Consensus Development Conferences, NIH as Topic
Human Genome Project
Continuous axenic cultivation of Pneumocystis carinii. (1/431)Continuous axenic culture of Pneumocystis carinii has been achieved. A culture vessel is used that allows for frequent medium exchange without disturbance of organisms that grow attached to a collagen-coated porous membrane. The growth medium is based on Minimal Essential Medium with Earle's salt supplemented with S-adenosyl-L-methionine, putrescine, ferric pyrophosphate, N-acetyl glucosamine, putrescine, p-aminobenzoic acid, L-cysteine and L-glutamine, and horse serum. Incubation is in room air at 31 degrees C. The pH of the medium begins at 8.8 and rises to approximately 9 as the cells grow. Doubling times calculated from growth curves obtained from cultures inoculated at moderate densities ranged from 35 to 65 hours. With a low-density inoculum, the doubling time is reduced to 19 hours. The morphology of cultured organisms in stained smears and in transmission electron micrographs is that of P. carinii, and P. carinii-specific mAbs label the cultured material. Cultured organisms are infective for immunosuppressed rats and can be stored frozen and used to reinitiate culture. (+info)
Species identification and strain differentiation of dermatophyte fungi by analysis of ribosomal-DNA intergenic spacer regions. (2/431)Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) identified in the ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) repeat were used for molecular strain differentiation of the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum. The polymorphisms were detected by hybridization of EcoRI-digested T. rubrum genomic DNAs with a probe amplified from the small-subunit (18S) rDNA and adjacent internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The rDNA RFLPs mapped to the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) region of the rDNA repeat and appeared similar to those caused by short repetitive sequences in the intergenic spacers of other fungi. Fourteen individual RFLP patterns (DNA types A to N) were recognized among 50 random clinical isolates of T. rubrum. A majority of strains (19 of 50 [38%]) were characterized by one RFLP pattern (DNA type A), and four types (DNA types A to D) accounted for 78% (39 of 50) of all strains. The remaining types (DNA types E to N) were represented by one or two isolates only. A rapid and simple method was also developed for molecular species identification of dermatophyte fungi. The contiguous ITS and 5.8S rDNA regions were amplified from 17 common dermatophyte species by using the universal primers ITS 1 and ITS 4. Digestion of the amplified ITS products with the restriction endonuclease MvaI produced unique and easily identifiable fragment patterns for a majority of species. However, some closely related taxon pairs, such as T. rubrum-T. soudanense and T. quinkeanum-T. schoenlenii could not be distinguished. We conclude that RFLP analysis of the NTS and ITS intergenic regions of the rDNA repeat is a valuable technique both for molecular strain differentiation of T. rubrum and for species identification of common dermatophyte fungi. (+info)
Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management. (3/431)The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galactomannan was detected in the CSF 45 days before a culture became positive, and Aspergillus DNA was detected 4 days prior to culture. Decline of the galactomannan antigen titer in the CSF during treatment with intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin B and intravenous voriconazole corresponded with the clinical response to treatment. (+info)
A sandwiched-culture technique for evaluation of heterologous protein production in a filamentous fungus. (4/431)Aspergillus niger is known for its efficient excretion machinery. However, problems have often arisen in obtaining high amounts of heterologous proteins in the culture medium. Here we present a quick method using sandwiched colonies to evaluate transgenic strains for secretion of heterologous proteins. Expressing the ABH1 hydrophobin of Agaricus bisporus in A. niger, we showed that low production levels of the heterologous protein are probably due to extracellular proteolytic degradation of the protein. (+info)
Controlled clinical comparison of bioMerieux VITAL and BACTEC NR-660 blood culture systems for detection of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. (5/431)A total of 9,446 blood cultures were collected from adult patients at three university-affiliated hospitals. Of these, 8,943 cultures were received with both aerobic bottles filled adequately; 885 yielded 1,016 microorganisms, including 622 isolates (61%) that were the cause of sepsis, 337 isolates (33%) that were contaminants, and 57 isolates (6%) that were indeterminate as the cause of sepsis. With the exception of Staphylococcus aureus, which was recovered more often from VITAL aerobic bottles, more pathogenic microorganisms were recovered from BACTEC NR6 (aerobic) bottles than from VITAL aerobic bottles. Growth of pathogenic microorganisms was detected earlier in VITAL aerobic bottles. A total of 8,647 blood cultures were received with both anaerobic bottles filled adequately; 655 yielded 740 microorganisms, including 486 isolates (66%) that were the cause of sepsis, 215 isolates (29%) that were contaminants, and 39 isolates (6%) that were indeterminate as the cause of sepsis. More pathogenic microorganisms were recovered from VITAL anaerobic bottles than from BACTEC NR7 (anaerobic) bottles. Growth of pathogenic microorganisms was detected earlier in VITAL anaerobic bottles. In 8,500 sets all four bottles were received adequately filled. When paired aerobic and anaerobic bottle sets (systems) were compared, more pathogenic microorganisms (again with the exception of S. aureus) were recovered from the BACTEC system. For the 304 septic episodes (253 unimicrobial and 51 polymicrobial), significantly more were detected by the BACTEC system. We conclude that VITAL requires modification to improve recovery of pathogenic microorganisms to make it competitive with other commercially available blood culture systems. (+info)
