Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous
Mycobacterium avium Complex
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
Recurrent, disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection caused by the same genotypically defined strain in an immunocompromised patient. (1/164)An 81-year-old male with myasthenia gravis developed a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium marinum, which apparently resolved following local heat therapy. Five months later, the patient developed new skin lesions and pancytopenia. M. marinum was isolated from his bone marrow. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to determine if the skin and bone marrow isolates were clonally related. Digestion of the genomic DNA with the restriction enzymes SpeI and AseI yielded indistinguishable banding patterns. An epidemiologically unrelated control strain showed significant banding differences. The results suggest that the patient's recurrent, disseminated infection was due to recrudescence of his initial infection rather than reinfection by another strain. (+info)
Activation of human neutrophils by mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids. (2/164)The interaction between mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and phagocytes was studied. Human neutrophils were allowed to interact with each of four purified mycobacterial PGLs and the neutrophil production of reactive oxygen metabolites was followed kinetically by luminol-/isoluminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The PGLs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively, were shown to stimulate the production of oxygen metabolites, while PGLs from Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, respectively, were unable to induce an oxidative response. Periodate treatment of the M. tuberculosis PGL decreased the production of oxygen radicals, showing the importance of the PGL carbohydrate moiety for the interaction. The activation, however, could not be inhibited by rhamnose or fucose, indicating a complex interaction which probably involves more than one saccharide unit. This is in line with the fact that the activating PGLs from M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii contain tri- and tetrasaccharides, respectively, while the nonactivating PGLs from M. marinum and M. bovis BCG each contain a monosaccharide. The complement receptor 3 (CR3) has earlier been shown to be of importance for the phagocyte binding of mycobacteria, but did not appear to be involved in the activation of neutrophils by PGLs. The subcellular localization of the reactive oxygen metabolites formed was related to the way in which the glycolipids were presented to the cells. (+info)
Comparative severity of experimentally induced mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp. (3/164)Twenty striped bass Morone saxatilis and 20 hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus x O. aureus each received a single intramuscular injection of 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units per gram body weight of Mycobacterium marinum. Striped bass manifested significantly greater clinical and microscopic disease compared to tilapia. Whereas all the striped bass had died or were clinically ill by Day 8 post-infection, there was no apparent disruption of normal behaviour, physical appearance, or growth in any of the sacrificed or surviving tilapia. Histologically, granulomas in striped bass were generally larger and less discrete, with a higher proportion of heavily vacuolated macrophages, and large cores of necrotic cells. Visceral granulomas in tilapia were smaller, with a higher proportion of epithelioid macrophages, more pigment-containing cells, more peripheral lymphocytes, and virtually no central necrosis. Visceral granulomas were 18-fold more numerous in striped bass than in tilapia. Based upon histomorphometric data, mean proportions of acid-fast bacteria within pronephros granulomas were 4-fold greater in striped bass than tilapia, and striped bass granulomas averaged more than twice as large as tilapia granulomas. In the anterior kidney of striped bass, a positive correlation existed between mean mycobacterial proportions and mean necrosis scores. In tilapia, mean mycobacterial proportions correlated negatively with mean granuloma numbers, whereas there was no correlation between these parameters in striped bass. Results suggest that intrinsic functional differences in the immunologic systems of striped bass and hybrid tilapia may contribute to inter-species variation in mycobacteriosis susceptibility. (+info)
Mycobacteriosis in wild rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus associated with cage farming in the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea. (4/164)Infection patterns of Mycobacterium marinum were studied over a period of 3 yr in wild rabbitfish Siganus nivulatus populations associated with commercial mariculture cages and inhabiting various sites along the Israeli Red Sea coastline. Mycobacteriosis was first recorded from the Red Sea in 1990 in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and is absent from records of studies on parasites and diseases of wild rabbitfish carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. A sharp increase in the prevalence of the disease in cultured and wild fish in the region has occurred since. A total of 1142 rabbitfish were examined over a 3 yr period from inside mariculture net cages, from the cage surroundings and from several sites along the coast. Histological sections of spleens were examined for presence of granulomatous lesions. Overall prevalence levels of 50% were recorded in the rabbitfish sampled inside the net cages and 39% at the cages' close surroundings, 21% at a sandy beach site 1.2 km westwards, 35% at Eilat harbour 3 km to the south and 42% at a coral reef site about 10 km south of the cages. In addition, 147 fish belonging to 18 native Red Sea species were sampled from 2 sites, the net cage farm perimeter and the coral reef area, and examined for similar lesions. None of those from the coral reef were infected with Mycobacterium; however, 9 of 14 species collected from the cage surroundings were infected. An increase in prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the mariculture farm area was noted from 1995 to 1997. At the same time, a significant increase in prevalence was also apparent at the coral reef sampling site. Two M. marinum isolates from rabbitfish captured at Eilat harbour and the coral reef site were shown by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis to be identical to isolates from rabbitfish trapped inside the mariculture cages as well as isolates from locally cultured sea bass D. labrax. The implications of spreading of M. marinum infection in wild fish populations in the Gulf of Eilat are discussed. (+info)
