PeroxidasesPeroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Cytochrome-c Peroxidase: A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Lactoperoxidase: An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.ChloraminesSpectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Luminol: 5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Myeloblastin: A polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived serine protease that degrades proteins such as ELASTIN; FIBRONECTIN; LAMININ; VITRONECTIN; and COLLAGEN. It is named for its ability to control myeloid cell growth and differentiation.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Microscopic Polyangiitis: A primary systemic vasculitis of small- and some medium-sized vessels. It is characterized by a tropism for kidneys and lungs, positive association with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), and a paucity of immunoglobulin deposits in vessel walls.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Bromouracil: 5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLPotassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Cyclohexanones: Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Coprinus: A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Selenious Acid: A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Wegener Granulomatosis: A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Peroxiredoxin VI: A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.3,3'-DiaminobenzidineImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Aniline CompoundsSpectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.KynuramineSelenoprotein P: An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.ZymosanIntercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Selenocysteine: A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: Group of systemic vasculitis with a strong association with ANCA. The disorders are characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small and medium size vessels, with little or no immune-complex deposits in vessel walls.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Chlorohydrins: Any of the compounds derived from a group of glycols or polyhydroxy alcohols by chlorine substitution for part of the hydroxyl groups. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous: Disorder characterized by a vasculitic syndrome associated with exposure to an antigen such as a drug, infectious agent, or other foreign or endogenous substance. Its pathophysiology includes immune complex deposition and a wide range of skin lesions. Hypersensitivity or allergy is present in some but not all cases.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Bozeman PM, Learn DB, Thomas EL (1990). "Assay of the human leukocyte enzymes myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase". J. ... Bozeman PM, Learn DB, Thomas EL (1992). "Inhibition of the human leukocyte enzymes myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase by ... Uetrecht JP (1995). "Myeloperoxidase as a generator of drug free radicals". Biochem. Soc. Symp. 61: 163-70. PMID 8660393. ... Effect of myeloperoxidase and its inhibition by antiinflammatory sulfone compounds". Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 70 (3): ...
The catalytic domain is homologous to mammalian peroxidases such as myeloperoxidase. It has been found that human PTGS2 (COX-2 ... Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of ... Wu G, Wei C, Kulmacz RJ, Osawa Y, Tsai AL (April 1999). "A mechanistic study of self-inactivation of the peroxidase activity in ... Second, PGG2 is reduced to PGH2 in the peroxidase active site. The synthesized PGH2 is converted to prostaglandins (PGD2, PGE2 ...
The mammalian haloperoxidases myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoperoxidase (LPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are also capable of ... Horseradish peroxidase is also capable of oxidizing these substrates, but its heme is not covalently bound and becomes damaged ... Haloperoxidases are peroxidases that are able to mediate the oxidation of halides by hydrogen peroxide. Both halides and ... 264 (10): 5660 - Journal of Biological Chemistry [2] Role of Heme-Protein Covalent Bonds in Mammalian Peroxidases Winter, JM; ...
... peroxidases) Cytochrome c peroxidase EC 1.11.1.5 Catalase EC 1.11.1.6 Myeloperoxidase EC 1.11.1.7 Thyroid peroxidase EC 1.11. ... 1.8 Glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9 Category:EC 1.12.1 (with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor) Category:EC 1.12.2 (with a ...
... two short antiparallel beta-strands and belongs to the heme peroxidase family of enzymes that also includes myeloperoxidase ( ... MPO), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS). A heme cofactor is bound near ... Lactoperoxidase is a peroxidase enzyme secreted from mammary, salivary, and other mucosal glands that functions as a natural ... Lactoperoxidase is a member of the heme peroxidase family of enzymes. In humans, lactoperoxidase is encoded by the LPO gene. ...
