A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.
A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A family of hemoglobin-like proteins found in BACTERIA; PLANTS; and unicellular eukaryotes. Truncated hemoglobins are distantly related to vertebrate hemoglobins and are typically shorter than vertebrate hemoglobins by 20-40 residues.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found in soil and dairy products and as parasites on animals and man. Several are important pathogens.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/9979)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Surfactant protein A suppresses reactive nitrogen intermediates by alveolar macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (2/9979)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis attaches to, enters, and replicates within alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our previous studies suggest that surfactant protein A (SP-A) can act as a ligand in the attachment of M. tuberculosis to AMs. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) play a significant role in the killing of mycobacteria. We have demonstrated that RNI levels generated by AMs were significantly increased when interferon-gamma-primed AMs were incubated with M. tuberculosis. However, the RNI levels were significantly suppressed in the presence of SP-A (10 microg/ml). The specificity of SP-A's effect was demonstrated by the use of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-SP-A monoclonal antibodies and by the use of mannosyl-BSA, which blocked the suppression of RNI levels by SP-A. Furthermore, incubation of deglycosylated SP-A with M. tuberculosis failed to suppress RNI by AMs, suggesting that the oligosaccharide component of SP-A, which binds to M. tuberculosis, is necessary for this effect. These results show that SP-A-mediated binding of M. tuberculosis to AMs significantly decreased RNI levels, suggesting that this may be one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis diminishes the cytotoxic response of activated AMs.  (+info)

Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996. (3/9979)

During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community.  (+info)

Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques. (4/9979)

The availability of DNA fingerprinting techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to attempts to estimate the extent of recent transmission in populations, using the assumption that groups of tuberculosis patients with identical isolates ("clusters") are likely to reflect recently acquired infections. It is never possible to include all cases of tuberculosis in a given population in a study, and the proportion of isolates found to be clustered will depend on the completeness of the sampling. Using stochastic simulation models based on real and hypothetical populations, the authors demonstrate the influence of incomplete sampling on the estimates of clustering obtained. The results show that as the sampling fraction increases, the proportion of isolates identified as clustered also increases and the variance of the estimated proportion clustered decreases. Cluster size is also important: the underestimation of clustering for any given sampling fraction is greater, and the variability in the results obtained is larger, for populations with small clusters than for those with the same number of individuals arranged in large clusters. A considerable amount of caution should be used in interpreting the results of studies on clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates, particularly when sampling fractions are small.  (+info)

A train passenger with pulmonary tuberculosis: evidence of limited transmission during travel. (5/9979)

In January 1996, smear- and culture-positive tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed for a 22-year-old black man after he had traveled on two U.S. passenger trains (29.1 hours) and a bus (5.5 hours) over 2 days. To determine if transmission had occurred, passengers and crew were notified of the potential exposure and instructed to undergo a tuberculin skin test (TST). Of the 240 persons who completed screening, 4 (2%) had a documented TST conversion (increase in induration of > or = 10 mm between successive TSTs), 11 (5%) had a single positive TST (> or = 10 mm), and 225 (94%) had a negative TST (< 10 mm). For two persons who underwent conversion, no other risk factors for a conversion were identified other than exposure to the ill passenger during train and/or bus travel. These findings support limited transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a potentially highly infectious passenger to other persons during extended train and bus travel.  (+info)

Site-directed spin labeling study of subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of small heat-shock proteins. Comparison of the oligomer symmetry in alphaA-crystallin, HSP 27, and HSP 16.3. (6/9979)

Site-directed spin labeling was used to investigate quaternary interactions along a conserved sequence in the alpha-crystallin domain of alphaA-crystallin, heat-shock protein 27 (HSP 27), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat-shock protein (HSP 16.3). In previous work, it was demonstrated that this sequence in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27 forms a beta-strand involved in subunit contacts. In this study, the symmetry and geometry of the resulting interface were investigated. For this purpose, the pattern of spin-spin interactions was analyzed, and the number of interacting spins was determined in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27. The results reveal a 2-fold symmetric interface consisting of two beta-strands interacting near their N termini in an antiparallel fashion. Remarkably, subunit interactions along this interface persist when the alpha-crystallin domains are expressed in isolation. Because this domain in alphaA-crystallin forms dimers and tetramers, it is inferred that interactions along this interface mediate the formation of a basic dimeric unit. In contrast, in HSP 16.3, spin-spin interactions are observed at only one site near the C terminus of the sequence. Furthermore, cysteine substitutions at residues flanking the N terminus resulted in the dissociation of the oligomeric structure. Analysis of the spin-spin interactions and size exclusion chromatography indicates a 3-fold symmetric interface. Taken together, our results demonstrate that subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of mammalian small heat-shock proteins assemble a basic building block of the oligomeric structure. Sequence divergence in this domain results in variations in the size and symmetry of the quaternary structure between distant members of the small heat-shock protein family.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (7/9979)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

Fluoroquinolone action against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: effects of a C-8 methoxyl group on survival in liquid media and in human macrophages. (8/9979)

When the lethal action of a C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid medium was measured, the compound was found to be three to four times more effective (as determined by measuring the 90% lethal dose) than a C-8-H control fluoroquinolone or ciprofloxacin against cells having a wild-type gyrA (gyrase) gene. Against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, the C-8 methoxyl group enhanced lethality when alanine was replaced by valine at position 90 of the GyrA protein or when aspartic acid 94 was replaced by glycine, histidine, or tyrosine. During infection of a human macrophage model by wild-type Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the C-8 methoxyl group lowered survival 20- to 100-fold compared with the same concentration of a C-8-H fluoroquinolone. The C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone was also more effective than ciprofloxacin against a gyrA Asn94 mutant of M. bovis BCG. In an M. tuberculosis-macrophage system the C-8 methoxyl group improved fluoroquinolone action against both quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant clinical isolates. Thus, a C-8 methoxyl group enhances the bactericidal activity of quinolones with N1-cyclopropyl substitutions; these data encourage further refinement of fluoroquinolones as antituberculosis agents.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of B- and T-cell epitopes of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate protein 10. AU - Spencer, John S.. AU - Kim, Hee Jin. AU - Marques, Angela M.. AU - Gonzalez-Juarerro, Mercedes. AU - Lima, Monica C.B.S.. AU - Vissa, Varalakshmi D.. AU - Truman, Richard W.. AU - Gennaro, Maria Laura. AU - Cho, Sang Nae. AU - Cole, Stewart T.. AU - Brennan, Patrick J.. PY - 2004/6. Y1 - 2004/6. N2 - Culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a well-characterized immunodominant 10-kDa protein antigen known to elicit a very potent early gamma interferon response in T cells from M. tuberculosis-infected mice and humans. The sequence of the Mycobacterium leprae homologue of CFP-10 shows only 40% identity (60% homology) at the protein level with M. tuberculosis CFP-10 and thus has the potential for development as a T- or B-cell reactive antigen for specific diagnosis of leprosy. Antisera raised in mice or rabbits against ...
Global Markets Directs, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A targeted pipeline therapeutics.. The report provides comprehensive information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A, targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. The report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects.. Access Full Report with TOC @ http://www.radiantinsights.com/research/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-ag85a-pipeline-review-h2-2016. Global Markets Directs report features investigational ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccine efficacy of a lysine auxotroph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AU - Pavelka, Martin S.. AU - Chen, Bing. AU - Kelley, Cynthia L.. AU - Collins, Frank M.. AU - Jacobs, William R.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - The in vivo growth phenotype and vaccine efficacy of a lysine auxotrophic mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv are described. An immunization experiment using a mouse model with an aerosol challenge showed that two doses of the M. tuberculosis mutant were required to generate protection equivalent to that of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine.. AB - The in vivo growth phenotype and vaccine efficacy of a lysine auxotrophic mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv are described. An immunization experiment using a mouse model with an aerosol challenge showed that two doses of the M. tuberculosis mutant were required to generate protection equivalent to that of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of antibodies against glycolipids from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall in aerosol murine models of tuberculosis. AU - Cardona, P. J.. AU - Julián, E.. AU - Vallès, X.. AU - Gordillo, S.. AU - Muñoz, M.. AU - Luquin, M.. AU - Ausina, V.. PY - 2002/5/30. Y1 - 2002/5/30. N2 - Evolution of antibodies against glycolipids from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall has been studied for the first time in experimental murine models of tuberculosis induced by aerosol, in which infection, reinfection, reactivation, prophylaxis and treatment with antibiotics have been assayed. Results show a significant humeral response against these antigens, where diacyltrehaleses (DAT) and sulphelipid I (SL-I) elicited higher antibody levels than protein antigens like antigen 85 protein complex (Ag85), culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and purified protein derivative (PPD). Only immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been detected against DAT and SL-I. Their evolution has a ...
Beijing strains are speculated to have a selective advantage over other Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains because of increased transmissibility and virulence. In Alberta, a province of Canada that receives a large number of immigrants, we conducted a population-based study to determine whether Beijing strains were associated with increased transmission leading to disease compared with non-Beijing strains. Beijing strains accounted for 258 (19%) of 1,379 pulmonary tuberculosis cases in 1991-2007; overall, 21% of Beijing cases and 37% of non-Beijing cases were associated with transmission clusters. Beijing index cases had significantly fewer secondary cases within 2 years than did non-Beijing cases, but this difference disappeared after adjustment for demographic characteristics, infectiousness, and M. tuberculosis lineage. In a province that has effective tuberculosis control, transmission of Beijing strains posed no more of a public health threat than did non-Beijing strains ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modeling Host-Pathogen Interaction to Elucidate the Metabolic Drug Response of Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AU - Rienksma, Rienk A.. AU - Schaap, Peter J.. AU - Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P.. AU - Suarez-Diez, Maria. PY - 2019/5/8. Y1 - 2019/5/8. N2 - Little is known about the metabolic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inside the phagosome, a compartment inside phagocytes for killing pathogens and other foreign substances. We have developed a combined model of Mtb and human metabolism, sMtb-RECON and used this model to predict the metabolic state of Mtb during infection of the host. Amino acids are predicted to be used for energy production as well as biomass formation. Subsequently we assessed the effect of increasing dosages of drugs targeting metabolism on the metabolic state of the pathogen and predict resulting metabolic adaptations and flux rerouting through various pathways. In particular, the TCA cycle becomes more important upon drug application, ...
HIV coinfection is the greatest risk factor for transition of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection into active tuberculosis (TB). Epidemiological data reveal both the reduction and the impairment of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells, although the cellular link and actual mechanisms resulting in immune impairment/suppression need further characterization. M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells play a central role in development of protective immunity against TB, in which they participate in the activation of macrophages through the dendritic cell (DC)-T cell axis. Using an in vitro priming system for generating Ag-specific T cells, we explored if HIV-M. tuberculosis-infected (coinfected) human DCs can dysregulate the M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cell phenotype and functionality and subsequently mediate the failure to control M. tuberculosis infection in macrophages. After coculture with coinfected DCs, M. tuberculosis Ag-specific CD4 T cells lost their ability to enhance control of M. ...
Purified Recombinant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ADK Protein (1-181 aa), His-SUMO-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ADK Protein (1-181 aa), His-SUMO-tagged can be used for research.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Identification of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene that enhances mycobacterial survival in macrophages. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Find the best mycobacterium tuberculosis complex doctors in Bangalore. Get guidance from medical experts to select mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specialist in Bangalore from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Tuberculous arthritis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis also has been described. The joints most frequently involved are the spine, hips, knees, wrists, and ankles. Valvular endocarditis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis also has been reported. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. VetPCR TBC Detection Kit is the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose very fast and accurately. It can amplify only specific gene using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, and take only 3 hours for detection. Therefore, it is a very fast, accurate and reliable technique.
Background Development of resistance to antituberculosis drugs during treatment (i.e., acquired resistance) can lead to emergence of resistant strains and consequent poor clinical outcomes. However, it is unknown whether Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species and lineage affects the likelihood of acquired resistance. Methods We analyzed data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service for tuberculosis cases during 2004-2011 with assigned species and lineage and both initial and final drug susceptibility test results. We determined univariate associations between species and lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria and acquired resistance to isoniazid, rifamycins, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectables. We used Poisson regression with backward elimination to generate multivariable models for acquired resistance to isoniazid and rifamycins. Results M. bovis was independently associated with acquired resistance to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secreted immunodominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens are processed by the cytosolic pathway. AU - Grotzke, Jeff E.. AU - Siler, Anne C.. AU - Lewinsohn, Deborah A.. AU - Lewinsohn, David M.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can result in lifelong but asymptomatic infection in most individuals. Although CD8+ T cells are elicited at high frequencies over the course of infection in both humans and mice, how phagosomal M. tuberculosis Ags are processed and presented by MHC class I molecules is poorly understood. Broadly, both cytosolic and noncytosolic pathways have been described. We have previously characterized the presentation of three HLA-I epitopes from M. tuberculosis and shown that these Ags are processed in the cytosol, whereas others have demonstrated noncytosolic presentation of the 19-kDa lipoprotein as well as apoptotic bodies from M. tuberculosis-infected cells. In this paper, we now characterize the processing pathway ...
To determine differences in the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to withstand antituberculosis drug treatment, we compared the activity of antituberculosis drugs against susceptible Beijing and East-African/Indian genotype M. tuberculosis strains. Beijing genotype strains showed high rates of mutation within a wide range of drug concentrations, possibly explaining this genotypes association with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Advantages of sSNP genotyping: sSNPs afford many advantages for analysis of phylogenetic relationships among microbial strains, especially closely related clonal organisms such as the M. tuberculosis complex. Most or all sSNPs are selectively neutral and hence minimally subject to convergence, a process that can obscure or distort evolutionary relationships (Kimura 1983). Binary data are obtained, which means that the information is readily amenable to storage, retrieval, analysis by personal computers equipped with simple software, and comparison between different laboratories and studies. Importantly, the considerable biomedical interest in human SNPs (Schorket al. 2000; Dalyet al. 2001; Gut 2001; Johnsonet al. 2001) means that microbial pathogen research will benefit extensively from the ongoing development and implementation of methods to index very large numbers of SNPs efficiently, inexpensively, and automatically (Kwok 2001). Because of the many advantages of using sSNP analysis for ...
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Background: The risk of encountering tuberculosis (TB) has reduced with the decreased incidence of the disease; however, it still can be found at autopsy.. Aim: To assess the magnitude of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis at autopsy in a large general hospital setting, in a country with low incidence.. Methods: Retrospective search of the autopsy records from 1991 to 2004. Patients records and histological slides were reviewed, and medical personnel interviewed.. Results: 15 cases of active TB were identified in the 14-year period, during which 4930 autopsies were performed (1 case per 329 autopsies); of these, 10 cases were unsuspected (67%). Five of these cases contained abundant acid-fast bacilli. Patients tended to be middle aged and males with complex clinical histories; two were HIV positive. Two patients were brought in dead to hospital, with no clinical indication of TB. Of 15 autopsy staff, 1 required chemoprophylaxis but none contracted TB.. Conclusion: The risk of unexpectedly ...
