Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Interferon-gamma Release Tests: The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLGranuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Tuberculoma: A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mycobacterium marinum: A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mycobacterium fortuitum: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mycolic AcidsMycobacterium kansasii: A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Mycobacterium chelonae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.Interleukin-12 Subunit p40: A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Mice, Inbred BALB CSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Mycobacterium phlei: A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Mycobacterium ulcerans: A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Tuberculosis, Splenic: Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tuberculosis, Renal: Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Diarylquinolines: A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.Tuberculosis, Urogenital: A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Tuberculosis, Hepatic: Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mice, Inbred C3HInterspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Mycobacterium xenopi: A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mycobacterium lepraemurium: The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Aza CompoundsTuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chaperonins: A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Paratuberculosis: A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.AmidohydrolasesTuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.IndiaTuberculosis, Laryngeal: Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis could also cause WFS. Tubercular invasion of the adrenal glands could cause hemorrhagic destruction ... commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterial infection leads ... Fulminant infection from meningococci bacteria in the bloodstream is a medical emergency and requires emergent treatment with ... Ebola virus infection may also cause similar acute adrenal failure.[citation needed] Leukocytosis Acidosis Hyperkalemia ...
"LAG3 expression in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections". The American Journal of Pathology. 185 (3): 820-33. doi: ... working at the Tulane National Primate Research Center showed in rhesus macaques that Mycobacterium tuberculosis could work ... helps maintain CD8 exhaustion during chronic viral infection. LAG3 is known to be involved in the maturation and activation of ... "On the role of the inhibitory receptor LAG-3 in acute and chronic LCMV infection". International Immunology. 22 (1): 13-23. doi ...
It is the most common Mycobacterium tuberculosis skin infection. The lesions may ultimately develop into disfiguring skin ... Lupus vulgaris (also known as tuberculosis luposa) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, ... Ghorpade, A (27 August 2003). "Lupus vulgaris over a tattoo mark--inoculation tuberculosis". Journal of the European Academy of ... fungal infection A dermatologist or general physician usually administers combination therapy of drugs used for tuberculosis, ...
... is most commonly used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth has been ... In 1979, capreomycin was used in the area of antituberculosis by inhibiting the growth of mycobacterium tuberculosis. " ... Specifically it is a second line treatment used for active drug resistant tuberculosis. It is given by injection into a vein or ... Capreomycin is an antibiotic which is given in combination with other antibiotics for the treatment of tuberculosis. ...
Infections most commonly associated with IRIS include Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. Persons living ... Not only does this make it more difficult to fight the infection, it may mean that a level of infection that would normally ... Though these symptoms can be dangerous, they also indicate that the body may now have a better chance to defeat the infection. ... This study suggests that bats undergoing an intense inflammation at the site of infection after a return to euthermia is a form ...
The mycobacterial infections are often caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or environmental bacteria. Very common are also ... Patients with CMC often suffer also with bacterial infections (mostly Staphylococcus aureus), also with infections of the ... Repeting common infections are frequent by both GOF and LOF mutations. STAT1 loss of function, therefore STAT1 deficiency can ... That causes intracellular bacterial diseases or viral infections and impaired IFN a, b, g and IL27 responses are diagnosed. In ...
Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54 ... Guideline for infection control in healthcare personnel, 1998. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect ... Transmission-based precautions are additional infection control precautions in health care, and the latest routine infection ... An outbreak of tuberculosis among hospital personnel caring for a patient with a skin ulcer. Ann Intern Med 1992;117(4):312-3. ...
The drug can trigger an inflammatory response to opportunistic infections (e.g., Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC], M. ... tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus [CMV], Pneumocystis jirovecii [formerly P. carinii). Autoimmune disorders have been reported and ... Therapy of Viral Infections Volume 15 of Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. Springer. 2015. p. 6. ISBN 9783662467596. Archived from ... Koziel MJ, Peters MG (2007). "Viral hepatitis in HIV infection". N Engl J Med. 356 (14): 1445-54. doi:10.1056/NEJMra065142. ...
"Chemokine production by a human alveolar epithelial cell line in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Infection and ...
... as Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: The mycobacterium that cause tuberculosis can also cause parotid infection. Those ... Treatment of individual infections may prevent injury to the gland parenchyma. Severe disease may be treated by parotidectomy. ... Acute bacterial parotitis: is most often caused by a bacterial infection of Staphylococcus aureus but may be caused by any ...
Guidelines for Using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection, United States. ... Collins, LF; Geadas, C; Ellner, JJ (2016), "Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: too soon to pull the plug on the ... 15 mm induration (Heaf 3-4) Tuberculosis Latent tuberculosis QuantiFERON Tine test F. Mendel. Therapeutische Monatshefte, ... latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and treatment is considered for any BCG-vaccinated person whose skin test is 10 mm or ...