... (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MPO gene on chromosome 17. MPO is most abundantly ... Myeloperoxidase". Klebanoff SJ (May 2005). "Myeloperoxidase: friend and foe". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 77 (5): 598-625. ... Myeloperoxidase is the first and so far only human enzyme known to break down carbon nanotubes, allaying a concern among ... Myeloperoxidase staining is still important in the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma, contrasting with the negative staining of ...
Cytochrome c peroxidase Glutathione peroxidase Haloperoxidase Hemoprotein Lactoperoxidase Manganese peroxidase Myeloperoxidase ... Animal heme-dependent peroxidases Ascorbate peroxidase Catalase Chloride peroxidase ... A majority of peroxidase protein sequences can be found in the PeroxiBase database. Peroxidase can be used for treatment of ... Peroxidases are sometimes used as histological marker. Cytochrome c peroxidase is used as a soluble, easily purified model for ...
... myeloperoxidase (MPO); eosinophil peroxidase (EPO); lactoperoxidase (LPO); thyroid peroxidase (TPO); prostaglandin H synthase ( ... Animal heme-dependent peroxidases is a family of peroxidases. Peroxidases are found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. On ... Kimura S, Ikeda-Saito M (1988). "Human myeloperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase, two enzymes with separate and distinct ... The peroxidase active site, which catalyzes the reduction of PGG2 to PGH2, is located on the other side of the molecule, at the ...
Myeloperoxidase deficiency resulted in an absence of peroxidase staining in neutrophils but not eosinophils. Early studies on ... Specific deficiency of eosinophil peroxidase without concomitant deficiency of myeloperoxidase is rare. In a clinical setting, ... I. Studies in developing neutrophils and monocytes from patients with myeloperoxidase deficiency: comparison with peroxidase- ... EPO shares many similarities with its orthologous peroxidases, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoperoxidase (LPO), and thyroid ...
... l is one important characteristic of animal peroxidases; plant peroxidases incorporate heme B. Lactoperoxidase and ... Myeloperoxidase is present in mammalian neutrophils and is responsible for the destruction of invading bacteria and viruses. It ... In peroxidase reactions, the porphyrin molecule also serves as an electron source. In the transportation or detection of ... In general, diatomic gases only bind to the reduced heme, as ferrous Fe(II) while most peroxidases cycle between Fe(III) and Fe ...
Myeloperoxidase uses the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide to produce hypochlorous acid. Many vascular stimuli, ... ROS production can be easily used as a readout for successful pathogen recognition via a luminol-peroxidase based assay. ... Neutrophils and monocytes utilize myeloperoxidase to further combine H2O2 with Cl− to produce hypochlorite, which plays a role ...
The superoxide generated by these enzymes complexes dismutates into hydrogen peroxide which in turn is used by myeloperoxidase ... White WE, Pruitt KM, Mansson-Rahemtulla B (February 1983). "Peroxidase-Thiocyanate-Peroxide Antibacterial System Does Not ... Klebanoff SJ (May 2005). "Myeloperoxidase: friend and foe". J. Leukoc. Biol. 77 (5): 598-625. doi:10.1189/jlb.1204697. PMID ... In addition, the submucosal glands of the respiratory tract secrete myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase (LPO) that catalyzes ...
... catalase-peroxidase EC 1.11.2.1: unspecific peroxygenase EC 1.11.2.2: myeloperoxidase EC 1.11.2.3: plant seed peroxygenase EC ... peroxidase EC 1.11.1.8: iodide peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.10: chloride peroxidase EC 1.11.1.11: L ... NADH peroxidase EC 1.11.1.2: NADPH peroxidase EC 1.11.1.3: fatty-acid peroxidase EC 1.11.1.4: now *EC 1.13.11.11 EC 1.11.1.5: ... versatile peroxidase EC 1.11.1.17: glutathione amide-dependent peroxidase EC 1.11.1.18: bromide peroxidase EC 1.11.1.19: dye ...
