Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.
Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cell surface receptors that are specific for THROMBOPOIETIN. They signal through interaction with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 2.
A myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myelodysplasia associated with bone marrow and peripheral blood patterns similar to CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, but cytogenetically lacking a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr/abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).
A myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disease characterized by monocytosis, increased monocytes in the bone marrow, variable degrees of dysplasia, but an absence of immature granulocytes in the blood.
Enlargement of the spleen.
The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
A rare myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by a sustained, mature neutrophilic leukocytosis. No monocytosis, EOSINOPHILIA, or basophilia is present, nor is there a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr-abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
A leukemia affecting young children characterized by SPLENOMEGALY, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Traditionally classed as a myeloproliferative disease, it is now considered a mixed myeloproliferative-mylelodysplastic disorder.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Clonal myeloid disorders that possess both dysplastic and proliferative features but are not properly classified as either MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES or MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Enlargement of the liver.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
An advanced phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, characterized by a rapid increase in the proportion of immature white blood cells (blasts) in the blood and bone marrow to greater than 30%.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
BENZOIC ACID amides.
Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4, often used in pharmaceuticals as smooth muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antihistamines, but can also be found as recreational drugs with stimulant and entactogen properties.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
A protein found most abundantly in the nervous system. Defects or deficiencies in this protein are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Mutations in the gene (GENE, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) affect two known functions: regulation of ras-GTPase and tumor suppression.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.

Mutant N-ras induces myeloproliferative disorders and apoptosis in bone marrow repopulated mice. (1/769)

Mutations that activate the N-ras oncogene are among the most frequently detected genetic alterations in human acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). However, because N-ras has not been shown to induce these disorders in an in vivo model, the role of N-ras in the evolution of myeloid leukemia is unclear. To investigate the potential of N-ras to induce myeloid leukemia, lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with bone marrow (BM) cells infected with a retroviral vector carrying activated N-ras. Approximately 60% of these mice developed hematopoietic disorders, including severe MPDs resembling human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or AML with differentiation (French-American-British [FAB] classification M2). Other reconstituted mice succumbed to hematopoietic defects that were pathologically similar to human MDSs. The latter disorders appeared to be due to a myeloid impairment that was demonstrated by enumeration of day-12 colony-forming units-spleen (CFU-S) and by in vitro colony assays. A high level of apoptosis associated with thymic atrophy and peripheral blood (PB) lymphopenia was also evident in N-ras reconstituted mice. Our results are consistent with a model in which antiproliferative effects are a primary consequence of N-ras mutations and secondary transforming events are necessary for the development of myeloid leukemia. This is the first report of an in vivo model for N-ras induced MPD and leukemia.  (+info)

Patients with thrombocytosis have normal or slightly elevated thrombopoietin levels. (2/769)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The distinction between clonal and reactive thrombocytoses is a frequent problem and implies different therapeutic options. As thrombopoietin (TPO) is the main regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, we measured TPO levels in patients with thrombocytosis in an attempt to understand the regulation and potential utility of distinguishing thrombocytoses. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum TPO levels, platelet counts, mean platelet volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age were evaluated in 25 patients with clonal thrombocytosis (15 with essential thrombocythemia, 6 with polycythemia vera and 4 with chronic myeloid leukemia) and in 50 patients with reactive thrombocytosis distributed in three groups: 1) patients in post-surgical states; 2) patients with solid tumors; and 3) patients with inflammatory diseases. RESULTS: TPO levels were slightly increased in patients with clonal (135+/-50 pg/mL) and reactive (147+/-58 pg/mL) thrombocytosis compared with controls (121+/-58 pg/mL). Analyzing the different groups, patients with essential thrombocythemia had the lowest TPO levels (120+/-28 pg/mL) and patients with solid tumors the highest levels (162+/-59 pg/mL). Patients with clonal thrombocytosis were older, had higher platelet counts, mean platelet volume and hemoglobin, and lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate than patients with reactive thrombocytosis. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Minor differences were observed in TPO levels between patients with primary and secondary thrombocytoses. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but not TPO levels, may be a useful tool for discriminating both types of thrombocytoses.  (+info)

Trisomy 21 associated transient neonatal myeloproliferation in the absence of Down's syndrome. (3/769)

Although usually associated with Down's syndrome, transient neonatal myeloproliferation (TMD) can occur in the absence of a constitutional trisomy 21. This report describes two such cases, both of whom had a trisomy 21 restricted to clonal cells. Unlike in previous such reported cases, spontaneous morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular remission in both cases was followed by re-emergence, in one case, of an evolved clone with a more malignant phenotype which required pharmacological intervention. Awareness that trisomy 21 bearing leukaemia in the neonatal period can be transient even in the absence of Down's syndrome is important to prevent unnecessary treatment. Equally, such cases require indefinite follow up as a proportion may have a recurrence which may require treatment.  (+info)

Characterization of FIM-FGFR1, the fusion product of the myeloproliferative disorder-associated t(8;13) translocation. (4/769)

The t(8;13) translocation found in a rare type of stem cell myeloproliferative disorder generates a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase containing N-terminal sequence encoded by the FIM gene linked to the FGFR1 kinase domain. Here we have further characterized FIM and FIM-FGFR1 proteins. Firstly, we have studied their respective subcellular localization. We show that FIM has nuclear and nucleolar localization, whereas FIM-FGFR1 is mainly cytoplasmic. Within the nucleolus, FIM colocalizes with the upstream binding factor in interphasic cells, indicating that FIM may be involved in the regulation of rRNA transcription. We demonstrate that the targetting of FIM to the nucleus depends upon its C-terminal region, which is absent in the cytoplasmic FIM-FGFR1 protein. Secondly, we demonstrate that FIM-FGFR1 has constitutive dimerization capability mediated by the FIM N-terminal sequences. Finally, we show that FIM-FGFR1 promotes survival of pro-B Ba/F3 cells after interleukin-3 withdrawal, whereas ligand-activated FGFR1 induced not only cell survival but also interleukin-3 independence. Taken together, these results indicate that FIM-FGFR1 is activated by dimerization as a cytoplasmic kinase and suggest that FIM-FGFR1 partially signals through the FGFR1 pathways.  (+info)

Bcr-Abl with an SH3 deletion retains the ability To induce a myeloproliferative disease in mice, yet c-Abl activated by an SH3 deletion induces only lymphoid malignancy. (5/769)

The bcr-abl oncogene plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The fusion of Bcr sequences to Abl constitutively activates the Abl protein tyrosine kinase. We have recently shown that expression of Bcr-Abl in bone marrow cells by retroviral transduction efficiently induces in mice a myeloproliferative disease resembling human CML and that Abl kinase activity is essential for Bcr-Abl to induce a CML-like myeloproliferative disease. However, it is not known if activation of the Abl kinase alone is sufficient to induce a myeloproliferative disease. In this study, we examined the role of the Abl SH3 domain of Bcr-Abl in induction of myeloproliferative disease and tested whether c-Abl activated by SH3 deletion can induce a CML-like disease. We found that Bcr-Abl with an Abl SH3 deletion still induced a CML-like disease in mice. In contrast, c-Abl activated by SH3 deletion induced only lymphoid malignancies in mice and did not stimulate the growth of myeloid colonies from 5-fluorouracil-treated bone marrow cells in vitro. These results indicate that Bcr sequences in Bcr-Abl play additional roles in inducing myeloproliferative disease beyond simply activating the Abl kinase domain and that functions of the Abl SH3 domain are either not required or redundant in Bcr-Abl-induced myeloproliferative disease. The results also suggest that the type of hematological neoplasm induced by an abl oncogene is influenced not only by what type of hematopoietic cells the oncogene is targeted into but also by the intrinsic oncogenic properties of the particular abl oncogene. In addition, we found that DeltaSH3 c-Abl induced less activation of Akt and STAT5 than did Bcr-Abl, suggesting that activation of these pathways plays a critical role in inducing a CML-like disease.  (+info)

De novo appearance of the ph-1 chromosome in a previously monosomic bone marrow (45,XX,-6): conversion of a myeloproliferative disorder to acute myelogenous leukemia. (6/769)

Bone marrow examination of a patient with a myeloproliferative disorder revealed monosomy for chromosome No. 6 (45,XX,-6). Two months later, during blastic crisis, reinvestigation of the bone marrow showed the presence of the Ph-1 chromosome in the previously aneuploid cell line (45,XX,-6,-22,+Ph-1). This case differs from those previously published in that the Ph-1 chromosome appeared de novo during the development of frank acute myelogenous leukemia.  (+info)

Patients' psychosocial concerns following stem cell transplantation. (7/769)

Information regarding the nature, frequency, correlates and temporal trajectory of concerns of stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients is critical to the development of interventions to enhance quality of life (QOL) in these individuals. This study examined psychosocial concerns in 110 SCT (87% autologous) recipients drawn from two SCT centers. Participants were a mean of 46 years of age and 17 months post-SCT (range 3-62 months). Information regarding current and past SCT-related concerns, performance status, and demographic characteristics was collected by telephone interview or questionnaire. Recipients reported a wide variety of psychosocial concerns following SCT. Recipients who were younger, female and evidenced a poorer performance status reported a larger number of post-SCT concerns. Examination of the temporal trajectory of concerns suggests that some concerns are salient throughout the course of post-SCT recovery (eg disease recurrence, energy level, 'returning to normal'), some are salient early in the course of recovery (eg quality of medical care, overprotectiveness by others), and others emerge later in the course of recovery (eg feeling tense or anxious, sexual life, sleep, relationship with spouse/partner, ability to be affectionate). Implications for the development of interventions to enhance post-SCT QOL are identified.  (+info)

Myeloproliferative disorders. (8/769)

Forty-three operative procedures were performed on a population of 250 patients with myeloproliferative disorders, including polycythemia vera, myeloid metaplasia (MM) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The overall operative mortality was approximately 7% and the incidence of excessive bleeding which could be related to coagulopathy was 5%. Twenty-one patients with MM or CML underwent splenectomy for palliation of symptoms related to the enlarged spleen or hematologic problems. Eighty-four percent of the latter group were improved. Adverse hematologic effects which could be attributed to splenectomy in these patients were confined to two patients who developed marked thrombocytosis. Among the 23 patients with MM, 9 had portal hypertension. Three underwent portacaval shunt and one a splenorenal shunt for bleeding varices. One of the patients died of hepatic necrosis. Estimated hepatic blood flow determinations (EHBF) in 4 patients with portal hypertension demonstrated a marked absolute increase and an increase in the ratio of EHBF/Cardiac Index. Absence of any evidence of intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction in these patients and the demonstration that splenectomy relieved portal hypertension defined at surgery in 4 patients, suggests that augmented adhepatic flow contributes to portal hypertension in some cases. The review leads to the conclusions that: 1) Operative procedures in prepared patients with myeloproliferative disorders are not associated with prohibitive mortality and morbidity rates. 2) Splenectomy is indicated for patients with increasing transfusion requirements and symptomatic splenomegaly or hypersplenism and should be performed early in the course of disease. 3) When associated portal hypertension and bleeding varices are present, hemodynamic studies should be carried out to define if splenectomy alone, or a portal systemic decompressive procedure is indicated.  (+info)

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Polycythemia Vera is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm, a group of rare blood cancers. In Polycythemia Vera, the body produces too many red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and thickening of the blood, which can cause various symptoms such as fatigue, headache, dizziness, and itching. It can also lead to enlargement of the spleen. The exact cause of Polycythemia Vera is not known, but it is associated with genetic mutations in the JAK2 gene in most cases. It is a progressive disease that can lead to complications such as bleeding, thrombosis, and transformation into acute leukemia if left untreated.

Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a rare, chronic bone marrow disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with fibrous scar tissue, leading to impaired production of blood cells. This results in cytopenias (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), which can cause fatigue, infection susceptibility, and bleeding tendencies. Additionally, PMF is often accompanied by the proliferation of abnormal megakaryocytes (large, atypical bone marrow cells that produce platelets) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (blood cell formation outside the bone marrow, typically in the spleen and liver).

PMF is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), which is a group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by excessive proliferation of one or more types of blood cells. PMF can present with various symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, abdominal discomfort due to splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), and bone pain. In some cases, PMF may progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The exact cause of PMF remains unclear; however, genetic mutations are known to play a significant role in its development. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), and MPL genes have been identified as commonly mutated in PMF patients. These genetic alterations contribute to the dysregulated production of blood cells and the activation of signaling pathways that promote fibrosis.

Diagnosis of PMF typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, complete blood count (CBC), bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular testing to identify genetic mutations. Treatment options depend on the individual patient's symptoms, risk stratification, and disease progression. They may include observation, supportive care, medications to manage symptoms and control the disease (such as JAK inhibitors), and stem cell transplantation for eligible patients.

Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) is a tyrosine kinase enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. It is named after the Roman god Janus, who is depicted with two faces, as JAK2 has two similar phosphate-transferring domains. JAK2 is involved in various cytokine receptor-mediated signaling pathways and contributes to hematopoiesis, immune function, and cell growth.

Mutations in the JAK2 gene have been associated with several myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. The most common mutation is JAK2 V617F, which results in a constitutively active enzyme that promotes uncontrolled cell proliferation and survival, contributing to the development of these MPNs.

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), a type of blood cancer characterized by the overproduction of platelets (thrombocytosis) in the bone marrow. In ET, there is an excessive proliferation of megakaryocytes, the precursor cells that produce platelets. This leads to increased platelet counts in the peripheral blood, which can increase the risk of blood clots (thrombosis) and bleeding episodes (hemorrhage).

The term "essential" is used to indicate that the cause of this condition is not known or idiopathic. ET is primarily a disease of older adults, but it can also occur in younger individuals. The diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia requires careful evaluation and exclusion of secondary causes of thrombocytosis, such as reactive conditions, inflammation, or other myeloproliferative neoplasms.

The clinical presentation of ET can vary widely among patients. Some individuals may be asymptomatic and discovered only during routine blood tests, while others may experience symptoms related to thrombosis or bleeding. Common symptoms include headaches, visual disturbances, dizziness, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the extremities, if there are complications due to blood clots in the brain or other parts of the body. Excessive bruising, nosebleeds, or blood in the stool can indicate bleeding complications.

Treatment for essential thrombocythemia is aimed at reducing the risk of thrombosis and managing symptoms. Hydroxyurea is a commonly used medication to lower platelet counts, while aspirin may be prescribed to decrease the risk of blood clots. In some cases, interferon-alpha or ruxolitinib might be considered as treatment options. Regular follow-up with a hematologist and monitoring of blood counts are essential for managing this condition and detecting potential complications early.

Thrombocytosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high platelet count (also known as thrombocytes) in the blood. Platelets are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting. A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Thrombocytosis is typically defined as a platelet count exceeding 450,000-500,000 platelets/µL.

Thrombocytosis can be classified into two types: reactive (or secondary) thrombocytosis and primary (or essential) thrombocytosis. Reactive thrombocytosis is more common and occurs as a response to an underlying condition, such as infection, inflammation, surgery, or certain types of cancer. Primary thrombocytosis, on the other hand, is caused by intrinsic abnormalities in the bone marrow cells responsible for platelet production (megakaryocytes), and it is often associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms like essential thrombocythemia.

While mild thrombocytosis may not cause any symptoms, higher platelet counts can increase the risk of blood clots (thrombosis) and bleeding disorders due to excessive platelet aggregation. Symptoms of thrombocytosis may include headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, or chest pain if a blood clot forms in the brain or heart. Bleeding symptoms can manifest as easy bruising, nosebleeds, or gastrointestinal bleeding.

Treatment for thrombocytosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In cases of reactive thrombocytosis, treating the underlying disorder often resolves the high platelet count. For primary thrombocytosis, medications like aspirin or cytoreductive therapy (such as hydroxyurea) may be used to reduce the risk of blood clots and control platelet production. Regular monitoring of platelet counts is essential for managing this condition and preventing potential complications.

Thrombopoietin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor found on megakaryocytes and platelets. They are also known as MPL (myeloproliferative leukemia virus) receptors. Thrombopoietin is a hormone that regulates the production of platelets in the body, and it binds to these receptors to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes, which are large bone marrow cells that produce platelets.

The thrombopoietin receptor is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain that contains the thrombopoietin-binding site, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain that contains several tyrosine residues that become phosphorylated upon thrombopoietin binding. This triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various downstream pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene have been associated with certain myeloproliferative neoplasms, such as essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, which are characterized by excessive platelet production and bone marrow fibrosis.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), atypical, BCR-ABL negative is a rare subtype of CML that does not have the typical Philadelphia chromosome abnormality or the resulting BCR-ABL fusion gene. This means that the disease lacks the constitutively active tyrosine kinase that is targeted by imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and other similar drugs.

The atypical form of CML is often characterized by a more aggressive clinical course, with a higher risk of transformation to acute leukemia compared to the classic form of CML. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat due to its rarity and heterogeneity. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up with blood tests and bone marrow examinations is essential for monitoring the disease course and adjusting treatment as necessary.

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a type of cancer that affects the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. It is characterized by an overproduction of white blood cells, specifically monocytes and myeloid cells. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with normal blood cell production, leading to a shortage of red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells.

CMML is considered a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), which means it has features of both myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). MDS are conditions in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells, while MPNs are conditions in which the bone marrow produces too many abnormal blood cells.

In CMML, the myelomonocytic cells may accumulate in various organs and tissues, leading to enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly) and liver (hepatomegaly), as well as an increased risk of infections, bleeding, and anemia. The symptoms of CMML can vary widely depending on the severity of the disease and the specific organs affected.

CMML is typically a disease of older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. It is slightly more common in men than in women. The exact cause of CMML is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations that occur over time and are associated with aging. Treatment options for CMML depend on the stage and severity of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is defined as the production of blood cells outside of the bone marrow in adults. In normal physiological conditions, hematopoiesis occurs within the bone marrow cavities of flat bones such as the pelvis, ribs, skull, and vertebrae. However, certain disease states or conditions can cause EMH to occur in various organs such as the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood.

EMH can be seen in several pathological conditions, including hematologic disorders such as myeloproliferative neoplasms (e.g., polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytopenia), myelodysplastic syndromes, and leukemias. It can also occur in response to bone marrow failure or infiltration by malignant cells, as well as in some non-hematologic disorders such as fibrocystic disease of the breast and congenital hemolytic anemias.

EMH may lead to organ enlargement, dysfunction, and clinical symptoms depending on the site and extent of involvement. Treatment of EMH is generally directed at managing the underlying condition causing it.

Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare type of chronic leukemia, which is a cancer of the white blood cells. Specifically, CNL is characterized by an overproduction of mature neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that helps fight infection.

The medical definition of CNL, as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, is as follows:

Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by sustained peripheral blood neutrophilia >25 × 109/L, with a left shift and often toxic granulations, without evidence of another myeloid neoplasm. The bone marrow shows hypercellularity with an increase in mature neutrophils, including bands, segmented forms, and occasionally toxic granulations or Döhle bodies. There is no significant increase in blasts, promyelocytes, or other immature granulocytic precursors (

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL positive is a specific subtype of leukemia that originates in the bone marrow and involves the excessive production of mature granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. It is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is formed by a genetic translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. This gene encodes for an abnormal protein with increased tyrosine kinase activity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The presence of this genetic abnormality is used to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.

Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) is a rare and aggressive type of childhood leukemia, characterized by the overproduction of myeloid and monocytic white blood cells in the bone marrow. These cells accumulate in the bloodstream, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding. JMML is different from other types of leukemia because it involves both the myeloid and monocytic cell lines, and it often affects younger children, typically those under 4 years old. The exact cause of JMML is not fully understood, but it has been linked to genetic mutations in certain genes, such as PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS, CBL, and NF1. Treatment for JMML usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders characterized by dysplasia (abnormal development or maturation) of one or more types of blood cells or by ineffective hematopoiesis, resulting in cytopenias (lower than normal levels of one or more types of blood cells). MDS can be classified into various subtypes based on the number and type of cytopenias, the degree of dysplasia, the presence of ring sideroblasts, and cytogenetic abnormalities.

The condition primarily affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. MDS can evolve into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in approximately 30-40% of cases. The pathophysiology of MDS involves genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that lead to impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, ultimately resulting in cytopenias and an increased risk of developing AML.

The diagnosis of MDS typically requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, along with cytogenetic and molecular analyses to identify specific genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment options for MDS depend on the subtype, severity of cytopenias, and individual patient factors. These may include supportive care measures, such as transfusions and growth factor therapy, or more aggressive treatments, such as chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (AMKL) is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. Specifically, it is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells in the bone marrow that interfere with the production of normal blood cells.

In AMKL, the abnormal cells are megakaryoblasts, which are immature cells that should develop into platelet-producing cells called megakaryocytes. However, in AMKL, these cells do not mature properly and instead accumulate in the bone marrow and bloodstream, leading to a shortage of healthy blood cells.

Symptoms of AMKL may include fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and the appearance of small red spots on the skin (petechiae). Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical exam, medical history, blood tests, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, and sometimes imaging studies.

Treatment for AMKL usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the extent of the disease.

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are called granulocytes because they contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which are filled with various enzymes and proteins that help them fight off infections and destroy foreign substances.

There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant type and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Eosinophils play a role in defending against parasitic infections and regulating immune responses. Basophils are involved in inflammatory reactions and allergic responses.

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and patrol for any signs of infection or foreign substances. When they encounter a threat, they quickly move to the site of infection or injury and release their granules to destroy the invading organisms or substances.

