf5-independent, participate in mouse ...
The MYF-6 gene is physically linked to the MYF-5 gene on chromosome 12, and mutations in the MYF-6 gene typically exhibit ... While this demonstrates that MYF-6 might not be essential for the formation of myofibers, it is thought that myogenin ... Initially, MYF-6 is transiently expressed along with MYF-5 in the somites during the early stages of myogenesis. However, it is ... MYF5, MYF6) gene cluster to 12q21 by in situ hybridization and physical mapping of the locus between D12S350 and D12S106". ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD gene cluster or the 5' end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital abnormalities. In addition to effects during embryogenesis, this particular gene may also play a role in adult urogenital tract function.[7] ...
HNF-3G is a member of the forkheadclass of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific transcripts such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver.[5] ...
Animal cells maintain proper levels of intracellular lipids (fats and oils) under widely varying circumstances (lipid homeostasis).[6][7][8] For example, when cellular cholesterol levels fall below the level needed, the cell makes more of the enzymes necessary to make cholesterol. A principle step in this response is to make more of the mRNA transcripts that direct the synthesis of these enzymes. Conversely, when there is enough cholesterol around, the cell stops making those mRNAs and the level of the enzymes falls. As a result, the cell quits making cholesterol once it has enough.. A notable feature of this regulatory feedback machinery was first observed for the SREBP pathway - regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Subsequently, RIP was found to be used in almost all organisms from bacteria to human beings and regulates a wide range of processes ranging from development to neurodegeneration.. A feature of the SREBP pathway is the proteolytic release of a membrane-bound transcription ...
FXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine. Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a heterodimer with RXR) and binds to hormone response elements on DNA, which up- or down-regulates the expression of certain genes.[6] One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. FXR does not directly bind to the CYP7A1 promoter. Rather, FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which then functions to inhibit transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. In this way, a negative feedback pathway is established in which synthesis of bile acids is inhibited when cellular levels are already high. FXR has also been found to be important in regulation of hepatic triglyceride levels.[7] Studies have also shown the FXR to ...
... was first described as a transcription factor that activates the hemoglobin B gene in the red blood cell precursors of chickens.[30] Subsequent studies in mice and isolated human cells found that GATA1 stimulates the expression of genes that promote the maturation of precursor cells (e.g. erythroblasts) to red blood cells while silencing genes that cause these precursors to proliferate and thereby to self-renew.[31][32] GATA1 stimulates this maturation by, for example, inducing the expression of genes in erythroid cells that contribute to the formation of their cytoskeleton and that make enzymes necessary for the biosynthesis of hemoglobins and heme, the oxygen-carrying components of red blood cells. GATA1-inactivating mutations may thereby result in a failure to produce sufficient numbers of and/or fully functional red blood cells.[5] Also based on mouse and isolated human cell studies, GATA1 appears to play a similarly critical role in the maturation of platelets from their precursor ...
MYB factors represent a family of proteins that include the conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. Plants contain a MYB-protein subfamily that is characterised by the R2R3-type MYB domain.[8] In maize, phlobaphenes are synthesized in the flavonoids synthetic pathway[9] from polymerisation of flavan-4-ols[10][11] which encodes an R2R3 myb-like transcriptional activator[12] of the A1 gene encoding for the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (reducing dihydroflavonols into flavan-4-ols)[13] while another gene (Suppressor of Pericarp Pigmentation 1 or SPP1) acts as a suppressor.[14] The maize P gene encodes a Myb homolog that recognizes the sequence CCT/AACC, in sharp contrast with the C/TAACGG bound by vertebrate Myb proteins.[15] In sorghum, the corresponding yellow seed 1 gene (y1)[16] also encodes a R2R3 type of Myb domain protein that regulates the expression of chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes required for the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids.[17] Ruby is a MYB ...