Early detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs is important for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. The Genotype® MTBDRsl VERSION 2.0 (VER 2.0) line probe assay has been redesigned for molecular detection of resistance-conferring mutations of fluoroquinolones (FLQ) (gyrA and gyrB genes) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID) (rrs and eis genes). The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of MTBDRsl VER 2.0 for the detection of second-line drug resistance compared with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), using the Bactec™ MGIT 960 system on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from South Africa. A total of 268 repository isolates collected between 2012 and 2014, with rifampicin -mono-resistant (RR) or MDR based on DST were selected. MTBDRsl VER 2.0 testing was performed on these isolates and results analysed. The MTBDRsl VER 2.0 sensitivity and specificity indices for culture isolates were; FLQ 100% (95% CI, 95.8-100%) ; 98.9% (95% CI, ...
Tuberculosis is a major cause of human death around the world and is caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacterium infects 1.8 billion people yearly which equals one-third of the world population. Pathogenic bacterial genomes contain many perfect, imperfect and approximate tandem repeats that can serve as marker for genotyping these pathogens. Tandem repeats are generated by duplications during successive generations which changes genome structures, thereby providing diversity and improving the fitness of the pathogen during infection. In the present study, we have retrieved reference genomes of 30 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and used Tandem Repeats Finder tool for the prediction of genome-wide repeats. The genomes of publicly available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains varied in size from 4.38 MB to 4.42 MB. After trimming out low quality tandem repeats, we found the strain M. tuberculosis CCDC5079 to have the maximum tandem repeats density ...
PhD Project - Protein kinases and nitric oxide in the stealthy survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at University of Leicester, listed on FindAPhD.com
Mouse serum raised against killed antigen preparations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis failed to recognize most of the recombinant antigens of M. tuberculosis that were originally identified by reactivity to tuberculosis (TB) patient sera. Similar results were obtained with serum from guinea pigs immunized with live and killed mycobacteria. Antibodies raised against seven random TB patient serum-reactive antigens detected each of these antigens in the sonicate preparation. The nucleotide sequences of the genes for these seven antigens revealed that all represented hitherto unreported genes of M. tuberculosis. Our results suggest differential presentation to the host immune system of the same antigens derived from live and killed mycobacteria.. ...
Signs of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Susceptibility to, X-linked including medical signs and symptoms of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Susceptibility to, X-linked, symptoms, misdiagnosis, tests, common medical issues, duration, and the correct diagnosis for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Susceptibility to, X-linked signs or Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Susceptibility to, X-linked symptoms.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and helminth infections elicit antagonistic immune effector functions and are co-endemic in several regions of the world. We therefore hypothesized that helminth infection may influence Mtb-specific T-cell immune responses. We evaluated the cytokine profile of Mtb-specific T cells in 72 individuals with pulmonary TB disease recruited from two Sub-Saharan regions with high and moderate helminth burden i.e. 55 from Tanzania (TZ) and 17 from South Africa (SA), respectively. We showed that Mtb-specific CD4 T-cell functional profile of TB patients from Tanzania are primarily composed of polyfunctional Th1 and Th2 cells, associated with increased expression of Gata-3 and reduced expression of T-bet in memory CD4 T cells. In contrast, the cytokine profile of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells of TB patients from SA was dominated by single IFN-γ and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α and associated with TB-induced systemic inflammation and elevated serum levels of type I IFNs. Of note, the ...
BioAssay record AID 1084878 submitted by ChEMBL: Antitubercular activity against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NCCLS agar dilution method.
Massachusetts was one of seven sentinel surveillance sites in the National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network. From 1996 through 2000, isolates from new patients with tuberculosis (TB) underwent genotyping. We describe the impact that genotyping had on public health practice in Massachusetts and some limitations of the technique. Through genotyping, we explored the dynamics of TB outbreaks, investigated laboratory cross-contamination, and identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, transmission sites, and accurate epidemiologic links. Genotyping should be used with epidemiologic follow-up to identify how resources can best be allocated to investigate genotypic findings.
BioAssay record AID 245416 submitted by ChEMBL: Minimum inhibitory concentration against resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates; N=9; Range=8-16.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC ® 25177D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain H37Ra TypeStrain=False Application: Respiratory research
Reversible protein phosphorylation, regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases, mediates a switch between protein activity and cellular pathways that contribute to a large number of cellular processes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 Serine/Threonine kinases (STPKs) which show close homology to eukaryotic kinases. This study aimed to elucidate the phosphoproteomic landscape of a clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis. We performed a high throughput mass spectrometric analysis of proteins extracted from an early-logarithmic phase culture. Whole cell lysate proteins were processed using the filter-aided sample preparation method, followed by phosphopeptide enrichment of tryptic peptides by strong cation exchange (SCX) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The MaxQuant quantitative proteomics software package was used for protein identification. Our analysis identified 414 serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylated sites, with a distribution of S/T/Y sites; 38% on serine, 59% on
Data on the levels of resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains to first line anti-tuberculosis drugs in Cameroon, and on the species of MTBC circulating in the country are obsolete. The picture about 10 years after the last studies, and 6 years after the re-organisation of the National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme (NTBCP) is not known. The study was conducted from February to July 2009 in the West and Centre regions of Cameroon. A total of 756 suspected patients were studied. MTBC species were detected by the standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Bacterial susceptibility to the first line drugs [isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB) and streptomycin (SM)] were performed on cultures using the indirect proportion method. MTBC species were identified by standard biochemical and culture methods. Of the 756 suspected patients, 154 (20.37%) were positive by smear microscopy. Of these, 20.77% were HIV patients. The growth of Mycobacterium was observed with the
Metabolomics and stable isotope labelling studies of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal a de-centralised metabolic network able to utilise various amino acids as nitrogen sources to a better extent than ammonium.
3550 NIEMANN ET AL. J. CLIN. MICROBIOL. 5. Cohen, T., and M. Murray. 2004. Modeling epidemics of multidrug-resistant 23. Mokrousov, I., T. Otten, B. Vyshnevskiy, and O. Narvskaya. 2002. Detection Mycobacterium tuberculosis of heterogeneous !tness. Nat. Med. 10:1117- of embB306 mutations in ethambutol-susceptible clinical isolates of Myco- 1121. bacterium tuberculosis from Northwestern Russia: implications for genotypic 6. Comas, I., S. Homolka, S. Niemann, and S. Gagneux. 2009. Genotyping of resistance testing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:3810-3813. genetically monomorphic bacteria: DNA sequencing in mycobacterium tu- 24. Mokrousov, I., T. Otten, T. Zozio, E. Turkin, V. Nazemtseva, A. Sheremet, B. berculosis highlights the limitations of current methodologies. PLoS One Vishnevsky, O. Narvskaya, and N. Rastogi. 2009. At Baltic crossroads: a 4:e7815. molecular snapshot of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population diversity in 7. Cox, H. S., S. Kalon, S. Allamuratova, V. Sizaire, Z. N. Tigay, S. Rusch- ...
BACKGROUND: Peru holds the fourth highest burden of tuberculosis in the Americas. Despite an apparently well-functioning DOTS control program, the prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) continues to increase. To worsen this situation, cases of extensively drug resistance tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have been detected. Little information exists about the genetic diversity of drug-susceptible vs. MDR-TB and XDR-TB. METHODS: Cryopreserved samples of XDR strains from 2007 to 2009 (second semester), were identified and collected. Starting from 227 frozen samples, a total of 142 XDR-TB strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC; 1 isolate per patient) were retained for this study. Each strain DNA was analyzed by spoligotyping and the 15-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit (MIRU-15). RESULTS: Among the 142 isolates analyzed, only 2 samples (1.41%) could not be matched to any lineage. The most prevalent sublineage was Haarlem (43.66%), followed by T (27.46%), LAM (16.2%),
TY - JOUR. T1 - The temporal expression profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. AU - Talaat, Adel M.. AU - Lyons, Rick. AU - Howard, Susan T.. AU - Johnston, Stephen Albert. PY - 2004/3/30. Y1 - 2004/3/30. N2 - Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the illness tuberculosis with an annual mortality of ≈2 million. Understanding the nature of the host-pathogen interactions at different stages of tuberculosis is central to new strategies for developing chemotherapies and vaccines. Toward this end, we adapted microarray technology to analyze the change in gene expression profiles of M. tuberculosis during infection in mice. This protocol provides the transcription profile of genes expressed during the course of early tuberculosis in immune-competent (BALB/c) and severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) hosts in comparison with growth in medium. The microarray analysis revealed clusters of genes that changed their transcription levels exclusively in the lungs of BALB/c, ...
Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by antigen-presenting cells in human lung alveoli initiates a complex infection process by |i|Mycobacterium tuberculosis|/i| and a potentially protective immune response by the host. |i|M. tuberculosis|/i| has devoted a large part of its genome towards functions that allow it to successfully establish latent or progressive infection in the majority of infected individuals. The failure of immune-mediated clearance is due to multiple strategies adopted by |i|M. tuberculosis|/i| that blunt the microbicidal mechanisms of infected immune cells and formation of distinct granulomatous lesions that differ in their ability to support or suppress the persistence of viable |i|M. tuberculosis|/i|. In this paper, current understanding of various immune processes that lead to the establishment of latent |i|M. tuberculosis|/i| infection, bacterial spreading, persistence, reactivation, and waning or elimination of latent infection as well as new diagnostic approaches being used for
Spontaneous phthiocerol dimycocerosate-deficient variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are susceptible to gamma interferon-mediated immunity Academic Article ...
Rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) is a key aspect of effective tuberculosis treatment and control. The Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex Direct Test (Gen-Probe) utilizes transcription mediated amplification to detect MTB complex ribosomal RNA. This test is very sensitive, specific, and can be performed within 5 hours. Although it does not differentiate among members of the MTB complex, i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M africanum, and M. microti , the isolation of the last 4 organisms is very rare.. The test is currently approved by FDA for AFB smear-positive respiratory specimens from untreated patients (sensitivity = 98%, specificity = 96.8%). However, studies have shown that it will also benefit patients with high suspicion of tuberculosis, but with negative AFB smear results. A positive result is strongly suggestive for the diagnosis of tuberculosis if the clinical history and radiographic finding are consistent. This test ...
Abstract. Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of M. tuberculosis infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood household contacts aged ≤ 14 years of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. The intensity of exposure to the case was categorized according to whether contacts slept in the same room, same house, or a different house as the case. Contacts were tested with an enzyme-linked immunospot interferon gamma release assay. In multivariate regression models, M. tuberculosis infection was associated with increasing exposure to a case (odds ratios [OR]: 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.11-71.4, P | 0.001]) and with male gender (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.12-2.11], P = 0.008). Tobacco use caused a 3-fold increase in the odds of M. tuberculosis infection in children
We performed spoligotyping on 114 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex that had been isolated from patients in Minas Gerais Health Units
Worldwide, there are nearly 10 million new cases of active TB and 1.8 million associated deaths every year. WHO estimates that one-third of the worlds population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), forming a huge latent Mtb global reservoir. This renders the prospect of ever eliminating Mtb from the human race almost impossible. Several controversial issues regarding host-pathogen interactions and existing prevention and eradication strategies for latent Mtb infections need to be critically re-examined. In this viewpoint, widely held assumptions on Mtb latency and isoniazid monotherapy and chemoprophylaxis are challenged. We highlight the need for future research to resolve these issues and to develop evidence-based strategies for better understanding of equilibrium and escape of Mtb in the human body, eventually leading to global recommendations for elimination of the latent Mtb state through informed policy and practice. Until such strategies and policies are realized, WHO and ...
Immunologist Johan Van Weyenbergh (KU Leuven) and his Belgian-Brazilian colleagues have shown that a drug used to fight arthritis also stops the process that allows the tuberculosis bacillus to infect and hijack blood stem cells.. Tuberculosis (TB) may affect any part of the body, but the spread of the disease might start in the bone marrow. Immunologists from KU Leuven and Brazil have shown that the TB bacillus hijacks the blood stem cells from the bone marrow to turn them into ideal host cells for multiplication. They also found that this mechanism can be stopped by administering an anti-arthritis drug.. Hiding in the bone marrow. About a quarter of the world population is a carrier of Kochs bacillus, which can cause tuberculosis (TB). Most people who are infected have latent tuberculosis, meaning that they dont become ill. However, this latent TB can turn into active tuberculosis when the immune system becomes weaker, for instance in the elderly or in HIV patients. Worldwide, TB claims more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the TB Ag MPT64 rapid test for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. AU - Martin, A. AU - Bombeeck, D. AU - Mulders, W. AU - Fissette, K. AU - De Rijk, P. AU - Palomino, JC. N1 - PPU; ITG-M1A; ITG-M2B; ITG-M3B; ITG-M4B; ITG-M5B; ITG-MLA; MICRO; U-MYCOB; JIF; PDF; DSPACE. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Bacterial diseases. KW - Tuberculosis. KW - Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. KW - Evaluation. KW - Performance. KW - Rapid diagnostic tests. KW - Identification. KW - Drug resistance. KW - Nitrate reductase assay. KW - Sensitivity. KW - Specificity. KW - Laboratory techniques and procedures. U2 - 10.5588/ijtld.10.0474. DO - 10.5588/ijtld.10.0474. M3 - A1: Web of Science-article. C2 - 21756526. VL - 15. SP - 703. EP - 705. JO - International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. JF - International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. SN - 1027-3719. IS - 5. ER - ...
Pulmonary and pleural fibrosis is one of pathological characterized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection in the lungs. When the lungs are infected with M. tb, the recruitment of immune cells and fibroblasts leads to granuloma formation and fibrotic scaring in interstitial lung tissue, which in turns causes irreversible loss of pulmonary function and pulmonary failure. Several studies indicated that the fibrotic factors, such as transforming growth factor- (TGF-), were increased in pleural effusion and serum of patient with tuberculosis. The expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a fibrotic factor, has been reported in lung fibrosis. However, the mechanism of M. tb-induced CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts is still unclear. Fibrocytes are unique bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells found in circulation. Fibrocytes have been shown to play an important role in wound healing following injury and in the generation of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous ...
One third of the global population is estimated to be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis We performed a phase I randomized controlled trial of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) before revaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in healthy, tuberculin skin test-positive (≥15-mm induration), HIV-negative South African adults. We hypothesized that preclearance of latent bacilli with IPT modulates BCG immunogenicity following revaccination. Frequencies and coexpression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17, and/or IL-22 in CD4 T cells and IFN-γ-expressing CD8 T, γδ T, CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like, and NK cells in response to BCG were measured using whole blood intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. We analyzed 72 participants who were revaccinated with BCG after IPT (n = 33) or without prior IPT (n = 39). IPT had little effect on frequencies or cytokine coexpression patterns of M. tuberculosis- or BCG-specific responses. Revaccination transiently boosted BCG-specific Th1 ...