Abnormal levels of granulocytes in the blood can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

A fusion protein known as "BCR-ABL" is formed due to a genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome (derived from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22). This results in the formation of the oncogenic BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, which contributes to unregulated cell growth and division, leading to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and some types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The BCR-ABL fusion protein has constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity, which results in the activation of various signaling pathways promoting cell proliferation, survival, and inhibition of apoptosis. This genetic alteration is crucial in the development and progression of CML and some types of ALL, making BCR-ABL an important therapeutic target for these malignancies.

Megakaryocytes are large, specialized bone marrow cells that are responsible for the production and release of platelets (also known as thrombocytes) into the bloodstream. Platelets play an essential role in blood clotting and hemostasis, helping to prevent excessive bleeding during injuries or trauma.

Megakaryocytes have a unique structure with multilobed nuclei and abundant cytoplasm rich in organelles called alpha-granules and dense granules, which store various proteins, growth factors, and enzymes necessary for platelet function. As megakaryocytes mature, they extend long cytoplasmic processes called proplatelets into the bone marrow sinuses, where these extensions fragment into individual platelets that are released into circulation.

Abnormalities in megakaryocyte number, size, or function can lead to various hematological disorders, such as thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), thrombocytosis (high platelet count), and certain types of leukemia.

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in various biological processes such as cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. It is a transmembrane protein that binds to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways.

FGFR1 is specifically involved in the regulation of embryonic development, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Mutations in the FGFR1 gene have been associated with several human diseases, including various types of cancer, skeletal dysplasias, and developmental disorders.

In summary, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a cell surface receptor that binds to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and activates intracellular signaling pathways involved in various biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Leukemia, myeloid is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. Myeloid leukemia affects the myeloid cells, which include red blood cells, platelets, and most types of white blood cells. In this condition, the bone marrow produces abnormal myeloid cells that do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells hinder the production of normal blood cells, leading to various symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, increased risk of infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

There are several types of myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). AML progresses rapidly and requires immediate treatment, while CML tends to progress more slowly. The exact causes of myeloid leukemia are not fully understood, but risk factors include exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, smoking, genetic disorders, and a history of chemotherapy or other cancer treatments.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Polycythemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal increase in the total red blood cell (RBC) mass or hematocrit (the percentage of RBCs in the blood). This results in a higher-than-normal viscosity of the blood, which can lead to various complications such as impaired circulation, increased risk of blood clots, and reduced oxygen supply to the tissues.

There are two main types of polycythemia: primary and secondary. Primary polycythemia, also known as polycythemia vera, is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm caused by genetic mutations that lead to excessive production of RBCs in the bone marrow. Secondary polycythemia, on the other hand, is a reactive condition triggered by various factors such as chronic hypoxia (low oxygen levels), high altitude, smoking, or certain medical conditions like sleep apnea, heart disease, or kidney tumors.

Symptoms of polycythemia may include fatigue, headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, itching, and a bluish or reddish tint to the skin (cyanosis). Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may involve phlebotomy, medications to reduce RBC production, and management of associated complications.

Myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative diseases (MDS/MPD) are a group of rare and complex bone marrow disorders that exhibit features of both myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). MDS is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, leading to cytopenias, and dysplastic changes in the bone marrow. MPNs are clonal disorders of the hematopoietic stem cells resulting in increased proliferation of one or more cell lines, often leading to elevated blood counts.

MDS/MPD share features of both these entities, with patients showing signs of both ineffective hematopoiesis and increased cell production. These disorders have overlapping clinical, laboratory, and morphological characteristics, making their classification challenging. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized several MDS/MPD subtypes, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MDS/MPN, U).

The pathogenesis of MDS/MPD involves genetic mutations that affect various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, epigenetic regulation, and splicing machinery. The prognosis for patients with MDS/MPD varies depending on the specific subtype, age, performance status, and the presence of certain genetic abnormalities. Treatment options may include supportive care, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Hepatomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement of the liver beyond its normal size. The liver is usually located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen and can be felt during a physical examination. A healthcare provider may detect hepatomegaly by palpating (examining through touch) the abdomen, noticing that the edge of the liver extends past the lower ribcage.

There are several possible causes for hepatomegaly, including:
- Fatty liver disease (both alcoholic and nonalcoholic)
- Hepatitis (viral or autoimmune)
- Liver cirrhosis
- Cancer (such as primary liver cancer, metastatic cancer, or lymphoma)
- Infections (e.g., bacterial, fungal, or parasitic)
- Heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions
- Genetic disorders (e.g., Gaucher's disease, Niemann-Pick disease, or Hunter syndrome)
- Metabolic disorders (e.g., glycogen storage diseases, hemochromatosis, or Wilson's disease)

Diagnosing the underlying cause of hepatomegaly typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies like ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the specific cause identified and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) is a group of disorders characterized by persistent eosinophilia (an abnormal increase in the number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell) leading to organ damage. The eosinophil count in the peripheral blood is typically greater than 1500 cells/μL. HES can affect various organs, including the heart, skin, nervous system, and digestive tract, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, skin rashes, muscle weakness, and abdominal pain. The exact cause of HES is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to abnormal production or activation of eosinophils. Treatment may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and targeted therapies that reduce eosinophil levels.

Leukocytosis is a condition characterized by an increased number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the peripheral blood. A normal white blood cell count ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter of blood in adults. Leukocytosis is typically considered present when the white blood cell count exceeds 11,000 cells/µL. However, the definition might vary slightly depending on the laboratory and clinical context.

Leukocytosis can be a response to various underlying conditions, including bacterial or viral infections, inflammation, tissue damage, leukemia, and other hematological disorders. It is essential to investigate the cause of leukocytosis through further diagnostic tests, such as blood smears, differential counts, and additional laboratory and imaging studies, to guide appropriate treatment.

Human chromosome pair 8 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure known as a chromatin.

Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Pair 8 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Each member of chromosome pair 8 has a similar size, shape, and banding pattern, and they are identical in males and females.

Chromosome pair 8 contains several genes that are essential for various cellular functions and human development. Some of the genes located on chromosome pair 8 include those involved in the regulation of metabolism, nerve function, immune response, and cell growth and division.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 8 can lead to genetic disorders such as Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, or partial trisomy 8, which results from an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 8. Both of these conditions are associated with developmental delays, intellectual disability, and various physical abnormalities.

Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the obstruction of the hepatic veins, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the liver to the heart. This obstruction can be caused by blood clots, tumors, or other abnormalities, and it can lead to a backflow of blood in the liver, resulting in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, swelling, and liver enlargement. In severe cases, Budd-Chiari syndrome can cause liver failure and other complications if left untreated. The diagnosis of this condition typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and treatment may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolytic therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight mistake in your question. The correct term is "ABL" (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), which refers to a specific gene that encodes a tyrosine kinase protein. ABL genes can play a role in the development of certain types of cancer when they become mutated or dysregulated. Here's a brief medical definition:

ABL (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1) gene:
A gene located on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a tyrosine kinase protein involved in various cellular processes, such as regulation of the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). The ABL gene can become dysregulated or mutated, leading to the production of an abnormal tyrosine kinase protein that contributes to the development of certain types of cancer, most notably chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The Philadelphia chromosome, a result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, creates the abnormal fusion gene BCR-ABL, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that drives the development of CML. Targeted therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib (Gleevec), has been successful in treating CML and some forms of ALL with ABL mutations.

Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of platelet production, also known as thrombopoiesis. It is primarily produced by the liver and to some extent by megakaryocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing platelets.

TPO binds to its receptor, c-Mpl, on the surface of megakaryocytes and their precursor cells, stimulating their proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into platelets. By regulating the number of platelets in circulation, TPO helps maintain hemostasis, the process that prevents excessive bleeding after injury.

In addition to its role in thrombopoiesis, TPO has been shown to have potential effects on other cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells and certain immune cells. However, its primary function remains the regulation of platelet production.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming and developing blood cells. It occurs in the bone marrow and includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis). This process is regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and cytokines. Hematopoiesis begins early in fetal development and continues throughout a person's life. Disorders of hematopoiesis can result in conditions such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis.

A missense mutation is a type of point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in the substitution of a different amino acid in the protein that is encoded by the affected gene. This occurs when the altered codon (a sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds to a specific amino acid) specifies a different amino acid than the original one. The function and/or stability of the resulting protein may be affected, depending on the type and location of the missense mutation. Missense mutations can have various effects, ranging from benign to severe, depending on the importance of the changed amino acid for the protein's structure or function.

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that is primarily used in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera. It works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA, which inhibits the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer therapy, hydroxyurea is also used off-label for the management of sickle cell disease. In this context, it helps to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which decreases the formation of sickled red blood cells.

The medical definition of hydroxyurea is:

A hydantoin derivative and antimetabolite that inhibits ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thereby interfering with DNA synthesis. It has been used as an antineoplastic agent, particularly in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders, and more recently for the management of sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing fetal hemoglobin production.

Human chromosome pair 20 is one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes present in every cell of the body, except for the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 individual chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that carry genetic information in the form of genes.

Human chromosome pair 20 is an acrocentric chromosome, meaning it has a short arm (p arm) and a long arm (q arm), with the centromere located near the junction of the two arms. The short arm of chromosome 20 is very small and contains few genes, while the long arm contains several hundred genes that play important roles in various biological processes.

Chromosome pair 20 is associated with several genetic disorders, including DiGeorge syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of the long arm of chromosome 20. This syndrome is characterized by birth defects affecting the heart, face, and immune system. Other conditions associated with abnormalities of chromosome pair 20 include some forms of intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and cancer.

A blast crisis is a severe and life-threatening complication that can occur in patients with certain types of blood cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is characterized by the rapid growth and accumulation of immature blood cells, known as blasts, in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

In a blast crisis, the blasts crowd out normal blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to a significant decrease in the production of healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This can result in symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, infection, easy bruising or bleeding, and an enlarged spleen.

Blast crisis is often treated with aggressive chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation to eliminate the abnormal blasts and restore normal blood cell production. The prognosis for patients in blast crisis can be poor, depending on the type of leukemia, the patient's age and overall health, and the response to treatment.

X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a process that occurs in females of mammalian species, including humans, to compensate for the difference in gene dosage between the sexes. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. To prevent females from having twice as many X-linked genes expressed as males, one of the two X chromosomes in each female cell is randomly inactivated during early embryonic development.

XCI results in the formation of a condensed and transcriptionally inactive structure called a Barr body, which can be observed in the nucleus of female cells. This process ensures that females express similar levels of X-linked genes as males, maintaining a balanced gene dosage. The choice of which X chromosome is inactivated (maternal or paternal) is random and occurs independently in each cell, leading to a mosaic expression pattern of X-linked genes in different cells and tissues of the female body.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Myelopoiesis is the process of formation and development of myeloid cells (a type of blood cell) within the bone marrow. This includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), platelets (thrombopoiesis), and white blood cells such as granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), monocytes, and mast cells. Myelopoiesis is a continuous process that is regulated by various growth factors and hormones to maintain the normal levels of these cells in the body. Abnormalities in myelopoiesis can lead to several hematological disorders like anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis.

