A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall of Mycobacterium species, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, providing them with unique characteristics such as resistance to acid-alkali stability, pigmentation, and protection against host immune responses.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
A strongly basic peptide, antibiotic complex from several strains of Streptomyces. It is allergenic and toxic to kidneys and the labyrinth. Viomycin is used in tuberculosis as several different salts and in combination with other agents.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A naturally occurring metabolite of HISTIDINE that has antioxidant properties.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.
A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found in soil and dairy products and as parasites on animals and man. Several are important pathogens.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Arabinose is a simple, pentose sugar (a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms) that is a constituent of various polysaccharides and glycosides, particularly found in plant tissues and some microorganisms, and can be metabolized in humans as a source of energy through the pentose phosphate pathway.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used in the treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Amidohydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, playing a crucial role in various biological processes including the breakdown and synthesis of bioactive molecules.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.19.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules linked by an alpha, alpha-1,1-glycosidic bond, naturally found in some plants and microorganisms, serving as a cryoprotectant and providing cellular protection against various stress conditions.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidative DEAMINATION of GLYCINE to glyoxylate and AMMONIA in the presence of NAD. In BACTERIA lacking transaminating pathways the enzyme can act in the reverse direction to synthesize glycine from glyoxylate and ammonia and NADH.
Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.

RecA-Mediated gene conversion and aminoglycoside resistance in strains heterozygous for rRNA. (1/838)

Clinical resistance to aminoglycosides in general is due to enzymatic drug modification. Mutational alterations of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA have recently been found to mediate acquired resistance in bacterial pathogens in vivo. In this study we investigated the effect of 16S rRNA heterozygosity (wild-type [wt] and mutant [mut] operons at position 1408 [1408wt/1408mut]) on aminoglycoside resistance. Using an integrative vector, we introduced a single copy of a mutated rRNA operon (1408 A-->G) into Mycobacterium smegmatis, which carries two chromosomal wild-type rRNA operons; the resultant transformants exhibited an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. In contrast, introduction of the mutated rRNA operon into an M. smegmatis rrnB knockout strain carrying a single functional chromosomal wild-type rRNA operon resulted in aminoglycoside-resistant transformants. Subsequent analysis by DNA sequencing and RNase protection assays unexpectedly demonstrated a homozygous mutant genotype, rRNAmut/rRNAmut, in the resistant transformants. To investigate whether RecA-mediated gene conversion was responsible for the aminoglycoside-resistant phenotype in the rRNAwt/rRNAmut strains, recA mutant strains were generated by allelic exchange techniques. Transformation of the recA rrnB M. smegmatis mutant strains with an integrative vector expressing a mutated rRNA operon (Escherichia coli position 1408 A-->G) resulted in transformants with an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. Subsequent analysis showed stable heterozygosity at 16S rRNA position 1408 with a single wild-type allele and a single resistant allele. These results demonstrate that rRNA-mediated mutational resistance to aminoglycosides is recessive.  (+info)

Genetic evidence that InhA of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a target for triclosan. (2/838)

Three Mycobacterium smegmatis mutants selected for resistance to triclosan each had a different mutation in InhA, an enoyl reductase involved in fatty acid synthesis. Two expressed some isoniazid resistance. A mutation originally selected on isoniazid also mediated triclosan resistance, as did the wild-type inhA gene on a multicopy plasmid. Replacement of the mutant chromosomal inhA genes with wild-type inhA eliminated resistance. These results suggest that M. smegmatis InhA, like its Escherichia coli homolog FabI, is a target for triclosan.  (+info)

Role of acid pH and deficient efflux of pyrazinoic acid in unique susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide. (3/838)

Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important antituberculosis drug. Unlike most antibacterial agents, PZA, despite its remarkable in vivo activity, has no activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro except at an acidic pH. M. tuberculosis is uniquely susceptible to PZA, but other mycobacteria as well as nonmycobacteria are intrinsically resistant. The role of acidic pH in PZA action and the basis for the unique PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis are unknown. We found that in M. tuberculosis, acidic pH enhanced the intracellular accumulation of pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active derivative of PZA, after conversion of PZA by pyrazinamidase. In contrast, at neutral or alkaline pH, POA was mainly found outside M. tuberculosis cells. PZA-resistant M. tuberculosis complex organisms did not convert PZA into POA. Unlike M. tuberculosis, intrinsically PZA-resistant M. smegmatis converted PZA into POA, but it did not accumulate POA even at an acidic pH, due to a very active POA efflux mechanism. We propose that a deficient POA efflux mechanism underlies the unique susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to PZA and that the natural PZA resistance of M. smegmatis is due to a highly active efflux pump. These findings may have implications with regard to the design of new antimycobacterial drugs.  (+info)

A mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis defective in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids accumulates meromycolates. (4/838)

Mycolic acids are a major constituent of the mycobacterial cell wall, and they form an effective permeability barrier to protect mycobacteria from antimicrobial agents. Although the chemical structures of mycolic acids are well established, little is known on their biosynthesis. We have isolated a mycolate-deficient mutant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2-155 by chemical mutagenesis followed by screening for increased sensitivity to novobiocin. This mutant also was hypersensitive to other hydrophobic compounds such as crystal violet, rifampicin, and erythromycin. Entry of hydrophobic probes into mutant cells occurred much more rapidly than that into the wild-type cells. HPLC and TLC analysis of fatty acid composition after saponification showed that the mutant failed to synthesize full-length mycolic acids. Instead, it accumulated a series of long-chain fatty acids, which were not detected in the wild-type strain. Analysis by 1H NMR, electrospray and electron impact mass spectroscopy, and permanganate cleavage of double bonds showed that these compounds corresponded to the incomplete meromycolate chain of mycolic acids, except for the presence of a beta-hydroxyl group. This direct identification of meromycolates as precursors of mycolic acids provides a strong support for the previously proposed pathway for mycolic acid biosynthesis involving the separate synthesis of meromycolate chain and the alpha-branch of mycolic acids, followed by the joining of these two branches.  (+info)

Integron-mediated rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (5/838)

A new rifampin resistance gene, arr-2, has been found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ARR-2 protein shows 54% amino acid identity to the rifampin ADP-ribosylating transferase encoded by the arr gene from Mycobacterium smegmatis. This arr-2 gene is located on a gene cassette within a class I integron.  (+info)

Apoptosis of Mycobacterium avium-infected macrophages is mediated by both tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and Fas, and involves the activation of caspases. (6/838)

Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated infection in AIDS patients and several forms of infection in immunocompetent hosts. Recent studies have shown that M. avium infection of macrophages in vitro leads to apoptosis of significant numbers of infected cells. Several strains of M. avium used to infect human macrophages for 5 days (multiplicity of infection of 10) triggered 28-46% higher levels of apoptosis than observed with uninfected macrophages at the same time points. Mycobacterium avium strains unable to replicate intracellularly (rep-) resulted in a 15% rate of apoptosis, while M. smegmatis-infected monolayers showed the same percentage of apoptotic cells as the uninfected macrophage control. The presence of anti-TNF-alpha antibody reduced apoptosis to 17% and the presence of anti-Fas antibody reduced apoptosis to 10%. When both antibodies were used together, the apoptosis level was 5% above the control. Treatment with TGF-beta also reduced the number of apoptotic cells in infected monolayers. If intracellular growth was inhibited, apoptosis of macrophages decreased significantly. It was also shown that apoptosis was associated with IL-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) activation and was significantly reduced by a caspase inhibitor. Gaining understanding of the mechanisms of M. avium-associated apoptosis of macrophages will provide important insight into M. avium pathogenesis.  (+info)

Enhanced gene replacement in mycobacteria. (7/838)

Allelic replacement will be a vital tool for understanding gene function in mycobacteria. Disruption of the chromosomal hisD gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis by standard gene replacement methods was surprisingly difficult, with most products being caused by illegitimate recombination (IR) events. A recombination assay was therefore developed and used to optimize conditions for homologous recombination (HR) in M. smegmatis. Treatment of competent cells with UV, hydrogen peroxide or mitomycin C did not improve the frequency of HR; however, treatment of the DNA with alkali or UV enhanced recombination frequency, while boiling did not. Applying these observations to allele replacement, UV and alkali treatment of transforming DNA increased HR events with pyrF and hisD, while the level of IR was unchanged. The introduction of ss phagemid DNA improved the level of HR and abolished IR. In Mycobacterium intracellulare the use of alkali-denatured DNA increased the numbers of recombinants obtained with an inactivated 19Ag gene, while in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, inactivation of a putative haemolysin gene, tlyA, was achieved using both UV-irradiated DNA and ss phagemid DNA. Significantly, IR, which has been reported to be a problem in this species, was not observed. Thus, four genes in three species were successfully knocked-out using non-replicating DNA pretreated with alkali, UV or in an ss form. The use of these methods to enhance HR will greatly facilitate experiments to inactivate other genes in these important species.  (+info)

Enhancing the immunotherapeutic potential of mycobacteria by transfection with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. (8/838)

In an attempt to enhance the anti-tumour properties of mycobacteria we have developed recombinant forms of Mycobacterium smegmatis which express and secrete biologically active human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). This was achieved by transfecting M. smegmatis using shuttle plasmids incorporating the cDNA sequence for the human TNF-alpha mature peptide. In vitro experiments on a panel of human bladder tumour cell lines (EJ18, MGH-U1, RT4, RT112) indicate that our genetically modified mycobacteria are more effective than wild-type at inducing or up-regulating the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and the secretion of an array of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor]. We have also demonstrated increased adhesion molecule and cytokine expression in response to mycobacteria transfected with vector containing no gene insert. However, this was not as pronounced as that observed following tumour cell stimulation by the TNF-alpha-transfected strain. In contrast, in three out of four tumour cell lines all M. smegmatis strains were found to down-regulate the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1. Our studies have also confirmed that M. smegmatis is a powerful inhibitor of bladder tumour cell growth and revealed that its antiproliferative potency is enhanced by transfecting with human TNF-alpha and, to a lesser extent, with vector alone. All M. smegmatis strains were effective in the activation of peripheral blood leucocyte cultures. However, no differences were observed in the ability of the TNF-alpha-transfected, mock-transfected and wild-type mycobacteria to induce tumour cell killing activity. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of M. smegmatis can be enhanced by transfection with vectors which allow the secretion of human TNF-alpha, thus increasing mycobacterial immunotherapeutic potential.  (+info)

"Mycobacterium smegmatis" is a species of fast-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. This bacterium is known for its ability to form resistant colonies called biofilms. While it does not typically cause disease in humans, it can contaminate medical equipment and samples, potentially leading to misdiagnosis or infection. In rare cases, it has been associated with skin and soft tissue infections. It is often used in research as a model organism for studying mycobacterial biology and drug resistance due to its relatively harmless nature and rapid growth rate.

"Mycobacterium" is a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are characterized by their complex cell walls containing large amounts of lipids. This genus includes several species that are significant in human and animal health, most notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy. Other species of Mycobacterium can cause various diseases in humans, including skin and soft tissue infections, lung infections, and disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. These bacteria are often resistant to common disinfectants and antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

'Mycobacterium tuberculosis' is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria that demonstrates acid-fastness. It is the primary causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. This bacterium has a complex cell wall rich in lipids, including mycolic acids, which provides a hydrophobic barrier and makes it resistant to many conventional antibiotics. The ability of M. tuberculosis to survive within host macrophages and resist the immune response contributes to its pathogenicity and the difficulty in treating TB infections.