Tuberculosis remains a serious threat to human health as an infectious disease in China. Henan, a most populated province in China, has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Though the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has been investigated in many regions, there have been only a few studies on the molecular characteristics and drug resistance phenotypes in Henan. This is the first study on the genetic profile of MTB from Henan. A total of 668 MTB isolates from various areas were genotyped with spoligotyping and 26-locus MIRU-VNTR (classical 24-locus MIRU-VNTR and 2 other loci). The association between TB spoligotype signatures and drug-resistant profiles was analysed. Our data revealed that MTB isolates circulating in Henan had a high degree of genetic variation. The Beijing family was the most predominant genotype (83.53%,n = 558), and the typical Beijing type(ST1) was the major sublineage (81.73%,n = 546). In total,668 isolates were divided into 567 different types, forming 38
In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was detected by BD ProbeTec ET system in 4716 respiratory and 167 nonrespiratory samples [mostly (98%) smear negative]. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 81.8%, 98.3, 85.1 and 97.9 for respiratory and 100%, 96.2, 64.7 and 100, for nonrespiratory samples, respectively. Among 149 (3.1%) ProbeTec DTB positive and culture negative samples, 72 (65 respiratory and seven nonrespiratory) (48.3%) were recovered from the patients who were evaluated as having TB infection. The system has been found as useful in early diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in association with the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings.. Key words: BD ProbeTec ET, extrapulmonary, molecular detection, pulmonary, tuberculosis. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis (TB) has been still an important problem all over world (WHO, 2013a). The definitive TB diagnosis depends on the results of microbiological ...
In 1947 Dubos and Middlebrook formulated a media (7H9) containing albumin and oleic acid which enhanced the growth of tubercle bacilli, and protected the organisms against a variety of toxic agents. (5) Later, in 1958, Middlebrook and Cohn improved this first formulation and developed a media (7H10) which allowed more luxuriant, faster growth of Mycobacterium species. (9) Cohn, in 1968, incorporated casein hydrolysate into the 7H10 medium, and obtained a media that stimulated the growth of mycobacteria that would not otherwise grow on the 7H10 medium. This formulation was then designated 7H11 Agar, and is recommended over 7H10 Agar. (4,7) Middlebrook 7H11 Agar contains inorganic compounds that supply essential growth stimulating inorganic salts as well as vitamins and necessary co-factors. Glycerol is provided as a source of carbon and energy for the tubercle organisms. Sodium citrate is converted to citric acid, which holds the inorganic cations in solution. Casein hydrolysate is incorporated ...
Title:Mycobacterial tuberculosis Enzyme Targets and their Inhibitors. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Anil Kumar Saxena* and Anamika Singh. Affiliation:Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001. Keywords:Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enzyme targets, Inhibitors, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Tuberculosis (TB), ATP.. Abstract:Tuberculosis (TB) still continues to be a major killer disease worldwide. Unlike other bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the ability to become dormant within the host and to develop resistance. Hence efforts are being made to overcome these problems by searching for new antitubercular agents which may be useful in the treatment of multidrug-(MDR) and extensively drugresistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis and shortening the treatment time. The recent introduction of bedaquiline to treat MDR-TB and XDR-TB may ...
Looking for online definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis in the Medical Dictionary? Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis explanation free. What is Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis? Meaning of Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis medical term. What does Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis mean?
A new, simple immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid cultures has been developed. The principle of the assay is binding of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific antigen to the monoclonal antibody conjugated on the test strip. The aim of this study is evaluation of the performance of immunochromatographic assay in identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in primary positive liquid cultures of BacT/Alert automated system.. A total of 159 primary positive liquid cultures were tested using the immunochromatographic assay (BD MGIT TBc ID) and the conventional subculture, followed by identification using biochemical tests.. Of 159 positive liquid cultures, using the conventional method, Mycobacterium tuberculos is was identified in 119 (74.8%), nontuberculous mycobacteria were found in 4 (2.5%), 14 (8.8%) cultures were contaminated and 22 (13.8%) cultures were found to be negative. Using the immunochromatographic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peptides derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2301 protein are involved in invasion to human epithelial cells and macrophages. AU - Ocampo, M.. AU - Rodríguez, D. M.. AU - Curtidor, H.. AU - Vanegas, M.. AU - Patarroyo, M. E.. AU - Patarroyo, M. E.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/6. Y1 - 2012/6. N2 - The specific function of putative cut2 protein (or CFP25), encoded by the Rv2301 gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, has not been identified yet. The aim of this study was to assess some of CFP25 characteristics and its possible biological role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv invasion process to target cells. Molecular assays indicated that the gene encoding Rv2301 is present and transcribed in M. tuberculosis complex strains. The presence of Rv2301 protein over the bacilli surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy analyses, using goats sera inoculated with synthetic peptides derived from ...
Background: Accurate active tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis remains a challenge in clinical practice, especially in HIV infected patients. The aim of the study was to determine the serum markers that are associated with pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV infected febrile individuals. Methods: The study compared HIV infected people with and without pulmonary tuberculosis and asymptomatic HIV infected individuals for inflammatory makers CRP and leptin levels, and the activation markers IP 10 and β2 microglobulin. Markers were tested on previously collected frozen serum samples. Serum markers CRP, Leptin and β2- microglobulin were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 20 cases with pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 suspects (control1) with B symptoms but without Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20 (control 2) asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. The IP 10 was measured using the Bio-plex Pro assay. The assays were performed according to the manufacturers‟ ...
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown cause that affects multiple organs. The cells of the granuloma are organized spatially as immune granulomas, the characteristic of sarcoidosis, as a result of an immunological response to an antigenic trigger. It has been suggested that infective agents, including mycobacteria, propionibacteria, parasites such as Schistosoma, and fungi such as Coccidioides, are likely triggers (but not as infection) in a genetically predisposed individual and that this initial event leads to the sarcoidosis granulomatous response (2). Other agents such as beryllium, zirconium, and aluminum can also trigger the granulomatous response (2). Most studies of a possible causal organism have focused on mycobacteria (8), but a convincing association between sarcoidosis and mycobacterial infections has yet to be established. Recently, using PCR techniques based on IS6110, MPB64, and mtp-40 amplification, we reported the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable isoniazid derivatives. T2 - In silico studies, synthesis and biological assessment against mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid culture. AU - Gaonkar, S. L.. AU - Hakkimane, S. S.. AU - Bharath, B. R.. AU - Shenoy, V. P.. AU - Vignesh, U. N.. AU - Guru, B. R.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Isoniazid (INH) is well-known as a crucial drug in all multiple drug treatment for tuberculosis (TB) as approved by the WHO. It is a small molecule and highly hydrophilic, has low cellular penetration. By modifying highly hydrophilic drugs into hydrophobic will help in enhancing the cellular penetration of the drug and this, in turn, improves the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Isoniazid a prodrug gets activated by KatG enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thus inhibiting InhA enzyme essential for the synthesis of Mycolic acid, a chief component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. Hence in the current study, a series of isoniazid hydrazones are designed where Isoniazid can be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro effect of three-drug combinations of antituberculous agents against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. AU - Rey-Jurado, Emma. AU - Tudó, Griselda. AU - De La Bellacasa, Jorge Puig. AU - Espasa, Mateu. AU - González-Martín, Julian. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Multidrug resistance has become a problem in the management of tuberculosis, leading to an urgent need for research related to new regimens including the currently available drugs. The objectives of this study were: (i) to study the effect of the following second-choice three-drug combinations against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and drug-susceptible clinical isolates (levofloxacin, linezolid and ethambutol; levofloxacin, amikacin and ethambutol; and levofloxacin, linezolid and amikacin); and (ii) to compare the effect of these combinations with an isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol combination against drug-susceptible clinical isolates. A total of 9 MDR clinical and 12 drug-susceptible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular analysis of the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) conjugation pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AU - Cerda-Maira, Francisca A.. AU - Pearce, Michael J.. AU - Fuortes, Michele. AU - Bishai, William R.. AU - Hubbard, Stevan R.. AU - Darwin, K. Heran. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Proteins targeted for degradation by the Mycobacterium proteasome are post-translationally tagged with prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), an intrinsically disordered protein of 64 residues. In a process termed pupylation, Pup is synthesized with a terminal glutamine, which is deamidated to glutamate by Dop (deamidase of Pup) prior to attachment to substrate lysines by proteasome accessory factor A (PafA). Importantly, PafA was previously shown to be essential to cause lethal infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in mice. In this study we show that Dop, like PafA, is required for the full virulence of Mtb. Additionally, we show that Dop is not only involved in ...
The recent emergence of extensively multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has further complicated the control of tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for the development of new molecular candidates antitubercular drugs. Medicinal plants have been an excellent source of leads for the development of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of 28 alcoholic extracts and essential oils of native and exotic Brazilian plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to further study these extracts through chemical fractionation, the isolation of their constituents, and an evaluation of the in vivo acute toxicity of the active extracts. To the best of our knowledge this is the first chemical characterization, antituberculosis activity and acute toxicity evaluation of Annona sylvatica. The anti-mycobacterial activity of these extracts and their constituent compounds was evaluated using the resazurin reduction microtiter assay (REMA). To investigate the acute toxicity of
Preventing tuberculosis (TB) by treating latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a cornerstone of the U.S. strategy for TB elimination (1,2). Three randomized controlled trials have shown that a new combination regimen of isoniazid (INH) and rifapentine (RPT) administered weekly for 12 weeks as directly observed therapy (DOT) is as effective for preventing TB as other regimens and is more likely to be completed than the U.S. standard regimen of 9 months of INH daily without DOT (2 5). This report provides CDC recommendations for using the INH-RPT regimen. The new regimen is recommended as an equal alternative to the 9-month INH regimen for otherwise healthy patients aged ≥12 years who have LTBI and factors that are predictive of TB developing (e.g., recent exposure to contagious TB). The new regimen also can be considered for other categories of patients when it offers practical advantages. Although the INH-RPT regimen was well tolerated in treatment trials, monitoring for ...
Planktonic cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for the lung disease tuberculosis (TB), are highly susceptible to killing by ascorbic acid (vitamin C). As planktonically grown M. tuberculosis are unlikely to be representative of the bacterium during infection, we set out to determine if ascorbic acid was also antibacterial against M. tuberculosis growing as a biofilm. We use biofilm growth as a model for the multiple phenotypic states M. tuberculosis can exist in during an infection. In our experiments we employed bioluminescent M. tuberculosis H37Rv (BSGTB1) in which light production is a non-destructive surrogate measure of bacterial viability. Light levels were monitored before and after treatment with 1mM to 256mM ascorbic acid. After 3 weeks of treatment, biofilms were disrupted, washed and inoculated into fresh media to look for sterilisation. Our findings show that ascorbic acid concentrations of 32mM or greater reduced bioluminescence produced by M. tuberculosis
1. Molecular genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to aminoglycosides and cyclic peptide testing by MTBDRsl in Armenia. Authors: Margaryan, H.,Farnia, P.,Hayrapetyan, A.,Mirzoyan, A.. Journal : International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2. Overview of drug-resistant tuberculosis worldwide. Authors: Velayati, A.A.,Farnia, P.,Farahbod, A.M.. Journal : International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 3. Molecular drug susceptibility testing against the first-line (rifampin and isoniazid) and second-line (ciprofloxacin-amikacin and kanamycin) treatment in different subtypes of Mycobacterium simiae. Authors: Farnia, P., Malekshahian, D., Tabarsi, P., Seif, S., Velayati, AA.,. Journal : International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 4. Deletion of region of difference 181 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains. Authors: Sharifipour, E., Farnia, P., Mozafari, M., Irani, S., Velayati, AA.,. Journal : International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 5. HIV and tuberculosis trends and survival of ...
Rationale: Xpert MTB/RIF is a novel automated molecular diagnostic recently endorsed by the World Health Organization. However, performance-related data from high HIV prevalence settings are limited. Objectives: The impact of sample-related factors on performance and the significance of Xpert MTB/RIF-positive culture-negative discordance remain unclear. Methods: Xpert MTB/RIF was evaluated using single archived spot-sputum samples from 496 South African patients with suspected TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and phenotypic resistance to rifampicin served as reference standards. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, Xpert MTB/RIF detected 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-98%; 89 of 94) of smear-positive culture-positive cases and the specificity was 94% (91-96%; 320 of 339). The sensitivity in smear-negative cases was 55% (35-73%; 12 of 22) when the analysis was restricted to 1 ml of unprocessed sputum and culture time-to-positivity of less than or equal to 28 days. ...
We reviewed reports of false-positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and here propose guidelines for detecting and managing patients with possible false-positive cultures. Mechanisms of false-positive cultures included contamination of clinical devices, clerical errors, and laboratory cross-contamination. False-positive cultures were identified in 13 (93%) of the 14 studies that evaluated ⩾100 patients; the median false-positive rate was 3.1% (interquartile range, 2.2%-10.5%). Of the 236 patients with false-positive cultures reported in sufficient detail, 158 (67%) were treated, some of whom had toxicity from therapy, as well as unnecessary hospitalizations, tests, and contact investigations. Having a single positive culture was a sensitive but nonspecific criterion for detecting false-positive cultures. False-positive cultures for M. tuberculosis are not rare but are infrequently recognized by laboratory and clinical personnel. Laboratories and tuberculosis control programs should ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Central dogma suggests that mutations in target genes is the primary cause of resistance to first and second-line anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, it was previously reported that approximately 5% of Rifampicin mono-resistant clinical M. tuberculosis did not harbor mutations in the rpoB gene. The present study hypothesized that active efflux plays a contributory role in the level of intrinsic resistance to different anti-TB drugs (Isoniazid, Ethionamide, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol, Ofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin, Amikacin and Capreomycin in RIF mono-resistant clinical M. tuberculosis isolates with a rpoB531 (Ser-Leu) mutation. This study aimed to define the role of Efflux pump inhibitors (verapamil, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and reserpine) in enhancing the susceptibility to different anti-TB drugs in the RIF mono-resistant clinical isolates. The isolates were characterized by determining the level of intrinsic resistance to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Safety and immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔlysA ΔpanCD vaccine in domestic cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. AU - Zimmerman, Dawn M.. AU - Waters, W. Ray. AU - Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.. AU - Nonnecke, Brian J.. AU - Armstrong, Douglas L.. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Larsen, Michelle H.. AU - Egan, Erin. AU - Dean, Gregg A.. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive and FIV-negative cats (n = 4/group) received 2 × 106 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔlysA ΔpanCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses, albeit at lower levels in FIV-positive cats than in FIV-negative cats. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses were minimal in both groups. No adverse reactions were found.. AB - Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive and FIV-negative cats (n = 4/group) received 2 × 106 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔlysA ΔpanCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses, albeit ...
BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and identification of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to anti-TB drugs are considered the main factors for disease control.. OBJECTIVES To standardise a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay technique and apply it to identify mutations involved in M. tuberculosis resistance to Isoniazid (INH) directly in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained slides.. METHODS Were analysed 55 independent DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by sequencing. For application in TB diagnosis resistance, 59 ZN-stained slides were used. The sensitivity, specificity and Kappa index, with a 95% confidence interval (CI95%), were determined.. FINDINGS The agreement between the tests was, for the katG target, the Kappa index of 0.89 (CI95%: 0.7-1.0). The sensitivity and specificity were 97.6% (CI95%: 87.7-99.9) and 91.7% (CI95%: 61.5-99.5), respectively. For inhA, the Kappa index was 0.92 (CI95%: 0.8-1.0), the sensitivity and ...
Despite the widespread use of the childhood vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the disease remains a serious global health problem. A successful vaccine against TB that replaces or boosts BCG would include antigens that induce or recall the appropriate T cell responses. Four Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens-including members of the virulence factor families PE/PPE and EsX or antigens associated with latency-were produced as a single recombinant fusion protein (ID93). When administered together with the adjuvant GLA-SE, a stable oil-in-water nanoemulsion, the fusion protein was immunogenic in mice, guinea pigs, and cynomolgus monkeys. In mice, this fusion protein-adjuvant combination induced polyfunctional CD4 T helper 1 cell responses characterized by antigen-specific interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-2, as well as a reduction in the number of bacteria in the lungs of animals after they were subsequently infected ...
Antibacterial Activity of Aristolochia brevipes against Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The continuing expansion of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations raises concerns regarding disease transmission. In south-central Spain, overabundant wild boar are reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis, and related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using bovine-purified protein derivative was applied to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of wild boar contact with MTBC in the Iberian Peninsula and to model and identify the associated risk factors. Wild boar apparent seroprevalence was 22%. Seropositives were detected in 71% of 81 sites, including 23 sites where wildlife was thought to be bTB free. The results described a new geographic range of wild boar contact with MTBC and a stable prevalence in this wildlife reservoir that contrasts with the success of bTB control in cattle. Inference of which host (wild boar or cattle) is driving bTB maintenance was not ...
A rising isolation trend of drug-resistant M. bovis from human clinical cases is documented in the literature. Here we assessed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from cattle for drug susceptibility by the gold standard agar proportion method and a simplified resazurin microtitre assay (d-REMA). A total of 38 M. tuberculosis complex strains, including M. bovis (n = 36) and M. caprae (n = 2) isolates, from cattle in Tunisia were tested against isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, kanamycin and pyrazinamide. M. caprae isolates were found to be susceptible to all test drugs. All M. bovis strains were resistant to pyrazinamide, as expected. In addition, one M. bovis isolate showed high-level resistance to streptomycin (MIC | 500.0 μg/ml). Concordant results with the two methods were found. The most common target genes associated with streptomycin resistance, namely the rrs, rpsL and gidB genes, were DNA sequenced. A non-synonymous mutation at codon 43 (K43R) was found in the rpsL gene.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a natural mutant in oxyR, a close homolog of the central regulator of peroxide stress response in enteric bacteria. Inactivation of oxyR is specific for M. tuberculosis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex. This phenomenon appears as a paradox due to the ability of this organism to parasitize host macrophages, in which the ingested organisms are likely to be exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the surprising finding that M. tuberculosis has multiple deletions, nonsense and frameshift mutations in oxyR may help explain the exceptionally high sensitivity of M. tuberculosis to the potent antituberculosis agent isoniazid. One of the genes affected by oxyR lesions, ahpC (encoding an alkylhydroperoxide reductase) may determine the intrinsic sensitivity of mycobacteria to isoniazid.
Background and objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is the major public health problem in the world. Each year there are 2-3 million deaths worldwide caused by TB. The increasing incidence of Multi Drug Resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide highlights the urgent need to search for new anti-tuberculosis compounds. It has been reported that medicinal plant, Dracocephalum kotschyi, possesses some antibacterial effect, thus in the present study its anti-mycobacterial property was evaluated. Methods: The sensitivity and resistance of M. tuberculosis strains at concentration of 0.2 µg/mL isoniazid was determined by proportion method. Methanol extract of D. kotschyi was prepared using maceration method. Six concentrations of D. kotschyi, including 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640μg/mL were prepared and its anti-mycobacterial effect on four groups of M. tuberculosis including M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294), isoniazid susceptible and resistance and MDR strains was determined. Results: The methanol extract of D.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pasakbumin A controls the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by enhancing the autophagy and production of antibacterial mediators in mouse macrophages. AU - Lee, Hyo Ji. AU - Ko, Hyun Jeong. AU - Kim, Seung Hyun. AU - Jung, Yu Jin. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. N2 - Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and remains a major health problem worldwide. Thus, identification of new and more effective drugs to treat emerging multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and to reduce the side effects of anti-TB drugs, such as liver toxicity and other detrimental changes, is urgently needed. In this study, to develop a novel candidate drug for effective TB treatment with few side effects in the host, we selected pasakbumin A isolated from Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) Jack, which protected host cells against Mtb infection-induced death. Pasakbumin A significantly inhibited intracellular Mtb growth by inducing the autophagy via the ...
Epidemiological contact tracing complemented with genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is important for understanding disease transmission. In Sweden, tuberculosis (TB) is mostly reported in migrant and homeless where epidemiologic contact tracing could pose a problem. This study compared epidemiologic linking with genotyping in a low burden country. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (n = 93) collected at Scania University Hospital in Southern Sweden were analysed with the standard genotyping method mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and the results were compared with whole genome sequencing (WGS). Using a maximum of twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the upper threshold of genomic relatedness noted among hosts, we identified 18 clusters with WGS comprising 52 patients with overall pairwise genetic maximum distances ranging from zero to nine SNPs. MIRU-VNTR and WGS clustered the same isolates, although the ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported repetitive protein (RvErp) is a crucial virulence-associated factor as determined by its role in the survival and multiplication of mycobacteria in cultured macrophages and in vivo Although attempts have been made to understand the function of Erp protein, its exact role in Mycobacterium pathogenesis is still elusive. One way to determine this is by searching for novel interactions of RvErp. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, an adenylyl cyclase (AC), Rv2212, was found to interact with RvErp. The interaction between RvErp and Rv2212 is direct and occurs at the endogenous level. The Erp protein of Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSMEG_6405, or MsErp) interacts neither with Rv2212 nor with Ms_4279, the M. smegmatis homologue of Rv2212. Deletion mutants of Rv2212 revealed its adenylyl cyclase domain to be responsible for the interaction. RvErp enhances Rv2212-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. Also, the biological significance of the interaction between RvErp and ...
An evaluation of the utility of rep PCR typing compared to the 15 loci discriminatory set of MIRU-VNTR was undertaken. Twenty-nine isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates by standard method. The number of copies of tandem repeats of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci was determined by PCR amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplicons. M. tuberculosis outbreak-related strains were distinguished from other isolates. MIRU-VNTR typing identified 4 major clusters of strains. The same isolates clustered together after RFLP typing, but rep-PCR identified only 3 of them. The concordance between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR typing was complete, with the exception of two isolates with identical RFLP patterns that differed in the number of tandem repeat copies at two MIRU-VNTR alleles. A further isolate, even sharing the same RFLP pattern, differed by one repeat from the rest of its cluster. We also tested the use of an automated rep-PCR for ...
Even though LTBI is estimated to affect more than a billion people, latency of this disease is only partially understood. We use clinical samples to characterize the immune response in patients diagnosed with LTBI. Our studies, performed in collaboration with scientists at Addis Ababa University focus on human cohorts living in proximity to livestock. In this context, we are interested in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis transmission between livestock to human. We investigate the effects of the respiratory tract microbiome and strain lineages on TB outcome using genomic methods.. ...
Home » Type i IFN inhibits alternative macrophage activation during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and leads to enhanced protection in the absence of IFN-γ ...
Results 178 cases and 57 cases were included in 2G group and 3G group, respectively. Mean age in 2G group and 3G group were 59.3 years old and 60.4 years old, respectively. 5 cases in 2G group have past history of TB infection and none in 3G group. 5 cases in 2G group (2.8%) and 6 cases in 3G group (10.5%) have positive results and there was a significant difference (p=0.027). 157 cases in 2G group (88.2%) and 42 cases in 3G group (73.7%) have negative results and there was a significant difference (p=0.011). In 10 cases that had positive results of QFT 2G or 3G, none had past history of TB, chest CT was normal in 4 cases and chemoprophylaxis of isoniazid (INH) was performed in 5 cases. Although biologics was used in 7 cases among 10 QFT-positive cases, no active TB was occurred until last observation. Used biologics were infliximab in 2 cases, etanercept in a case, abatacept in 3 cases and golimumab in a case.. ...
A hallmark of M. tuberculosis is its ability to infect, survive in, and persist in human macrophages. Acquired immunity, mediated primarily by MHC-II-restricted IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, controls M. tuberculosis infection but fails to eradicate the organism. When acquired immunity fails because of aging, malnutrition, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, persistent macrophage-bound M. tuberculosis bacilli emerge to cause reactivation tuberculosis. The mechanism(s) used by M. tuberculosis to persist for many years in macrophages in the face of highly developed and active acquired T-cell responses, reflected in strongly positive tuberculin skin test reactivity, is poorly understood. Earlier studies established that M. tuberculosis can interfere with IFN-γ-mediated activation and IFN-γR signaling in human macrophages (41). However, the molecules of M. tuberculosis that are responsible for interference with IFN-γ signaling have not been characterized.. In earlier studies, we ...
The tetracyclic pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole olivacine and four of its oxygenated derivatives have been synthesized by a late-stage palladium-catalyzed Heck-type cyclization of the pyrrole ring as key step. In a test for inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 9-methoxyolivacine showed the most significant inhibiting activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an MIC90 value of 1.5 μM.
Folate biosynthesis is an established anti-infective target, and the antifolate para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) was one of the first anti-infectives introduced into clinical practice based on target-based drug discovery. Fifty years later, PAS continues in use for tuberculosis. PAS is assumed to inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) by mimicking the substrate, p-aminobenzoate (PABA). However, we found that sulfonamide inhibitors of DHPS inhibited growth of M. tuberculosis only weakly due to their intracellular metabolism. PAS, by contrast, served as a replacement substrate for DHPS. Products of PAS metabolism at this and subsequent steps in folate metabolism inhibited those enzymes, competing with their substrates. PAS is thus a prodrug that blocks growth of M. tuberculosis when its active forms are generated by enzymes in the pathway they poison.. ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively, produce large quantities of lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a highly immunogenic, cell wall-associated glycolipid. This molecule has been previously reported to be a potent inhibitor of gamma interferon-mediated activation of murine macrophages. Studies of the mechanism by which this mycobacterial glycolipid down-regulates macrophage effector functions provide evidence that LAM acts at several levels and that it can (i) scavenge potentially cytotoxic oxygen free radicals, (ii) inhibit protein kinase C activity, and (iii) block the transcriptional activation of gamma interferon-inducible genes in human macrophage-like cell lines. These results suggest that LAM can inhibit macrophage activation and triggering and cytocidal activity and that it may represent a chemically defined virulence factor contributing to the persistence of mycobacteria within mononuclear phagocytes. ...
Fosmidomycin is a phosphonic antibiotic which inhibits 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (Dxr), the first committed step of the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dxr is encoded by Rv2870c, and although the antibiotic has been shown to inhibit the recombinant enzyme [1], mycobacteria are intrinsically resistant to fosmidomycin at the whole cell level. Fosmidomycin is a hydrophilic molecule and in many bacteria its uptake is an active process involving a cAMP dependent glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT). The fact that there is no glpT homologue in the M. tuberculosis genome and the highly impervious nature of the hydrophobic mycobacterial cell wall suggests that resistance may be due to a lack of cellular penetration. We demonstrated that dxr (Rv2780c) is an essential gene in M. tuberculosis, since we could not delete the chromosomal copy unless a second functional copy was provided on an integrating vector. This confirmed that the
IN VITRO STUDY OF URSOLIC ACID COMBINATION FIRST-LINE ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AGAINST DRUG-SENSITIVE AND DRUG-RESISTANT STRAINS OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes the disease tuberculosis (TB), which kills more people than any other infection. The emergence of drug-resistant Mtb strains has exacerbated this already alarming epidemic. The authors have identified a small molecule, C10, that potentiates the activity of the frontline antibiotic isoniazid (INH) and prevents the selection for INH-resistant mutants. They find that C10 can even reverse INH resistance in Mtb. Therefore, our study reveals vulnerabilities that can be exploited to reverse INH resistance in Mtb.. ...
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv includes a homologue of the CRP/FNR (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) family of transcription regulators encoded by Rv3676. Sequencing of the orthologous gene from attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strains revealed point mutations that affect the putative DNA-binding and cNMP-binding domains of the encoded protein. These mutations are not present in the published sequences of the Rv3676 orthologues in M. bovis, M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium leprae. An Escherichia coli lacZ reporter system was used to show that the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein binds to DNA sites for CRP, but this DNA binding was decreased or abolished with the Rv3676 protein counterparts from BCG strains. The DNA-binding ability of the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein was decreased by the introduction of base changes corresponding to the BCG point mutations. Conversely, the DNA binding of the BCG Rv3676 proteins from BCG strains
Drumm JE, Mi K, Bilder P, Sun M, Lim J, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Basaraba R, So M, Zhu G, Tufariello JM, Izzo AA, Orme IM, Almo SC, Leyh TS, Chan J. 2009. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates bacillary growth by ATP-Binding: requirement for establishing chronic persistent infection. PLoS Pathog 5:e1000460. Russell-Goldman E, Xu J, Wang X, Chan J, Tufariello JM. 2008. A double Rpf knockout Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain exhibits profound defects in reactivation from chronic tuberculosis and innate immunity phenotypes. Infect Immun. 76:4269-81.. Maglione PJ, Xu J, Casadevall A, Chan J. 2008. Fcgamma receptors regulate immune activation and susceptibility during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. J Immunol 180:3329-38.. Chakravarty SD, Zhu G, Tsai MC, Mohan VP, Marino S, Kirschner DE, Huang L, Flynn J, Chan J. 2008. Tumor necrosis factor blockade in chronic murine tuberculosis enhances granulomatous inflammation and disorganizes granulomas in the lungs. Infect ...