The detection of airborne mycobacterium tuberculosis using micropore membrane air sampling and polymerase chain reaction. Chest ... Common skin infections in the elderly. Infect in Med 1999; 16:4 *Mastorides SM, Oehler RL, Greene JN, Sinnott JT, Kranik M, ... HIV infection, risk factors, and testing in a veteran population. Amer Clin Lab 2002 Mar; 21(2):32-9 *Montero, JA, Zaulyanov, ... Infection prophylaxis after occupational exposure to HIV: a simple approach. The AIDS Read 1998; 8:3 *Ormerod LD, Sinnott JT, ...
Bacterial processes leading to ulceration can be caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis) and Treponema pallidum ( ... HIV infection, diabetes) microbiological swabs (infection), or urinalysis (diabetes). A biopsy (minor procedure to cut out a ... Some of the viral infections mentioned above are also classified as vesiculobullous diseases. Other example vesiculobullous ... the ulcer may be maintained by inflammation and/or secondary infection. Rarely, a mouth ulcer that does not heal may be a sign ...
... is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. This includes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis: 1 μg/ml - 2 μg/ml Staphylococcus aureus: 4 μg/ml The most concerning side effects, as with other ... For active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. It is given by injection into ... For active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. It is not the first-line ...
The Institute is also working on determining the mutations that make mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to medication. ... INMEGEN studies how proteins are affected by the immune system in papillomavirus infection. The institution develops projects ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the infectious agent responsible for Tuberculosis (TB), persists within an estimated two billion ... tuberculosis in the latent granuloma stage of the infection. There are eight types of USPs within M. tuberculosis, all of which ... "Individual Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein homologues are dispensable in vitro". Tuberculosis. 90: 236-244 ... Drumm JE (2009). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates bacillary growth by ATP-Binding: ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the tubercle bacillus, may also cause lobar pneumonia if pulmonary tuberculosis is not treated ... in immune suppressed patients or as nosocomial infection. However, most causative organisms are of the community acquired type ...
... is a whole-blood test for use as an aid in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, including latent tuberculosis ... They are surrogate markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and indicate a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. ... "Guidelines for Using the QuantiFERON-TB Test for Diagnosing Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection". Retrieved 2007-06-01 ... QuantiFERON, also known as QFT, is the registered trademark of the test for tuberculosis infection or latent tuberculosis. It ...
Tuberculous adenitis (scrofula) is a tuberculous infection of the skin of the neck caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Non- ... tuberculous adenitis can also be caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum or Mycobacterium avium. Abdomen Mesenteric adenitis is an ... Lymph adenitis or lymph node adenitis is caused by infection in lymph nodes. The infected lymph nodes typically become enlarged ...
In addition, some Mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. ... complicated intraabdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infections, and nosocomial respiratory tract infections. ... Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more ... It is derived from Streptomyces griseus and is the earliest modern agent used against tuberculosis. Streptomycin lacks the ...
In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the core components of the whole ESX-1 secretion system include Rv3877, and two AAA ATPases, ... Both genes are expressed from the RD1 region of the bacterial genome and play a key role in the virulence of the infection. 10- ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses this ESX-1 secretion system to deliver virulence factors into host macrophage and monocyte ... CFP-10 is a 10 kDa secreted antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It forms a 1:1 heterodimeric complex with ESAT-6. ...
... a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He thought that the beneficial effect was due to ultraviolet light ... and later eradication of smallpox and development of antibiotics for tuberculosis rendered light therapy obsolete for these ...
... can be used together with Rhodamine B as the Truant auramine-rhodamine stain for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can ... Kommareddi S, Abramowsky C, Swinehart G, Hrabak L (1984). "Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections: comparison of the ... Auramine O can be used to stain acid-fast bacteria (e.g. Mycobacterium, where it binds to the mycolic acid in its cell wall) in ...
"The Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP125: molecular basis for cholesterol binding in a P450 needed for host infection ... "Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP125A1, a steroid C27 monooxygenase that detoxifies intracellularly generated cholest-4-en-3-one ...
... of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces foreign-body- and hypersensitivity-type granulomas in mice". Infection and Immunity. 69 ( ... Brennan, PJ (2003). "Structure, function, and biogenesis of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Tuberculosis ( ... of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces Corneal Angiogenesis in Rats". Infection and Immunity. 68 (10): 5991-5997. doi:10.1128/ ... Infection by M. tuberculosis remains a serious problem in the world and knowledge of cord factor can be useful in controlling ...
"Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) Fact sheet N°199". World Health Organization. June 2013. Hinango noong 23 ... Ang bakterya ay mula sa parehong pamilya na dahilan din ng tuberculosis at ketong (Ang M. tuberculosis at M. leprae, ayon sa ... Sizaire V, Nackers F, Comte E, Portaels F (2006). "Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: control, diagnosis, and treatment". Lancet ... Nakanaga, K; Yotsu, RR; Hoshino, Y; Suzuki, K; Makino, M; Ishii, N (2013). "Buruli ulcer and mycolactone-producing mycobacteria ...