A Colony-Forming Units (CFU) assay is a type of laboratory test used to measure the number of viable, or living, cells in a sample. It is commonly used to enumerate bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms. The test involves placing a known volume of the sample onto a nutrient-agar plate, which provides a solid growth surface for the cells. The plate is then incubated under conditions that allow the cells to grow and form colonies. Each colony that forms on the plate represents a single viable cell from the original sample. By counting the number of colonies and multiplying by the known volume of the sample, the total number of viable cells in the sample can be calculated. This information is useful in a variety of applications, including monitoring microbial populations, assessing the effectiveness of disinfection procedures, and studying microbial growth and survival.

Human chromosome pair 5 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of human cells, which contain genetic material in the form of DNA and proteins. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is a single chromosome, and humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes in every cell of their body (except gametes or sex cells, which contain 23 chromosomes).

Chromosome pair 5 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is approximately 197 million base pairs in length and contains around 800-900 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Chromosome pair 5 is associated with several genetic disorders, including cri du chat syndrome (resulting from a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5), Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome (both resulting from abnormalities in gene expression on the long arm of chromosome 5).

Benzamides are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a aromatic hydrocarbon) attached to an amide functional group. The amide group can be bound to various substituents, leading to a variety of benzamide derivatives with different biological activities.

In a medical context, some benzamides have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions. For example, danzol (a benzamide derivative) is used as a hormonal therapy for endometriosis and breast cancer. Additionally, other benzamides such as sulpiride and amisulpride are used as antipsychotic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders.

It's important to note that while some benzamides have therapeutic uses, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so they should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Refractory anemia with excess blasts is a type of blood disorder that is characterized by the presence of increased numbers of immature blood cells, or "blasts," in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. This condition is considered a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities in the production of blood cells in the bone marrow.

In refractory anemia with excess blasts, the bone marrow fails to produce sufficient numbers of healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This results in anemia (low red blood cell count), neutropenia (low white blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Additionally, there is an increased number of blasts in the bone marrow and peripheral blood, which can indicate the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a more aggressive form of blood cancer.

Refractory anemia with excess blasts is considered "refractory" because it does not respond well to treatment, including chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for this condition varies depending on the severity of the disease and other individual factors, but it is generally poor, with many patients progressing to AML within a few years.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

A platelet count is a laboratory test that measures the number of platelets, also known as thrombocytes, in a sample of blood. Platelets are small, colorless cell fragments that circulate in the blood and play a crucial role in blood clotting. They help to stop bleeding by sticking together to form a plug at the site of an injured blood vessel.

A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (µL) of blood. A lower than normal platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, while a higher than normal platelet count is known as thrombocytosis.

Abnormal platelet counts can be a sign of various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your platelet count or if you experience symptoms such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, or excessive menstrual flow.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Bone marrow neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. These neoplasms can be divided into two main categories: hematologic (or liquid) malignancies and solid tumors.

Hematologic malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells, which normally fight infections. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding.

Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system, which helps to fight infections and remove waste from the body. Lymphoma can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to help fight infections. In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, leading to bone damage, anemia, and an increased risk of infection.

Solid tumors of the bone marrow are rare and include conditions such as chordomas, Ewing sarcomas, and osteosarcomas. These cancers originate in the bones themselves or in other tissues that support the bones, but they can also spread to the bone marrow.

Treatment for bone marrow neoplasms depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

GATA1 (Global Architecture of Tissue/stage-specific Transcription Factors 1) is a transcription factor that belongs to the GATA family, which recognizes and binds to the (A/T)GATA(A/G) motif in the DNA. It plays a crucial role in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid, megakaryocytic, eosinophilic, and mast cell lineages.

GATA1 regulates gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and recruiting other co-factors that modulate chromatin structure and transcriptional activity. Mutations in the GATA1 gene can lead to various blood disorders such as congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), and myelodysplastic syndrome.

In summary, GATA1 Transcription Factor is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences in the genome and regulates gene expression, playing a critical role in hematopoietic cell development and differentiation.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

The Philadelphia chromosome is a specific genetic alteration in certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is the result of a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, which forms an abnormal fusion gene called BCR-ABL. This gene produces an abnormal protein that leads to unregulated cell growth and division, causing cancer. The Philadelphia chromosome was first discovered in Philadelphia, USA, hence the name.

Hydrops Fetalis is a serious condition characterized by the accumulation of excessive fluid in two or more fetal compartments, including the abdomen (ascites), around the heart (pericardial effusion), and/or within the lungs (pleural effusion). This accumulation can also affect the skin, causing it to become edematous. Hydrops Fetalis is often associated with various underlying causes, such as chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections, genetic disorders, and structural defects that impair the fetus's ability to maintain fluid balance. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. The prognosis for Hydrops Fetalis is generally poor, with a high mortality rate, although early detection and appropriate management can improve outcomes in certain situations.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from the bone marrow - the soft, inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. It is characterized by an abnormal production of white blood cells, known as leukocytes or blasts. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are several types of leukemia, classified based on the specific type of white blood cell affected and the speed at which the disease progresses:

1. Acute Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress rapidly, with symptoms developing over a few weeks or months. They involve the rapid growth and accumulation of immature, nonfunctional white blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Originates from lymphoid progenitor cells, primarily affecting children but can also occur in adults.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Develops from myeloid progenitor cells and is more common in older adults.

2. Chronic Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress slowly, with symptoms developing over a period of months to years. They involve the production of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells that can accumulate in large numbers in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Affects B-lymphocytes and is more common in older adults.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Originates from myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. It can occur at any age but is more common in middle-aged and older adults.

Treatment options for leukemia depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors. Treatments may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

A "Blood Cell Count" is a medical laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a sample of blood. This test is often used as a part of a routine check-up or to help diagnose various medical conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, and many others.

The RBC count measures the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood, while the WBC count measures the number of immune cells that help fight infections. The platelet count measures the number of cells involved in clotting. Abnormal results in any of these counts may indicate an underlying medical condition and further testing may be required for diagnosis and treatment.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They have the molecular formula N-NRR' where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Piperazines have a wide range of uses in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and as building blocks in organic synthesis.

In a medical context, piperazines are used in the manufacture of various drugs, including some antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and anti-worm medications. For example, the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine and the antidepressant drug nefazodone both contain a piperazine ring in their chemical structure.

However, it's important to note that some piperazines are also used as recreational drugs due to their stimulant and euphoric effects. These include compounds such as BZP (benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), which have been linked to serious health risks, including addiction, seizures, and death. Therefore, the use of these substances should be avoided.

Hematologic diseases, also known as hematological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the production, function, or destruction of blood cells or blood-related components, such as plasma. These diseases can affect erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets (thrombocytes), as well as clotting factors and hemoglobin.

Hematologic diseases can be broadly categorized into three main types:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, or hematocrit, leading to insufficient oxygen transport to tissues and organs. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, and aplastic anemia.
2. Leukemia and other disorders of white blood cells: These conditions involve the abnormal production or function of leukocytes, which can lead to impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Examples include leukemias (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia), lymphomas, and myelodysplastic syndromes.
3. Platelet and clotting disorders: These diseases affect the production or function of platelets and clotting factors, leading to abnormal bleeding or clotting tendencies. Examples include hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Hematologic diseases can have various causes, including genetic defects, infections, autoimmune processes, environmental factors, or malignancies. Proper diagnosis and management of these conditions often require the expertise of hematologists, who specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders related to blood and its components.

Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play a crucial role in the signaling of cytokines and growth factors. They are named after the Roman god Janus, who is depicted with two faces, because JAKs have two similar domains, which contain catalytic activity.

JAKs mediate signal transduction by phosphorylating and activating signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, leading to the regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of JAK-STAT signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

There are four members of the JAK family: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2). Each JAK isoform has a distinct pattern of expression and functions in specific cell types and signaling pathways. For example, JAK3 is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and plays a critical role in immune function, while JAK2 is widely expressed and involved in the signaling of various cytokines and growth factors.

Inhibition of JAKs has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for several diseases. Several JAK inhibitors have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and myelofibrosis, among other conditions.

A chromosome is a thread-like structure that contains genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of a cell. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each cell of the body, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes.

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans. Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for various functions in the body, including some related to sexual development and reproduction.

Humans inherit one X chromosome from their mother and either an X or a Y chromosome from their father. In females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome. This process, known as X-inactivation, helps to ensure that females have roughly equal levels of gene expression from the X chromosome, despite having two copies.

Abnormalities in the number or structure of the X chromosome can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (X0), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), and fragile X syndrome (an X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene).

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Myeloid progenitor cells are a type of precursor cells that originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow. These cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, platelets, and different kinds of white blood cells, specifically granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes. Myeloid progenitor cells are crucial for the maintenance of normal hematopoiesis and immune function. Abnormalities in myeloid progenitor cell differentiation or function can lead to various hematological disorders such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Myeloid cells are a type of immune cell that originate from the bone marrow. They develop from hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. Myeloid cells include monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), dendritic cells, and mast cells. These cells play important roles in the immune system, such as defending against pathogens, modulating inflammation, and participating in tissue repair and remodeling.

Myeloid cell development is a tightly regulated process that involves several stages of differentiation, including the commitment to the myeloid lineage, proliferation, and maturation into specific subtypes. Dysregulation of myeloid cell development or function can contribute to various diseases, such as infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.

A point mutation is a type of genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base (A, T, C, or G) in DNA is altered, deleted, or substituted with another nucleotide. Point mutations can have various effects on the organism, depending on the location of the mutation and whether it affects the function of any genes. Some point mutations may not have any noticeable effect, while others might lead to changes in the amino acids that make up proteins, potentially causing diseases or altering traits. Point mutations can occur spontaneously due to errors during DNA replication or be inherited from parents.

Human chromosome pair 13 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes carry genetic information in the form of genes, which are sequences of DNA that code for specific traits and functions. Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosome pair 13 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y).

Chromosome pair 13 contains several important genes that are associated with various genetic disorders, such as cri-du-chat syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 13 (13p), resulting in distinctive cat-like crying sounds in infants, developmental delays, and intellectual disabilities. Phelan-McDermid syndrome is caused by a deletion or mutation of the terminal end of the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q), leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, absent or delayed speech, and autistic behaviors.

It's important to note that while some genetic disorders are associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities, many factors can contribute to the development and expression of these conditions, including environmental influences and interactions between multiple genes.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Gene expression regulation in leukemia refers to the processes that control the production or activation of specific proteins encoded by genes in leukemic cells. These regulatory mechanisms include various molecular interactions that can either promote or inhibit gene transcription and translation. In leukemia, abnormal gene expression regulation can lead to uncontrolled proliferation, differentiation arrest, and accumulation of malignant white blood cells (leukemia cells) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

Dysregulated gene expression in leukemia may involve genetic alterations such as mutations, chromosomal translocations, or epigenetic changes that affect DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications. These changes can result in the overexpression of oncogenes (genes with cancer-promoting functions) or underexpression of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent uncontrolled cell growth).