Forkhead box protein A2 is a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific genes such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. This gene has been linked to sporadic cases of maturity onset diabetes of the young. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene.[5] ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. This gene product is one of two closely related family members, the HAND proteins Hand1 and Hand2, which are asymmetrically expressed in the developing ventricular chambers and play an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis. Working in a complementary fashion, they function in the formation of the right ventricle and aortic arch arteries, implicating them as mediators of congenital heart disease. In addition, this transcription factor plays an important role in limb and branchial arch development.[6] In one study, it was found that a missense mutation of the Hand2 protein in patients with the congenital heart disease (CHD) Tetralogy of Fallot experienced significantly decreased Hand2 interactions with other key developmental genes such as GATA4 and NKX2.5.[7] Hand2 mutations have the potential to be genes for the future study of right ventricle stenosis and its pathogenesis.[8] In avian ...
Aster JC, Robertson ES, Hasserjian RP, Turner JR, Kieff E, Sklar J (Apr 1997). "Oncogenic forms of NOTCH1 lacking either the primary binding site for RBP-Jkappa or nuclear localization sequences retain the ability to associate with RBP-Jkappa and activate transcription". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (17): 11336-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.17.11336. PMID 9111040 ...
Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T, Sugano S (Jan 2006). "Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes". Genome Research. 16 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1101/gr.4039406. PMC 1356129. PMID 16344560 ...
... is the earliest marker of the intermediate mesoderm, which will form the gonads and kidneys. This expression is not essential for the formation of intermediate mesoderm but for the differentiation towards renal and gonadal structures.[14][15] Osr1 acts upstream of and causes expression of the transcription factors Lhx1, Pax2 and Wt1 which are involved in early urogenital development.[14] In normal kidney development, activation of the Pax2-Eya1-Hox11 complex and subsequent activation of Six2 and Gdnf expression allows for branching of the ureteric bud and maintenance of the nephron-forming cap mesenchyme.[16] Six2 maintains the self-renewing state of the cap mesenchyme.[17] and Gdnf, via the Gdnf-Ret signalling pathway, is required for attraction and branching of the growing ureteric bud.[18] Within the developing kidney, Osr1 expressing cells will become mesangial cells, pericytes, ureteric smooth muscle and the kidney capsule. The cell types that Osr1 expressing cells will differentiate ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) family, members of which are transcriptional regulators that contain a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain but not a basic domain. Members of the ID family inhibit the functions of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in a dominant-negative manner by suppressing their heterodimerization partners through the HLH domains. This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene has been identified for this gene.[6] A research published by "Nature" in 01/2016, authored by Italian researchers Antonio Iavarone and Anna Lasorella, from Columbia University, states that ID2 protein has a relevant role in the development and resistance to therapies of glioblastoma, the most aggressive of brain cancers.[7] ...
Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the domain in winged-helix transcription factors (see Regulation of gene expression) has four helices and a two-strand beta-sheet. These proteins are classified into 19 families called FoxA-FoxS. Mutations in FoxP proteins are implicated in human autoimmune diseases. ...
Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP, Vidal M (Oct 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/nature04209. PMID 16189514 ...
Homeobox protein Hox-C11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXC11 gene.[5][6][7] This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, which are located on different chromosomes and consist of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXC genes located in a cluster on chromosome 12. The product of this gene binds to a promoter element of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. It also m ay play a role in early intestinal development. An alternatively spliced variant encoding a shorter isoform has been described but its full-length nature has not been determined.[7] ...
Myogenin, MYF5, MYF6) • Neurogenini (1, 2, 3) • NeuroD (1, 2) • NPAS (1, 2, 3) • OLIG (1, 2) • Pho4 • Scleraxis • TAL (1, 2) • ...
MyoD and Myf5 enable the differentiation of myogenic progenitors into myoblasts, followed by myogenin, which differentiates the ... Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs): MyoD, Myf5, Myf6 and Myogenin. There are a number of stages (listed below) of muscle ... Meanwhile, Myf5 expression is regulated by Sonic hedgehog, Wnt1, and MyoD itself. By noting the role of MyoD in regulating Myf5 ... Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 are critical to its formation. ...
... myf5; myoD; myoblast; myocyte; myogenesis; myogenic regulatory factor; myogenin; myostatin; nutritional programming; obesity; ...