These are not involved in tuberculosis. This does not mean, however, that they will not cause an infection in the right ... Bacteria classified as Mycobacteria, include the causative agents for tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are sometimes ... joint infections and infections of the eye after trauma. Mycobacterium fortuitum has a worldwide distribution and can be found ... belonging to the genus mycobacterium. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a fast-growing species that can cause infections. The term " ...
Fish tank granuloma is a rare skin infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum, a non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. The organism is ... The infection may also appear on the elbows or fingers and, less commonly, on the legs. In a subset of patients, the infection ... The skin infection is not spread from person to person. Fish tank granuloma presents as a slow-growing, inflamed red bump ( ... Long-standing, untreated infections have the potential to invade deeper tissues, such as joints or tendons. M. marinum is more ...
... , Tuberculous Meningitis, Intracranial Tuberculoma, Spinal Tuberculous Arachnoiditis. ... TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may ... A bacterial infection of the membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... CNS tuberculosis, Central Nervous System Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System, Cns TB NOS-unspec, Tuberculosis, ...
This bacterial infection is caused by Mycobacterium marinum. Marinum is a relative of the organism which causes tuberculosis. ... Atypical mycobacterial infections may cause life-threatening disease in people with weakened immune systems (immunocompromised ... Mycobacterium marinum infection on the hand. Mycobacterium marinum infection on the hand. ...
MalaCards based summary : Mycobacterium Fortuitum, also known as mycobacterium fortuitum infection, is related to ... as it is different from the mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis. it can be found in natural and processed water, sewage, and ... the signs and symptoms of infection differ depending on the infection site. treatment also depends on the site of the infection ... but mycobacterium fortuitum infection can lead to skin disease, osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone), joint infections, and ...
contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the ... Looking for Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis? Find out information about Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis. ... lungs , but the intestines,... Explanation of Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis ... Tuberculosis. An infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is primarily an infection of the ...
Atypical Mycobacteria, Esophagitis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow ... Mycobacterium Chelonae, Persistent Cough Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, ... Mycobacterial Infection We evaluated a patient with disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium chelonae ... microbiologic evaluation of these cases showed 5 infections due to Mycobacterium chelonae and 1 infection due to Mycobacterium ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of tuberculosis, from the immunological basis of disease to translational and ... Tuberculosis Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review ... Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Wu Li,1,2 Guangcun Deng,1,2 Min Li,1,2 Xiaoming Liu,1,2 ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Modulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway ," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2018, pp. 1-19 ...
Tuberculosis germs are carried in small droplets of moisture that originate from the lungs of someone with active TB when they ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Opportunistic Infections > Q & A Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mar 12, 2002 Can you descibe ... Tuberculosis germs are carried in small droplets of moisture that originate from the lungs of someone with active TB when they ... If yoiu are in the vicinity of the person with Tb who is coughing, then yiou can inhale these small droplets and infection can ...
Vertical transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in KwaZulu Natal: impact of HIV-1 co-infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Jan ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Nov 1992;11(11 ... Interferon-gamma release assays: new diagnostic tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and their use in children. Curr ... Updated guidelines for using Interferon Gamma Release Assays to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection - United States, ...
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the illness tuberculosis with an annual mortality of ≈2 million. Understanding ... The temporal expression profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Adel M. Talaat, Rick Lyons, Susan T. Howard, ... The temporal expression profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Adel M. Talaat, Rick Lyons, Susan T. Howard, ... The temporal expression profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Adel M. Talaat, Rick Lyons, Susan T. Howard, ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis,/i, and a potentially protective immune response by the host. ,i,M. tuberculosis,/i, has devoted a ... tuberculosis,/i, infection, bacterial spreading, persistence, reactivation, and waning or elimination of latent infection as ... The failure of immune-mediated clearance is due to multiple strategies adopted by ,i,M. tuberculosis,/i, that blunt the ... tuberculosis,/i,. In this paper, current understanding of various immune processes that lead to the establishment of latent ,i, ...
This book provides a detailed review of recent advances characterizing the hosts immune responses against TB infection in ... Understanding the Host Immune Response Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Editors. * Vishwanath Venketaraman ... Understanding the Host Immune Response Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Editors: Venketaraman, Vishwanath (Ed.) ... approximately one third of the worlds population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb [LTBI]), of whom ...
Vertical transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in KwaZulu Natal: impact of HIV-1 co-infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Jan ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Disease. The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text ... TB infection occurs when a person inhales droplet nuclei containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms. Usually within 2 to ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in pregnant and nonpregnant women infected with HIV in the Women and Infants Transmission ...