PCR-restriction enzyme analysis for detection of Candida DNA in blood from febrile patients with hematological malignancies. (6/431)Blood samples were drawn daily from 72 patients who had hematological malignancies, neutropenia, and fever and who had failed to respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Each sample was used for conventional fungal blood cultures and for detection and identification of Candida DNA by a PCR method with subsequent restriction enzyme analysis (REA) recently developed in our laboratory. The PCR method was able to detect five CFU of Candida spp. per ml of blood, and subsequent REA of the amplicons allowed the identification of the Candida species most commonly implicated in cases of candidiasis. Thirty-one patients were PCR-REA positive, and four of these patients were also culture positive. The ultimate diagnosis for 13 of these patients and 1 patient who was PCR-REA negative was disseminated candidiasis (confirmed by clinical data, multiple cultures, histology, autopsy, and/or ultrasonographic evidence of hepatosplenic candidiasis). The molecular method is significantly more sensitive than conventional fungal blood cultures and has a high negative predictive value (97.5%) for the development of disseminated candidiasis in neutropenic patients. (+info)
Comparison of three commercial systems for identification of yeasts commonly isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory. (7/431)We evaluated three commercial systems (RapID Yeast Plus System; Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.; API 20C Aux; bioMerieux-Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.; and Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card, bioMerieux-Vitek) against an auxinographic and microscopic morphologic reference method for the ability to identify yeasts commonly isolated in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Two-hundred one yeast isolates were compared in the study. The RapID Yeast Plus System was significantly better than either API 20C Aux (193 versus 167 correct identifications; P < 0.0001) or the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card (193 versus 173 correct identifications; P = 0.003) for obtaining correct identifications to the species level without additional testing. There was no significant difference between results obtained with API 20C Aux and the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card system (P = 0.39). The API 20C Aux system did not correctly identify any of the Candida krusei isolates (n = 23) without supplemental testing and accounted for the major differences between the API 20C Aux and RapID Yeast Plus systems. Overall, the RapID Yeast Plus System was easy to use and is a good system for the routine identification of clinically relevant yeasts. (+info)
Times to detection of bacteria and yeasts in BACTEC 9240 blood culture bottles. (8/431)A 7-day incubation protocol was instituted with the BACTEC 9240 system for a 1-year period to determine the times to detection of clinically relevant organisms. A total of 23,686 blood and 693 sterile body fluid cultures were received; some cultures were held longer by special request. Of 1,609 likely skin contaminants, 42 were recovered on day 5, 34 on day 6, 16 on day 7, and 5 on day 8. Of 2,803 usual pathogens, 34 were recovered on day 5, 24 on day 6, 15 on day 7 and 1 on day 8. Twenty-one of the latter organisms were considered significant laboratory isolates because they were the first isolates from the respective patients. Chart review showed that 10 of 21 were considered clinically significant, but only 3 (all yeasts) affected the treatment of the patient. Our data show that 4 days of incubation were sufficient to recover all clinically relevant bacteria and 6 days were required to recover all clinically relevant yeasts. (+info)
The most common types of mycoses include:
1. Ringworm: This is a common fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, torso, and face.
2. Athlete's foot: This is a common fungal infection that affects the feet, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
3. Jock itch: This is a fungal infection that affects the groin area and inner thighs, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
4. Candidiasis: This is a fungal infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, and vagina.
5. Aspergillosis: This is a serious fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, and brain.
Symptoms of mycoses can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and cracking of the skin. Treatment for mycoses usually involves antifungal medications, which can be applied topically or taken orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Preventive measures for mycoses include practicing good hygiene, avoiding sharing personal items such as towels and clothing, and using antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment of mycoses can help prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others.