Horseradish peroxidase. *Lactoperoxidase. *Myeloperoxidase. *Thyroid peroxidase. *Deiodinase *Iodothyronine deiodinase. * ... Peroxidases,state=autocollapse}} *shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{navbar}}, a {{sidebar}}, or ... Peroxidases,state=collapsed}} to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its title bar ... Peroxidases,state=expanded}} to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible ...
... (GPx) (EC 1.11.1.9) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main ... Horseradish peroxidase. *Lactoperoxidase. *Myeloperoxidase. *Thyroid peroxidase. *Deiodinase *Iodothyronine deiodinase. * ... glutathione peroxidase 4 (phospholipid hydroperoxidase) GPX5. Chr. 6 p21.32. glutathione peroxidase 5 (epididymal androgen- ... Glutathione peroxidase 2 is an intestinal and extracellular enzyme, while glutathione peroxidase 3 is extracellular, especially ...
Henderson JP; Byun J; Williams MV; Mueller DM (2001). "Production of brominating intermediates by myeloperoxidase". J. Biol. ... eosinophil peroxidase provides a potent mechanism by which eosinophils kill multicellular parasites (such as, for example, the ... Neutrophil myeloperoxidase can use H2O2 and Br- to brominate deoxycytidine, which could result in DNA mutations.[59] Marine ... nematode worms involved in filariasis) and some bacteria (such as tuberculosis bacteria). Eosinophil peroxidase is a ...
The catalytic domain is homologous to mammalian peroxidases such as myeloperoxidase.[24][25] ... peroxidase activity. • prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • endoplasmic reticulum ... A hydroperoxide oxidizes the heme to a ferryl-oxo derivative that either is reduced in the first step of the peroxidase cycle ... Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of ...
"PeroxiBase - The peroxidase database". Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Archived from the original on 2008-10-13. Retrieved ... there is a defect in producing peroxide via mutations in phagocyte oxidases such as myeloperoxidase. Normal cellular metabolism ... Enzyme kinetics Peroxidases Superoxide dismutase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000121691 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... Maehly AC, Chance B (1954). "The assay of catalases and peroxidases". Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Methods of Biochemical ...
Horseradish peroxidase. *Lactoperoxidase. *Myeloperoxidase. *Thyroid peroxidase. *Deiodinase *Iodothyronine deiodinase. * ... "Entrez Gene: glutathione peroxidase 6 (olfactory)".. *^ Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigó R, ... Glutathione peroxidase 6 (GPx-6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPX6 gene.[5][6] ... This gene product belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family, which functions in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. It ...
Myeloperoxidase EC 1.11.1.7. *Thyroid peroxidase EC 1.11.1.8. *Glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9 ... Category:EC 1.11 (act on peroxide as an acceptor -- peroxidases)Edit. *Category:EC 1.11.1 (peroxidases) *Cytochrome c ...
O hipotiocianito xerado pola peroxidase inhibe o virus herpes simplex[30] e o virus da inmunodeficiencia humana.[31] ... Wever R, Kast WM, Kasinoedin JH, Boelens R (December 1982). "The peroxidation of thiocyanate catalysed by myeloperoxidase and ... A lactoperoxidase é un encima peroxidase animal segregado polas glándulas salivares, mamarias e outras glándulas mucosas,[1] ... Tenovuo JO (1985). "The peroxidase system in human secretions". En Tenovuo JO, Pruitt KM. The Lactoperoxidase system: chemistry ...
Granule contents of basophils are abundant with histamine, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, peroxidase, platelet-activating factor ... and myeloperoxidase (used to generate toxic bacteria-killing substances). In addition, secretions from the primary granules of ...
... l is one important characteristic of animal peroxidases; plant peroxidases incorporate heme B. Lactoperoxidase and ... Myeloperoxidase is present in mammalian neutrophils and is responsible for the destruction of invading bacteria and viruses. It ... In peroxidase reactions, the porphyrin molecule also serves as an electron source. In the transportation or detection of ... Heme l is the derivative of heme B which is covalently attached to the protein of lactoperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, and ...