M. tuberculosis is typically transmitted through inhalation of infectious droplets containing the bacteria, which primarily targets the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). The infection may result in a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease. LTBI represents a dormant state where individuals are infected with M. tuberculosis but do not show symptoms and cannot transmit the bacteria. However, they remain at risk of developing active TB throughout their lifetime, especially if their immune system becomes compromised.

Effective prevention and control strategies for TB rely on early detection, treatment, and public health interventions to limit transmission. The current first-line treatments for drug-susceptible TB include a combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis present significant challenges in TB control and require more complex treatment regimens.

"Mycobacterium bovis" is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle and other animals, and can also cause tuberculosis in humans, particularly in those who come into contact with infected animals or consume unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and survive for long periods in a dormant state, making them difficult to eradicate from the environment. "Mycobacterium bovis" is closely related to "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in humans, and both species share many genetic and biochemical characteristics.

"Mycobacterium avium is a species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is a slow-growing mycobacterium that is widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and water. M. avium is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated infection in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It is also known to cause pulmonary disease in elderly people with structural lung damage. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive in hostile environments for extended periods."

Mycobacterium infections are a group of infectious diseases caused by various species of the Mycobacterium genus, including but not limited to M. tuberculosis (which causes tuberculosis), M. avium complex (which causes pulmonary and disseminated disease, particularly in immunocompromised individuals), M. leprae (which causes leprosy), and M. ulcerans (which causes Buruli ulcer). These bacteria are known for their ability to resist destruction by normal immune responses and many disinfectants due to the presence of a waxy mycolic acid layer in their cell walls.

Infection typically occurs through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated materials. The severity and manifestations of the disease can vary widely depending on the specific Mycobacterium species involved, the route of infection, and the host's immune status. Symptoms may include cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, skin lesions, or lymphadenitis. Diagnosis often requires specialized laboratory tests, such as culture or PCR-based methods, to identify the specific Mycobacterium species involved. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and may require long-term therapy.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of environmental mycobacteria that do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. They can be found in water, soil, and other natural environments. Some people may become infected with NTM, leading to various diseases depending on the site of infection, such as lung disease (most common), skin and soft tissue infections, lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease.

The clinical significance of NTM isolation is not always clear, as colonization without active infection can occur. Diagnosis typically requires a combination of clinical, radiological, microbiological, and sometimes molecular evidence to confirm the presence of active infection. Treatment usually involves multiple antibiotics for an extended period, depending on the species involved and the severity of disease.

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within mycobacteria, which include species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. These viruses are important tools in the study of mycobacterial biology, genetics, and evolution. They have also been explored for their potential therapeutic use in treating mycobacterial infections, including tuberculosis.

Mycobacteriophages typically have double-stranded DNA genomes that range in size from around 50 to 170 kilobases. They can be classified into different groups or "clusters" based on genetic similarities and differences. Some mycobacteriophages are temperate, meaning they can either replicate lytically (killing the host cell) or establish a persistent relationship with the host by integrating their genome into the host's chromosome as a prophage. Others are strictly lytic and always kill the host cell upon infection.

Understanding the biology of mycobacteriophages can provide insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host interactions, DNA replication, gene regulation, and other fundamental processes. Additionally, studying the diversity of mycobacteriophages can shed light on evolutionary relationships among different mycobacterial species and strains.

Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) infections refer to illnesses caused by a group of bacteria called mycobacteria that do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and dust. They can be spread through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with contaminated materials.

NTM infections can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, skin, and soft tissues. Lung infections are the most common form of NTM infection and often occur in people with underlying lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis. Symptoms of NTM lung infection may include cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.

Skin and soft tissue infections caused by NTM can occur through direct contact with contaminated water or soil, or through medical procedures such as contaminated injections or catheters. Symptoms of NTM skin and soft tissue infections may include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage.

Diagnosis of NTM infections typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and laboratory tests to identify the specific type of mycobacteria causing the infection. Treatment may involve multiple antibiotics for an extended period of time, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

"Mycobacterium leprae" is a slow-growing, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium that is the causative agent of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease that primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, and mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract. The bacterium was discovered in 1873 by Gerhard Armauer Hansen, a Norwegian physician, and is named after him as "Hansen's bacillus."

"Mycobacterium leprae" has a unique cell wall that contains high amounts of lipids, which makes it resistant to many common disinfectants and antibiotics. It can survive and multiply within host macrophages, allowing it to evade the immune system and establish a chronic infection.

Leprosy is a treatable disease with multidrug therapy (MDT), which combines several antibiotics such as dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the progression of the disease and reduce its transmission to others.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

"Mycobacterium fortuitum" is a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) species that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. It is a gram-positive, aerobic, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that can cause a variety of infections in humans, including skin and soft tissue infections, lung infections, and disseminated disease.

M. fortuitum is known for its ability to form colonies on solid media within one week, which distinguishes it from other slow-growing mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is also resistant to many common antibiotics, making treatment challenging. Infections caused by M. fortuitum are often associated with exposure to contaminated medical devices or procedures, such as contaminated tattoos, wound care, or invasive medical procedures.

It's important to note that while M. fortuitum can cause infections, it is not considered a highly virulent pathogen and most people who are exposed to it do not develop symptoms. However, individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may be at higher risk for severe disease.

Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall in mycobacteria, including the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy. These acids contribute to the impermeability and resistance to chemical agents of the mycobacterial cell wall, making these organisms difficult to eradicate. Mycolic acids are unique to mycobacteria and some related actinomycetes, and their analysis can be useful in the identification and classification of these bacteria.

Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) is a group of slow-growing mycobacteria that includes Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. These bacteria are commonly found in water, soil, and dust, and can cause pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated infection, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. The infection caused by MAC is often chronic and difficult to eradicate, requiring long-term antibiotic therapy.

"Mycobacterium chelonae" is a rapidly growing, gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is widely distributed in the environment, particularly in water and soil. This organism can cause various types of infections in humans, ranging from localized skin and soft tissue infections to disseminated disease, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Infections are typically acquired through contaminated wounds, medical procedures, or inhalation of aerosolized particles. Common clinical manifestations include cutaneous abscesses, lung infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and ocular infections. Proper identification and targeted antimicrobial therapy are essential for the management of "Mycobacterium chelonae" infections.

Antitubercular agents, also known as anti-tuberculosis drugs or simply TB drugs, are a category of medications specifically used for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These drugs target various stages of the bacteria's growth and replication process to eradicate it from the body or prevent its spread.

There are several first-line antitubercular agents, including:

1. Isoniazid (INH): This is a bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
2. Rifampin (RIF) or Rifampicin: A bactericidal drug that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing the transcription of genetic information into mRNA. This results in the interruption of protein synthesis and ultimately leads to the death of the bacteria.
3. Ethambutol (EMB): A bacteriostatic drug that inhibits the arabinosyl transferase enzyme, which is responsible for the synthesis of arabinan, a crucial component of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
4. Pyrazinamide (PZA): A bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids and mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, particularly under acidic conditions. PZA is most effective during the initial phase of treatment when the bacteria are in a dormant or slow-growing state.

These first-line antitubercular agents are often used together in a combination therapy to ensure complete eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains. Treatment duration typically lasts for at least six months, with the initial phase consisting of daily doses of INH, RIF, EMB, and PZA for two months, followed by a continuation phase of INH and RIF for four months.

Second-line antitubercular agents are used when patients have drug-resistant TB or cannot tolerate first-line drugs. These include drugs like aminoglycosides (e.g., streptomycin, amikacin), fluoroquinolones (e.g., ofloxacin, moxifloxacin), and injectable bacteriostatic agents (e.g., capreomycin, ethionamide).

It is essential to closely monitor patients undergoing antitubercular therapy for potential side effects and ensure adherence to the treatment regimen to achieve optimal outcomes and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

Ethambutol is an antimycobacterial medication used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It works by inhibiting the synthesis of mycobacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. Ethambutol is often used in combination with other TB drugs, such as isoniazid and rifampin, to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of the bacteria.

The most common side effect of ethambutol is optic neuritis, which can cause visual disturbances such as decreased vision, color blindness, or blurred vision. This side effect is usually reversible if the medication is stopped promptly. Other potential side effects include skin rashes, joint pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.

Ethambutol is available in oral tablet and solution forms, and is typically taken once or twice daily. The dosage of ethambutol is based on the patient's weight, and it is important to follow the healthcare provider's instructions carefully to avoid toxicity. Regular monitoring of visual acuity and liver function is recommended during treatment with ethambutol.

"Mycobacterium phlei" is not a recognized medical condition or disease. Mycobacterium phlei is actually a species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is often used in laboratory settings as a reference strain for mycobacterial identification and research. This bacterium is not known to cause disease in humans and is generally considered to be non-pathogenic.

"Mycobacterium marinum" is a slow-growing, gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is commonly found in fresh and saltwater environments, including aquariums and swimming pools. This pathogen can cause skin infections, known as swimmer's granuloma or fish tank granuloma, in individuals who have exposure to contaminated water. The infection typically occurs through minor cuts or abrasions on the skin, leading to a localized, chronic, and slowly progressive lesion. In some cases, disseminated infection can occur in people with weakened immune systems.

References:
1. Chan, R. C., & Cohen, S. M. (2017). Nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections. Clinics in dermatology, 35(4), 416-423.
2. Kohler, P., Bloch, A., & Pfyffer, G. E. (2002). Nontuberculous mycobacteria: an overview. Swiss medical weekly, 132(35-36), 548-557.
3. Sanguinetti, M., & Bloch, S. A. (2019). Mycobacterium marinum skin infection. American journal of clinical dermatology, 20(2), 219-226.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also involve other organs and tissues in the body. The infection is usually spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and microbiological tests such as sputum smear microscopy and culture. In some cases, molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used for rapid diagnosis.

Treatment usually consists of a standard six-month course of multiple antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. In some cases, longer treatment durations or different drug regimens might be necessary due to drug resistance or other factors. Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and early detection and treatment of infected individuals to prevent transmission.

"Mycobacterium kansasii" is a slow-growing, gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is named after the state of Kansas where it was first isolated. This bacterium can cause pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis.

The symptoms of M. kansasii infection are similar to those of tuberculosis and can include cough, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and chest pain. The diagnosis of M. kansasii infection is usually made by culturing the bacterium from clinical specimens such as sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics such as rifampin, ethambutol, and isoniazid for an extended period of time, often up to 12-24 months.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Medical Definition:

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) is a type of mycobacteria that causes a chronic infectious disease known as paratuberculosis or Johne's disease in domestic and wild animals, particularly ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats, and deer. The infection primarily affects the intestines, leading to chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased milk production in affected animals.

M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a slow-growing mycobacteria, which makes it difficult to culture and identify. It is resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive in the environment for long periods, facilitating its transmission between animals through contaminated feces, water, food, or milk.

Human infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is rare, but it has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel condition in humans. However, the evidence for this association is still controversial and requires further research.

Isoniazid is an antimicrobial medication used for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It is a first-line medication, often used in combination with other TB drugs, to kill the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that cause TB. Isoniazid works by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are essential components of the bacterial cell wall. This leads to bacterial death and helps to control the spread of TB.