MRF family members include MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 (Myf6). MyoD is one of the earliest markers of myogenic commitment. ... This is likely due to functional redundancy from Myf5 and/or Mrf4. Nevertheless, the combination of MyoD and Myf5 is vital to ... Wnts are known to active the expression of Myf5 and MyoD by Wnt1 and Wnt7a. Wnt4, Wnt5, and Wnt6 function to increase the ... "MyoD or Myf-5 is required for the formation of skeletal muscle". Cell. 75 (7): 1351-1359. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90621-V. ...
Myf5, MRF4, and myogenin [3]. Myogenesis is a multistep process, which restricts cell fate and commits cells to become skeletal ... Myf5, Myogenin, Mef2, SRF). A comprehensive description of their transcription targets and regulatory elements will define how ... the WDR5/Ash2L/MLL2 complex is engaged to the chromatin of Myf5 and myogenin genes by Pax7 and Mef2D, respectively, to ... M. Maroto, R. Reshef, A. E. Münsterberg, S. Koester, M. Goulding, and A. B. Lassar, "Ectopic Pax-3 activates MyoD and Myf-5 ...
100482024 MYOG; myogenin 100483248 MYF5; myogenic factor 5 100483494 MYF6; myogenic factor 6 100467219 FIGLA; factor in the ... myogenin) K18484 MYF5; myogenic factor 5 K18485 MYF6; myogenic factor 6 K09066 FIGLA; factor in the germline alpha K09067 ASCL ...
A. Rawls, J. Morris, M. Rudnicki et al., "Myogenins functions do not overlap with those of MyoD or Myf-5 during mouse ... M. Valdez, J. Richardson, W. Klein, and E. Olson, "Failure of Myf5 to support myogenic differentiation without Myogenin, MyoD, ... Myogenic Differentiation from MYOGENIN-Mutated Human iPS Cells by CRISPR/Cas9. Koki Higashioka,1,2 Noriko Koizumi,2 Hidetoshi ... L. Kassar-Duchossoy, B. Gayraud-Morel, D. Gomes et al., "Mrf4 determines skeletal muscle identity in Myf5: Myod double-mutant ...
... myogenin and Myf-5 in transgenic fish embryos by in situ hybridization. There was no significant change in MyoD, myogenin or ... Similarly, Myf5 and myogenin were amplified with their specific primers that generated a 482 bp and 319 bp fragment, ... Expression of MyoD, Myf5 and myogenin mRNAs was analyzed by real-time PCR in transgenic and non-transgenic fish at 2, 7, 45 and ... Profile of real-time PCR showing MyoD, Myf-5, myogenin (Myog) and Ef-1α expression in transgenic (MSTN) fish and non-transgenic ...
... myogenin, sense: 5′-CAATACACAAAGCACTGGAA-3′, antisense: 5′-TCTGAGGAGAGAAAGATGGA-3′; myf5, sense: 5′-GAACCCATTATTGCAAATGT-3′, ... It is noteworthy that it has been demonstrated that cell proliferation downregulates myf5 (41, 42) without affecting other ... In both cell lines P311 stimulated synthesis of SM and STM-related transcription factors with the exception of myf5, which was ... Rabbit polyclonal Abs against myogenin, MEF2, myoD, SRF, TGF-β1, TGF-βR1, and TGF-βR2 were purchased from Santa Cruz ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Myogenin Antibody (MGN185 + F5D) [PerCP]. Skeletal Muscle Marker. Validated: WB. Tested Reactivity: Human ... Myf-5, and MRF4 (also known as herculinor Myf-6). MyoD family members are expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle and play a ... Myogenin Antibody (MGN185 + F5D) [PerCP] Summary. Immunogen. Human myogenin recombinant protein (MGN185); Rat myogenin ... Reviews for Myogenin Antibody (NBP2-34684PCP) (0) There are no reviews for Myogenin Antibody (NBP2-34684PCP). By submitting a ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Myogenin Antibody (MGN185) [Alexa Fluor® 647]. Skeletal Muscle Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF ... Myf-5, and MRF4 (also known as herculinor Myf-6). MyoD family members are expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle and play a ... Blogs on Myogenin. There are no specific blogs for Myogenin, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Reviews for Myogenin Antibody (NBP2-33056AF647) (0) There are no reviews for Myogenin Antibody (NBP2-33056AF647). By submitting ...