A ∼500-member library of bidentate inhibitors against protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) was rapidly assembled using click chemistry. Subsequent high-throughput screening had led to the discovery of highly potent (K i as low as 150 nM) and selective MptpB inhibitors, some of which represent the most potent MptpB inhibitors developed to date. © 2009 American Chemical society ...
The family of mycobacteria is composed of pathogenic and apathogenic bacteria. This study was performed with 3 members of this family, the most prominent pathogenic member, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG which was developed by attenuation of the bovine tuberculosis agent Mycobacterium bovis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis which is apathogenic and widely distributed in soil. A key to understanding mycobacteria and, especially, their resistance is to understand the complexity of their cell wall. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the cell wall and the transport of peptidoglycan precursors out of the cytoplasm to the bacterial surface by undecaprenyl monophosphate is central to cell wall synthesis. Therefore, deletion mutants of the undecaprenyl phosphokinase gene (upk) were generated in M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, and M. smegmatis. In the case of M. smegmatis it was shown that a delta upk deletion mutant, as with ...
Dye C, Watt CJ, Bleed DM, Hosseini SM, Raviglione MC. Evolution of tuberculosis control and prospects for reducing tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and deaths globally. J Am Med Assoc 2005;293:2767-75. Zumla A, Raviglione M, Hafner R, Von Reyn CF. Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 2013;368:745-55. Meena L, Rajni. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J 2010;277:2416-27. Sarkar S, Suresh MR. An overview of tuberculosis chemotherapy-a literature review. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;14:148-61. Zhang Y, Yew W. Mechanisms of drug resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Disease 2009;13:1320-30. Kumar G, Malhotra S, Shafiq N, Pandhi P, Khuller G, Sharma S. In vitro physicochemical characterization and short-term in vivo tolerability study of ethionamide loaded PLGA nanoparticles: potentially effective agent for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J Microencapsul 2011;28:717-28. OHara P, Hickey AJ. Respirable PLGA microspheres containing rifampicin for ...
Deretic, V., & Fratti, R. A. (1999). Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome. Molecular microbiology, 31(6), 1603-1609. Chicago ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits phagosome-endosome fusion, thus avoiding being destroyed by the harsh environment of the ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactome has been analyzed using a bacterial two-hybrid screen (B2H). ...
"Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tuberculosis". Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology.. ...
van Kessel J. C., Hatfull G. F. (2007). "Recombineering in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Nature Methods. 4 (2): 147-152. doi: ... To date, recombineering has been performed in E. coli, S. enterica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, S. cerevisiae and M. tuberculosis. ... van Kessel J. C., Hatfull G. F. (2008). "Efficient point mutagenesis in mycobacteria using single-stranded DNA recombineering: ... van Kessel J. C., Marinelli L. J., Hatfull G. F. (2008). "Recombineering mycobacteria and their phages". Nature Reviews ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis[editar , editar a fonte]. A tuberculose está incrementándose en todo o mundo, especialmente nos ... Zainuddin ZF, Dale JW (1990). "Does Mycobacterium tuberculosis have plasmids?". Tubercle 71 (1): 43-9. PMID 2115217. doi: ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis, axiña desenvolveu resistencia. Desde entón, utilizáronse fármacos como a isoniazida e a rifampina. ... Gao, Qian; Li, Xia (2010). "Transmission of MDR tuberculosis". Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms 7: e61. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Tuberculosis usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tularemia Francisella tularensis Typhoid fever Salmonella enterica subsp. ...
It also killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was also found to be effective in vivo, when used to treat mice infected with ... Teixobactin was shown to kill Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In January 2015, a collaboration of four ... tuberculosis was generated in vitro when administering sublethal doses, for as long as 27 days in the case of the former. It is ...
"Protection by live Mycobacterium habana vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv challenge in mice". The Indian Journal ... "Selective identification of new therapeutic targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by IVIAT approach". Tuberculosis. 82 (4-5): ... Bacterial genetics Mycobacterium tuberculosis India portal Medicine portal Long link - please select award year to see details ... "Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific DNA fragment". Justia Patents. 2017. World Intellectual Property Organization (2001). ...
"Mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: update 2015". The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung ... It is a highly structured, text-based database focusing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis at seven different mutation loci: rpoB, ... Heym, B (February 1997). "Multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 8 ... "Molecular basis and mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: classical and new drugs". Journal of ...
Jayaram HN, Ramakrishnan T, Vaidyanathan CS (1969). "Aspartotransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra". Indian J. ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate pathogen that has evolved to ensure its persistence in human populations. This is ... Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid, rifampin, and other common treatments has become an increasingly ... Brites, D; Gagneux, S (2013-04-17). "Co-evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens, Brites, D., & Gagneux, S. ( ... Zainuddin ZF, Dale JW (1990). "Does Mycobacterium tuberculosis have plasmids?". Tubercle. 71 (1): 43-9. doi:10.1016/0041-3879( ...
Phulera S, Mande SC (June 2013). "The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis NrdH at 0.87 Å suggests a possible mode ... Phulera S, Akif M, Sardesai AA, Mande SC (2014-01-01). "Redox Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Journal of the Indian ... This is especially true for Mycobacterium Haemophilum, and could be used for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Mustacich D, Powis ...
"ISONIAZID-RESISTANT STRAINS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS." The Lancet 261.6768 (1953): 978-979". The Lancet. 262 (6768): 253- ... on the chemotherapy of tuberculosis. In addition, she lectured on dietetics to 2nd-year Social Science students at Trinity. Her ...
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently it has been shown that chronic infection of M. tuberculosis ... Tuberculosis. 126 (January): 102046. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2020.102046. Alfarouk, KO; Verduzco, D; Rauch, C; Muddathir, AK; Adil, ... Tuberculosis. 126 (January): 102046. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2020.102046. PMID 33421909. Warburg O (24 February 1956). "On the ... Ex-vivo infection of non-pathogenic mycobacteria (M.bovis) in PBMCs and THP-1 macrophage increase glucose uptake, glucose ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of Mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an ... Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum and members of the Mycobacterium ... Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in cattle. Since tuberculosis can be spread to humans, milk is pasteurized to kill any ... Soon after Koch's discovery, Paul Ehrlich developed a stain for mycobacterium tuberculosis, called the alum hematoxylin stain. ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis could also cause WFS. Tubercular invasion of the adrenal glands could cause hemorrhagic destruction ...
It is isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Huang H, Scherman MS, D'Haeze W, Vereecke D, Holsters M, Crick DC, McNeil MR ( ... July 2005). "Identification and active expression of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene encoding 5-phospho-{alpha}-d-ribose-1- ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a once genetically intractable organism. In Molecular Genetics of the Mycobacteria, ed. GF Hatfull ... While originally isolated from the bacterial species Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative ... Jones Jr, W. D. (1975). "Phage typing report of 125 strains of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis"". Annali Sclavo; rivista di ... Froman S, Will DW, Bogen E (October 1954). "Bacteriophage active against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. I. Isolation and ...
aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia and Candida. A detailed history allows doctors to determine whether the ...
"Polyprenyl phosphate biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (20 ... Kaur D, Brennan PJ, Crick DC (November 2004). "Decaprenyl diphosphate synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Journal of ...
... as well as for the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the major causative agent of tuberculosis. In this latter case, ICL ... "Potential inhibitors for isocitrate lyase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-M. tuberculosis: a summary". BioMed Research ... "Selection of genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis upregulated during residence in lungs of infected mice". Tuberculosis. 88 (3 ... "Characterization of activity and expression of isocitrate lyase in Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Journal ...
Rainwater DL, Kolattukudy PE (1985). "Fatty acid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ...
Pyrazinamid is currently used as a treatment for tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis converts pyrazinamid into pyrazinoic ... "Synthesis and evaluation of a pyrazinoic acid prodrug in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 22 (4): 376 ... "Pyrazinoic acid inhibits a bifunctional enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (7). ... The use of pyrazinoic acid has been investigated as a possible treatment for pyrazinamid resistant strains of Mycobacterium ...
"Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (37): 38991-9. ...
"LAG3 expression in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections". The American Journal of Pathology. 185 (3): 820-33. doi: ... working at the Tulane National Primate Research Center showed in rhesus macaques that Mycobacterium tuberculosis could work ...
"Environmental Presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Aggregation Points at the Wildlife/Livestock Interface". ... "Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission from human to canine". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (12): 2258-2210. doi:10.3201/ ... Some boars and deer shared the same strains of tuberculosis which were similar to those found in livestock and humans ... This spurred a nation-wide epidemic, but because tuberculosis isn't a disease that's typically transmitted from animals to ...
How the Host Withstands Persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Frontiers in Immunology. 9: 2094. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02094 ... For example, 90% of people infected with tuberculosis experience no symptoms. Similarly, many humans tolerate helminth ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a human-tropic bacterium that causes tuberculosis - the second most common cause of death due to ... Smith, Issar (2003-07-01). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis and Molecular Determinants of Virulence". Clinical ... "The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 49 (5 ... M. tuberculosis enters the lung alveoler passages through aerosol droplets, and it then becomes phagocytosed by macrophages. ...
Structural characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins. *Computational analysis of genome-wide protein:protein ...
Ang bakterya ay mula sa parehong pamilya na dahilan din ng tuberculosis at ketong (Ang M. tuberculosis at M. leprae, ayon sa ... "Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) Fact sheet N°199". World Health Organization. June 2013. Hinango noong 23 ... Sizaire V, Nackers F, Comte E, Portaels F (2006). "Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: control, diagnosis, and treatment". Lancet ... Nakanaga, K; Yotsu, RR; Hoshino, Y; Suzuki, K; Makino, M; Ishii, N (2013). "Buruli ulcer and mycolactone-producing mycobacteria ...
Ang kaunti sa mga uri ng bakterya tulad ng Mycobacterium tuberculosis at Legionella pneumophila ay nakakarating sa baga sa ... at ang pag-culture para sa Mycobacterium tuberculosis ay dapat isagawa sa mga taong mayroong hindi gumagaling na ubong may ... mga organismong nabubuhay ng walang oxygen at Mycobacterium tuberculosis; pinapataas ng paninigarilyo ang probabilidad ng mga ...
Tuberkulose,''Mycobacterium tuberculosis'']], multiresistente bakterier er udbredt i Østeuropa,ref,[http://videnskab.dk/krop- ...
... which can generally kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis). MAP is susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Mycobacterium avium ... amended description of Mycobacterium avium, and description of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium subsp. nov., Mycobacterium ... Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium in the genus Mycobacterium.[1] It is ... nov., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum subsp. nov". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 40 (3): 254-60. doi:10.1099/00207713-40-3- ...
Exposure to respiratory infectious diseases like tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and influenza can be ... Tuberculosis (TB) screening, testing, and education[edit]. Based on recommendations from The Center for Disease Control and ... 3.1 Tuberculosis (TB) screening, testing, and education *3.1.1 Initial hiring process ...
... multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - myalgia - mycobacterium - mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) - ... HIV-related tuberculosis - HLA - Hodgkin's disease - holistic medicine - homology (biology) - hormone - host - host factors - ...
Miliary tuberculosis. *Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection. *Mycobacterium haemophilum infection. * ...
Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin discovered how to culture the tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (so called ... the bovine tuberculosis germ grown with their method was the principal prophylactic weapon against human tuberculosis, and it ... Calmette's and Guerin's anti-tuberculosis vaccineEdit. By the beginning of the 20th century, the improvement of the general ... The environment deemed appropriate for the denaturation of the Mycobacterium bovis was a compost of potatoes cooked in the bile ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis[31]. *Nocardia[32]. *Novosphingobium aromaticivorans[33][34][35][36]. *Orientia tsutsugamushi[37][38 ...
They kill both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, mycobacteria (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis), enveloped viruses ...
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle, deer, llamas, pigs, domestic cats, wild carnivores (foxes, coyotes) and ... Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium lepromatosis armadillos, monkeys, rabbits, mice[34]. direct contact, including meat ... Various forms of the common cold and tuberculosis also are adaptations of strains originating in other species. ...
These differences suggested that leprosy was caused by an organism related to but distinct from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis). There were three significant differences between these organisms: (1) the rods in the leprosy ... Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, was discovered by G. H. Armauer Hansen in Norway in 1873, making it the ... In 1873 G. H. Armauer Hansen in Norway discovered the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. This was the first ...
One strategy is intracellular replication, as practised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or wearing a protective capsule, which ... M. tuberculosis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus anthracis utilize mechanisms that directly kill the phagocyte.[citation ...
Intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the bacterium which is responsible for tuberculosis) are targeted ... "Autophagy in immunity against mycobacterium tuberculosis: a model system to dissect immunological roles of autophagy". Curr. ...
Skupina M. tuberculosis (MTBC) obuhvaća još četiri mikobakterije: Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium ... Druge patogene mikobakterije su Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium avium, i Mycobacterium kansasii. Posljednje dvije se ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis je u divljih životinja rijetkost.[131] Suzbijanje govedske tuberkuloze, uzrokovane s Mycobacterium ... "Genetic Biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cameroon". J. ...
Intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the bacterium which is responsible for tuberculosis) are targeted ... "Autophagy is a defense mechanism inhibiting BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in infected macrophages". Cell. 119 (6 ... "Autophagy in immunity against mycobacterium tuberculosis: a model system to dissect immunological roles of autophagy". Current ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis *Löwenstein-Jensen medium. *Middlebrook 7H9 Broth. *Middlebrook 7H10 Agar. *Middlebrook 7H11 Agar ...
However, in a significant number of patients, DNA of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by PCR. It is ... "Further investigations on the association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Eales' disease". Indian J Ophthalmol. 50 (1): 35-9 ...
This technique is used for diagnosing parasites and detecting mycobacteria.[27]. *Cell culture: Human or animal cell cultures ... Tuberculosis[11]. Viral[edit]. *Rotavirus[12]. *Hepatitis C[13]. *Human papillomavirus (HPV)[14] ... "Safe inoculation of blood and bone marrow for liquid culture detection of mycobacteria". Occupational Medicine. 54 (8): 530-3. ...
Miliary tuberculosis. *Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection. *Mycobacterium haemophilum infection. * ...
Tuberculosis is able to be transmitted from cattle mainly via milk products that are unpasteurised. The disease has been ... Naser SA; Collins MT (December 2005). "Debate on the lack of evidence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn's ... May 2005). "Detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in retail pasteurized whole milk by two culture ... "Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Crohn's disease and the Doomsday scenario". Gut Pathogens. BioMed Central. 1 ...
"Pathogenesis of tuberculosis: interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with macrophages". Infect. Immun. 61 (7): 2763-2773. ... An example of a tuberculosis (TB) infection that comes under control: M. tuberculosis cells are engulfed by macrophages after ... tuberculosis by forming phagolysosomes and nitric oxide radicals. The hyper-activated macrophages secrete TNF-α which recruits ... being identified as foreign, but due to an immuno-escape mechanism peculiar to mycobacteria,[4] TB bacteria are able to block ...