Isoniazid is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It can be taken orally or given by injection. The medication is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as peripheral neuropathy, hepatitis, and skin rashes. Regular monitoring of liver function tests and supplementation with pyridoxine (vitamin B6) may be necessary to prevent or manage these side effects.

It is important to note that Isoniazid is not effective against drug-resistant strains of TB, and its use should be guided by the results of drug susceptibility testing. Additionally, it is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed to ensure the successful eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Galactans are a type of complex carbohydrates known as oligosaccharides that are composed of galactose molecules. They can be found in certain plants, including beans, lentils, and some fruits and vegetables. In the human body, galactans are not digestible and can reach the colon intact, where they may serve as a substrate for fermentation by gut bacteria. This can lead to the production of short-chain fatty acids, which have been shown to have various health benefits. However, in some individuals with irritable bowel syndrome or other functional gastrointestinal disorders, consumption of galactans may cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (M. avium-intracellulare) infection is a type of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease caused by the environmental pathogens Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, which are commonly found in water, soil, and dust. These bacteria can cause pulmonary infection, especially in individuals with underlying lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, or prior tuberculosis infection.

M. avium-intracellulare infection typically presents with symptoms like cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and sputum production. Diagnosis is established through a combination of clinical presentation, radiographic findings, and microbiological culture of respiratory samples. Treatment usually involves a multidrug regimen consisting of macrolides (such as clarithromycin or azithromycin), ethambutol, and rifamycins (such as rifampin or rifabutin) for an extended period, often 12-24 months. Eradication of the infection can be challenging due to the bacteria's inherent resistance to many antibiotics and its ability to survive within host cells.

Viomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of drugs known as aminoglycosides. It works by binding to bacterial ribosomes and interfering with protein synthesis, leading to bacterial cell death. Viomycin is primarily used to treat tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, its use is limited due to its potential toxicity to the kidneys and hearing.

Here's a medical definition of Viomycin from Stedman's Medical Dictionary:

"A crystalline, basic polypeptide antibiotic produced by certain strains of Streptomyces floridae var. violaceusniger; used in the treatment of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections."

"Mycobacterium ulcerans" is a slow-growing mycobacterium that is the causative agent of a chronic infection known as Buruli ulcer. This bacterium is naturally found in aquatic environments and can infect humans through minor traumas or wounds on the skin. The infection typically begins as a painless nodule or papule, which may progress to form necrotic ulcers if left untreated. The bacteria produce a unique toxin called mycolactone, which is responsible for the extensive tissue damage and destruction observed in Buruli ulcers.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Glycopeptides are a class of antibiotics that are characterized by their complex chemical structure, which includes both peptide and carbohydrate components. These antibiotics are produced naturally by certain types of bacteria and are effective against a range of Gram-positive bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

The glycopeptide antibiotics work by binding to the bacterial cell wall precursor, preventing the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains that is necessary for the formation of a strong and rigid cell wall. This leads to the death of the bacteria.

Examples of glycopeptides include vancomycin, teicoplanin, and dalbavancin. While these antibiotics have been used successfully for many years, their use is often limited due to concerns about the emergence of resistance and potential toxicity.

Rifampin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as rifamycins. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, thereby preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including tuberculosis, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Legionella pneumophila. It is also used to prevent meningococcal disease in people who have been exposed to the bacteria.

Rifampin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. The medication is usually taken two to four times a day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Rifampin may be given alone or in combination with other antibiotics.

It is important to note that rifampin can interact with several other medications, including oral contraceptives, anticoagulants, and anti-seizure drugs, among others. Therefore, it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with rifampin.

Rifampin may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of urine, tears, sweat, and saliva to a reddish-orange color. These side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. However, if they persist or become bothersome, it is important to consult your healthcare provider.

In summary, rifampin is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections and prevent meningococcal disease. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin may interact with several other medications, and it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of body fluids.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Ergothioneine is a naturally occurring antioxidant compound that is found in various foods such as mushrooms, some types of beans, and certain grains. It is also produced by some bacteria that live in the human body. Ergothioneine has been shown to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant properties, which help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some studies suggest that ergothioneine may have neuroprotective effects and could play a role in preventing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of this compound.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Ethionamide is an antimicrobial medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB) caused by drug-resistant strains of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It belongs to a class of drugs called thioamides, which work by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to synthesize its cell wall.

Ethionamide is often used in combination with other TB medications to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains and improve treatment outcomes. Common side effects of ethionamide include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, as well as neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, and peripheral neuropathy.

It is important to note that the use of ethionamide should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious side effects and its effectiveness may be affected by drug interactions or individual patient factors.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The infection typically enters the body when a person inhales droplets containing the bacteria, which are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB can vary but often include:

* Persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks and may produce phlegm or blood-tinged sputum
* Chest pain or discomfort, particularly when breathing deeply or coughing
* Fatigue and weakness
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever and night sweats
* Loss of appetite

Pulmonary TB can cause serious complications if left untreated, including damage to the lungs, respiratory failure, and spread of the infection to other parts of the body. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics that can last several months, and it is essential for patients to complete the full treatment regimen to ensure that the infection is fully eradicated.

Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of TB in children, and measures to prevent the spread of the disease, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, wearing a mask in public places, and avoiding close contact with people who have active TB.

Glycolipids are a type of lipid (fat) molecule that contain one or more sugar molecules attached to them. They are important components of cell membranes, where they play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Glycolipids are also found on the surface of some viruses and bacteria, where they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders.

There are several different types of glycolipids, including cerebrosides, gangliosides, and globosides. These molecules differ in the number and type of sugar molecules they contain, as well as the structure of their lipid tails. Glycolipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cells, and they are transported to the cell membrane through vesicles.

Abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism or structure have been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of glycolipids can lead to conditions such as Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher's disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycolipids in cells.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Alanine racemase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid alanine between its two stereoisomeric forms, D-alanine and L-alanine. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. In humans, alanine racemase is found in the cytosol of many tissues, including the liver, kidneys, and brain. It is also an important enzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and has been implicated in various disease processes, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Inositol is not considered a true "vitamin" because it can be created by the body from glucose. However, it is an important nutrient and is sometimes referred to as vitamin B8. It is a type of sugar alcohol that is found in both animals and plants. Inositol is involved in various biological processes, including:

1. Signal transduction: Inositol phospholipids are key components of cell membranes and play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They act as secondary messengers in response to hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors.
2. Insulin sensitivity: Inositol and its derivatives, such as myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol, are involved in insulin signal transduction. Abnormalities in inositol metabolism have been linked to insulin resistance and conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
3. Cerebral and ocular functions: Inositol is essential for the proper functioning of neurons and has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. It also plays a role in maintaining eye health.
4. Lipid metabolism: Inositol participates in the breakdown and transport of fats within the body.
5. Gene expression: Inositol and its derivatives are involved in regulating gene expression through epigenetic modifications.

Inositol can be found in various foods, including fruits, beans, grains, nuts, and vegetables. It is also available as a dietary supplement for those who wish to increase their intake.

Cord factors are a group of glycolipids that are found on the surface of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. These cord factors are called "cord factors" because they help to form characteristic "cords" or cable-like structures when mycobacteria grow in clumps.

Cord factors contribute to the virulence of mycobacteria by inhibiting the ability of certain immune cells, such as macrophages, to destroy the bacteria. They do this by preventing the fusion of lysosomes (which contain enzymes that can break down and kill the bacteria) with phagosomes (the compartments in which the bacteria are contained within the macrophage). This allows the mycobacteria to survive and replicate inside the host cells, leading to the development of tuberculosis.

Cord factors have also been shown to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to tissue damage and the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Therefore, cord factors are an important target for the development of new therapies and vaccines against tuberculosis.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Cycloserine is an antibiotic medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to other antibiotics. It works by killing or inhibiting the growth of the bacteria that cause TB. Cycloserine is a second-line drug, which means it is used when first-line treatments have failed or are not effective.

The medical definition of Cycloserine is:

A bacteriostatic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces orchidaceus that inhibits gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by interfering with peptidoglycan synthesis in the bacterial cell wall. It has been used to treat tuberculosis, but its use is limited due to its adverse effects, including neurotoxicity, which can manifest as seizures, dizziness, and confusion. Cycloserine is also used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and other bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is available in oral form and is typically taken two to four times a day.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Polysorbates are a type of nonionic surfactant (a compound that lowers the surface tension between two substances, such as oil and water) commonly used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. They are derived from sorbitol and reacted with ethylene oxide to create a polyoxyethylene structure. The most common types of polysorbates used in medicine are polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, and polysorbate 60, which differ in the number of oxyethylene groups in their molecular structure.

Polysorbates are often added to pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, solubilizers, or stabilizers. They help to improve the solubility and stability of drugs that are otherwise insoluble in water, allowing for better absorption and bioavailability. Polysorbates can also prevent the aggregation and precipitation of proteins in injectable formulations.

In addition to their use in pharmaceuticals, polysorbates are also used as emulsifiers in food products such as ice cream, salad dressings, and baked goods. They help to mix oil and water-based ingredients together and prevent them from separating. In cosmetics, polysorbates are used as surfactants, solubilizers, and stabilizers in a variety of personal care products.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to polysorbates, particularly those with sensitivities to sorbitol or other ingredients used in their production. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using products containing polysorbates in individuals who may be at risk for adverse reactions.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Capreomycin is an antibiotic drug that is primarily used to treat tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to other first-line medications. It belongs to a class of drugs called cyclic polypeptides, which work by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Capreomycin is administered via intramuscular injection and is typically used in combination with other anti-TB drugs as part of a multidrug regimen.

The medical definition of 'Capreomycin' is:

A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces capreolus, used in the treatment of tuberculosis, particularly drug-resistant strains. It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and is administered intramuscularly.

Rhamnose is a naturally occurring sugar or monosaccharide, that is commonly found in various plants and some fruits. It is a type of deoxy sugar, which means it lacks one hydroxyl group (-OH) compared to a regular hexose sugar. Specifically, rhamnose has a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 6-position of its structure.

Rhamnose is an essential component of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates found in plant cell walls, such as pectins and glycoproteins. It also plays a role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is used in the production of some antibiotics.

In medical contexts, rhamnose may be relevant to research on bacterial infections, plant-derived medicines, or the metabolism of certain sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in clinical medicine.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Methylmannosides are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, in biochemistry, methylmannosides refer to a type of glycosylation pattern where a methyl group (-CH3) is attached to a mannose sugar molecule. Mannose is a type of monosaccharide or simple sugar that is commonly found in various glycoproteins and glycolipids in the human body.

Methylmannosides can be formed through the enzymatic transfer of a methyl group from a donor molecule, such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to the mannose sugar by methyltransferase enzymes. These modifications can play important roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, trafficking, and quality control, as well as cell-cell recognition and signaling.

It's worth noting that while methylmannosides have significant biochemical importance, they are not typically referred to in medical contexts unless discussing specific biochemical or molecular research studies.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the class of aminoglycosides and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial death.

Streptomycin is primarily used to treat a variety of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis, brucellosis, plague, tularemia, and certain types of bacterial endocarditis. It is also used as part of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Like other aminoglycosides, streptomycin has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use is typically limited to cases where other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.