The condition can affect anyone, but it is more common in older adults and people with certain underlying health conditions such as diabetes, circulatory problems, and immune deficiency disorders. It can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of exposure to fungal spores in the environment.
There are several types of onychomycosis, including:
1. Distal lateral subungual onychomycosis: This is the most common type and affects the nails of the big toe and thumb.
2. Proximal subungual onychomycosis: This type affects the nails of the fingertips and toes.
3. White superficial onychomycosis: This type is characterized by a white, patchy appearance on the surface of the nail.
4. Candidal onychomycosis: This type is caused by a yeast infection and is more common in people with diabetes or compromised immune systems.
Onychomycosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and fungal cultures of the nail. Treatment options include topical creams and ointments, oral medications, and laser therapy. The best treatment approach depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the individual's overall health status.
Preventative measures for onychomycosis include keeping the nails clean and dry, avoiding sharing personal care items, wearing socks that absorb sweat, and using antifungal sprays or powders. Good hygiene practices and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can also help prevent and manage onychomycosis.
Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia.
Examples from the web for 'dermatomycoses'
Some common types of dermatomycoses include athlete's foot and jock itch.
Scientific American, 25 Mar. 2019.
Topical antifungal medications are effective against most types of dermatomycoses.
Britannica.com: encyclopedia article about dermatomycoses.
This condition is caused by a type of fungus that affects the skin, known as dermatomycoses.
Mayo Clinic, 01 Mar. 2020.
Symptoms of fungemia may include fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made by drawing blood cultures and performing microbiological tests to identify the presence of fungal organisms in the blood. Treatment typically involves administration of antifungal medications, which can be given intravenously or orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.
In some cases, fungemia can lead to complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these outcomes.
Types of candidiasis:
1. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC): a common infection that affects the vagina and vulva; symptoms include itching, burning, and abnormal discharge.
2. Oral thrush (OT): an infection that affects the mouth, often seen in infants and people with weakened immune systems; symptoms include white patches on the tongue and inside the cheeks.
3. Invasive candidiasis (IC): a severe infection that can spread throughout the body, often seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy; symptoms include fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Candidal balanitis: an infection of the foreskin and glans of the penis; symptoms include redness, swelling, and pain.
5. Diaper rash: a common skin infection that affects infants who wear diapers; symptoms include redness, swelling, and irritability.
Causes and risk factors:
1. Overgrowth of Candida fungus due to an imbalance of the normal flora.
2. Use of antibiotics or steroids that can disrupt the balance of the body's natural flora.
3. Weakened immune system, such as in people with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy.
4. Poor hygiene and sanitation.
5. Diabetes mellitus.
1. Physical examination and medical history.
2. Microscopic examination of a scraping or biopsy specimen.
3. Cultures of skin, blood, or other body fluids.
4. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other molecular diagnostic techniques to detect the presence of the fungus.
1. Topical antifungal medications, such as clotrimazole, miconazole, or terbinafine, applied directly to the affected area.
2. Oral antifungal medications, such as fluconazole or itraconazole, for more severe infections or those that do not respond to topical treatment.
3. Antibiotics if there is a secondary bacterial infection.
4. Supportive care, such as pain management and wound care.
5. Proper hygiene and sanitation practices.
6. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antifungal medications and close monitoring.
1. Practice good hygiene and sanitation.
2. Avoid sharing personal items, such as towels or clothing.
3. Wash hands before touching the affected area.
4. Keep the affected area clean and dry.
5. Use of antifungal powders or sprays on the affected area.
6. Avoid using harsh soaps or cleansers that can irritate the skin.
7. Wear shoes in public areas to prevent exposure to fungal spores.
8. Avoid sharing bathing or showering facilities with others.
9. Dry thoroughly after bathing or swimming.
10. Use of antifungal medications as a prophylactic measure in high-risk individuals, such as those with weakened immune systems.