Mycobacterium africanum), മൈക്കോബാക്റ്റീരിയം കാനെറ്റി (Mycobacterium canetti), മൈക്കോബാക്റ്റീരിയം മൈക്രോറ്റി (Mycobacterium ... Kabra, [edited by] Vimlesh Seth, S.K. (2006). Essentials of tuberculosis in children (3rd ed. ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. ... Lawn, SD (2 July 2011). "Tuberculosis". Lancet. 378 (9785): 57-72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3. PMID 21420161.. Unknown ... ആംഗലേയഭാഷയിൽ Tuberculosis (ചുരുക്കെഴുത്ത്: TB - Tubercle Bacillus എന്ന അർത്ഥത്തിൽ) ക്ഷയരോഗം പ്രധാനമായും ശ്വാസകോശങ്ങളെയാണ് ...
Podrobnější informace naleznete v článku Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. Hlavním původcem tuberkulózy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Genetic biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from persons with pulmonary tuberculosis in Cameroon. ... A pantothenate auxotroph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is highly attenuated and protects mice against tuberculosis. Nature ... Dalšími známými zástupci z rodu Mycobacterium jsou M. leprae, komplex Mycobacterium avium a M. kansasii. Poslední dvě zmíněné ...
Märkus: IQ TBM rühmas keskmiselt 71,67; tuberkuloosset meningiiti võib esineda 6 kuud peale Mycobacterium tuberculosis 'e ... J. W. V. Wait, L. Stanton J. F. Schoeman, Attention-Deficit Tuberculosis Meningitis and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans (Figure 2).[14] ...
Mycobacterium avium complex. *Mycobacterium leprae. *Mycobacterium tuberculosis. *Mycoplasma. O. *Oceanospirillales. P. * ...
A18.3) Tuberculosis of intestines, peritoneum and mesenteric glands. *(A18.4) Tuberculosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue * ... A31.) Infection due to other mycobacteria *(A31.0) Pulmonary mycobacterial infection *Infection due to Mycobacterium avium ... A15-A19) Tuberculosis[संपादित करें]. *(A15.) Respiratory tuberculosis, bacteriologically and histologically confirmed ... A16.) Respiratory tuberculosis, not confirmed bacteriologically or histologically. *(A17.) Tuberculosis of nervous system *(A ...
Freund's complete adjuvant is a solution of inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil developed in 1930. It is not ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Linia I. Izoniazidă# • Etambutol# • Pirazinamidă# • Rifamicine (Rifampicină# • Rifabutină • ... datorită spectrului extins pe Mycobacterium, sunt: tuberculoza, infecțiile cu Mycobacterium avium complex, lepra și boala ... Tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CAB International. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-84593-807-9.. ...
Saat terinfeksi bakteri mycobacterium tuberculosis, Anda akan mengalami batuk.... 2 Replies. 4851 Views. Last post by ANSTeam ...
  • However, as with M. tuberculosis , not everyone infected with M. bovis becomes sick. (cdc.gov)
  • M. bovis is treated similarly to M. tuberculosis . (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, healthcare providers might not know that a person has M. bovis instead of M. tuberculosis . (cdc.gov)
  • No. The Cooperative State-Federal Tuberculosis Eradication Program, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, state animal health agencies, and U.S. livestock producers, has nearly eliminated M. bovis infection from cattle in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The distribution of 20 variable regions resulting from insertion-deletion events in the genomes of the tubercle bacilli has been evaluated in a total of 100 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium africanum , Mycobacterium canettii , Mycobacterium microti , and Mycobacterium bovis . (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, successive loss of DNA, reflected by region of difference 9 and other subsequent deletions, was identified for an evolutionary lineage represented by M. africanum , M. microti , and M. bovis that diverged from the progenitor of the present M. tuberculosis strains before TbD1 occurred. (pnas.org)
  • These findings contradict the often-presented hypothesis that M. tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis evolved from M. bovis , the agent of bovine disease. (pnas.org)
  • M. canettii and ancestral M. tuberculosis strains lack none of these deleted regions, and, therefore, seem to be direct descendants of tubercle bacilli that existed before the M. africanum→M. bovis lineage separated from the M. tuberculosis lineage. (pnas.org)
  • Assuming that they all are derived from a common ancestor, it is intriguing that some are exclusively human ( M. tuberculosis , Mycobacterium africanum , Mycobacterium canettii ) or rodent pathogens ( Mycobacterium microti ), whereas others have a wide host spectrum ( Mycobacterium bovis ). (pnas.org)
  • Also, it has been speculated that M. tuberculosis , the most widespread etiological agent of human tuberculosis has evolved from M. bovis , the agent of bovine tuberculosis, by specific adaptation of an animal pathogen to the human host ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • M. tuberculosis was found in 2019 a complex that has at least 9 members: M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, M. africanum, M. canetti, M. bovis, M. caprae, M. microti, M. pinnipedii, M. mungi, and M. orygis. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. tuberculosis belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, that also includes bacteria , such as M. bovis and M. africanum . (wikidoc.org)
  • This complex includes M. tuberculosis , M. bovis , M. africanum , M. canetti , and M. microti . (wikidoc.org)
  • Collins DM, Wilson T, Campbell S, Buddle BM, Wards BJ, Hotter G, De Lisle GW: Production of avirulent mutants of Mycobacterium bovis with vaccine properties by the use of illegitimate recombination and screening of stationary-phase cultures. (springer.com)
  • pckA -deficient Mycobacterium bovis BCG shows attenuated virulence in mice and in macrophages. (springer.com)
  • While M. tuberculosis complex strains responsible for tuberculosis have been the subject of much investigation (including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. canettii, M. microti, M. caprae, and M. pinnipedii ), the host-pathogen interactions of NTMs remain poorly characterized. (jcvi.org)
  • In this context, we are interested in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis transmission between livestock to human. (jcvi.org)
  • The usage of alternative synonymous codons in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (and M. bovis) genes has been investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Field epidemiology studies has established that some phylogenetic lineages of tubercle bacilli, such as the Mycobacterium bovis or the Mycobacterium canettii strains, are impaired in their capacity to transmit in human. (ipbs.fr)
  • Acr2 protein was strongly recognized by cattle with early primary Mycobacterium bovis infection and by healthy MTB-sensitized people. (jimmunol.org)
  • Is Mycobacterium bovis in the environment important for the persistence of bovine tuberculosis? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle and wildlife. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a persistent problem among UK cattle herds. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this study, we apply molecular techniques to quantify the occurrence of mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and in particular M. bovis , in badger sources on farms in the UK. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Risk factors for human Mycobacterium bovis infections in an urban area of Brazil. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified human zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis as a neglected issue in the developing world. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test (USDA) is intended for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis ( M. bovis ) antibody in cattle serum and plasma samples. (idexx.com)
  • Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis ( M. bovis ), continues to be an important livestock disease in many countries, and its control and eradication is complicated by the lack of sensitive tests as well as the presence of significant wildlife reservoirs. (idexx.com)
  • Although infection with any member of the MTB-complex can lead to pulmonary tuberculosis, M. bovis is the cause of active pulmonary tuberculosis in less than 2% of subjects in the United States [Ref. 1], and members of MTB - complex other than M. bovis and M. tuberculosis are even less common causes of disease. (fda.gov)
  • To define the global population structure of M. tuberculosis , we performed genomic deletion analysis on a global sample of 875 strains originating from 80 countries ( Table 1 and Table 3, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site). (pnas.org)
  • This sample included strains isolated from foreign-born tuberculosis patients in San Francisco who contracted the infection in their country of origin and was complemented with geographically representative strains from other reference collections. (pnas.org)
  • The deletions RD9 and TbD1 are genotyping tools have recently identifi ed several polymor- useful phylogenetic markers for other members of MTBC phisms in the MTBC genome that have provided insight complex and ancestral M. tuberculosis strains ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD-Rio strains are still rare in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12328-015-0600-0 the former Soviet Union countries and Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • This approach showed that the majority of these polymorphisms did not occur independently in the different strains of the M. tuberculosis complex but, rather, resulted from ancient, irreversible genetic events in common progenitor strains. (pnas.org)
  • Based on the presence or absence of an M. tuberculosis specific deletion (TbD1), M. tuberculosi s strains can be divided into ancestral and "modern" strains, the latter comprising representatives of major epidemics like the Beijing, Haarlem, and African M. tuberculosis clusters. (pnas.org)
  • In the present study, we have analyzed the distribution of these 20 variable regions situated around the genome (see Table 1, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org ) in a representative and diverse set of 100 strains belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. (pnas.org)
  • Rifampin heteroresistance-where rifampin-resistant and -susceptible tuberculosis (TB) bacilli coexist-may result in failed standard TB treatment and potential spread of rifampin-resistant strains. (asm.org)
  • The current TB epidemic is being sustained and fuelled by two important factors: the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its association with active TB disease and increasing resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to the most effective (first-line) anti-TB drugs [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The emergence of new strains of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has created new interest in clinical diagnosis. (abcam.com)
  • However, in some cases, no host immune impairment is evident, and the question arises whether some disease-causing strains of M. tuberculosis have means to resist the toxic molecules produced by activated macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • Some of these derivatives showed higher in vitro activity than rifabutin and rifampicin against not only Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains but also against MAC and Mycobacterium kansasii. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The recent human immunodeficiency virus pandemic, the selection of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis , and the increased immigration from countries with a high tuberculosis incidence, coupled with increasing poverty and homelessness in these countries, have awakened the developed nations from the widespread apathy toward tuberculosis ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Objective: To analyze characterization of the rpoBgene mutations of Mycobacterium tuber- culosis isolated from China and to explore the association of specific mutations conferring rifampicin (RIF) resistance with Beijing genotype strains. (scirp.org)
  • 1994) Characterization by automated DNA sequencing of mutations in the gene (rpoB) encoding the RNA polymerase beta subunit in rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from New York City and Texas. (scirp.org)
  • A naturally occurring antibiotic called kanglemycin A is effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, even in drug-resistant strains, according to an international team of researchers who used chemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, and X-ray crystallography to show how the compound maintains its activity. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Rifampicin is already part of the cocktail of antibiotics used to treat tuberculosis, but many strains of the tuberculosis-causing bacteria have developed resistance to it,' Murakami said. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • they came to the conclusion that the strains causing TB in people was created by this means over a period of time and might also explain the great functional differences in mycobacterium tuberclurosis that Sarah was talking about. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The widespread prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that are resistant to drugs currently used to treat TB means that new drugs are urgently needed to treat these infections. (asm.org)
  • New and effective drugs are required, as existing drugs have become suboptimal in many settings due to the requirement for protracted periods of treatment and the emergence of multiple- and extensively drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype in the Archangel Oblast, Russia. (springer.com)
  • In parallel, we have contributed to demonstrate that the loss of a bacterial surface glycolipid enhances the virulence of M. canettii strains and was likely associated with the emergence of M. tuberculosis as major pathogen for humans. (ipbs.fr)
  • The presence in a geographic area of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains belonging to different phylogeographic lineages and showing different drug susceptibility patterns may suggest recent tran. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nancy Hilda, J., Selvaraj, A. and Das, S. D. (2012), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv is more effective compared to vaccine strains in modulating neutrophil functions: an in vitro study. (wiley.com)
  • Re-annotation of the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential hybridization arrays identified 14 regions of difference (RD1-14), ranging in size from 2 to 12.7 kb, that were absent from bacillus Calmette-Guérin Pasteur relative to M. tuberculosis H37Rv ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Designation of strain H37Rv as the neotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (atcc.org)
  • In vitro activities of fourteen antimicrobial agents against drug susceptible and resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and comparative intracellular activities against the virulent H37Rv strain in human macrophages. (atcc.org)
  • F ) IFN-γ expression by CD4 + T cells in isolated pulmonary cell cultures restimulated with ESAT6 or M. tuberculosis H37Rv (M.tb). (jci.org)
  • M. tuberculosis can be isolated in labs and stored at -80 degrees to be studied extensively, and the most commonly used strain of M. tuberculosis is the H37Rv strain. (kenyon.edu)
  • The genome of M. tuberculosis was studied generally using the strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv . (kenyon.edu)
  • O gene hspX foi amplificado pela PCR a partir do DNA do M. tuberculosis H37Rv, clonado no vetor de expressão pFPCA1GFP, e a proteína HspX expressa em M. smegmatis mc 2 155. (usp.br)
  • The gene hspX was amplified by PCR from DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and cloned into the expression vector pFPCA1GFP. (usp.br)
  • Data on whole genome sequencing of extrapulmonary tuberculosis clinical isolates from India. (nih.gov)
  • Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • No horizontal gene transfer has pks15/1 gene and other SNPs, Gagneaux and Small were been reported in MTBC, and the genome is more highly able to confi rm these M. tuberculosis lineages and 2 lineag- conserved than other pathogenic bacteria ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, both hypotheses were proposed before the whole genome sequence of M. tuberculosis ( 4 ) was available and before comparative genomics uncovered several variable genomic regions in the members of the M. tuberculosis complex. (pnas.org)
  • M. tuberculosis has devoted a large part of its genome towards functions that allow it to successfully establish latent or progressive infection in the majority of infected individuals. (hindawi.com)
  • The M. tuberculosis genome was sequenced in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome sequences and related information. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. Zvi, N. Ariel, J. Fulkerson, J. C. Sadoff, and A. Shafferman, "Whole genome identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidates by comprehensive data mining and bioinformatic analyses," BMC Medical Genomics , vol. 1, pp. 1-18, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains at least nine small RNA families in its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic variances in the M. tuberculosis genome lead to important phenotypical changes. (wikidoc.org)
  • This work provides an authoritative catalog of essential regions of the M. tuberculosis genome and a statistical framework for applying saturating mutagenesis to other bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The M. tuberculosis genome ( 14 , 29 ) encodes about 190 transcriptional regulators: 13 σ factors, 11 two-component systems, 5 unpaired response regulators, 11 protein kinases ( 3 ), and more than 140 other putative transcriptional regulators ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • There was a long period of inactivity, but more recent developments in NMR and mass spectral analysis and definition of the M. tuberculosis genome have resulted in a thorough understanding, not only of the structure of the mycobacterial cell wall and its lipids but also the basic genetics and biosynthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Definition of the genome of M. tuberculosis has greatly aided efforts to define the biosynthetic pathways for all of these exotic molecules: the mycolic acids, the mycocerosates, phthiocerol, LAM, and the polyprenyl phosphates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is particularly very helpful in the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a large part of its genome without known function. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We here grow a high-density mutant library of M. tuberculosis through serial cultures and monitor the temporal fluctuations in insertion frequencies across all TA dinucleotides in the genome. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • This study, conducted at the University of Mali in the capital city of Bamako, will investigate how the body reacts to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the organism that causes tuberculosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative organism for TB, is spread via aerosolized nuclei from individuals with TB disease (pulmonary or rarely upper airway, e.g. laryngeal TB). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • As much as one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet relatively little is known about how the organism manages to persist for so long, sometimes for decades, in so many people. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Although incomplete, as many enzymes of M. tuberculosis have yet to be identified and characterized, this is the first report of a large number of essential molecules of the organism. (asm.org)
  • As an illustration of this approach, we report that compounds JFD01307SC and l -methionine- S -sulfoximine, which share chemical similarity with an essential molecule of M. tuberculosis , inhibited the growth of this organism at micromolar concentrations. (asm.org)
  • The role of HspX protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in regulation of genes involved with morphological adaptation to mycobacterial dormancy, with Mycobacterium smegmatis as model organism. (usp.br)
  • Structural analysis proved that the closed conformation of the fourth domain is important for the product formation, hence inhibition of the flexibility of this domain by binding to drug molecules with high affinity may inhibit the activity of the protein to counter deadly tuberculosis organism. (ssrn.com)