In mice, myf5 is expressed as one of the earliest SKM-specific gene detectable. Myogenin assoc. with myoblast fusion and ... MyoD, myogenin, myf5, MRF4/herculin. Genes that code for basic helix-loop-helix (HL) family of transcriptional activators that ...
Myf5, Mrf4 (also known as Myf6) and Myod, and, subsequently, the differentiation gene myogenin (Myog) (Rudnicki et al., 1993; ... Myf5Cre/+:R26Rstop-NICD-nGFP/+), Rbpj-/- (Myf5Cre/+:Rbpjflox/-:R26RmT-mG/+) and NICD:Rbpj-/- (Myf5Cre/+:R26Rstop-NICD-nGFP/+: ... Myf5Cre/+:R26Rstop-NICD-nGFP/+ embryos (hereafter Myf5Cre-NICD) were highly oedemic (Fig. 2A; starting at E16.5), lacked ... B) Anti-Pparγ nuclear staining of E18.5 control (Myf5Cre/+:R26RmT-mG/+) and Myf5Cre-NICD at the forelimb level. Note the ...
Knock-in experiments in the mouse have shown that myogenin can replace Myf5 in rib cage development and that En-2 can replace ... Functional redundancy of the muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and myogenin. Nature. 1996;379:823-825. ...
They are MyoD, myogenin, myf-5 and MRF4/herculin. Upon transfection into many types of non-muscle cells, each of these has the ... Jeong Yoon is studying this problem with special attention to MRF4 and myf5. Studies of other regulators that appear important ...
ATOH1 • AhR • AHRR • ARNT • ASCL1 • BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) • CLOCK • HIF (1A, 3A) • Myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD, Myogenin, ... MYF5, MYF6) • NEUROD1 • Twist • USF1. (1.3) bHLH-ZIP. Myc • MITF • SREBP (1, 2). ...
ATOH1 • AhR • AHRR • ARNT • ASCL1 • BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) • CLOCK • HIF (1A, 3A) • Myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD, Myogenin, ... MYF5, MYF6) • NEUROD1 • Twist • USF1. (1.3) bHLH-ZIP. Myc • MITF • SREBP (1, 2). ...
MRFs consist of Myf5, MyoD, MRF4, and myogenin. MRFs normally heterodimerize with gene E2A products (i.e., E12/E47) and bind to ... or JAK1 already led to a reduced expression of myogenin, cells overexpressing both further repressed myogenin expression (Fig. ... 5 D). Furthermore, we found that the repression of myogenin and MHC mediated by the overexpression of JAK1 could be rescued by ... 1 C). In contrast, the siRNAs against STAT3 and other STATs inhibited myogenin expression (Fig. 5 B and unpublished data). ...
E: Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA levels in TA muscle at 3 dpi. F and G: IHC staining of Pax7+ satellite cells in TA ... E: Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA levels in TA muscle at 3 dpi. F and G: IHC staining of Pax7+ satellite cells in TA ... E: Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA levels in TA muscle at 3 dpi. F: Western blot analysis of p-AMPKα and AMPKα levels in ... F and G: Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA levels before injury (F), and 7 dpi (G). H: Myogenic differentiation of Lin−/Sca-1 ...
Functional redundancy of the muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and myogenin. Nature 379, 823-825 (1996). ...
Quiescent satellite cells are characterized by their expression of Pax7 and Myf5 but not MyoD or Myogenin. Damage to the ... The initiation of terminal differentiation and fusion begins with the expression of Myogenin, which in concert with MyoD will ... Adult myoblasts express the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5. Following proliferation, adult myoblasts begin ... only one of which has activated Myf5. Functional differences in regenerative potential exist between satellite stem cells and ...
Together with MYF5 and MYOD1, co-occupies muscle-specific gene promoter core regions during myogenesis. Cooperates also with ... "Functional redundancy of the muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and myogenin.". Wang Y., Schnegelsberg P.N., Dausman J. ... "Functional redundancy of the muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and myogenin.". Wang Y., Schnegelsberg P.N., Dausman J. ... "Loss of myogenin in postnatal life leads to normal skeletal muscle but reduced body size.". Knapp J.R., Davie J.K., Myer A., ...