It's important to note that the best treatment and prevention strategies will depend on the specific type of fungus causing the infection, as well as the severity and location of the infection. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Mycology: An Anthology
Glossary of mycology
Studies in Mycology
List of mycology journals
International Collection of Microorganisms from Plants
List of mycologists
NIH Guide: MYCOLOGY RESEARCH UNITS
Unknown 37 | Mycology | University of Adelaide
Bacteriology and Mycology Branch (BMB) - Contacts | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Chile Virology Bacteriology Parasitology and Mycology Testing Market
safety - UC BERKELEY FOREST PATHOLOGY AND MYCOLOGY LAB
Need Help w/ Mexicana on Agar - Advanced Mycology - Shroomery Message Board
1664: Mycology - explain xkcd
Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical...
Distinguished Mycologists,British mycology,Vacancy,CME program Philadelphia,Yeast proteomes,Courses China, Superficial...
synanthropic fungi, neomycete, mapping, Baden-Württemberg, smut fungi, rust fungi, urban mycology
Fungi (Mycology) - Microbiology Online Course
Classes - Mycology-Supply
Mycology Research Laboratories
Food Mycology ICFM
Mold Resources | Gordon Mycology
Cervical Cancer - Mycology Press
Bacteriology/Mycology - LABOKLIN Europe
Details for: Medical mycology : › WHO HQ Library catalog
CONTACT | Lucidum Medicinals | Applied Mycology
One-Day Medical Mycology Workshop
Studies in Mycology2
- An Interdisciplinary Forum on Superficial Infections will be organized as an element of a series of workshops by the study group Eukaryotic Pathogens from the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology, in collaboration with the German Society for Mycology. (isham.org)
- On Friday, January 20th, Student Immunization Initiative (SII) and Hawaii Branch, American Society for Microbiology (HI-ASM), held the first Medical Mycology Workshop at UH Cancer Center Sullivan Conference Room. (siihawaii.org)
- Dr. Nancy S. Miller, Associate Professor of Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Medical Director of Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Diagnostics from the Boston Medical Center, gave a lecture on the basics of medical mycology in the morning and an interactive practical session using real cases in the afternoon. (siihawaii.org)
- The 46th British Society for Medical Mycology (BSMM) meeting will be held April 18-20, 2010 in Exeter, U.K. Topics covered include fungal cell wall, morphogenesis, pathogenicity, host-pathogen interactions and clinical mycology. (isham.org)
- As a part of the annual meeting of the ISHAM working group Mycology Study Group (MSG) in Philadelphia, U.S.A., April 7 and 8, a CME program will be conducted on April 7 which will include a number of innovative presentations pertaining to clinical and diagnostic mycology. (isham.org)
- Clinical problems in medical mycology: Problem number 49]. (bvsalud.org)
- Clinical mycology is, in some respects, a subspecialty in infectious diseases. (nih.gov)
- I am looking toward a career in clinical mycology. (nih.gov)
- Mycology Research Laboratories Ltd. (MRL) markets mushroom nutrition products that are cultivated in accordance with both the California Organic Food Act of 1990 and the EU organic regulation (EEC 2092/91). (mycologyresearch.com)
- Mycology Research Laboratories Ltd.´s Cordyceps sinensis powder contains both mycelium and primordia (young fruit body) cultivated into a biomass that is grown on a sterilised (autoclaved) substrate under ISO 22000:2018 standards in the EU. (mycologyresearch.com)
- Gordon Mycology Laboratory, Inc. (moldtestingma.com)
- You will then receive the current year's issues of Medical Mycology , regular e-mailed ISHAM news alerts and ISHAM-SOS service, have access to the ISHAM member forum and all other correspondence for members. (isham.org)
- The sessions included up-to-date information and tips on important mycology topics. (siihawaii.org)
- The International Commission on Food Mycology serves food microbiologists as a platform where results of research are presented and discussed. (foodmycology.org)
- This year's ICAAC provided numerous excellent examples of the recent advances that have been made in medical mycology regarding recent changes in the evolution of fungal epidemiology, advances in diagnostic assays, and the development of newer and more potent antifungals. (medscape.com)
- The journal Studies in Mycology is now participating in PubMed Central, beginning with volume 55 (2006). (nih.gov)