Tuberculosis. Latent Tuberculosis. Mycobacterium Infections. Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. ... This study will examine how the immune system responds to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria (bacteria that ... Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health concern. One third of the worlds population is infected with Mycobacterium ... This study will evaluate the latent form of M. tuberculosis infection to further the understanding of the immune mechanisms - ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. EN. dc.title. Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Somalia: national tuberculin survey ... Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Somalia: national tuberculin survey 2006. dc.contributor. Munim, A.. EN. ... To estimate the annual risk of tuberculosis [‎TB]‎ infection [‎ARTI]‎ in Somalia a tuberculin survey was conducted in February/ ... Guidelines for speciation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex / John M. Grange, Malcolm D. Yates and Isabel N. de ...
Infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces global modifications to phagosomal function.. Podinovskaia M1 ... Following phagocytosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is able to establish infection through arresting phagosome maturation ... Infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces global modifications to phagosomal function ... Infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces global modifications to phagosomal function ...
CD1c-mediated T-cell recognition of isoprenoid glycolipids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.. Moody DB1, Ulrichs T, ... These results define a new class of broadly distributed lipid antigens presented by the CD1 system during infection in vivo and ... A CD1c-restricted, mycobacteria-specific T-cell line recognized two previously unknown mycobacterial hexosyl-1- ... tuberculosis, but were not seen in naive control subjects. ... Mycobacterium avium/immunology. *Mycobacterium tuberculosis/ ...
Tuberculosis presents a challenging worldwide public heath problem. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) elicits ... Distinct functions of antigen-specific CD4 T cells during murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. William W. Reiley, ... 2008) ESAT-6-specific CD4 T cell responses to aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are initiated in the mediastinal ... The immune response elicited after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is critically dependent on CD4 T cells during ...
Preventing tuberculosis (TB) by treating latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a cornerstone of the U.S. ... Source: Three months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (PREVENT TB). Information ... Guidance for early detection and management of adverse effects during treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ... and rifapentine in 12 once-weekly doses under direct observation for treating latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. ...
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection Treatment Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... This event will look at discovering and producing new antibiotics to combat tuberculosis. The conference will discuss target ...
Tuberculosis. The effectiveness of BCG vaccination in preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in Greenland ... can prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and propose an alternative explanation: that the absence of a positive ... Infection Control. Thanks to Turner et al for commenting on our article. Turner et al challenge our finding that the Bacillus ... With the IGRA test, MTI is defined by a T-cell-induced interferon gamma response to M tuberculosis antigens … ...
One-third of the worlds population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the etiological agent ... Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. ... in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ... One-third of the worlds population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the etiological agent ... Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. ... before and after infection with MTB. We found 198 response eQTL ...
... innate immune response and related gene expression changes seen at 3 hours determine the long term outcome of Mtb infection in ... Background: Pulmonary infection of humans by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), ... Early innate immunity determines outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pulmonary infection in rabbits Cell Commun Signal. 2013 ... In contrast, infection with Mtb CDC1551 (a hyper-immunogenic clinical isolate) is efficiently controlled in rabbit lungs, with ...
Host-pathogen Interactions During Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection (LTBI). Even though LTBI is estimated to affect ... In this context, we are interested in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis transmission between livestock to human. We investigate the ...
  • Biosafety level 2 The 2007 guideline "Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of non-tuberculosis mycobacterial diseases", notes that M. fortuitum isolates are usually susceptible to multiple oral antimicrobial agents, including the macrolides and quinolones, doxycycline and minocycline, and sulfonamides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolates of this mycobacterium are susceptible to the beta-lactam antibiotics, belonging to the carbopenam subgroup, such as Imipenem. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (vi) improvements in RGM infection management as described in the recent 2011 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, including interpretation criteria of molecular methods and antimicrobial drug panels and their break points [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)], which have been highlighted for the initiation of antimicrobial therapy (Kothavade RJ et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saint Cloud, Minn. - Microbiologics, Inc. has launched positive and negative controls for quality control of Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB-RIF) molecular assays and test methods to help clinical laboratories deliver fast and accurate results. (microbiologics.com)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of sections of M. leprae-infected nude mouse footpads resulted in strongly positive staining in macrophages and dendritic cells, as well as weaker staining in extracellular areas, suggesting that M. leprae CFP-10, like its homologue in M. tuberculosis, is a secreted protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The new Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Positive Control Panel and Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Negative Control were designed to make quality control testing of molecular assays simple, reliable, and affordable. (microbiologics.com)
  • Additionally, a full list of the Microbiologics verification and quality control panels for common diagnostic systems including the BD MAX™ and Cepheid GeneXpert® , and syndromic assays including Blood Culture Identification (BCID) , Women's Health/STI and Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) , can be found at microbiologics.com . (microbiologics.com)
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