Understanding gene expression regulation in leukemia is crucial for developing targeted therapies and improving diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies.

Valine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, with a branched side chain, and is necessary for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body. Valine is also important for muscle metabolism, and is often used by athletes as a supplement to enhance physical performance. Like other essential amino acids, valine must be obtained through foods such as meat, fish, dairy products, and legumes.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

Erythroid precursor cells, also known as erythroblasts or normoblasts, are early stage cells in the process of producing mature red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the bone marrow. These cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and undergo a series of maturation stages, including proerythroblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatophilic erythroblast, and orthochromatic erythroblast, before becoming reticulocytes and then mature red blood cells. During this maturation process, the cells lose their nuclei and become enucleated, taking on the biconcave shape and flexible membrane that allows them to move through small blood vessels and deliver oxygen to tissues throughout the body.

An amino acid substitution is a type of mutation in which one amino acid in a protein is replaced by another. This occurs when there is a change in the DNA sequence that codes for a particular amino acid in a protein. The genetic code is redundant, meaning that most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon (a sequence of three nucleotides). As a result, a single base pair change in the DNA sequence may not necessarily lead to an amino acid substitution. However, if a change does occur, it can have a variety of effects on the protein's structure and function, depending on the nature of the substituted amino acids. Some substitutions may be harmless, while others may alter the protein's activity or stability, leading to disease.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

The platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGF-β) receptor is a type of cell surface receptor that binds to specific proteins called platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs). PDGFs are important signaling molecules involved in various biological processes, including cell growth, division, and survival.

The PDGF-β receptor is a transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain that binds to PDGFs and an intracellular domain that activates downstream signaling pathways when activated by PDGF binding. The PDGF-BB isoform specifically binds to the PDGF-β receptor, leading to its activation and initiation of signaling cascades that promote cell proliferation, migration, and survival.

Mutations in the PDGF-β receptor gene have been associated with certain types of cancer and vascular diseases, highlighting its importance in regulating cell growth and division. Inhibitors of the PDGF-β receptor have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers and other diseases.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are a group of cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and tumor growth. There are four high-affinity FGF receptors (FGFR1-4) in humans, which share a similar structure, consisting of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane region, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain.

These receptors bind to FGFs with different specificities and affinities, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Aberrant FGFR signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and fibrotic conditions. Dysregulation of FGFRs can occur through various mechanisms, including genetic mutations, amplifications, or aberrant expression, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation. Therefore, FGFRs are considered promising targets for therapeutic intervention in several diseases.

A splenectomy is a surgical procedure in which the spleen is removed from the body. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, near the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays several important roles in the body, including fighting certain types of infections, removing old or damaged red blood cells from the circulation, and storing platelets and white blood cells.

There are several reasons why a splenectomy may be necessary, including:

* Trauma to the spleen that cannot be repaired
* Certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Sickle cell disease, which can cause the spleen to enlarge and become damaged
* A ruptured spleen, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly
* Certain blood disorders, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or hemolytic anemia

A splenectomy is typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done using open surgery or laparoscopically. After the spleen is removed, the incision(s) are closed with sutures or staples. Recovery time varies depending on the individual and the type of surgery performed, but most people are able to return to their normal activities within a few weeks.

It's important to note that following a splenectomy, individuals may be at increased risk for certain types of infections, so it's recommended that they receive vaccinations to help protect against these infections. They should also seek medical attention promptly if they develop fever, chills, or other signs of infection.

Neurofibromin 1 is a protein that is encoded by the NF1 gene in humans. Neurofibromin 1 acts as a tumor suppressor, helping to regulate cell growth and division. It plays an important role in the nervous system, where it helps to control the development and function of nerve cells. Mutations in the NF1 gene can lead to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of non-cancerous tumors on the nerves (neurofibromas) and other symptoms.

Human chromosome pair 9 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each member of the pair contains thousands of genes and other genetic material, encoded in the form of DNA molecules. The two chromosomes in a pair are identical or very similar to each other in terms of their size, shape, and genetic makeup.

Chromosome 9 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y) and is present in two copies in all cells of the body, regardless of sex. Chromosome 9 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it is estimated to contain around 135 million base pairs of DNA and approximately 1200 genes.

Chromosome 9 contains several important genes that are associated with various human traits and diseases. For example, mutations in the gene that encodes the protein APOE on chromosome 9 have been linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, variations in the gene that encodes the protein EGFR on chromosome 9 have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Overall, human chromosome pair 9 plays a critical role in the development and function of the human body, and variations in its genetic makeup can contribute to a wide range of traits and diseases.

A clone is a group of cells that are genetically identical to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor cell through processes such as mitosis or asexual reproduction. Therefore, the term "clone cells" refers to a population of cells that are genetic copies of a single parent cell.

In the context of laboratory research, cells can be cloned by isolating a single cell and allowing it to divide in culture, creating a population of genetically identical cells. This is useful for studying the behavior and characteristics of individual cell types, as well as for generating large quantities of cells for use in experiments.

It's important to note that while clone cells are genetically identical, they may still exhibit differences in their phenotype (physical traits) due to epigenetic factors or environmental influences.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit, also known as CBF-A2 or CEBP-α, is a protein that forms a complex with other proteins to act as a transcription factor. Transcription factors are proteins that help regulate the expression of genes by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA.

CBF-A2 is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, which are important in regulating various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and inflammation. CBF-A2 forms a heterodimer with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to form the active transcription factor complex known as the core binding factor (CBF).

The CBF complex binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes. By binding to this sequence, the CBF complex can either activate or repress the transcription of target genes, depending on the context and the presence of other regulatory factors.

Mutations in the gene encoding CBF-A2 have been associated with several human diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma. In AML, mutations in the CBF-A2 gene can lead to the formation of abnormal CBF complexes that disrupt normal gene expression patterns and contribute to the development of leukemia.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Sarcoma viruses, murine, are a group of RNA viruses that primarily affect mice and other rodents. They are classified as type C retroviruses, which means they contain an envelope, have reverse transcriptase enzyme activity, and replicate through a DNA intermediate.

The murine sarcoma viruses (MSVs) are associated with the development of various types of tumors in mice, particularly fibrosarcomas, which are malignant tumors that originate from fibroblasts, the cells that produce collagen and other fibers in connective tissue.

The MSVs are closely related to the murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), and together they form a complex called the murine leukemia virus-related viruses (MLVRVs). The MLVRVs can undergo recombination events, leading to the generation of new viral variants with altered biological properties.

The MSVs are important tools in cancer research because they can transform normal cells into tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The study of these viruses has contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

Cytokine receptors are specialized protein molecules found on the surface of cells that selectively bind to specific cytokines. Cytokines are signaling molecules used for communication between cells, and they play crucial roles in regulating immune responses, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cell survival.

Cytokine receptors have specific binding sites that recognize and interact with the corresponding cytokines. This interaction triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and various cellular responses. Cytokine receptors can be found on many different types of cells, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and structural cells like fibroblasts.

Cytokine receptors are typically composed of multiple subunits, which may include both extracellular and intracellular domains. The extracellular domain is responsible for cytokine binding, while the intracellular domain is involved in signal transduction. Cytokine receptors can be classified into several families based on their structural features and signaling mechanisms, such as the hematopoietic cytokine receptor family, the interferon receptor family, the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, and the interleukin-1 receptor family.

Dysregulation of cytokine receptors and their signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the biology of cytokine receptors is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these conditions.

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that is primarily produced by the kidneys and plays a crucial role in the production of red blood cells in the body. It works by stimulating the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, which are essential for carrying oxygen to various tissues and organs.

EPO is a glycoprotein that is released into the bloodstream in response to low oxygen levels in the body. When the kidneys detect low oxygen levels, they release EPO, which then travels to the bone marrow and binds to specific receptors on immature red blood cells called erythroblasts. This binding triggers a series of events that promote the maturation and proliferation of erythroblasts, leading to an increase in the production of red blood cells.

In addition to its role in regulating red blood cell production, EPO has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects and may play a role in modulating the immune system. Abnormal levels of EPO have been associated with various medical conditions, including anemia, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer.

EPO is also used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia caused by chronic kidney disease, chemotherapy, or other conditions that affect red blood cell production. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is a synthetic form of the hormone that is produced using genetic engineering techniques and is commonly used in clinical practice to treat anemia. However, misuse of rhEPO for performance enhancement in sports has been a subject of concern due to its potential to enhance oxygen-carrying capacity and improve endurance.

CD34 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. Specifically, CD34 antigens are present on hematopoietic stem cells, which are immature cells that can develop into different types of blood cells. These stem cells are found in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

CD34 antigens are a type of cell surface marker that is used in medical research and clinical settings to identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells. They are also used in the development of stem cell therapies and transplantation procedures. CD34 antigens can be detected using various laboratory techniques, such as flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry.

It's important to note that while CD34 is a useful marker for identifying hematopoietic stem cells, it is not exclusive to these cells and can also be found on other cell types, such as endothelial cells that line blood vessels. Therefore, additional markers are often used in combination with CD34 to more specifically identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of eosinophils in the circulating blood. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in fighting off parasitic infections and regulating allergic reactions. However, when their numbers become excessively high, they can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Eosinophilia is typically defined as a count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood. Mild eosinophilia (up to 1,500 cells/μL) may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during routine blood tests. However, higher levels of eosinophilia can lead to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, skin rashes, and organ damage, depending on the underlying cause.

The causes of eosinophilia are varied and can include allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, and some types of cancer. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilia require identification and management of the underlying cause.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses that primarily use RNA as their genetic material. The name "retrovirus" comes from the fact that these viruses reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which then becomes integrated into the host cell's genome. This is a unique characteristic of retroviruses, as most other viruses use DNA as their genetic material.

Retroviruses can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including cancer, neurological disorders, and immunodeficiency syndromes like AIDS. They have a lipid membrane envelope that contains glycoprotein spikes, which allow them to attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is then integrated into the host genome by the enzyme integrase.

Retroviruses can remain dormant in the host genome for extended periods of time, and may be reactivated under certain conditions to produce new viral particles. This ability to integrate into the host genome has also made retroviruses useful tools in molecular biology, where they are used as vectors for gene therapy and other genetic manipulations.

Erythropoietin receptors are cell surface proteins found on immature red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. They bind to the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is produced by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels in the blood. When EPO binds to its receptor, it activates a signaling pathway that promotes the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of red blood cell precursors, leading to increased production of red blood cells. This process is critical for maintaining adequate oxygen delivery to tissues in the body. Mutations in the erythropoietin receptor gene can lead to various blood disorders, including anemia and polycythemia.