Klebanoff SJ (1970). "Peroxidase-mediated antimicrobial activity of rat uterine fluid". Gynecol Invest. 1: 21-30. doi:10.1159/ ... even in the presence of human myeloperoxidase, known to increase the microbicidal activity of H2O2. Only supraphysiologic ... inhibiting growth of microorganisms via direct interaction or via human myeloperoxidase. Hydrogen peroxide-producing ...
Myeloperoxidase, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, Plasmin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, Protease inhibitor ( ... Thyroid peroxidase, Tissue transglutaminase, Vitamin K epoxide reductase, Von Willebrand factor ...
Myeloperoxidase. *Defensins. *neutral serine proteases (Proteinase 3). *Lysozyme. *Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein ...
Figure 5: (a) Initial study of the effect of 0.5 mg myeloperoxidase (MPO)/mouse on survival depicted as Kaplan-Meier survivor ... study showing Kaplan-Meier survivor curves using 2.5 and 5.0 mg MPO/mouse and also 2.5 and 5.0 mg eosinophil peroxidase (EPO)/ ...
Peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities of isolated human myeloperoxidases. B E Svensson, K Domeij, S Lindvall, G Rydell ... Peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities of isolated human myeloperoxidases Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... When these forms were assayed for peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities with several substrates, they all exhibited ... However, this myeloperoxidase contained in addition one form with a lower and one form with a higher relative molecular mass, ...
Elastase binding of alpha 1 anti trypsin exposed to the myelo peroxidase hydrogen per oxide halide system ... Enhanced killing of myelo peroxidase coated bacteria in the myelo peroxidase hydrogen per oxide chloride system. Journal of ... Chlorination by the myelo peroxidase hydrogen per oxide chloride ion anti microbial system at acid and neutral ph. Proceedings ... The role of ph in the chemi luminescent response of the myelo peroxidase halide hydrogen per oxide anti microbial system. ...
Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase granules zurophilic proteins are a marker important in asthma patients. In the ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) effecting on asthma patients in Basra Province, Iraq. Myeloperoxidase and ... In the current study myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Eosinophil peroxidase levels were assessed in different stages of asthma, in 100 ... On the other hand eosinophil peroxidase levels of EPO were 47.68 ± 5.78 ng/ml (median ± SD) in control and 75.89 ± 14.46 ng/ml ...
The eosinophil peroxidase gene forms a cluster with the genes for myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase on human chromosome 17.. ... Abbreviation / Long Form : MPO / mammalian peroxidases that includes myeloperoxidase. [Related PubMed/MEDLINE]. Total Number of ...
Peroxidase/genetics. *Peroxidase/physiology*. *Reperfusion Injury/enzymology. *Reperfusion Injury/immunology. *Reperfusion ... Myeloperoxidase is critically involved in the induction of organ damage after renal ischemia reperfusion.. Matthijsen RA1, ... In this study the role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in a murine (C57BL/6) model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced renal ... Myeloperoxidase Is Critically Involved in the Induction of Organ Damage after Renal Ischemia Reperfusion ...
... myeloperoxidase (MPO); eosinophil peroxidase (EPO); lactoperoxidase (LPO); thyroid peroxidase (TPO); prostaglandin H synthase ( ... Animal heme-dependent peroxidases is a family of peroxidases. Peroxidases are found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. On ... Kimura S, Ikeda-Saito M (1988). "Human myeloperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase, two enzymes with separate and distinct ... The peroxidase active site, which catalyzes the reduction of PGG2 to PGH2, is located on the other side of the molecule, at the ...
Included is a discussion of peroxidases that also act as catalases and oxygenases. Heme Peroxidases serves as an essential text ... Discussed functions of peroxidases range from cell wall synthesis, synthesis of prostaglandins, role in drug suppression of ... Chapters written and edited by worldwide experts span a range of heme peroxidases from plants, yeast, bacteria and mammals. ... This book provides a comprehensive single source of information on the various aspects of heme peroxidase structure, function ...