It's important to note that the use of streptomycin requires careful monitoring of drug levels and kidney function, as well as regular audiometric testing to detect any potential hearing loss.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

'Mycobacterium lepraemurium' is not typically associated with human leprosy or any medical conditions affecting humans. It is a species of mycobacteria that primarily infects rodents, particularly mice and rats. This bacterium is the causative agent of a form of leprosy-like disease in these animals, known as murine leprosy.

Human infections with 'Mycobacterium lepraemurium' are extremely rare and have only been reported in a handful of cases worldwide. When they do occur, they usually result from close contact with infected rodents or their excrement. The disease caused by this bacterium in humans is typically milder than human leprosy and often resolves on its own without specific treatment.

Therefore, 'Mycobacterium lepraemurium' should not be confused with the mycobacterial species that cause leprosy in humans, such as 'Mycobacterium leprae' or 'Mycobacterium lepromatosis'.

Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is a species of mycobacteria that was previously known to cause a type of infection called scrofula, which is a form of tuberculosis affecting the lymph nodes in the neck. However, it's important to note that this organism has rarely been implicated in human disease in recent years, and its clinical significance is currently unclear.

Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is an environmental mycobacteria, which means it can be found in soil and water, and it is not typically transmitted from person to person. Infections caused by this organism are usually acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water or through inhalation of aerosolized particles.

The symptoms of infection with Mycobacterium scrofulaceum depend on the site of infection and can include swollen lymph nodes, cough, fever, and weight loss. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics, but the optimal treatment regimen has not been well-studied due to the rarity of infections caused by this organism.

Antitubercular antibiotics are a class of medications specifically used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and other mycobacterial infections. Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can affect various organs, primarily the lungs.

There are several antitubercular antibiotics available, with different mechanisms of action that target the unique cell wall structure and metabolism of mycobacteria. Some commonly prescribed antitubercular antibiotics include:

1. Isoniazid (INH): This is a first-line medication for treating TB. It inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, a crucial component of the mycobacterial cell wall. Isoniazid can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the concentration and duration of treatment.
2. Rifampin (RIF): Also known as rifampicin, this antibiotic inhibits bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing the transcription of genetic information into mRNA. It is a potent bactericidal agent against mycobacteria and is often used in combination with other antitubercular drugs.
3. Ethambutol (EMB): This antibiotic inhibits the synthesis of arabinogalactan and mycolic acids, both essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. Ethambutol is primarily bacteriostatic but can be bactericidal at higher concentrations.
4. Pyrazinamide (PZA): This medication is active against dormant or slow-growing mycobacteria, making it an essential component of TB treatment regimens. Its mechanism of action involves the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and the disruption of bacterial membrane potential.
5. Streptomycin: An aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting protein synthesis in mycobacteria. It is primarily used as a second-line treatment for drug-resistant TB.
6. Fluoroquinolones: These are a class of antibiotics that inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, essential enzymes involved in bacterial DNA replication. Examples include ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin, which can be used as second-line treatments for drug-resistant TB.

These antitubercular drugs are often used in combination to prevent the development of drug resistance and improve treatment outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a standardized regimen consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for the initial two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampicin for an additional four to seven months. However, treatment regimens may vary depending on the patient's clinical presentation, drug susceptibility patterns, and local guidelines.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

Disaccharides are a type of carbohydrate that is made up of two monosaccharide units bonded together. Monosaccharides are simple sugars, such as glucose, fructose, or galactose. When two monosaccharides are joined together through a condensation reaction, they form a disaccharide.

The most common disaccharides include:

* Sucrose (table sugar), which is composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule.
* Lactose (milk sugar), which is composed of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule.
* Maltose (malt sugar), which is composed of two glucose molecules.

Disaccharides are broken down into their component monosaccharides during digestion by enzymes called disaccharidases, which are located in the brush border of the small intestine. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond that links the two monosaccharides together, releasing them to be absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy.

Disorders of disaccharide digestion and absorption can lead to various symptoms, such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. For example, lactose intolerance is a common condition in which individuals lack sufficient levels of the enzyme lactase, leading to an inability to properly digest lactose and resulting in gastrointestinal symptoms.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Mycobacteriaceae is a family of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that are characterized by their high content of mycolic acids in the cell wall. This family includes several medically important genera, most notably Mycobacterium and Mycobacteroides. Many species within this family are environmental organisms, found in soil and water, but some are significant human pathogens. They are known for their ability to resist decolorization by acid after being stained with a basic fuchsin stain, known as acid-fast bacilli (AFB). This property is due to the unique structure of their cell walls, which contain mycolic acids and other lipids that make them resistant to many chemical and physical agents.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the most well-known pathogen within this family. Other important human pathogens include Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species that can cause pulmonary and disseminated infections, and Mycobacterium abscessus, which can cause various types of skin and soft tissue infections.

Mycobacteriaceae are typically slow-growing organisms, with some species taking weeks to grow in culture. Diagnosis of mycobacterial infections often involves microbiological culture, histopathology, and sometimes molecular techniques such as PCR and gene sequencing. Treatment usually requires a combination of antibiotics that target different components of the bacterial cell wall due to their inherent resistance to many conventional antibiotics.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

"Mycobacterium xenopi" is a slow-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in water sources such as tap water and natural waterways. It is named after the South African frog (Xenopus laevis) from which it was first isolated.

"Mycobacterium xenopi" can cause pulmonary infections, especially in individuals with pre-existing lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, or prior tuberculosis infection. The symptoms of "M. xenopi" infection are similar to those of tuberculosis and can include cough, fever, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss.

Diagnosis of "M. xenopi" infection typically requires the isolation and identification of the organism from clinical specimens such as sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics such as macrolides, rifamycins, and aminoglycosides, and may require prolonged therapy for several months to a year or more.

Paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). It primarily affects ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, although other animal species, including humans, can also be infected. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestines, leading to diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased milk production in affected animals.

Infection typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated feed or water, and the incubation period can range from several months to years. The bacteria are resistant to environmental degradation and can survive in soil, water, and feces for long periods, making control and eradication challenging.

While paratuberculosis is not considered a significant zoonotic disease, there is ongoing research into the potential link between MAP infection and Crohn's disease in humans, although this association remains controversial and unproven.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The disease mainly spreads through droplets from the nose and mouth of infected people.

Leprosy is characterized by granulomatous inflammation, which leads to the formation of distinctive skin lesions and nerve damage. If left untreated, it can cause progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. However, with early diagnosis and multidrug therapy (MDT), the disease can be cured, and disability can be prevented or limited.

The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies leprosy into two types based on the number of skin lesions and bacteriological index: paucibacillary (one to five lesions) and multibacillary (more than five lesions). This classification helps determine the appropriate treatment regimen.

Although leprosy is curable, it remains a public health concern in many developing countries due to its stigmatizing nature and potential for social exclusion of affected individuals.

Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They form water-filled channels, or pores, that allow small molecules such as ions, nutrients, and waste products to pass through the otherwise impermeable outer membrane. Porins are important for the survival of gram-negative bacteria, as they enable the selective transport of essential molecules while providing a barrier against harmful substances.

There are different types of porins, classified based on their structure and function. Some examples include:

1. General porins (also known as nonspecific porins): These are the most common type of porins and form large, water-filled channels that allow passive diffusion of small molecules up to 600-700 Da in size. They typically have a trimeric structure, with three identical or similar subunits forming a pore in the membrane.
2. Specific porins: These porins are more selective in the molecules they allow to pass through and often have smaller pores than general porins. They can be involved in the active transport of specific molecules or ions, requiring energy from the cell.
3. Autotransporters: While not strictly considered porins, autotransporter proteins share some structural similarities with porins and are involved in the transport of protein domains across the outer membrane. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal translocator domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane through which the passenger domain is transported.

Porins have attracted interest as potential targets for antibiotic development, as they play crucial roles in bacterial survival and virulence. Inhibiting porin function or blocking the pores could disrupt essential processes in gram-negative bacteria, providing a new approach to treating infections caused by these organisms.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Mannosides are glycosylated compounds that consist of a mannose sugar molecule (a type of monosaccharide) linked to another compound, often a protein or lipid. They are formed when an enzyme called a glycosyltransferase transfers a mannose molecule from a donor substrate, such as a nucleotide sugar (like GDP-mannose), to an acceptor molecule.

Mannosides can be found on the surface of many types of cells and play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protein folding. They are also involved in the immune response and have been studied as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer.

It's worth noting that mannosides can be further classified based on the specific linkage between the mannose molecule and the acceptor compound. For example, an N-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to a nitrogen atom on the acceptor protein, while an O-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to an oxygen atom on the acceptor protein.

Arabinose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a stereoisomer of xylose. It is a pentose, meaning it contains five carbon atoms, and is classified as a hexahydroxyhexital because it has six hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to the carbon atoms. Arabinose is found in various plant polysaccharides, such as hemicelluloses, gums, and pectic substances. It can also be found in some bacteria and yeasts, where it plays a role in their metabolism. In humans, arabinose is not an essential nutrient and must be metabolized by specific enzymes if consumed.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxazoles" is not a medical term, it is a chemical term. Oxazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring made up of one nitrogen atom, one oxygen atom, and three carbon atoms. They have the molecular formula C4H4NO.

Oxazoles do not have specific medical relevance, but they can be found in some natural and synthetic substances, including certain drugs and bioactive molecules. Some oxazole-containing compounds have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, these studies are primarily within the field of chemistry and pharmacology, not medicine itself.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is an antibiotic that is derived from streptomycin, a naturally occurring antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. Dihydrostreptomycin is a semi-synthetic derivative of streptomycin, in which one of the amino groups has been reduced to a hydroxyl group, resulting in improved water solubility and stability compared to streptomycin.

Dihydrostreptomycin sulfate is used primarily to treat severe infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, such as tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and other bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death.

Like all antibiotics, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other serious health consequences.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

"Essential genes" refer to a category of genes that are vital for the survival or reproduction of an organism. They encode proteins that are necessary for fundamental biological processes, such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, and cell division. Mutations in essential genes often result in lethality or infertility, making them indispensable for the organism's existence. The identification and study of essential genes can provide valuable insights into the basic mechanisms of life and disease.

Bacterial transformation is a natural process by which exogenous DNA is taken up and incorporated into the genome of a bacterial cell. This process was first discovered in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, who observed that dead virulent bacteria could transfer genetic material to live avirulent bacteria, thereby conferring new properties such as virulence to the recipient cells.

The uptake of DNA by bacterial cells typically occurs through a process called "competence," which can be either naturally induced under certain environmental conditions or artificially induced in the laboratory using various methods. Once inside the cell, the exogenous DNA may undergo recombination with the host genome, resulting in the acquisition of new genes or the alteration of existing ones.

Bacterial transformation has important implications for both basic research and biotechnology. It is a powerful tool for studying gene function and for engineering bacteria with novel properties, such as the ability to produce valuable proteins or degrade environmental pollutants. However, it also poses potential risks in the context of genetic engineering and biocontainment, as transformed bacteria may be able to transfer their newly acquired genes to other organisms in the environment.

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. It primarily affects cattle but can also spread to other mammals including humans, causing a similar disease known as zoonotic tuberculosis. The infection in animals typically occurs through inhalation of infectious droplets or ingestion of contaminated feed and water.

In cattle, the disease often affects the respiratory system, leading to symptoms such as chronic coughing, weight loss, and difficulty breathing. However, it can also affect other organs, including the intestines, lymph nodes, and mammary glands. Diagnosis of BTB typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and epidemiological data.