Chromosome disorders are a group of genetic conditions caused by abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the body's genetic material, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome disorders can result from changes in the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) or structural abnormalities in one or more chromosomes. Some common examples of chromosome disorders include:

1. Down syndrome: a condition caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and distinctive physical features.
2. Turner syndrome: a condition that affects only females and is caused by the absence of all or part of one X chromosome, resulting in short stature, lack of sexual development, and other symptoms.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: a condition that affects only males and is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome, resulting in tall stature, infertility, and other symptoms.
4. Cri-du-chat syndrome: a condition caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and a distinctive cat-like cry.
5. Fragile X syndrome: a condition caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, resulting in intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and physical symptoms.

Chromosome disorders can be diagnosed through various genetic tests, such as karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific disorder and its associated symptoms and may include medical interventions, therapies, and educational support.

Blood cells are the formed elements in the blood, including red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes). These cells are produced in the bone marrow and play crucial roles in the body's functions. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from them, while white blood cells are part of the immune system and help defend against infection and disease. Platelets are cell fragments that are essential for normal blood clotting.

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue. For example, a physician may recommend genetic testing to help diagnose a genetic condition, confirm the presence of a gene mutation known to increase the risk of developing certain cancers, or determine the chance for a couple to have a child with a genetic disorder.

There are several types of genetic tests, including:

* Diagnostic testing: This type of test is used to identify or confirm a suspected genetic condition in an individual. It may be performed before birth (prenatal testing) or at any time during a person's life.
* Predictive testing: This type of test is used to determine the likelihood that a person will develop a genetic disorder. It is typically offered to individuals who have a family history of a genetic condition but do not show any symptoms themselves.
* Carrier testing: This type of test is used to determine whether a person carries a gene mutation for a genetic disorder. It is often offered to couples who are planning to have children and have a family history of a genetic condition or belong to a population that has an increased risk of certain genetic disorders.
* Preimplantation genetic testing: This type of test is used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify genetic changes in embryos before they are implanted in the uterus. It can help couples who have a family history of a genetic disorder or who are at risk of having a child with a genetic condition to conceive a child who is free of the genetic change in question.
* Pharmacogenetic testing: This type of test is used to determine how an individual's genes may affect their response to certain medications. It can help healthcare providers choose the most effective medication and dosage for a patient, reducing the risk of adverse drug reactions.

It is important to note that genetic testing should be performed under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional who can interpret the results and provide appropriate counseling and support.

Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a sarcoma virus that infects mice. It was first discovered and isolated by John Moloney in 1960. Mo-MSV is a horizontally transmitted virus, meaning it is typically spread through the direct transfer of bodily fluids between infected and uninfected hosts.

Mo-MSV is closely related to Moloney leukemia virus (Mo-MLV), and both viruses are often found as co-infections in mice. Mo-MSV is associated with the development of sarcomas, which are malignant tumors that arise from connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, or fibrous tissue.

The virus contains an RNA genome and integrates its genetic material into the host cell's DNA upon infection. Mo-MSV is capable of transforming cells by introducing oncogenes into the host cell's genome, which can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and ultimately result in cancer formation.

Mo-MSV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviral infection and tumorigenesis, contributing significantly to our understanding of oncogene function and the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are a type of transmembrane receptors found on the cell surface that play a crucial role in signal transduction and regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and survival. They are called "tyrosine kinases" because they possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their function.

RTKs are composed of three main domains: an extracellular domain that binds to specific ligands (growth factors, hormones, or cytokines), a transmembrane domain that spans the cell membrane, and an intracellular domain with tyrosine kinase activity. Upon ligand binding, RTKs undergo conformational changes that lead to their dimerization or oligomerization, which in turn activates their tyrosine kinase activity. Activated RTKs then phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on downstream signaling proteins, initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response.

Dysregulation of RTK signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. As such, RTKs are important targets for therapeutic intervention in these conditions.

Erythropoiesis is the process of forming and developing red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the body. It occurs in the bone marrow and is regulated by the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is produced by the kidneys. Erythropoiesis involves the differentiation and maturation of immature red blood cell precursors called erythroblasts into mature red blood cells, which are responsible for carrying oxygen to the body's tissues. Disorders that affect erythropoiesis can lead to anemia or other blood-related conditions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Refractory anemia is a type of anemia that does not respond to typical treatments, such as iron supplements or hormonal therapy. It is often associated with various bone marrow disorders, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a group of conditions characterized by abnormal blood cell production in the bone marrow.

In refractory anemia, the bone marrow fails to produce enough healthy red blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. The condition can be difficult to treat, and treatment options may include more aggressive therapies such as immunosuppressive drugs, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

It is important to note that the term "refractory" in this context refers specifically to the lack of response to initial treatments, rather than a specific severity or type of anemia.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Stat5 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including growth, survival, and differentiation. It exists in two closely related isoforms, Stat5a and Stat5b, which are encoded by separate genes but share significant sequence homology and functional similarity.

When activated through phosphorylation by receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases, Stat5 forms homodimers or heterodimers that translocate to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, these dimers bind to specific DNA sequences called Stat-binding elements (SBEs) in the promoter regions of target genes, leading to their transcriptional activation or repression.

Stat5 is involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as hematopoiesis, lactation, immune response, and cancer progression. Dysregulation of Stat5 signaling has been implicated in several malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and breast cancer, making it an attractive therapeutic target for these diseases.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