Bozeman PM, Learn DB, Thomas EL (1990). "Assay of the human leukocyte enzymes myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase". J. ... Bozeman PM, Learn DB, Thomas EL (1992). "Inhibition of the human leukocyte enzymes myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase by ... Uetrecht JP (1995). "Myeloperoxidase as a generator of drug free radicals". Biochem. Soc. Symp. 61: 163-70. PMID 8660393. ... Effect of myeloperoxidase and its inhibition by antiinflammatory sulfone compounds". Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 70 (3): ...
The catalytic domain is homologous to mammalian peroxidases such as myeloperoxidase. It has been found that human PTGS2 (COX-2 ... Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of ... Wu G, Wei C, Kulmacz RJ, Osawa Y, Tsai AL (April 1999). "A mechanistic study of self-inactivation of the peroxidase activity in ... Second, PGG2 is reduced to PGH2 in the peroxidase active site. The synthesized PGH2 is converted to prostaglandins (PGD2, PGE2 ...
... and secrete unique peroxidases, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) by EOS and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by PMN. These enzymes functionally ... eosinophil peroxidase. LPO. lactoperoxidase. MPO. myeloperoxidase. NaSCN. sodium thiocyanate. EOS. eosinophil. PMN. neutrophil ... defining both the role of peroxidases in nitrotyrosine formation in vivo using eosinophil peroxidase and myeloperoxidase- ... 1992) Inhibition of the human leukocyte enzymes myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase by dapsone. Biochem Pharmacol 44:553- ...
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Activity Assay Kit I. Fast, convenient and sensitive colorimetric assay for measuring MPO activity in ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Activity Assay Kit II. Fast, convenient and sensitive fluorometric assay for measuring MPO activity in ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Peroxidation Activity Assay Kit. Highly sensitive fluorometric measurement of MPO activity in various ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Inhibitor Screening Kit. Rapid, simple and reliable fluorometric assay for screening potential inhibitors ...
MCLA has also been utilized for the determination of both horseradish peroxidase and myeloperoxidase.. ... Zenon Horseradish Peroxidase Antibody Labeling Kits. Our Zenon Horseradish Peroxidase Antibody Labeling Kits, available for ... Nonisotopic immunoassays utilizing peroxidase conjugates and the chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase substrate luminol ( ... Peroxidase-Based Amplex ELISA Kits The Amplex ELISA Development Kits for Mouse IgG (A33851) and for Rabbit IgG (A33852) provide ...
myeloperoxidase. NAC. N-acetylcysteine. NOD/SCID. nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient. NF-κB. nuclear ... Myeloperoxidase Expression as a Potential Determinant of Parthenolide-Induced Apoptosis in Leukemia Bulk and Leukemia Stem ... Myeloperoxidase Expression as a Potential Determinant of Parthenolide-Induced Apoptosis in Leukemia Bulk and Leukemia Stem ... Myeloperoxidase Expression as a Potential Determinant of Parthenolide-Induced Apoptosis in Leukemia Bulk and Leukemia Stem ...
Myeloperoxidase deficiency resulted in an absence of peroxidase staining in neutrophils but not eosinophils. Early studies on ... Specific deficiency of eosinophil peroxidase without concomitant deficiency of myeloperoxidase is rare. In a clinical setting, ... I. Studies in developing neutrophils and monocytes from patients with myeloperoxidase deficiency: comparison with peroxidase- ... EPO shares many similarities with its orthologous peroxidases, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoperoxidase (LPO), and thyroid ...
Fluorometric Assay for detecting Peroxidase Activity in cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma, urine, and other biological ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit. $455.00 Hydrogen Peroxide Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit. $285.00 ... BioVisions Peroxidase Assay Kit provides a convenient colorimetric and fluorometric means to measure the peroxidase activity ... Peroxidases (EC number 1.11.1.x) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: ROOR + electron ...