  • In some people, this organism overcomes the defenses of the immune system, resulting in progression from latent tuberculosis infection to active tuberculosis disease (TB). (fda.gov)
  • Gut microbiota associated with pulmonary tuberculosis and dysbiosis caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs. (nih.gov)
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j. from 93 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
  • 1) In June 1987, a clinic nurse was diagnosed with noncavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). (cdc.gov)
  • SHENOI, Sheela V.. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood transcriptome signatures that distinguish active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) from control groups have been reported, but correlations of these signatures with sputum mycobacterial load are incompletely defined. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • People in Port au Prince, Haiti, with untreated pulmonary TB ( n = 51) formed the study cohort: 19 people with low and 32 with high sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis load. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • However, M. tuberculosis strives most in tissues with high oxygen levels, hence the high rate of pulmonary tuberculosis. (wikidoc.org)
  • There were 9 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases (and approximately 2 million TB deaths) in 2004, of which 3.9 million (62/100,000) were highly infectious, i.e. the bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which cause TB, and could be seen in preparations of expectorated sputum under the microscope ("pulmonary sputum smear-positive" cases). (springer.com)
  • Patients with infectious tuberculosis (pulmonary and laryngeal) are the main sources of transmission of the disease and therefore they are the key targets in the international effort to combat tuberculosis in the world. (springer.com)
  • These devices are intended to be used as an aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. (fda.gov)
  • 1 Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common clinical presentation of tuberculosis in adults, although extra-pulmonary disease is relatively more prevalent in children. (fda.gov)
  • Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of pulmonary tuberculosis. (fda.gov)
  • lineages I, III, and IV represent subgroups with- Tuberculosis (TB), caused by bacteria of the Mycobacte- in PGG1, and lineage II corresponds to PGG 2 and 3 ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • They have been classified as nontuberculosis to differentiate them from tuberculosis-causing bacteria, also known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ) complex. (news-medical.net)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to other commonly studied bacteria, M. tuberculosis has a remarkably slow growth rate, doubling roughly once per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) are disease-causing bacteria related to TB. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Unlike other bacteria that have cell walls mainly composed of peptidoglycan, the major cell wall component of mycobacterium is lipids(Figure.2). (kenyon.edu)
  • [14] Mycobacterium tuberculosis has less abundant than other bacteria and allow a slow uptake rate of nutrient and antibiotic, making it highly resistant to all kinds of antibiotic. (kenyon.edu)
  • Expression of noxR1 conferred upon Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis enhanced ability to resist RNI and ROI, whether the bacteria were exposed to exogenous compounds in medium or to endogenous products in macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • Tuberculosis arises in a small proportion of infected individuals in whose macrophages the bacteria replicate extensively, when, for example, malnutrition (( 2 )) or HIV (( 3 )) impede the cell-mediated immune response that normally leads to the activation of macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • Computer-generated image of a cluster of rod-shaped drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. (wikidoc.org)
  • Human beings are the main natural reservoir for M. tuberculosis , however, the bacteria may infect other species . (wikidoc.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a acid fast bacteria, which can form acid-stable complexes when certain arylmethane dyes are added. (kenyon.edu)
  • 4) All species of mycobacteria have ropelike structures of peptidoglycan that are arranged in such a way to give them properties of an acid fast bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Understanding how kanglemycin A manages to maintain its affinity to rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerase and stay active against the drug-resistant bacteria will help to accelerate its approval for use in patients with tuberculosis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Macrophages are the host cell for M. tuberculosis infection, and although bacteria are able to replicate intracellularly under certain conditions, it is also clear that macrophages are capable of killing M. tuberculosis if appropriately activated. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Transmission of M. tuberculosis to HIV-infected persons is of particular concern because these persons are at high risk for developing active TB if they become infected with the bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • The ability of M. tuberculosis to enter into a latent state is thought to be the reason for the prolonged period of treatment required to prevent relapse, since drugs currently available mainly target actively growing bacteria. (europa.eu)
  • The fi rst 2 groups mark strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium irreversible genetic events and can be used to construct phy- tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic logenies for M. tuberculosis ( 2 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • When we noticed the reporting of artifactual variation between Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates during routine next-generation sequencing of Mycobacterium spp. (asm.org)
  • tuberculosis clinical isolates are variable depending on the different geographical regionsof China. (scirp.org)
  • 2011) The beginning of the rpoB gene in addition to the RRDR might be needed for identifying RIF/Rfb cross resistance in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Southern China. (scirp.org)
  • Valim, A.R., Rosetti, M.L., Ribeiro, M.O. and Zaha, A. (2000) Mutations in the rpoB gene of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Brazil. (scirp.org)
  • Ahmad, S., Mokaddas, E. and Fares, E. (2002) Characterization of rpoB mutations in rifampin-resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Kuwait and Dubai. (scirp.org)
  • In 1990, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the CDC published the following statement, "Given the low prevalence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC) in most parts of the United States, the cost of routine testing of all initial isolates is diffi cult to justify" (3). (springer.com)
  • Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Metropolitan Area of Rome. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although more than 3 billion doses of the BCG vaccine have been administered to fight tuberculosis, the ability of the BCG vaccine to protect adults is very limited, as is its efficacy against newly emerging isolates. (rxpgnews.com)
  • It includes more than one bacterium - Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare . (news-medical.net)
  • When in the lungs, M. tuberculosis is phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, but they are unable to kill and digest the bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a weakly gram-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium. (kenyon.edu)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a ubiquitous group of diverse environmental mycobacteria related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). (jcvi.org)
  • This bacterium causes most cases of tuberculosis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MDR-TB and XDR-TB strain, rod bacterium (prokaryote). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Like a detective on the hunt, researcher and Nifty Fifty Speaker Sarah Fortune is trying to figure out how Mycobacterium tuberculosis - the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB) - is able to defend itself so well against drug treatment and the body's immune system. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis (TB). (diva-portal.org)
  • Mycobacterium is a strain of bacterium which is used as a vaccin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Therefore, the rapid and accurate identification of M. tuberculosis and NTM species is very important for. (asm.org)
  • Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a species in the mycobacteria group that could precipitate illness, but not tuberculosis (TB). (news-medical.net)
  • A related species of M tuberculosis, which doctors call non-TB mycobacteria (NTM), can cause other illnesses in children and adults. (healthychildren.org)
  • This antibody is reactive with other Mycobacteria species including: M. avium, M. phlei, and M. parafortuitum. (abcam.com)
  • Each year, Mycobacterium tuberculosis kills nearly three million among the one-third of the world's population who are infected (( 1 )), making it the most deadly as well as one of the most successful bacterial pathogens of the human species. (rupress.org)
  • Over 150 Mycobacterium species have been validly published to date, according to the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature(LPSN) ( http://www.bacterio.net/mycobacterium.html ) and elsewhere ( http://www.dsmz.de/bacterial-diversity/prokaryotic-nomenclature-up-to-date ). (jcvi.org)
  • Some species in its Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have adapted their genetic structure specifically to infect human populations. (kenyon.edu)
  • The different species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex show a 95-100% DNA relatedness based on studies of DNA homology, and the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene are exactly the same for all the species. (kenyon.edu)
  • So some scientists suggest that they should be grouped as a single species while others argue that they should be grouped as varieties or subspecies of M. tuberculosis . (kenyon.edu)
  • Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection caused by species of MTB-complex. (fda.gov)
  • Koch himself showed that those exposed to M. tuberculosis develop a skin hypersen- sitivity or allergy to the microorganism's antigens, an observation which was the starting point for many important developments. (springer.com)
  • Immunological characterization of novel secreted antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ," Scandinavian Journal of Immunology , vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 139-146, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusive evidence that the major T-cell antigens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex ESAT-6 and CFP-10 form a tight, 1:1 complex and characterization of the structural properties of ESAT-6, CFP-10, and the ESAT-6 · CFP-10 complex. (hindawi.com)
  • N. A. Matvieieva, M. Y. Vasylenko, A. I. Shakhovsky, and N. V. Kuchuk, "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with genes coding bacterial antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis ," Cytology and Genetics , vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 27-32, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 Furthermore, ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are highly immunodominant M tuberculosis antigens, 2 and no studies have reported a decreased sensitivity of IGRAs in BCG-vaccinated individuals. (bmj.com)
  • Some of the more intriguing observations are those demonstrating that mycolic acids are recognized by CD1-restricted T-cells, that antigen 85, one of the most powerful protective antigens of M. tuberculosis, is a mycolyltransferase, and that lipoarabinomannan (LAM), when "capped" with short mannose oligosaccharides, is involved in phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cutaneous reactivity to P.P.D. and antigens of atypical mycobacteria (kansash avium and fortuitum) in patients with unespecific arteritis. (scirp.org)
  • Tuberculosis, caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is responsible for 2-3 million deaths annually worldwide. (nature.com)
  • This observation suggests that the common ancestor of the tubercle bacilli resembled M. tuberculosis or M. canettii and could well have been a human pathogen already. (pnas.org)
  • C-flux spectral analysis of host-pathogen metabolism reveals a mixed diet for intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (nature.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Figure.1) is a deadly human pathogen that has a staggering impact globally, causing infection disease called tuberculosis (TB). (kenyon.edu)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly successful pathogen that parasitizes the macrophages of its host. (nih.gov)
  • It was recently reported that the human-exclusive pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretes cytokinins, which had only been known as plant hormones. (asm.org)
  • 4) Mycobacteria are abundant in soil and water, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mainly identified as a pathogen that lives in the host. (kenyon.edu)
  • Our approach is aimed at systematic identification of essential molecules and their mimics as a blueprint for development of effective chemical probes of M. tuberculosis metabolism, with the ultimate goal of seeking drugs that can kill this pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Targeting mycobacterial persistence by inhibiting SufR TB protein activity may be a novel intervention strategy in tuberculosis treatment. (nature.com)
  • The 2.1-A crystal structure of M. tuberculosis cyano-met trHbO shows that the protein assembles in a compact dodecamer. (rcsb.org)
  • Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana," Plant Cell Reports , vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 502-508, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Mycobacterium tuberculosis 16kDa aa 30-159. (abcam.com)
  • Summing up these observations along with the earlier reports, we propose that Zmp1, a multi-faceted protein, when released by mycobacteria in granuloma, may lead to necrotic cell damage and release of chemotactic chemokines by surrounding infected macrophages, attracting new immune cells, which in turn may lead to fresh cellular infections, thus assisting mycobacterial dissemination. (frontiersin.org)
  • The conserved protein Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. (iucr.org)
  • They concentrated on a type of cell called a macrophage (the natural target of Mycobacterium) and found that macrophages from patients with TB had much more the DC-SIGN protein on their surface than macrophages from patients with other diseases or from the control individuals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The HspX protein from M. tuberculosis , induced under hypoxic, is strongly associated with maintaining the bacillus viability in TBIL. (usp.br)
  • Unexpected genomic and phenotypic diversity of Mycobacterium africanum Lineage 5 affects drug resistance, protein secretion and immunogenicity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The researchers engineer a BCG strain that secretes the listeriolysin protein, which punches holes in the membranes of phagosomes where M. tuberculosis is located, allowing better T cell-mediated immunity. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Our study is to target GlmM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and scrutinize lead compounds computationally which can be tested experimentally for the inhibition of this key protein. (ssrn.com)
  • Necrosis Driven Triglyceride Synthesis Primes Macrophages for Inflammation During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. (nih.gov)
  • It was also recently demonstrated that in M. tuberculosis infections, PPM1A levels were upregulated, and this in turn would impact the normal apoptotic response of macrophages to clear pathogens, as PPM1A is involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aforementioned observations laid ground for the demonstration that when lysosomes fuse with M. tuberculosis -containing phagosomes in immunologically activated macrophages, the phagolysosomal pH falls to 4.5 to 5.0 ( 55 , 81 , 84 , 99 ). (asm.org)
  • These studies provide the first identification of an RNI resistance mechanism in mycobacteria, point to a new mechanism for resistance to ROI, and raise the possibility that inhibition of the noxR1 pathway might enhance the ability of macrophages to control tuberculosis. (rupress.org)
  • One way to study M. tuberculosis in culture is to collect samples of mononuclear cells in peripheral blood samples from a healthy human donor and challenge macrophages with the MTC. (kenyon.edu)
  • Specifically, granulysin has been recently shown to be essential for M. tuberculosis killing after apoptosis of infected macrophages induced by NK cells ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The production of nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) by macrophages helps to control infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In humans and mice with tuberculosis, macrophages in infected tissues and airways express enzymatically active iNOS ( 7 - 9 ), and mice lacking iNOS cannot control Mtb infection ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In a published data set of transcriptomic response to anti-tuberculosis treatment, this 20-gene subset was more treatment-responsive at 6 months than the full active TB signature. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • These transcripts may reveal mechanisms of mycobacterial control of M. tuberculosis during active infection, as well as identifying potential biomarkers for bacterial response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The synthesis, structure, and biological evaluation of a series of novel rifamycin derivatives, Rifastures (RFA) with potent anti-tuberculosis activity are presented. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The final steps in these events, the attachment of mycolic acids and ligation to peptidoglycan, await definition and will prove to be excellent targets for a new generation of anti-tuberculosis drugs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results support the concept that screening for inhibitors using intracellular models results in the identification of tool compounds for probing pathways during in vivo infection and may also result in the identification of new anti-tuberculosis agents that work by modulating host pathways. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Global project on anti-tuberculosis drug surveillance in the world. (springer.com)
  • Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world. (springer.com)
  • The WHO/IUALTD Global Project on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance. (springer.com)
  • If confirmed, our findings have important implications for tuberculosis control and vaccine development. (pnas.org)
  • New tools for tuberculosis control are urgently needed, including a more effective vaccine ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Tuberculosis is a major global health problem whose solution requires development of an effective vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • But incomplete understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) immunity-how it is acquired, how it is measured-limits vaccine development to empiric rather than rational approaches. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results indicate that PEPCK can effectively induce cell-mediated immune response by increasing activity of cytokines and PEPCK may be a promising new subunit vaccine candidate for tuberculosis. (springer.com)
  • Turner et al challenge our finding that the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) can prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and propose an alternative explanation: that the absence of a positive interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) could be due to antigenic sin and does not necessarily demonstrate absence of infection. (bmj.com)
  • Tuberculosis remains a worldwide threat despite the availability of the BCG vaccine and antibiotic treatment. (asm.org)