"Leukemia: Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders". Pathology Thread. University of Virginia School of Medicine. Archived from the ... Basophilia, as it is primarily a secondary condition, is treated by addressing the causative disease or disorder. The ... If splenomegaly is detected, a myeloproliferative syndrome may be suspected. Intrinsically related symptoms such as fever, ... April 2017). "Proposed diagnostic criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias and related disorders". Leukemia. 31 (4 ...
MPO Myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia; 131440; PDGFRB Myoclonic epilepsy, severe, of infancy; 607208; GABRG2 ... CTDP1 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ia; 212065; PMM2 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ic; 603147; ALG6 ... ALG3 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ie; 608799; DPM1 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type If; 609180; MPDU1 ... ALG12 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ih; 608104; ALG8 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ii; 607906; ALG2 ...
Similarly, myeloproliferative disorders, in which the bone marrow produces too many blood cells, predispose to thrombosis, ... Papadakis E, Hoffman R, Brenner B (November 2010). "Thrombohemorrhagic complications of myeloproliferative disorders". Blood ... Protein C deficiency may cause purpura fulminans, a severe clotting disorder in the newborn that leads to both tissue death and ... Dahlbäck B (July 2008). "Advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms of thrombophilic disorders". Blood. 112 (1): 19-27. ...
It is one of the myeloproliferative disorders, diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced at some stage. ... Tefferi A (2003). "The forgotten myeloproliferative disorder: myeloid metaplasia". The Oncologist. 8 (3): 225-231. doi:10.1634/ ... Myelofibrosis can be a late complication of other myeloproliferative disorders, such as polycythemia vera, and less commonly, ... a user's guide for chronic myeloproliferative disorders". Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy. 11 (3): 403-414. doi:10.1586/era ...
Hasle H (December 2016). "Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders of childhood". Hematology. American Society of ... Emotional and behavioral disorders: Autism spectrum disorders, chronic headache. The GATA2 transcription factor contains two ... It is also the most common cause of hereditary bone marrow failure and may present with this disorder. GATA 2 deficiency has ... In 2011, however, all cases of both disorders were found to be caused by inactivating mutations in the GATA2 gene. Subsequently ...
Neutrophilia may also occur in myeloproliferative disorders. Neutropenia, meaning a low neutrophil count, may occur as a ... These cell types may be found in blood disorders and other pathological states. The manual differential can also identify ... ISBN 978-0-323-22545-8. Sa A. Wang; Robert P. Hasserjian (4 June 2018). Diagnosis of Blood and Bone Marrow Disorders. Springer ... can occur along with other white blood cell abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. ...
... one of the myeloproliferative neoplasms or certain other myeloid neoplasms. A disorder of platelet function is called a ... Congenital Disorders of adhesion Bernard-Soulier syndrome Disorders of activation Disorders of granule amount or release ... One can get a clue as to whether bleeding is due to a platelet disorder or a coagulation factor disorder by the characteristics ... "Acquired von Willebrand disease in myeloproliferative disorders". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 22 Suppl 1: 79-82. doi:10.3109/ ...
Myeloproliferative+Disorders at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MPN Info via Cancer.gov ( ... July 2008). "MPL mutations in myeloproliferative disorders: analysis of the PT-1 cohort". Blood. 112 (1): 141-9. doi:10.1182/ ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of rare blood cancers in which excess red blood cells, white blood cells or ... The concept of myeloproliferative disease was first proposed in 1951 by the hematologist William Dameshek. The discovery of the ...
Kralovics R, Skoda RC (2005). "Molecular pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorders". Blood ...
Kralovics R, Skoda RC (January 2005). "Molecular pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorders ...
Barbara J. Bain (2003). Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders: Cytogenetic and Molecular Genetic Abnormalities. Karger ... and a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN); a disorder characterised by the overproduction of blood cells. For this reason, CMML ... Myeloproliferative CMML (>13x109 monocytes/L) has a reduced survival compared with myelodysplastic CMML. A platelet count of ... Hydroxyurea is a chemotherapy that is used in the myeloproliferative form of CMML to reduce cell numbers. Decitabine/ ...
Kralovics R, Skoda RC (Jan 2005). "Molecular pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorders". ... sites for phosphatases that negatively affect EpoR signaling in order to prevent overactivation that may lead to such disorders ...
Kralovics R, Skoda RC (January 2005). "Molecular pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorders ... "Cardiopulmonary function in two human disorders of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway: von Hippel-Lindau disease and ...
"Mutant Cbl proteins as oncogenic drivers in myeloproliferative disorders". Oncotarget. 2 (3): 245-50. doi:10.18632/oncotarget. ... Quips article describing CBL function at PDBe OMIM entries on NOONAN SYNDROME-LIKE DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT JUVENILE ...
... chronic neutropenia and myeloproliferative disorders. Autoimmune diseases and vasculitis: systemic lupus erythematosus, ...
2005-04-28). "A gain-of-function mutation of JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders". N Engl J Med. 352 (17): 1779-90. doi: ... The cause for this disorder appears to be a mutation in the gene for the TPO receptor, c-mpl, despite high levels of serum TPO ... There is a low risk of transformation to leukemia with this disorder. The primary treatment consists of anagrelide or ... Pang L, Weiss MJ, Poncz M (2005). "Megakaryocyte biology and related disorders". J. Clin. Invest. 115 (12): 3332-38. doi: ...
Myeloproliferative tumors are types of genetic disorders passed through generations. It can affect the bone marrow, white and ... Similar symptoms occur in blood clotting disorders, they include weakness, labored breathing, pale muscus membranes and a loss ...
Hsu HC (March 2007). "Pathogenetic role of JAK2 V617F mutation in chronic myeloproliferative disorders". Journal of the Chinese ... Berger R (May 2006). "[A recurrent mutation of the JAK2 gene in chronic myeloproliferative disorders]". Pathologie-Biologie. 54 ... and myelofibrosis as well as other myeloproliferative disorders. This mutation (V617F), a change of valine to phenylalanine at ... "A gain-of-function mutation of JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders". The New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (17): 1779-90. ...
Noonan syndrome (NS) may predispose to the development of JMML or a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) associated with NS (MPD/ ... The World Health Organization has included JMML as a subcategory of myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders. The ... Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorder. The diagnostic criteria were ... "Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases Treatment - National Cancer Institute". 2003-09-24. Tiu R. V.; Sekeres M. A. (2014 ...
Inhibition of the Bcl-xL deamidation pathway in myeloproliferative disorders'. Beyond Science (1972), Oxford: Lion Publishing, ...
"Transient myeloproliferative disorder in children with Down syndrome: clarity to this enigmatic disorder". British Journal of ... Zipursky A, Brown EJ, Christensen H, Doyle J (March 1999). "Transient myeloproliferative disorder (transient leukemia) and ... and/or other signs or symptoms of the disorder. However, some individuals with transient myeloproliferative disease have a ... "Mutations in GATA1 in both transient myeloproliferative disorder and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia of Down syndrome". Blood ...
"Acquired mutation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in human myeloproliferative disorders". Lancet. 365 (9464): 1054-61. doi:10.1016/ ... Harrington, Jim (March 9, 2022). "'Gifted artist' Ron Miles dies of a rare blood disorder at 58". The Mercury News. Retrieved ... In oncology, polycythemia vera is an uncommon myeloproliferative neoplasm (chronic leukemia) in which the bone marrow makes too ... A classic symptom of polycythemia vera (and the related myeloproliferative disease essential thrombocythemia) is ...
Tefferi A (2006). "Classification, diagnosis and management of myeloproliferative disorders in the JAK2V617F era". Hematology. ... CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and ... It is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia ...
Elevated Hemoglobin F levels are also associated with Leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders.[citation needed] Hemoglobin H ... Red blood cell disorders, Genetic disorders with no OMIM, Hemoglobins, Respiratory physiology). ... This rare condition is called Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH). This is a group of disorders where the ...
"JAK2 V617F tyrosine kinase mutation in cell lines derived from myeloproliferative disorders". Leukemia. 20 (3): 471-6. doi: ...
"Substance p-fibronectin-cytokine interactions in myeloproliferative disorders with bone marrow fibrosis". Acta Haematologica. ...
"Transient myeloproliferative disorder in children with Down syndrome: clarity to this enigmatic disorder". British Journal of ... "Transient myeloproliferative disorder in neonates without Down syndrome: case report and review". European Journal of ... The disorder is far more fulminant than non-DS-AMKL and DS-AMKL and generally presents with more serious hematological symptoms ... However, non-DS-AMKL is a more aggressive and rapidly progressing disorder than DS-AMKL. Nonetheless, the presentation of non- ...
"Transient myeloproliferative disorder in children with Down syndrome: clarity to this enigmatic disorder". British Journal of ... Transient myeloproliferative disorder is detected at or soon after birth and generally resolves during the next months but is ... Transient myeloproliferative disorder consists of a relatively mild but pathological proliferation of platelet-precursor cells ... The disease in Down syndrome occurs in 20% to 30% of individuals who previously had transient myeloproliferative disorder. ...
"JAK/STAT Pathways in Cytokine Signaling and Myeloproliferative Disorders: Approaches for Targeted Therapies". Genes & Cancer. 1 ... Mutations of the STAT5 protein, which can signal with JAK3, has been shown to result in autoimmune disorders. It has been ... Since excessive JAK-STAT signalling is responsible for some cancers and immune disorders, JAK inhibitors have been proposed as ... Patients with a faulty JAK-STAT signalling pathway may also experience skin disorders. For example, non-functional cytokine ...
"Transient myeloproliferative disorder in children with Down syndrome: clarity to this enigmatic disorder". British Journal of ... In Down syndrome, AMKL is typically preceded by transient myeloproliferative disease (TMD), a disorder of blood cell production ... Hearing and vision disorders occur in more than half of people with Down syndrome. Vision problems occur in 38-80% of cases. ... Down syndrome or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a ...
Kralovics R, Passamonti F, Buser AS, et al. A gain-of-function mutation of JAK-2 in myeloproliferative disorders. N Engl J Med ... Willems E, Canivet JL, Ghaye B, et al. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in myeloproliferative disorder. Eur Respir J 2009;33: ... Reisner SA, Rinkevich D, Markiewicz W, et al. Cardiac involvement in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Am J Med 1992; ... Dingli D, Utz JP, Krowka MJ, et al. Unexplained pulmonary hypertension in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Chest 2001;120: ...
Gain-of-function JAK2 mutations in the human myeloproliferative disorders. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using ... Gain-of-function JAK2 mutations in the human myeloproliferative disorders ...
In these disorders, the bone marrow cells that produce blood cells develop and function abnormally. The three main types of MPN ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a related group of blood cancers. ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a related group of blood cancers. In these disorders, the bone marrow cells that produce ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms are most common in older adults. Out of every 100,000 people in the United States, an estimated 44 ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review. ... Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... All right, so lets take a closer look at these myeloproliferative disorders, starting with polycythemia vera, where theres an ... Now, in this video, lets focus on the myeloproliferative disorders that are not associated with Philadelphia chromosome, or ...
Do you qualify for these Myeloproliferative Disorders studies? Were researching treatments for 2024. ... Myeloproliferative Disorders clinical trials at University of California Health 2 in progress, 1 open to eligible people ... Luspatercept (ACE-536) Versus Placebo in Subjects With Myeloproliferative Neoplasm-Associated Myelofibrosis on Concomitant JAK2 ... Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, and Myelofibrosis. Phase 2 Part: Open-label study of CPI-0610 with and without ...
Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes-disorders that include features of both ... Hasle H. Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders of childhood. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2016 Dec 2. ... Study of these disorders has helped shed light on the pathogenesis of JMML. In 25% of JMML patients, RAS protein is involved in ... Myelodysplastic Syndrome - Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Overlap Syndromes. Updated: Nov 01, 2022 * Author: Emmanuel C Besa, MD; ...
Plot -6, Savitri Market, Block C1, Janakpuri, New Delhi - 110058, India. ...
Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused by genetic mutations. Typically the mutations are acquired and not inherited, although ... In myeloproliferative neoplasms (myelo = bone marrow; proliferative = rapid multiplication; and neoplasm = new abnormal growth ... rarely there are families in which several members have these disorders. ...
The Myeloproliferative Disorders Group at Mayo Clinic evaluates and treats patients with malignant disease associated with ...
Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Ellen D. Remstein, Paul J. Kurtin, ... Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. / Remstein, Ellen D.; Kurtin, Paul J.; ... Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. American Journal of Surgical Pathology. ... Dive into the research topics of Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. ...
I am s strong believer in magnetic therapy but I am at a loss as to its effect on myeloproliferative disorders. Would it help ...
8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is a blood cancer that involves different types of blood cells. Explore symptoms, inheritance ... In addition to a myeloproliferative disorder, many people with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome develop lymphoma. , which is a ... In most people with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome, the myeloproliferative disorder develops into a fast-growing blood cancer ... It usually begins as a myeloproliferative disorder, which is characterized by a high number of white blood cells (leukocytes). ...
Myeloproliferative disorders. JAK2. Individuals with clinical suspicion of myeloproliferative disorders. Confirm diagnosis. ... Bipolar Disorder. GRK3, CACNG2, NTRK2, SP4, HTTLPR, PDE11A, GNB3. Individuals with clinical suspicion of Bipolar Disorder. 1) ... Disorder/Effect. Test to be Assessed*. Target Population. Intended Use. Acne. G6PD. Individuals prior to treatment for acne. ... Multiple disorders. Multigene Panels. General Population. Risk Prediction. Myelodysplastic Syndromes. Hemescan MDS. Individuals ...
... the challenges of diagnosing and subsequently treating the more rare clinical presentations in patients with myeloproliferative ...
Copyright © 2024 MPD voice: Myeloproliferative disorders. All Rights Reserved , OfficePress by Theme Palace ...
"Leukemia: Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders". Pathology Thread. University of Virginia School of Medicine. Archived from the ... Basophilia, as it is primarily a secondary condition, is treated by addressing the causative disease or disorder. The ... If splenomegaly is detected, a myeloproliferative syndrome may be suspected. Intrinsically related symptoms such as fever, ... April 2017). "Proposed diagnostic criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias and related disorders". Leukemia. 31 (4 ...
Myeloproliferative Disorders (PCV, myelosclerosis). * Hemolytic anemias. Autoimmune Disorders. * Collagen Vascular Diseases ( ... Consider the elderly and those with a family history as thyroid disorder vulnerable.. URIC ACID. Optimal Range: Male: 3.5-5.9 ... Autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiency states, infections. Discussion. Triglycerides are esters of glycerol combined with three ... Skin disorders (atopic dermatitis, eczema, urticaria, pemphigus, dermatitis herpetiformis). * Pulmonary Syndromes (ABPA, ...