Control measures for BTB include regular testing and culling of infected animals, movement restrictions, and vaccination of susceptible populations. In many countries, BTB is a notifiable disease, meaning that cases must be reported to the authorities. Proper cooking and pasteurization of dairy products can help prevent transmission to humans.

Leprosstatic agents are substances or drugs that have a specific effect on the bacterium that causes leprosy, also known as Mycobacterium leprae. These agents are used in the treatment and prevention of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease that primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, and mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract.

The most common leprostatic agents are antibiotics, which target the bacterial cells and inhibit their growth or kill them. The two main antibiotics used to treat leprosy are dapsone and rifampicin, which are often given in combination with other drugs such as clofazimine to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of the bacteria.

Leprosstatic agents are usually administered orally or by injection, and the duration of treatment can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the patient's response to therapy. It is important to note that early detection and treatment of leprosy can help prevent the progression of the disease and reduce the risk of transmission to others.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Amidohydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, resulting in the formation of an acid and an alcohol. This reaction is also known as amide hydrolysis or amide bond cleavage. Amidohydrolases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and endogenous compounds (those naturally produced within an organism).

The term "amidohydrolase" is a broad one that encompasses several specific types of enzymes, such as proteases, esterases, lipases, and nitrilases. These enzymes have different substrate specificities and catalytic mechanisms but share the common ability to hydrolyze amide bonds.

Proteases, for example, are a major group of amidohydrolases that specifically cleave peptide bonds in proteins. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as protein degradation, digestion, and regulation of biological pathways. Esterases and lipases hydrolyze ester bonds in various substrates, including lipids and other organic compounds. Nitrilases convert nitriles into carboxylic acids and ammonia by cleaving the nitrile bond (C≡N) through hydrolysis.

Amidohydrolases are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and have diverse applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For instance, they can be used for the production of pharmaceuticals, biofuels, detergents, and other chemicals. Additionally, inhibitors of amidohydrolases can serve as therapeutic agents for treating various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Mannosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose (a type of sugar) to specific acceptor molecules during the process of glycosylation. Glycosylation is the attachment of carbohydrate groups, or glycans, to proteins and lipids, which plays a crucial role in various biological processes such as protein folding, quality control, trafficking, and cell-cell recognition.

In particular, mannosyltransferases are involved in the addition of mannose residues to the core oligosaccharide structure of N-linked glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus of eukaryotic cells. These enzymes use a donor substrate, typically dolichol-phosphate-mannose (DPM), to add mannose molecules to the acceptor substrate, which is an asparagine residue within a growing glycan chain.

There are several classes of mannosyltransferases, each responsible for adding mannose to specific positions within the glycan structure. Defects in these enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), which can affect multiple organ systems and result in a wide range of clinical manifestations.

Alanine Dehydrogenase (ADH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between alanine and pyruvate with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH). This reaction plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly in the catabolism of alanine.

In humans, there are multiple isoforms of ADH that are expressed in different tissues and have different functions. The isoform known as ALDH4A1 is primarily responsible for the conversion of alanine to pyruvate in the liver. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, which is characterized by elevated levels of 4-hydroxybutyric acid in the urine and neurological symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicotinamidase" does not have a widely accepted or specific medical definition in the context of human health and disease. The term "Nicotinamidase" is used in biochemistry to refer to an enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of nicotinamide (a form of vitamin B3) to produce nicotinic acid. However, this enzyme is not typically discussed in the context of medical diagnosis, treatment, or research.

If you have any questions about nicotinamide, nicotinamidase, or any other medical topics, I would be happy to try to help clarify or provide additional information.

"Mycobacterium haemophilum" is a slow-growing, gram-positive, acid-fast bacterium that is a member of the Mycobacteriaceae family. It is an opportunistic pathogen that primarily causes skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. The bacterium requires enriched media containing hemoglobin or hemin for growth, which is why it is named "haemophilum." Infections caused by this bacterium can be difficult to diagnose and treat due to its slow growth rate and resistance to many first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Trehalose is a type of disaccharide, which is a sugar made up of two monosaccharides. It consists of two glucose molecules joined together in a way that makes it more stable and resistant to breakdown by enzymes and heat. This property allows trehalose to be used as a protectant for biological materials during freeze-drying and storage, as well as a food additive as a sweetener and preservative.

Trehalose is found naturally in some plants, fungi, insects, and microorganisms, where it serves as a source of energy and protection against environmental stresses such as drought, heat, and cold. In recent years, there has been interest in the potential therapeutic uses of trehalose for various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer.

Medically speaking, trehalose may be used in some pharmaceutical formulations as an excipient or stabilizer, and it is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases. However, its use as a medical treatment is still not widely established, and further research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Acyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydrogen atom) from one molecule to another. This transfer involves the formation of an ester bond between the acyl group donor and the acyl group acceptor.

Acyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. They are also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) by catalyzing the addition of an acyl group to these compounds, making them more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body.

Examples of acyltransferases include serine palmitoyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins.

Acyltransferases are classified based on the type of acyl group they transfer and the nature of the acyl group donor and acceptor molecules. They can be further categorized into subclasses based on their sequence similarities, three-dimensional structures, and evolutionary relationships.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Pyrazinamide is an antituberculosis agent, a type of medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is an antimicrobial drug that works by inhibiting the growth of the bacterium. Pyrazinamide is often used in combination with other TB drugs such as isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol.

The medical definition of Pyrazinamide is: a synthetic antituberculosis agent, C6H5N3O (a pyridine derivative), used in the treatment of tuberculosis, especially in combination with isoniazid and rifampin. It is converted in the body to its active form, pyrazinoic acid, which inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

It's important to note that Pyrazinamide should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and is usually prescribed for several months to ensure complete eradication of the TB bacteria. As with any medication, it can cause side effects, and individuals should report any unusual symptoms to their healthcare provider.

DNA gyrase is a type II topoisomerase enzyme that plays a crucial role in the negative supercoiling and relaxation of DNA in bacteria. It functions by introducing transient double-stranded breaks into the DNA helix, allowing the strands to pass through one another and thereby reducing positive supercoils or introducing negative supercoils as required for proper DNA function, replication, and transcription.

DNA gyrase is composed of two subunits, GyrA and GyrB, which form a heterotetrameric structure (AB-BA) in the functional enzyme. The enzyme's activity is targeted by several antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and novobiocin, making it an essential target for antibacterial drug development.

In summary, DNA gyrase is a bacterial topoisomerase responsible for maintaining the correct supercoiling of DNA during replication and transcription, which can be inhibited by specific antibiotics to combat bacterial infections.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Kanamycin resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have the ability to grow in the presence of kanamycin, a type of aminoglycoside antibiotic. This resistance can be caused by various mechanisms, including:

1. Enzymatic inactivation: Bacteria can produce enzymes that modify or degrade kanamycin, rendering it ineffective.
2. Alteration of the drug target: Changes in the structure or function of the bacterial ribosome, the target of kanamycin, can prevent the antibiotic from binding and inhibiting protein synthesis.
3. Efflux pumps: Overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to increased expulsion of kanamycin from the bacterial cell, reducing its intracellular concentration and effectiveness.
4. Reduced permeability: Decreased uptake of kanamycin into the bacterial cell due to changes in membrane permeability or reduced expression of porin channels can also contribute to resistance.

The development and spread of antibiotic resistance, including kanamycin resistance, pose significant challenges for the treatment of bacterial infections and are a major public health concern.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Glycine dehydrogenase, also known as glycine cleavage system protein P or glycine synthase, is a mitochondrial enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the catabolism of glycine, an amino acid. This enzyme complex is composed of four separate proteins (P-protein, H-protein, T-protein, and L-protein) that work together to catalyze the reversible conversion of glycine into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and a molecule of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate.

The reaction can be summarized as follows:

Glycine + Tetrahydrofolate + NAD+ ↔ Ammonia + Carbon Dioxide + Methylenetetrahydrofolate + NADH

This pathway is essential for the metabolism of glycine, and its dysfunction has been linked to several genetic disorders, such as non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, which can result in neurological impairments and other health issues.

Dianisidine is a chemical compound that is primarily used in laboratory research as a reagent for detecting and measuring the presence of iron (Fe) in various substances. It is an aromatic amine with the molecular formula C10H12N2O2. Dianisidine is known for its ability to form a colored complex when it reacts with iron, which can be measured and used to determine the amount of iron present in a sample.

In a medical context, dianisidine may be used in diagnostic tests to detect and measure iron levels in biological samples such as blood or tissue. However, dianisidine itself is not a medication or therapeutic agent and does not have a direct medical application for treating diseases or conditions.

A phagosome is a type of membrane-bound organelle that forms around a particle or microorganism following its engulfment by a cell, through the process of phagocytosis. This results in the formation of a vesicle containing the ingested material, which then fuses with another organelle called a lysosome to form a phago-lysosome. The lysosome contains enzymes that digest and break down the contents of the phagosome, allowing the cell to neutralize and dispose of potentially harmful substances or pathogens.

In summary, phagosomes are important organelles involved in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease.

Mannose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is similar in structure to glucose. It is a hexose, meaning it contains six carbon atoms. Mannose is a stereoisomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement of its atoms.

Mannose is not as commonly found in foods as other simple sugars, but it can be found in some fruits, such as cranberries, blueberries, and peaches, as well as in certain vegetables, like sweet potatoes and turnips. It is also found in some dietary fibers, such as those found in beans and whole grains.

In the body, mannose can be metabolized and used for energy, but it is also an important component of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that play critical roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Mannose has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it can inhibit the attachment of certain bacteria to the cells lining the urinary tract. Additionally, mannose-binding lectins have been investigated for their potential role in the immune response to viral and bacterial infections.

"Gene knockout techniques" refer to a group of biomedical research methods used in genetics and molecular biology to study the function of specific genes in an organism. These techniques involve introducing a deliberate, controlled genetic modification that results in the inactivation or "knockout" of a particular gene. This is typically achieved through various methods such as homologous recombination, where a modified version of the gene with inserted mutations is introduced into the organism's genome, replacing the original functional gene. The resulting organism, known as a "knockout mouse" or other model organisms, lacks the function of the targeted gene and can be used to study its role in biological processes, disease development, and potential therapeutic interventions.

An armadillo is not a medical condition or term. It is a type of mammal that is native to the Americas, known for its distinctive armor-like shell. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or topic, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

Siderophores are low-molecular-weight organic compounds that are secreted by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to chelate and solubilize iron from their environment. They are able to bind ferric iron (Fe3+) with very high affinity and form a siderophore-iron complex, which can then be taken up by the microorganism through specific transport systems. This allows them to acquire iron even in environments where it is present at very low concentrations or in forms that are not readily available for uptake. Siderophores play an important role in the survival and virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, as they help them to obtain the iron they need to grow and multiply.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that is used to analyze large biomolecules such as proteins and peptides. In this technique, the sample is mixed with a matrix compound, which absorbs laser energy and helps to vaporize and ionize the analyte molecules.

The matrix-analyte mixture is then placed on a target plate and hit with a laser beam, causing the matrix and analyte molecules to desorb from the plate and become ionized. The ions are then accelerated through an electric field and into a mass analyzer, which separates them based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

The separated ions are then detected and recorded as a mass spectrum, which can be used to identify and quantify the analyte molecules present in the sample. MALDI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of complex biological samples, such as tissue extracts or biological fluids, because it allows for the detection and identification of individual components within those mixtures.