  • The demonstration that there is infection stage-specific immunity to tuberculosis has implications for vaccine design. (jimmunol.org)
  • Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Formulations of Tuberculosis Vaccine GSK692342 Given at 0,1 Months to Healthy Adults. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study will assess the safety and immunogenicity of 2 different formulations of tuberculosis vaccine GSK692342 in healthy adults. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The new BCG vaccine strain protects mice against tuberculosis significantly better than the parental BCG. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In a study appearing online on August 18 in advance of print publication of the September 1 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Stefan Kaufmann and colleagues from the Max Planck Institute devise a strategy to boost the immunogenicity of BCG and describe a novel vaccine strain with high efficacy against tuberculosis. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Following this, a report examining the level of acidity surrounding mycobacteria in macrophage compartments demonstrated that the pH of M. tuberculosis - and Mycobacterium smegmatis - containing phagosomes was in the range of 4.7 to 5.5 ( 85 ). (asm.org)
  • Mukhopadhyay B, Edward M, Concar, Ralph S, Wolfe: A GTP-dependent vertebrate-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Mycobacterium smegmatis . (springer.com)
  • Among human pathogens, this expansion has emerged perhaps nowhere more visibly than for Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative agent of tuberculosis. (nature.com)
  • FU-LIU, C. S.. Is Mycobacterium tuberculosis a closer relative to Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacterial pathogens? (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most pathogens, M. tuberculosis has evolved within humans, which are both host and reservoir. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, much less is known about how obligate or facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis respond, resist, and persist in the moderately acid environment of the phagosome or phagolysosome. (asm.org)
  • Tuberculosis once again occupies a special position in the areas of infec- tious diseases and microbiology. (springer.com)
  • Koch's postulates were developed with tuberculosis in mind and became a focal point for many advances in microbiology and medicine. (springer.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease of which ~9 million new cases and ~1.7 million mortalities were reported for the year 2009 ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Our objective was to search in the fresh aortic tissues, the infectious agent of tuberculosis through culture, as well as by performing histopathology and searching by the molecular study, sequences of genes associated to micobacteria and Ziehl's stain. (scirp.org)
  • M. tuberculosis prevents the acidification of phagolysomes, thus resists the intracellular microbicidal mechanisms of phagocytes. (luc.edu)
  • Identification of host-targeted small molecules that restrict intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis je druh patogénnej baktérie z čeľade Mycobacteriaceae a najčastejšia príčina tuberkulózy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduced transmission of Mycobacterium africanum compared to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urban West Africa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mycobacterium africanum consists of lineages L5 and L6 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and causes human tuberculosis in specific regions of Western Africa, but is generally not transm. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They are essential for the survival of members of the genus Mycobacterium. (kenyon.edu)
  • Most individuals infected with MTB never actually develop active tuberculosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine which CD4+ T cell subsets and which CD4+ T cell immune responses are important, we will compare individuals with prior exposure (immunity) to MTB to individuals with active tuberculosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and electrospray mass spectrometry. (atcc.org)
  • Besides resistance to antibiotics, hydrophobic mycolic cell wall also enables tuberculosis to survive inside the macrophage by inhibiting the action of cation proteins, lysozymes, and oxygen radicals, hiding them from the host immune system. (kenyon.edu)
  • Heat shock proteins assist the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) but also provide a signal to the immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Increased knowledge of the function and antigenic properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) 4 proteins will assist the design of vaccines and immunodiagnostic reagents against tuberculosis, a disease that kills up to 2 million people per year ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM) belonging to the superfamily of proteins called α-D-phosphohexomutases is involved in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthetic pathway by converting glucosamine-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucosamine-1-phosphate (G1P) leading to the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc which is an essential precursor in peptidoglycan layer synthesis in Mycobacterium sp. (ssrn.com)
  • A high-resolution network model for global gene regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • Ancient origin and gene mosaicism of the progenitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (nature.com)
  • U06259 Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC 27294 catalase (katG) gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • Here, we show cytokinins induced the strong expression of the M. tuberculosis gene Rv0077c. (asm.org)
  • The bacillus of tuberculosis was observed by the Ziehl's stain and the sequences of insertion IS6110 gene were identified. (scirp.org)
  • The current methods available to diagnose antimicrobial-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections require a positive culture or only test a limited number of resistance-associated mutations. (asm.org)
  • Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent infections of human beings and a formidable public health challenge that shows little sign of abating. (hindawi.com)
  • Because HIV-infected people are included in the study, the findings may also provide information on how HIV renders vulnerability to opportunistic infections, including tuberculosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Infections (Heifets, L., ed. (springer.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection puts people at risk of opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fig. 1: Enzymes required for growth and/or persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (nature.com)
  • The failure of immune-mediated clearance is due to multiple strategies adopted by M. tuberculosis that blunt the microbicidal mechanisms of infected immune cells and formation of distinct granulomatous lesions that differ in their ability to support or suppress the persistence of viable M. tuberculosis . (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, current understanding of various immune processes that lead to the establishment of latent M. tuberculosis infection, bacterial spreading, persistence, reactivation, and waning or elimination of latent infection as well as new diagnostic approaches being used for identification of latently infected individuals for possible control of tuberculosis epidemic are described. (hindawi.com)
  • This environmental condition is actually the best candidate for the induction of persistence (also called dormancy or latency), a phenomenon of great importance in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis but still not well understood at the molecular level ( 68 ). (asm.org)
  • The most frequently used diagnostic methods for tuberculosis are the tuberculin skin test, acid-fast stain, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Useful for the detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens (sputa, pus or tissues) by microscopy. (luc.edu)
  • 1993) Detection of rifampicin-resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (scirp.org)
  • 2011) Molecular detection of mutations associated with first- and second-line drug resistance compared with conventional drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (scirp.org)
  • This document was developed to support the reclassification of nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB-complex) in respiratory specimens from class III into class II. (fda.gov)
  • Individuals whose medical records indicate a past history of tuberculosis or a positive test for exposure to tuberculosis will have a tuberculin skin test. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China: the implication of molecular epidemiology for tuberculosis control. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this study, we used comparative genomic and molecular epidemiological tools to define the global population structure of M. tuberculosis and to investigate its influence on the transmission dynamics of M. tuberculosis in San Francisco during an 11-year period. (pnas.org)
  • An association between and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repeti- geographic region and M. tuberculosis families, defi ned tive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem by specifi c polymorphisms, has been demonstrated. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent molecular genetic studies have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the most common cause of TB in humans worldwide, has a progenitor ~3 million years old [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Somoskovi, A.L. Parsons, M. and Salfinger, M. (2001) The molecular basis of resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (scirp.org)
  • 2002) An Expanded DOTS Framework for Effective Tuberculosis Control. (springer.com)
  • We analyzed 98 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex platform to enhance SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity. (cdc.gov)
  • tuberculosis complex based on colony phenotype. (cdc.gov)
  • A PSQ assay targeting IS6110 is used for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (ca.gov)
  • The mycobacteria grouped in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are characterized by 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level and identical 16S rRNA sequences ( 1 , 2 ) but differ widely in terms of their host tropisms, phenotypes, and pathogenicity. (pnas.org)
  • Because of the unusually high degree of conservation in their housekeeping genes, it has been suggested that the members of the M. tuberculosis complex underwent an evolutionary bottleneck at the time of speciation, estimated to have occurred roughly 15,000-20,000 years ago ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by antigen-presenting cells in human lung alveoli initiates a complex infection process by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a potentially protective immune response by the host. (hindawi.com)
  • The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is the cause of TB. (news-medical.net)
  • Rapid identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (wikidoc.org)
  • I have recently read in an article that the variation in Mycobacterium Tuberclurosis Complex (where mycobacterium tuberclurosis is included) was caused by various elements such as growing human poplation and a decrease in purifying selection (purifying selection being the process of eliminating deleterious mutations). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Rifampin- and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Russian civilians and prison inmates: dominance of the Beijing strain family. (springer.com)
  • Worldwide incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (springer.com)
  • Patients who have multidrug-resistant TB can remain infectious for prolonged periods, which increases the risk for nosocomial and/or occupational transmission of M. tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Expression of tuberculosis antigen ESAT-6 in Nicotiana tabacum using a potato virus X-based vector," Tuberculosis , vol. 86, no. 3-4, pp. 263-267, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • This kit utilizes recombinant M. tuberculosis antigen of lengths 18, 36, and 40 kDa. (mpbio.com)
  • AbstractDevelopment of an effective machine-learning model for T-cellMycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) epitopes is beneficial for saving biologist 's time and effort for identifying epitope in a targeted antigen. (medworm.com)
  • Human immunity to M. tuberculosis: T cell subsets and antigen processing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Michael Wunderli marked " Mycobacterium tuberculosis " as trusted on the " Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zopf 1883 " page. (eol.org)
  • Tuberculosis cases that did occur in allopatric hosts disproportionately involved high-risk individuals with impaired host resistance. (pnas.org)
  • Similarly, M. tuberculosis acid resistance mechanisms appear to be cross-protective against other forms of stress, making it difficult to directly relate a defect in acid resistance to impaired virulence. (asm.org)
  • Development of rifampicin resistance in M. tuberculosis has made treatment of this disease very difficult since it extends treatment time of tuberculosis from 6 months to 2 years. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • 1963) Mycobacteria: laboratory methods for testing drug sensitivity and resistance. (springer.com)
  • Retrieved on September 21, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/How-Nontuberculous-Mycobacteria-Differ-from-Tuberculosis.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in a cat caused by Mycobacterium sp. (abcam.com)
  • [12] Thus it is highly associated with virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Plasmids in M. tuberculosis are important in transferring virulence because genes on the plasmids are more easily transferred than genes located on the chromosome. (kenyon.edu)
  • Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ), the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacillus, is a virulence factor involved in inflammasome inactivation and phagosome maturation arrest. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drug-resistant tuberculosis, clinical virulence, and the dominance of the Beijing strain family in Russia. (springer.com)
  • 2014) Evolutionary history of tuberculosis shaped by conserved mutations in the PhoPR virulence regulator. (ipbs.fr)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis , shown in red, is known to propagate in macrophage cells (left), but loses that ability when MenJ is knocked out (right). (eurekalert.org)
  • The pH of the macrophage compartment, in which M. tuberculosis resides, ranges from pH 6.2 to 4.5, depending on the activation state of the macrophage ( 55 , 81 , 99 ). (asm.org)
  • The ability of M. tuberculosis to mount such a broad defense against ROI implies that other products of the activated macrophage may be more important for tuberculostasis. (rupress.org)
  • L15623 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 16S ribosomal RNA and 23S ribosomal RNA genes, partial sequence. (atcc.org)
  • CONCLUSION: We identified genes whose transcript levels in the blood distinguish active TB with high vs. low M. tuberculosis loads in the sputum. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We generated and genotyped 5,126 Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants and performed a statistical analysis to determine putative essential genes. (asm.org)
  • The essential molecules of M. tuberculosis were classified as products of enzymes that are encoded by genes in this list. (asm.org)
  • Papel da proteína HspX do Mycobacterium tuberculosis na regulação de genes relacionados. (usp.br)
  • We look for M. tuberculosis genes controlling both the bacterial release in donor host and bacterial seeding in recipient host. (ipbs.fr)
  • Tuberculosis has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, especially in highly ur- banized Europe, until a few decades ago. (springer.com)
  • Tuberculosis is the most frequent cause of death in humans from a single infectious agent. (asm.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to the onset of tuberculosis in humans. (news-medical.net)
  • Humans are the only known reservoirs of M. tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ante mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle: a review of the tuberculin tests, γ-interferon assay and other ancillary diagnostic techniques. (idexx.com)
  • B - E ) WT and TNFRp75 -/- mice were infected at 50-100 CFU with M. tuberculosis , and lungs and LNs were harvested 14 and 21 days after infection. (jci.org)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) disease that primarily attacks the lungs, but can damage other body parts such as the bones, kidney, and brain. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This explains why tuberculosis is a disease typically affects the lungs. (kenyon.edu)
  • Inhibition of this pathway using gefitinib during in vivo infection reduces growth of M. tuberculosis in the lungs of infected mice. (broadinstitute.org)
  • A germ from the mycobacterium family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causes tuberculosis (TB). (healthychildren.org)
  • Clinically prevalent mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis alter propionate metabolism and mediate multidrug tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • Fig. 2: Effects of metabolism beyond fulfilling nutritional demands on the physiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (nature.com)
  • Major advances were made in the areas of isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis and related microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • Fig. 4: Identification of a small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of tryptophan synthase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (nature.com)
  • The identification of pathways used by the microbe to resist elimination by the host immune response may suggest new targets for prevention or treatment of tuberculosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Selvanarayanan, Vinodhini and Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed, Structural Analysis and Identification of Potential Inhibitors for Phosphophoglucosamine Mutase From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (February 11, 2020). (ssrn.com)
  • The process is termed as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and the dormant bacilli retain the ability to resuscitate and to cause active TB if a disruption of immune response (as in HIV infection) occurs. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite being preventable and curable, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease globally, with nearly 10 million people developing TB and 1.5 million people dying from TB in 2014. (nih.gov)
  • With over a billion deaths in the past 200 years, tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) likely killed more people than any other infectious disease in the history of humanity ( Paulson, 2013 ) and remains a major cause of death also in our era. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death by infectious disease worldwide,' said Murakami. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common major infectious disease today. (bio-medicine.org)
  • On 14 different occasions between January 13 and May 18, 1988, 13 patients had induced sputum specimens that were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Two of these patients had positive sputum cultures for M. tuberculosis between January 29 and March 18, during a period when they received a total of 10 treatments with aerosolized pentamidine. (cdc.gov)
  • Kissing could be a possible route of transmission if the person is excreting many mycobacteria through the sputum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jennifer Hammock split the classifications by NCBI Taxonomy from Mycobacterium tuberculosis to their own page . (eol.org)
  • It has been challenging to dissect the role of phagosome acidification in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, because it is accompanied by and synergizes with other host defenses. (asm.org)
  • Notwithstanding, the phenomenon is central to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and thus might offer points of vulnerability that could be exploited by new chemotherapeutics. (asm.org)