Myeloproliferative Disorders. *. Myomectomy. *. Neoplasm of Gastrointestinal Tract. *. Nerve Sheath Tumors. *. Neuroendocrine ...
MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CHROMOSOME 20Q DELETIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS AND OTHER MYELOID MALIGNANCIES ... MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CHROMOSOME 20Q DELETIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS AND OTHER MYELOID MALIGNANCIES ...
Response: JAK mutations in Down syndrome-associated transient myeloproliferative disorder and acute megakaryocytic leukemia ... Response: JAK mutations in Down syndrome-associated transient myeloproliferative disorder and acute megakaryocytic leukemia ...
Diagnostic usefulness of the Janus kinase 2 mutation in non BCR/ABL myeloproliferative disorders. ... Diagnostic usefulness of the Janus kinase 2 mutation in non BCR/ABL myeloproliferative disorders. Together they form a unique ...
Myeloproliferative Disorders Drugs Global Market Report 2024 *  Report *January 2024. * 200 Pages ...
... myeloproliferative disorders, cancer. Awards & Honors. *Teacher of the Year Award, Hematology/Oncology, 2006-2007. Teacher of ... Anjali S. Advani, MD, is a Staff Physician in the Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders and Director of the ...
Myeloproliferative disorders Neurodegenerative disorders Pancreatic cancer Parkinsons disease Primary immunodeficiency Rare ...
Their occurrence and clinical and prognostic associations in patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are ... and different CV disorders. In multivariate analyses adjusted for clinically meaningful parameters, both polypharmacy and DDIs ... A Gain-of-Function Mutation of JAK2 in Myeloproliferative Disorders. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005, 352, 1779-1790. [Google Scholar] [ ... Gastrointestinal lesions and Helicobacter pylori in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Saudi Med. J. 2004, 25, 1913- ...
Disorders that affect the bone marrow (myeloproliferative disorder). *Disorder of the kidney tubes in which certain substances ...
View other providers who treat Myeloproliferative Disorders Neuroendocrine Tumors * View other providers who treat ... Alzheimers diseaseAnemiaArthritisAsthmaAutismBipolar disorderBreast cancerCancerConstipationCOPDCoronavirusCrohns disease ... disordersHeart healthTransgender healthHepatitis CType 2 diabetesInflammationVaccinations and immunizationsLung cancerWeight ... disordersHeart healthTransgender healthHepatitis CType 2 diabetesInflammationVaccinations and immunizationsLung cancerWeight ...
Myeloproliferative disorders * Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasm * Myelodysplastic Syndromes * Myelodysplastic/ ... Other Blood Disorders: Erythrocytosis or High Red Cell Count, Leukocytosis or High White Cell Count, Thrombocytosis on High ...
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  • Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a related group of blood cancers. (yourcancercare.com)
  • Myeloproliferative neoplasms are most common in older adults. (yourcancercare.com)
  • 1 annucchi AM, Guglielmelli P, Tefferi A. Advances in understanding and management of myeloproliferative neoplasms. (yourcancercare.com)
  • Patterns of survival among patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms diagnosed in Sweden from 1973 to 2008: a population-based study. (yourcancercare.com)
  • 3 Mehta J, Wang H, Iqbal SU, Mesa R. Epidemiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms in the United States. (yourcancercare.com)
  • Both Jenny and Seth suffer from myeloproliferative neoplasms. (osmosis.org)
  • Phase 1 Part (Complete): Open-label, sequential dose escalation study of pelabresib in patients with previously treated Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, and Myelofibrosis. (ucbraid.org)
  • Purpose: The objectives of this study were 1) to assess PV reporting to the PCR in 2006-2009, 2) to determine whether a cancer cluster persisted, and 3) to determine whether other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including essential thrombocytopenia (ET), were subject to similar reporting problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Polycythemia vera (PV) is one disease in a group of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and is characterized by erythrocytosis, uncontrolled and autonomous hematopoiesis, and evolution to end-stage myelofibrosis or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this Phase 3 study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Luspatercept compared with placebo in subjects with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN)-associated Myelofibrosis (MF) and anemia on concomitant Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor therapy and who require red blood cell count (RBC) transfusions. (ucbraid.org)
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes-disorders that include features of both myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN)-are entities whose diagnosis and management have proved challenging. (medscape.com)
  • As an example, additional evidence of left-shifted neutrophilia alongside basophilia indicates a potential likelihood primarily of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), or an alternate myeloproliferative neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • in patients with a Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). (cdc.gov)
  • Now, in this video, let's focus on the myeloproliferative disorders that are not associated with Philadelphia chromosome, or the "Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorders," like polycythemia vera , essential thrombocythemia , and primary myelofibrosis . (osmosis.org)
  • All right, so let's take a closer look at these myeloproliferative disorders, starting with polycythemia vera , where there's an increase in RBC production. (osmosis.org)
  • [ 49 ] It most often occurs in patients with an underlying thrombotic diathesis, including in those who are pregnant or who have a tumor, a chronic inflammatory disease, a clotting disorder, an infection, or a myeloproliferative disorder , such as polycythemia vera or paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria . (medscape.com)
  • Lymphoma can develop at the same time as the myeloproliferative disorder or later. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently, chronic myeloproliferative diseases associated with pulmonary hypertension were included in the group 5 category, corresponding to PH for which the aetiology is unclear and/or multifactorial. (ersjournals.com)
  • In this review we will describe the distinct forms of PH in the context of the myeloproliferative diseases chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and pre-capillary PH mimicking pulmonary arterial hypertension. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the 4th World Symposium on PH held in 2008 2 , chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD) associated with PH were included in the group 5 category, corresponding to PH for which the aetiology is unclear and/or multifactorial 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Alternative root causes other than these neoplasmic complications are most commonly allergic reactions or chronic inflammation related to infections such as tuberculosis, influenza, inflammatory bowel disorder, or an inflammatory autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophilia, as it is primarily a secondary condition, is treated by addressing the causative disease or disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the meeting, representatives from ATSDR, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Pennsylvania Department of Health, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, the Geisinger Clinic, and the Myeloproliferative Disease (MPD) Research Consortium will present overviews of their current PV research projects. (cdc.gov)
  • Outflow obstruction caused by the sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (formerly 'veno-occlusive disease') and cardiac disorders is excluded. (medscape.com)
  • Many experts believe people with PV and related blood disorders may test positive for the JAK2 marker for a number of years before ever exhibiting symptoms of PV. (cdc.gov)
  • Anjali S. Advani, MD, is a Staff Physician in the Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders and Director of the Inpatient Leukemia Program, Taussig Cancer Institute. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Each disorder can potentially cause proliferation of all of the myeloid cells, but they're classified based on the dominant cell line involved. (osmosis.org)
  • In most people with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome, the myeloproliferative disorder develops into a fast-growing blood cancer called acute myeloid leukemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cyclophosphamide increases the risk for bladder cancer, myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative disorders. (medscape.com)
  • The World Health Organization classification of CMPD includes five groups of haematopoietic disorders, some of which are rare or poorly characterised (table 2 ⇓ ) 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) as myeloproliferative counties. (cdc.gov)
  • Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor (SEMHT) occasionally may arise in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPDs). (elsevierpure.com)
  • If splenomegaly is detected, a myeloproliferative syndrome may be suspected. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is a blood cancer that involves different types of blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome can develop both myeloid cell cancer and lymphoid cell cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In these disorders, the bone marrow cells that produce blood cells develop and function abnormally. (yourcancercare.com)
  • A rare myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by a sustained, mature neutrophilic leukocytosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most people with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome have symptoms such as fatigue or night sweats. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction and resulting hepatic dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • Goradia A, Bayerl M, Cornfield D. The 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome: review of literature and an illustrative case report. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conditions associated with decreased platelet aggregation include suspected hereditary and acquired disorders of platelet function. (medscape.com)
  • I am s strong believer in magnetic therapy but I am at a loss as to its effect on myeloproliferative disorders. (healthlinkusa.com)
  • The transient myeloproliferative disorder in children with Down syndrome is a unique entity recently linked to mutations of the GATA1 transcription factor. (medscape.com)
  • a Germline mutations in PTPN11 , KRAS , or NRAS (which cause Noonan syndrome) may lead to JMML-like transient myeloproliferative disorder. (oncolink.org)
  • Myeloproliferative disorders are considered clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by excessive proliferation and production of one or more of the myeloid cells and are classified according to the predominant cells, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF). (nih.gov)
  • In addition, some clinical entities are being reclassified into "mixed" myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders, such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, atypical myeloid leukemia, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is the most common myeloproliferative disorder accounting for 15-20% of all leukaemia cases. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of Philadelphia negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders: clinical implications. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder, which is characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of immature myeloid cells in the blood stream [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All of the MPNs are hematopoietic rates from 2001 (when MPNs first became reportable) stem cell disorders of common clonal heritage, character- through 2005 in these 3 counties. (cdc.gov)
  • Myelofibrosis is a clonal proliferative disorder of the hematopoietic stem cells unconnected with the BCR-ABL translocation, and clinically characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, leukoerythroblastosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis and a constellation of debilitating symptoms. (haematologica.org)
  • Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lymphoma can develop at the same time as the myeloproliferative disorder or later. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Appropriate treatment for nonreactive thrombocytosis resulting from a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) is surrounded by controversy. (nih.gov)
  • Most people with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome have symptoms such as fatigue or night sweats. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Finally, there are the bridging disorders, such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), which is the most common of these disorders, although accounting only for 2% of childhood hematologic malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • A class of uncommon blood diseases known as myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) is defined by the bone marrow's overproduction of mature blood cells. (strategymrc.com)
  • They frequently treat conditions like Gastrointestinal Malabsorption, Bleeding Disorders and Hemochromatosis along with other conditions at varying frequencies. (healthline.com)
  • These disorders are often found incidentally during routine medical evaluations or patients may present with clinical abnormalities including a malignant process, which can rapidly become fatal. (nih.gov)
  • The NHLBI plans, conducts and supports research, clinical trials and demonstration and education projects related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases and sleep disorders. (sbir.gov)
  • Search clinical trials for adult and pediatric cancers and blood disorders offered through Dana-Farber and our clinical partners. (dana-farber.org)
  • The myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes are rare in childhood, accounting for about 3% of childhood malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, continuous research and development in diagnostic technologies demonstrates a dedication in optimizing the diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorders, assisting medical professionals in making well-informed decisions, and therefore gradually driving market expansion. (strategymrc.com)
  • The secondary forms are either a result of exposure to chemotherapy or radiation, secondary to a congenital or constitutional disorder (eg, Down syndrome), or the result of associated bone marrow failure syndromes (eg, Fanconi anemia). (medscape.com)
  • Individuals with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome can develop both myeloid cell cancer and lymphoid cell cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In most people with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome, the myeloproliferative disorder develops into a fast-growing blood cancer called acute myeloid leukemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dana-Farber Brigham Cancer Center's Adult Leukemia Program within the Hematologic Oncology Treatment Center includes hematologists, medical oncologists, pathologists, and radiation therapists who specialize in treating patients with all types of leukemia and related blood and bone marrow disorders. (dana-farber.org)
  • Our Leukemia Program offers you access to an experienced team of cancer experts , many of them recognized as national leaders in their field, who concentrate exclusively on patients with leukemia and related blood disorders. (dana-farber.org)
  • 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is caused by rearrangements of genetic material (translocations) between two chromosomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Therefore, the high cost of treatment serves as a significant restraint in the myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) market. (strategymrc.com)
  • Conceptually, it is helpful to consider these syndromes as part of a continuum with the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) on one end and the myeloproliferative syndromes (MPS) on the other, with a group of "bridging" syndromes in between. (medscape.com)
  • 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is a blood cancer that involves different types of blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Background Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative stem cell disorder curable exclusively by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. (haematologica.org)
  • Our haematology services include a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals including specialists, nurses and allied health prac titioners who diagnose and treat disorders and diseases of the blood. (sjog.org.au)
  • It usually begins as a myeloproliferative disorder, which is characterized by a high number of white blood cells (leukocytes). (medlineplus.gov)
  • These disorders are often considered "preleukemic" conditions, and differentiating some forms of MDS from de novo AML can be difficult. (medscape.com)
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders (MPDs) among the general public and healthcare professionals are detected by improving recognition of these conditions. (strategymrc.com)
  • In most cases of 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome, the cancerous cells are lymphoid cells called T cells. (medlineplus.gov)