Fatty acid synthases (FAS) are a group of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of fatty acids in the body. They catalyze a series of reactions that convert acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA into longer chain fatty acids, which are then used for various purposes such as energy storage or membrane formation.

The human genome encodes two types of FAS: type I and type II. Type I FAS is a large multifunctional enzyme complex found in the cytoplasm of cells, while type II FAS consists of individual enzymes located in the mitochondria. Both types of FAS play important roles in lipid metabolism, but their regulation and expression differ depending on the tissue and physiological conditions.

Inhibition of FAS has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for various diseases, including cancer, obesity, and metabolic disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the complex mechanisms regulating FAS activity and its role in human health and disease.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to at least two of the first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampin. This makes MDR-TB more difficult and expensive to treat, requiring longer treatment durations and the use of second-line medications, which can have more severe side effects.

MDR-TB can occur when there are errors in prescribing or taking anti-TB drugs, or when people with TB do not complete their full course of treatment. It is a significant global health concern, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where TB is more prevalent and resources for diagnosis and treatment may be limited.

MDR-TB can spread from person to person through the air when someone with the infection coughs, speaks, or sneezes. People at higher risk of contracting MDR-TB include those who have been in close contact with someone with MDR-TB, people with weakened immune systems, and healthcare workers who treat TB patients.

Preventing the spread of MDR-TB involves early detection and prompt treatment, as well as infection control measures such as wearing masks, improving ventilation, and separating infected individuals from others. It is also important to ensure that anti-TB drugs are used correctly and that patients complete their full course of treatment to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Nitroreductases are a group of enzymes that can reduce nitro groups (-NO2) to nitroso groups (-NHOH) or amino groups (-NH2) in various organic compounds. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and found in many different types of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals.

In medicine, nitroreductases have been studied for their potential role in the activation of certain drugs or prodrugs. For example, some anticancer agents such as CB1954 (also known as 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) are relatively inert until they are reduced by nitroreductases to more reactive metabolites that can interact with DNA and other cellular components. This property has been exploited in the development of targeted cancer therapies that selectively deliver prodrugs to tumor cells, where they can be activated by endogenous nitroreductases to kill the cancer cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues.

Nitroreductases have also been implicated in the development of bacterial resistance to certain antibiotics, such as metronidazole and nitrofurantoin. These drugs are activated by nitroreductases in bacteria, but overexpression or mutation of the enzyme can lead to reduced drug activation and increased resistance.