These include hlh-1 and CeTwi in C. elegans; Twi and nau in Drosophila; and MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 in vertebrates. The ... These include hlh-1 and CeTwi in C. elegans; Twi and nau in Drosophila; and MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 in vertebrates. The ... Redefining the Genetic Hierachies Controlling Skeletal Myogenesis: Pax-3 and Myf-5 Act Upstream of MyoD ... Ectopic Pax-3 Activates MyoD and Myf-5 Expression in Embryonic Mesoderm and Neural Tissue ...
Zammit, P. S. Function of the myogenic regulatory factors Myf5, MyoD, Myogenin and MRF4 in skeletal muscle, satellite cells and ... which sequester Myf5 mRNA in messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granules. Upon activation, miR-31 levels decrease and Myf5 mRNA ... We observed that they were not significantly different (Myod, p = 0.997; Myf5, p = 0.973; Myog, p = 0.190; Pax7, p = 0.890). ... At the mRNA level, we observed similar relative expression of Myf5 and Myod in all strains and higher expression of Myog in the ...
Wang, Y. and Jaenisch, R. (1997). Myogenin can substitute for Myf5 in promoting myogenesis but less efficiently. Development ... Functional redundancy of the muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and myogenin. Nature 379,823 -825. ...
Scale bars, 1 mm (a) Myf-5 18°C, (b) Myf-5 25°C, (c) MyoD 18°C (d) MyoD 25°C, (e) myogenin 18°C, (f) Myogenin 25°C, (g) MyHC ... Myf-5 and myogenin, and five myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms during development. The genes encoding Myf-5 and MyoD were ... Expression of myogenin begins at 10.5 h (at 28.5°C) in a subset of the MyoD/Myf-5-expressing cells (Weinberg et al., 1996; Chen ... Expression of myogenin was switched on in the somites later than Myf-5 and MyoD (Fig. 1e,f). The extent of staining lagged ...
  • Embryos of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were reared from fertilization of the eggs to inflation of the swim bladder in the larval stage at 18 and 25°C. cRNA probes were used to detect transcripts of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, Myf-5 and myogenin, and five myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms during development. (biologists.org)
  • however, myogenin failed to induce measurable quantities of muscle-specific mRNAs, even in cells not expressing dominant negative SWI/SNF. (umassmed.edu)
  • Evidence from lineage tracing experiments identified a subpopulation of satellite cells having never expressed the myogenic transcription factor Myf5 (satellite stem cells) are placed hierarchically above satellite cells that have expressed Myf5 at some point during development (satellite myogenic cells). (nih.gov)
  • One of the main actions of MyoD is to remove cells from the cell cycle (halt proliferation for terminal cell cycle arrest in differentiated myocytes) by enhancing the transcription of p21 and myogenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite stem cells, upon asymmetric division (typically in a apical-basal orientation), will give rise to two daughter cells, only one of which has activated Myf5. (nih.gov)
  • Adult satellite cells identified by M-cadherin labelling, when activated, initially express either MyoD or Myf5 or both myogenic factors. (biologists.org)
  • Cells expressing the progenitor cell marker myf5, were labeled green, and those expressing myogenin, a marker of mature muscle cells, were labeled red. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a series of experiments, the research team confirmed that myf5-expressing RMS cells had powerful tumor-propagating potential, but the ability to visualize how tumor cells move in living fish produced a surprising observation. (innovations-report.com)
  • While myf5-expressing cells largely remained within the primary tumor itself, myogenin-expressing RMS cells easily moved out from the tumor, entering the vascular system and passing through usually impenetrable layers of collagen. (innovations-report.com)
  • Only after the more-differentiated but non-proliferative myogenin-expressing cells had colonized an area did the myf5-expressing tumor-propagating cells appear and start the growth a new tumor. (innovations-report.com)
  • Efficient in vitro myogenic reprogramming of human primary mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells by Myf5. (nih.gov)
  • Associated Genetic Factors: PAX3, c-Met, Mox2, MSX1, Six, Myf5, and MyoD Mox2 (also referred to as MEOX-2) plays an important role in the induction of mesoderm and regional specification. (wikipedia.org)