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric) Functional Assay Kits datasheet (ab105136). Abcam offers quality ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme (EC 1.11.1.7) most abundantly expressed in neutrophil granulocytes. It is a ... Myeloperoxidase contains a heme pigment which causes its green color in secretions rich in neutrophils, such as pus and some ... Myeloperoxidase catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid (HClO) from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride anion (Cl-, or ...
Direct antimicrobial • Enzymes: - Lactoferrin - Lysozyme - Human Salivary peroxidase , Myeloperoxidases. - IgA system - ...
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a human enzyme in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the lysosomes of monocytes. Its major ... Molecular genetics of peroxidase deficiency. J Mol Med. 1998 Sep. 76(10):688-98. [Medline]. ... encoded search term (Myeloperoxidase Deficiency) and Myeloperoxidase Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Diagnostic assays for myeloperoxidase and myeloperoxidase deficiency. Methods Mol Biol. 2014. 1124:537-46. [Medline]. ...
Myeloperoxidase and protein carbonyl levels are elevated in plasma after acute MI, apparently via independent mechanisms. High ... Plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase predict mortality after myocardial infarction J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 May 22;49(20): ... Conclusions: Myeloperoxidase and protein carbonyl levels are elevated in plasma after acute MI, apparently via independent ... Objectives: This study investigated relationships between plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO), protein oxidation markers, and clinical ...
Peroxidase. Grant support. *CA 55769/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States. *R25 CA57730/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... A myeloperoxidase polymorphism associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.. Schabath MB1, Spitz MR, Hong WK, Delclos GL, ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a metabolic/oxidative enzyme found in neutrophils and monocytes that contributes to pulmonary ...
Human myeloperoxidase catalyzes an oscillating peroxidase-oxidase reaction. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal ...
However, other enzyme-based systems such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) may also be in ... 0/DNA Primers; EC 1.11.1.7/Peroxidase From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... However, other enzyme-based systems such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) may also be involved in this metabolic process. MPO is a ...
Myeloperoxidase, a heme protein expressed by select populations of artery wall macrophages, ... Peroxidase / metabolism*. Phenotype. Temperature. Thymine / chemistry. Time Factors. Uracil / analogs & derivatives*, chemistry ... Myeloperoxidase, a heme protein expressed by select populations of artery wall macrophages, initiates one potentially mutagenic ... Myeloperoxidase generates 5-chlorouracil in human atherosclerotic tissue: a potential pathway for somatic mutagenesis by ...
... glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme, as well decreased histopathological lesions [26, 29]. Preincubation with organic and ... myeloperoxidase; NFκB; factor nuclear kappa B. ...
  • Impaired microvascular function during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion is associated with recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and has been attributed to decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Whereas myeloperoxidase (MPO), a highly abundant, PMN-derived heme protein facilitates oxidative NO consumption and impairs vascular function in animal models of acute inflammation, its capacity to function in this regard during human myocardial ischemia and reperfusion remains unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolated neutrophils from healthy donors were used for the isolation of four highly purified forms of myeloperoxidase as determined by spectral (A430/A280 ratio 0.80-0.87) and enzyme-activity measurements. (biochemj.org)
  • Elevated plasma myeloperoxidase concentrations are found in stroke patients 12 and predict major downstream cardiac events both in patients presenting with acute chest pain 13 and in apparently healthy individuals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Plasma myeloperoxidase level was measured using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. (karger.com)
  • When these forms were assayed for peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities with several substrates, they all exhibited virtually the same specific activities. (biochemj.org)
  • COX-2 is naturally inhibited by Calcitriol (the active form of Vitamin D). Both the peroxidase and PTGS activities are inactivated during catalysis by mechanism-based, first-order processes, which means that PGHS-2 peroxidase or PTGS activities fall to zero within 1-2 minutes, even in the presence of sufficient substrates. (wikipedia.org)