... is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinomycetota and the genus Mycobacterium. It is 3.0 ... Mycobacterium smegmatis is useful for the research analysis of other Mycobacteria species in laboratory experiments. M. ... Information and photo from NCBI MicrobeWiki page on M. smegmatis Type strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis at BacDive - the ... I. Species' descriptions of Mycobacterium phlei Lehmann and Neumann and Mycobacterium smegmatis (Trevisan) Lehmann and Neumann ...
Irradiation of cytoplasm membranes of Mycobacterium smegmatis with ultraviolet light (360 nm) for 10 minutes resulted in about ... "Respiratory chains of Mycobacterium smegmatis". Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 12 (3): 255-259. ISSN 0301-1208. ... "Variations in the pathways of malate oxidation and phosphorylation in different species of Mycobacteria". Biochimica et ...
While originally isolated from the bacterial species Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative ... A bacteriophage found to infect Mycobacterium smegmatis in 1947 was the first documented example of a mycobacteriophage. It was ... Thousands of mycobacteriophage have been isolated using a single host strain, Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155, over 1400 of ... Gardner GM, Weiser RS (October 1947). "A bacteriophage for Mycobacterium smegmatis". Proceedings of the Society for ...
214-. ISBN 978-3-540-36488-7. Hugh J O'Neill, Leon D. Gershbein (1976). "Fatty Acids of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Lipids" (PDF). ... "Purification and properties of aspartate transcarbamylase from Mycobacterium smegmatis". Biochim Biophys Acta. 953 (1): 106-113 ... Mycobacterium Bacillus List of University of Delhi people India portal Biology portal His research findings have been used by ... bacilli and his researches assisted in the better understanding of the intermediary metabolism in cultured mycobacteria and in ...
Yabusaki KK; Ballou CE (1981). "Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterases from Mycobacterium smegmatis". Lipids Part C. Methods ...
Yokoyama K, Ballou CE (December 1989). "Synthesis of alpha 1----6-mannooligosaccharides in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Function of ... This enzyme is involved in the formation of mannooligosaccharides in the membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. ...
Giles is a bacteriophage that infects Mycobacterium smegmatis bacteria. The genome of this phage is very different from that of ...
"Metabolic engineering of cofactor F420 production in Mycobacterium smegmatis". PLOS ONE. 5 (12): e15803. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
Sengupta S, Nagaraja V (February 2008). "Inhibition of DNA gyrase activity by Mycobacterium smegmatis MurI". FEMS Microbiol. ... Sengupta S, Shah M, Nagaraja V (2006). "Glutamate racemase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits DNA gyrase by affecting its ... Sengupta S, Ghosh S, Nagaraja V (September 2008). "Moonlighting function of glutamate racemase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
"Polyprenyl phosphate biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (20 ... Kaur D, Brennan PJ, Crick DC (November 2004). "Decaprenyl diphosphate synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Journal of ...
... was previously known as Mycobacterium smegmatis group 2. Brown et al. 1999. Mycobacterium wolinskyi sp. ... and Mycobacterium goodii sp. nov., two new rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium smegmatis and associated with human ... Mycobacterium goodii is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinomycetota and the genus Mycobacterium. M. goodii ... Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Bacteria described in 1999, All stub articles, Mycobacteria stubs). ...
and Mycobacterium goodii sp. nov., two new rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium smegmatis and associated with human ... Mycobacterium wolinskyi is clearly clinically significant, and occurs in the same settings as Mycobacterium smegmatis and ... Mycobacterium wolinskyi was previously known as Mycobacterium smegmatis group 3. Microscopy Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid- ... Mycobacterium wolinskyi is a rapidly growing mycobacterium most commonly seen in post-traumatic wound infections, especially ...
Listeria monocytogenes Micrococcus luteus Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium abscessus Neisseria spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
Glucose Metabolism by Mycobacterium Smegmatis: Evidence for the Pentose Cycle. American Review of Respiratory Diseases. Vol. 86 ... Koch-Weser D. Book Review of Rifampin in the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections" by Vall-Spinosa ...
His dissertation, "Physiological roles of the three [NiFe]-hydrogenases in Mycobacterium smegmatis", was primarily supervised ... "Physiological roles of the three [NiFe]-hydrogenases in Mycobacterium smegmatis". "Exceptional PhD Thesis - Chris Greening". ... Cellular and structural basis of synthesis of the unique intermediate dehydro-F420-0 in mycobacteria. Msystems, 5(3), e00389-20 ... "Predicting nitroimidazole antibiotic resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with protein engineering". PLOS ...
She uses the model organisms Mycobacterium smegmatis and Escherechia coli. She was part of the team of scientists who patented ...
The trehalase enzyme of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a membrane bound protein. Periplasmic trehalase of Escherichia coli K12 is ...
FADH2 This enzyme from the bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis participates in epimerization of trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho- ... "Analogous mechanisms of resistance to benzothiazinones and dinitrobenzamides in Mycobacterium smegmatis". PLOS ONE. 6 (11): ...
... and properties of D-ribose isomerase from Mycobacterium smegmatis". J. Biol. Chem. 250 (20): 8085-7. PMID 240851. Portal: ...
"Structural characterization of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Mycobacterium smegmatis by NMR spectroscopy". Biochimica et ...
Keratin pearl List of cutaneous conditions Mycobacterium smegmatis - found in smegma "smegma". The Merriam-Webster.com ... The production of smegma increases from the age of 12-13, but our actual figures of the incidence of smegma can only be of ... In healthy animals, smegma helps clean and lubricate the genitals. In veterinary medicine, analysis of this smegma is sometimes ... The accumulation of sebum combined with dead skin cells forms smegma. Smegma clitoridis is defined as the secretion of the ...
"Chemistry of the Lyxose-Containing Mycobacteriophage Receptors of Mycobacterium phlei/Mycobacterium smegmatis". Biochemistry. ...
"Purification and partial characterization of a penicillin-binding protein from Mycobacterium smegmatis". Journal of ...
Gilleron M, Himoudi N, Adam O, Constant P, Venisse A, Rivière M, Puzo G (January 1997). "Mycobacterium smegmatis ... purified from Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium kansasii induce TNF-alpha and IL-8 secretion by a CD14-toll-like ... These types of LAMs are most commonly found in more pathogenic Mycobacterium species such as M. tuberculosis, M. leprae, and M ... The inactivation of macrophages allows for the dissemination of mycobacteria to other parts of the body. The destruction of ...
"Role of the methylcitrate cycle in propionate metabolism and detoxification in Mycobacterium smegmatis". Microbiology. 153 (Pt ... In fact, in some bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, isocitrate lyase actually plays the role of methylisocitrate ... "Dual role of isocitrate lyase 1 in the glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Molecular ... "Acetyl-CoA-Mediated Activation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isocitrate Lyase 2". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 4639. Bibcode: ...
"Conjugative transfer of a shuttle plasmid from Escherichia coli to Mycobacterium smegmatis [corrected]". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. ... Her publications from these years focused on mycobacterium and mycoplasmas, specifically genetic and molecular characterization ... "Restriction endonuclease mapping and cloning of Mycobacterium fortuitum var. fortuitum plasmid pAL5000". Ann Inst Pasteur ...
"Purification and characterization of a novel mycolic acid exchange enzyme from Mycobacterium smegmatis". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (28 ...
"Role of the methylcitrate cycle in propionate metabolism and detoxification in Mycobacterium smegmatis". Microbiology. 153 (Pt ... In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has been suggested that the metabolism of propionyl-CoA is involved in cell wall biogenesis. ... It is also attributed as a resulting pathway due to the catabolism of fatty acids in mycobacteria. In order to proceed, the ... Muñoz-Elías EJ, Upton AM, Cherian J, McKinney JD (June 2006). "Role of the methylcitrate cycle in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
... from Mycobacterium smegmatis". Journal of Structural Biology. 196 (3): 448-454. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2016.09.012. PMID 27659385.{{ ... His researches are known to have assisted in a wider understanding of the biology of mycobacterium, more specifically the ... Science and Technology and is known for his studies on protein synthesis and DNA repair in Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium ... researches are primarily focused in the area of protein synthesis and DNA repair in Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium ...
Kushwaha, Ambuj K.; Grove, Anne (2013-02-01). "C-terminal low-complexity sequence repeats of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku ...
Mycobacterium smegmatis is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinomycetota and the genus Mycobacterium. It is 3.0 ... Mycobacterium smegmatis is useful for the research analysis of other Mycobacteria species in laboratory experiments. M. ... Information and photo from NCBI MicrobeWiki page on M. smegmatis Type strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis at BacDive - the ... I. Species descriptions of Mycobacterium phlei Lehmann and Neumann and Mycobacterium smegmatis (Trevisan) Lehmann and Neumann ...
Disruption of stf0 in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis resulted in the loss of T2S and SL-1 formation, respectively ... Mycolicibacterium smegmatis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: stf0, NCTC7017_01453. EC: 2.8.2. ... Mycobacterium smegmatis Stf0 Sulfotransferase with Trehalose. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb1TEX/pdb ... Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1) is an abundant sulfated glycolipid and potential virulence factor found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. SL-1 ...
Timeline for Species Mycobacterium smegmatis [TaxId:1772] from c.37.1.5 Stf0 sulfotransferase: *Species Mycobacterium smegmatis ... Species Mycobacterium smegmatis [TaxId:1772] from c.37.1.5 Stf0 sulfotransferase appears in SCOPe 2.04. *Species Mycobacterium ... PDB entry in Species: Mycobacterium smegmatis [TaxId: 1772]:. *Domain(s) for 1tex: *. Domain d1texa_: 1tex A: [106818]. ... Lineage for Species: Mycobacterium smegmatis [TaxId: 1772]. *Root: SCOPe 2.05 *. Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349 ...
All UHM Honors Projects are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner. ...
The bacterial GlgE pathway is the third known route to glycogen and is the only one present in mycobacteria. It contributes to ... A temperature-sensitive Mycobacterium smegmatis glgE mutation leads to a loss of GlgE enzyme activity and thermostability and ... A temperature-sensitive Mycobacterium smegmatis glgE mutation leads to a loss of GlgE enzyme activity and thermostability and ... Background - The bacterial GlgE pathway is the third known route to glycogen and is the only one present in mycobacteria. It ...
Mycobacterium fortuitum, Myco. kansasii, Myco. phlei, Myco. smegmatis and Myco. tuberculosis ... An antigenic analysis of the mycobacteria, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Myco. kansasii, Myco. phlei, Myco. smegmatis and Myco. ... nonphotochromogenic myco-bacteria obtained from soil by the mouse passage method Myco-bacterium terrae and Mycobacterium novum ... smegmatis and Myco. reptilium from other mycobacteria Tubercle 47(4): 403-404. Tsukamura, M.; Tsukamura, S. 1967: A practical ...
Mycobacteria possess four copies of the Fpg/Nei glycosylases with the Fpg homologue displaying an overlapping role with MutM in ... A recent study further showed that a deficiency in M. smegmatis MutY glycosylase also displayed no notable susceptibility to ... smegmatis mutants under oxidative stress and a 2-3 log difference was observed only when three or all four of the DNA ... it was plausible to investigate the role of MutY in combination with the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases in mycobacteria to ...
... basonym Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis). This study aimed to identify the functional role of aceE gene in cell wall ... smegmatis. Notably, in contrast with the WT, which aggregates and forms biofilm, the aceE-mut lost its ability of growing ... which presented a deficient colony morphology on 7H10 agar by screening transposon mutagenesis in Mycolicibacterium smegmatis, ... biosynthesis in M. smegmatis. We observed that the colony morphology of aceE-mut was quite different, smaller and smoother on ...
Funciton: Predicted rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.19) / Predicted lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.22) ...
Nucleotide sequence of initiator tRNA from Mycobacterium smegmatis. In: Nucleic Acids Research, 12 (9). pp. 3933-3936. ...
M. smegmatis is able to metabolize a number of different nitrogen sources and nitrogen control in M. smegmatis is similar to ... In response to nitrogen deprivation, a general starvation response is induced in M. smegmatis. This includes changes in the ... Mycobacterium smegmatis needs adaption mechanisms to cope with changing nitrogen sources and to survive situations of nitrogen ... starvation-induced transcriptome alterations and influence of transcription regulator mutants in Mycobacterium smegmatis ...
Barsom, EK and Hatfull, GF (1997) A putative ABC-transport operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Gene, 185 (1). 127 - 132. ISSN ... We have recently described the mpr gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis whose product confers resistance to mycobacteriophages L5 ... This is the first ABC-transport system to be described in mycobacteria. ... Mycobacterium--genetics; Open Reading Frames; Operon; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. ...
Multiple layers of regulation determine the cellular levels of the Pup ligase PafA in Mycobacterium smegmatis. ... Multiple layers of regulation determine the cellular levels of the Pup ligase PafA in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Together they ...
MSMEG_6019 ABC-type sugar transport system ATPase component (Putative sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein) (EC 3.6.3.17) ...
... smegmatis. Both enzymes retained all amino acids known to be involved in catalysing the reaction. While the M. smegmatis enzyme ... For the M. smegmatis enzyme, the Vmax for S-adenosylmethionine formation was 1.30 μmol/min/mg protein and the Km for methionine ... Azathioprine inhibited the in vitro growth of M. smegmatis with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 500 μM, while the ... The gene encoding methionine adenosyltransferase has been cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the model organism M. ...
... phosphatidylinositol mannosyltransferase partial 01016406894 at Gentaur Mycobacterium smegmatis GDP-mannose-dependent alpha (1- ... Order Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis GDP-mannose-dependent alpha- 1-2 - ... Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis GDP-mannose-dependent alpha- (1-2)-phosphatidylinositol mannosyltransferase, partial. * ... The Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis GDP-mannose-dependent alpha- (1-2)-phosphatidylinositol mannosyltransferase, partial is ...
The ASU Library acknowledges the twenty-three Native Nations that have inhabited this land for centuries. Arizona State Universitys four campuses are located in the Salt River Valley on ancestral territories of Indigenous peoples, including the Akimel Oodham (Pima) and Pee Posh (Maricopa) Indian Communities, whose care and keeping of these lands allows us to be here today. ASU Library acknowledges the sovereignty of these nations and seeks to foster an environment of success and possibility for Native American students and patrons. We are advocates for the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems and research methodologies within contemporary library practice. ASU Library welcomes members of the Akimel Oodham and Pee Posh, and all Native nations to the Library.. ...
Mycobacterium smegmatis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Animales; Mycobacterium smegmatis/genética; Mycobacterium smegmatis/ ... Mycobacterium smegmatis / Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tipo de estudio: Estudio diagnóstico Límite: Animales Idioma: Inglés ... Mycobacterium smegmatis / Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tipo de estudio: Estudio diagnóstico Límite: Animales Idioma: Inglés ... Cholesterol is a crucial component in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence as it is required for phagocytosis of mycobacteria ...
These compounds are unique in the sense that they are more potent against Mycobacterium smegmatis in the biofilm state compared ... Results: Four compounds in this series significantly inhibit the growth and formation of biofilm by Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc ... 4-Hydroxy-2-pyridone Derivatives and the delta-pyrone Isostere as Novel Agents Against Mycobacterium smegmatis Biofilm ... Antibacterial agent; 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones; delta-pyrones; antibiofilm agents; antimycobacterial; Mycobacterium smegmatis. ...
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FROM MYCOBACTERIUM SMEGMATIS (MSMEI_3018, TARGET EFI- 511327) WITH BOUND GLYCEROL - 4YV7 , canSARS ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF AN ABC TRANSPORTER SOLUTE BINDING PROTEIN (IPR025997) FROM MYCOBACTERIUM SMEGMATIS (MSMEI_3018, TARGET EFI ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF AN ABC TRANSPORTER SOLUTE BINDING PROTEIN (IPR025997) FROM MYCOBACTERIUM SMEGMATIS (MSMEI_3018, TARGET EFI ...
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a glycolipid Toll-Like Receptor-2 ligand found on the cell wall of mycobacteria. The purpose of this ... so understanding the interactions between macrophages and the cell wall components on Mycobacteria is of great relevance. ... Mycobacterium smegmatis is closely related to the pathogenic M. tuberculosis. The precise mechanism by which M. tuberculosis is ... Mycobacterium smegmatis is closely related to the pathogenic M. tuberculosis. The precise mechanism by which M. tuberculosis is ...
Mycobacterium smegmatis: The Vanguard of Mycobacterial Research. Sparks IL, Derbyshire KM, Jacobs WR Jr, Morita YS. Sparks IL, ... The Mycobacterium tuberculosis capsule: a cell structure with key implications in pathogenesis. Kalscheuer R, Palacios A, Anso ...
Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium neoaurum, and Mycobacterium thermoresistible. Mycobacterium smegmatis may be either ... Fatal disseminated Mycobacterium smegmatis infection in a child withinherited interferon gamma receptor deficiency. Clin Infect ... Mycobacterium fortuitum complex is nonpigmented and includes the M fortuitum group and the Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus ... Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum are associated with lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children ...
Mycobacterium smegmatis (Trevisan) Lehmann and Neumann Depositors. RJ Wallace Chain of custody. ATCC <-- RJ Wallace <-- G.E. ... To download a certificate of analysis for Mycobacterium wolinskyi Brown et al. (700010), enter the lot number exactly as it ... To download a certificate of origin for Mycobacterium wolinskyi Brown et al. (700010), enter the lot number exactly as it ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of Mycobacterium wolinskyi Brown et al. (700010) is not currently available online. ...
Allosteric Switching of Calmodulin in a Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A (MspA) Nanopore-Trap. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 60, ... Machine Learning Assisted Simultaneous Structural Profiling of Differently Charged Proteins in a Mycobacterium smegmatis Porin ...
A0R7J5 (RSMG_MYCS2) Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) (Mycobacteriumsmegmatis). Ribosomal RNA small ...
Species: Bacteria - Mycobacterium smegmatis. Sample Types: Cell Lysates. * Involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory ... The development of a novel Mycobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector system using pMyong2, a linear plasmid from ... Mycobacterium yongonense DSM 45126T. Authors: Lee H, Kim B, Kim B, Kook Y, Kim B. PLoS ONE, 2015-03-30;30(0):.. ...
  • citation needed] Mycobacterium smegmatis shares the same peculiar cell wall structure of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different kinds of specific secretion systems, and M. tuberculosis has an Snm (secretion in mycobacteria) protein secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the Snm secretion system is a key in determining M. tuberculosis virulence, all mycobacteria have genes encoding the components of this system. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. smegmatis is commonly used to study Snm secretion because of its genetic similarities and analogous function to M. tuberculosis, as well as ease of growing in the lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1) is an abundant sulfated glycolipid and potential virulence factor found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (rcsb.org)
  • Disruption of stf0 in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis resulted in the loss of T2S and SL-1 formation, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • It contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative pathogen that causes tuberculosis and it accounted for 1.4 million deaths worldwide in 2011. (wits.ac.za)
  • The gene encoding methionine adenosyltransferase has been cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the model organism M. smegmatis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the M. smegmatis enzyme could be functionally expressed, the M. tuberculosis homologue was insoluble and inactive under a large variety of expression conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is difficult to kill for a number of reasons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the examination of biochemical pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis , it would be ideal to identify processes where an enzyme plays a role in both active and chronic phase survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholesterol is a crucial component in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence as it is required for phagocytosis of mycobacteria by macrophages . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis is closely related to the pathogenic M. tuberculosis . (lynchburg.edu)
  • The precise mechanism by which M. tuberculosis is able to evade acidification by the phagosomes of macrophages is not yet known, so understanding the interactions between macrophages and the cell wall components on Mycobacteria is of great relevance. (lynchburg.edu)
  • The Mycobacterium tuberculosis capsule: a cell structure with key implications in pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • This method has allowed the distinction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from other mycobacteria and enabled the performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mycobacteria. (medscape.com)
  • We further show that bergenin induces Th1 immune responses and potently inhibits bacillary growth in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • O desenvolvimento de novas drogas, vacinas e técnicas de diagnóstico depende de uma melhor compreensão dos mecanismos de virulência de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (scielo.br)
  • This peptide has specific modes of action on Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is used as a model organism for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (calstatela.edu)
  • However, in the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mtb -mediated drug metabolism plays a significant role in treatment outcomes. (nature.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0927c Inhibits NF-κB Pathway by Downregulating the Phosphorylation Level of IκBα and Enhances. (tbdb.org)
  • Notre recherche comprend une meilleure compréhension des voies métaboliques et des enzymes impliquées dans la biogenèse des lipides de l'enveloppe cellulaire chez Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (ipbs.fr)
  • La tuberculose (TB), causée par Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), est l'une des causes majeures de décès dans le monde. (ipbs.fr)
  • It is a nonpathogenic relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the pathogens that cause tuberculosis and leprosy . (theloquitur.com)
  • In WONDER, two tables are available, which list Mycobacterium species by region of the country, and antituberculosis drug susceptibility patterns of M. tuberculosis isolates by region of the country. (cdc.gov)
  • For other nontuberculous mycobacteria (mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis) reported in PHLIS, it is not possible to determine if an isolate was obtained from a patient with mycobacterial illness, or was simply colonizing a nonsterile site. (cdc.gov)
  • Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are classified based on their growth rates. (medscape.com)
  • Multifocal osteomyelitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with a genetic defect of the interferon-gamma receptor. (lu.se)
  • This organism was later named M. smegmatis. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. smegmatis, which was previously considered a nonmotile organism, uses a sliding mechanism that allows it to move around its environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinomycetota and the genus Mycobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species of the genus Mycobacterium have recently been renamed to Mycolicibacterium, so that M. smegmatis is now Mycolicibacterium smegmatis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis is useful for the research analysis of other Mycobacteria species in laboratory experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The time and heavy infrastructure needed to work with pathogenic species prompted researchers to use M. smegmatis as a model for mycobacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • species= Mycobacterium smegmatis str. (lbl.gov)
  • The isolate was identifi ed by 16S infl ammatory processes within the wolinskyi is a rapidly growing my- rRNA gene amplifi cation of an 880-bp synovial tissue and the presence of ac- cobacterium that belongs to the M. smegmatis group, which includes M. smegmatis sensu stricto and 2 species described in 1999 ( M. goodii and M. wolinskyi ) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • It now appears that M. smegmatis and several other species of soil actinobacteria are demonstrating a metabolic flexibility that would provide a powerful advantage over other aerobic microbes in soil ecosystems, he says. (science20.com)
  • Some of these nonpathogenic mycobacteria are among the more common species processed in mycobacteriology laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that changes in morphology may indicate changes in cell wall metabolism and identified an aceE gene mutant ( aceE -mut) which presented a deficient colony morphology on 7H10 agar by screening transposon mutagenesis in Mycolicibacterium smegmatis , basonym Mycobacterium smegmatis ( M. smegmatis ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed that the colony morphology of aceE -mut was quite different, smaller and smoother on the solid culture medium than the wild-type (WT) strain during the transposon library screening of M. smegmatis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results: Four compounds in this series significantly inhibit the growth and formation of biofilm by Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc(2) 155 strain) at 50 mu g/ml. (iisc.ac.in)
  • The girls worked with a strain of live mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis, in order to isolate and grow their phages. (theloquitur.com)
  • This photomicrograph revealed the presence of a number of Mycobacterium smegmatis bacteria, strain 402, which were glowing green, having been processed using homologous antiserum, and the fluorescent antibody (FA) staining technique. (cdc.gov)
  • As cholesterol and branched-chain amino acid catabolism both generate propionyl- CoA , which is a toxic metabolite for mycobacteria , this interconnection suggests a compartmentalization to avoid dissemination of propionyl- CoA into the mycobacterial cytosol . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis: The Vanguard of Mycobacterial Research. (nih.gov)
  • Strategies for cryo-electron tomography of the mycobacterial cell envelope and its pore proteins and functional studies of porin MspA from Mycobacterium smegmatis. (mpg.de)
  • INTERPRETIVE INFORMATION The PHLIS Mycobacterium module tracks mycobacterial isolates, not individual patients or specific cases of mycobacterial disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Notably, in contrast with the WT, which aggregates and forms biofilm, the aceE -mut lost its ability of growing aggregately and biofilm formation, which are two very important features of mycobacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over all, this study indicates that aceE gene plays a significant role in the mycolic acid synthesis and affects the colony morphology, biofilm formation of M. smegmatis and bacteria invasion of macrophage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusion: This finding is of significance as presently very few small molecules are known to inhibit biofilm formation in mycobacteria. (iisc.ac.in)
  • The involvement of GlgE in glycogen biosynthesis was discovered twenty years ago when the phenotype of a temperature-sensitive Mycobacterium smegmatis mutation was rescued by the glgE gene. (jic.ac.uk)
  • This study aimed to identify the functional role of aceE gene in cell wall biosynthesis in M. smegmatis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • To search for sequence similarities to the Mycobacterium phage L5 genome, click on the "GenBank: Z18946" link in the GenBank summary page for phage L5 (see Figure 3). (wikiversity.org)
  • An antigenic analysis of the mycobacteria, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Myco. (eurekamag.com)
  • Mycobacterium fortuitum complex is nonpigmented and includes the M fortuitum group and the Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus group. (medscape.com)
  • M. smegmatis is commonly used in work on the Mycobacterium genus due to it being a "fast grower" and non-pathogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • By knocking out genes in the RD1 locus of M. smegmatis and testing efficiency of Snm secretion before and after gene knockout, specific genes can be identified as necessary for Snm secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have recently described the mpr gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis whose product confers resistance to mycobacteriophages L5 and D29 when overproduced. (pitt.edu)
  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum are associated with lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrent Mycobacterium avium osteomyelitis associated with a novel dominant interferon gamma receptor mutation. (lu.se)
  • Previously, in our laboratory we showed that a deficiency of two Fpg/Nei glycosylases displayed no differences in survival of M. smegmatis mutants under oxidative stress and a 2-3 log difference was observed only when three or all four of the DNA glycosylases were inactivated. (wits.ac.za)
  • Since in E.coli a double mutM and mutY mutant displayed an increased mutator phenotype compared to the individual mutants, it was plausible to investigate the role of MutY in combination with the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases in mycobacteria to understand whether these DNA glycosylases display overlapping and/or compensatory functions in dealing with oxidative damage. (wits.ac.za)
  • For the M. smegmatis enzyme, the Vmax for S-adenosylmethionine formation was 1.30 μmol/min/mg protein and the Km for methionine and ATP was 288 μM and 76 μM respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis GDP-mannose-dependent alpha- (1-2)-phosphatidylinositol mannosyltransferase, partial is a α- or alpha protein sometimes glycoprotein present in blood. (phosphatidylinositol.com)
  • Background - The bacterial GlgE pathway is the third known route to glycogen and is the only one present in mycobacteria. (jic.ac.uk)
  • General Significance - This study highlights how the lowering of flux through the GlgE pathway can slow the growth mycobacteria. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Here, we focused on HsaC and HsaD, enzymes involved in two consecutive steps of cholesterol ring degradation and identified putative partners, using a BirA-based proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) approach in Mycobacterium smegmatis . (bvsalud.org)
  • En combinant une approche in silico et la validation in vitro de l'activité des protéines, nous avons récemment mis en évidence des propriétés structurales et la sélectivité de substrat de ces enzymes. (ipbs.fr)
  • Researchers at New Zealand's University of Otago have found that the soil bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis uses two special enzymes that can efficiently scavenge hydrogen as fuel at very low concentrations. (science20.com)
  • Study lead author and Otago PhD candidate Chris Greening says the findings emerge from a project led by Professor Greg Cook investigating why the mycobacteria family, which includes members causing TB and leprosy, have genes encoding hydrogenase enzymes. (science20.com)
  • In 2023, researchers reported extracting from M. smegmatis a hydrogenase called Huc, which is highly efficient at oxidizing hydrogen gas-and thus creating an electric current-while also being insensitive to the presence of oxygen, which typically obstructs catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The genomes of multiple strains of M. smegmatis have been sequenced by TIGR and other laboratories, including the "wild-type" (mc2 155) and some antibiotic-resistant strains (4XR1/R2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Disseminated Mycobacterium peregrinum infection in a child with complete interferon-gamma receptor-1 deficiency. (lu.se)
  • These collectively form a thick, dense, poorly permeable cell wall, which not only allows mycobacteria to resist the dry environment and harmful chemicals but also allows it to reproduce in the macrophages [ 4 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The growth rate of Mycobacterium smegmatis depends on sufficient porin-mediated influx of nutrients. (mpg.de)
  • A recent study further showed that a deficiency in M. smegmatis MutY glycosylase also displayed no notable susceptibility to oxidative stress or increase in mutagenesis. (wits.ac.za)
  • Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a glycolipid Toll-Like Receptor-2 ligand found on the cell wall of mycobacteria. (lynchburg.edu)
  • The integrity of cell wall structure is highly significant for the in vivo survival of mycobacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The kinetic properties of the M. smegmatis enzyme were also similar to known prokaryotic methionine adenosyltransferases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many mycobacteria are commonly isolated from the environment (especially water), and may colonize normally nonsterile body sites, such as sputum and wounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis is readily cultivatable in most synthetic or complex laboratory media, where it can form visible colonies in 3-5 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proximity-dependent biotin identification links cholesterol catabolism with branched-chain amino acid degradation in Mycobacterium smegmatis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although it hasn't been determined exactly how this mechanism works, the surface properties of the unique cell wall (Figure 1) of M. smegmatis have been found to play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Like many other bacteria, M. smegmatis is known to use the trace levels of hydrogen in the atmosphere as an energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • file contains data on mycobacteria isolated and identified in state public health laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • Subsequent to this, Alvarez and Tavel found organisms similar to that described by Lustgarten also in normal genital secretions (smegma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Atypical mycobacteria are obligate aerobes that can be found in the environment in soil, water, vegetables, and even in domestic animals and dairy products. (medscape.com)
  • M. smegmatis is a simple model that is easy to work with, i.e., with a fast doubling time and only requires a biosafety level 1 laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the molecular partners of cholesterol catabolism remain elusive in mycobacteria . (bvsalud.org)
  • Laboratory data showed a normal of Mycobacterium spp. (cdc.gov)
  • The operation of the PHLIS Mycobacterium module is facilitated by agreements between CDC and the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors on system content, protocols for formatting and transmitting data, and standard case definitions. (cdc.gov)
  • Developing a catalyst that mimics the high-affinity, oxygen-tolerant action of the hydrogenases in M. smegmatis would provide an enormous boost for this technology," he says. (science20.com)
  • These compounds are unique in the sense that they are more potent against Mycobacterium smegmatis in the biofilm state compared to the planktonic form. (iisc.ac.in)
  • L'enveloppe mycobactérienne est unique dans le monde bactérien, tant par sa composition riche en composés structurellement exotiques, que par son agencement, avec notamment la présence d'une membrane externe et d'une membrane interne. (ipbs.fr)
  • Pour valider cette protéine en tant que cible pharmacologique, nous avons développé d'un test biochimique qui détecte l'inhibition de FAAL32 et criblé une collection de 1280 médicaments déjà approuvés (Prestwick Chemical Library). (ipbs.fr)