Granuloma-specific expression of Mycobacterium virulence proteins from the glycine-rich PE-PGRS family. (5/164)Pathogenic mycobacteria, including the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, must replicate in macrophages for long-term persistence within their niche during chronic infection: organized collections of macrophages and lymphocytes called granulomas. We identified several genes preferentially expressed when Mycobacterium marinum, the cause of fish and amphibian tuberculosis, resides in host granulomas and/or macrophages. Two were homologs of M. tuberculosis PE/PE-PGRS genes, a family encoding numerous repetitive glycine-rich proteins of unknown function. Mutation of two PE-PGRS genes produced M. marinum strains incapable of replication in macrophages and with decreased persistence in granulomas. Our results establish a direct role in virulence for some PE-PGRS proteins. (+info)
Incubation period and sources of exposure for cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection: case report and review of the literature. (6/164)The diagnosis of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection is often delayed for months after presentation, perhaps because important clinical clues in the patient's history are frequently overlooked. Knowledge of the incubation period allows the clinician to target questions about the patient's history. Prompted by a case with a prolonged incubation period, we sought to determine more precisely the incubation period of M. marinum infection. The MEDLINE database for the period 1966-1996 was searched for information regarding incubation period and type of exposure preceding M. marinum infection. Ninety-nine articles were identified, describing 652 cases. Forty cases had known incubation periods (median, 21 days; range, 5-270 days). Thirty-five percent of cases had an incubation period > or =30 days. Of 193 infections with known exposures, 49% were aquarium-related, 27.4% were related to fish or shellfish injuries, and 8.8% were related to injuries associated with saltwater or brackish water. Because the incubation period for cutaneous M. marinum infection can be prolonged, patients with atypical cutaneous infections should be questioned about high-risk exposures that may have occurred up to 9 months before the onset of symptoms. (+info)
Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium marinum. (7/164)In vitro activities of 17 antibiotics against 53 clinical strains of Mycobacterium marinum, an atypical mycobacterium responsible for cutaneous infections, were determined using the reference agar dilution method. Rifampin and rifabutin were the most active drugs (MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited [MIC(90)s], 0.5 and 0.6 microgram/ml, respectively). MICs of minocycline (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml), doxycycline (MIC(90), 16 microgram/ml), clarithromycin (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml), sparfloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microgram/ml), moxifloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microgram/ml), imipenem (MIC(90), 8 microgram/ml), sulfamethoxazole (MIC(90), 8 microgram/ml) and amikacin (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml) were close to the susceptibility breakpoints. MICs of isoniazid, ethambutol, trimethoprim, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin were above the concentrations usually obtained in vivo. For each drug, the MIC(50), geometric mean MIC, and modal MIC were very close, showing that all the strains had a similar susceptibility pattern. Percent agreement (within +/-1 log(2) dilution) between MICs yielded by the Etest method and by the agar dilution method used as reference were 83, 59, 43, and 24% for minocycline, rifampin, clarithromycin, and sparfloxacin, respectively. Reproducibility with the Etest was low, in contrast to that with the agar dilution method. In conclusion, M. marinum is a naturally multidrug-resistant species for which the agar dilution method is more accurate than the Etest for antibiotic susceptibility testing. (+info)
Comparative genetic analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum reveals evidence of recent divergence. (8/164)Previous studies of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum have suggested a very close genetic relationship between these species (99.6% identity). However, these organisms are phenotypically distinct and cause diseases with very different pathologies. To investigate this apparent paradox, we compared 3,306 nucleotides from the partial sequences of eight housekeeping and structural genes derived from 18 M. ulcerans strains and 22 M. marinum strains. This analysis confirmed the close genetic relationship inferred from the 16S rRNA data, with nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 98.1 to 99.7%. The multilocus sequence analysis also confirmed previous genotype studies of M. ulcerans that have identified distinct genotypes within a geographical region. Single isolates of both M. ulcerans and M. marinum that were shown by the sequence analysis to be the most closely related were then selected for further study. One- and two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the architecture and size of the genome from each species. Genome sizes of approximately 4.4 and 4.6 Mb were obtained for M. ulcerans and M. marinum, respectively. Significant macrorestriction fragment polymorphism was observed between the species. However, hybridization analysis of DNA cleaved with more frequently cutting enzymes identified significant preservation of the flanking sequence at seven of the eight loci sequenced. The exception was the 16S rRNA locus. Two high-copy-number insertion sequences, IS2404 and IS2606, have recently been reported in M. ulcerans, and significantly, these elements are not present in M. marinum. Hybridization of the AseI restriction fragments from M. ulcerans with IS2404 and IS2606 indicated widespread genome distribution for both of these repeated sequences. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that M. ulcerans has recently diverged from M. marinum by the acquisition and concomitant loss of DNA in a manner analogous to the emergence of M. tuberculosis, where species diversity is being driven mainly by the activity of mobile DNA elements. (+info)
Some common types of NTM infections include:
* Lung infections
* Skin infections
* Bone and joint infections
* Heart valve infections
* Cystic fibrosis-related infections
* Infections in people with weakened immune systems
NTM infections can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium chelonae. These bacteria are commonly found in soil and water, and they can enter the body through cuts or open wounds, or by being inhaled into the lungs.
Symptoms of NTM infections may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath
* Skin lesions or ulcers
Diagnosis of an NTM infection is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as cultures or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests. Treatment may involve antibiotics, surgery, or a combination of both, depending on the severity and location of the infection.
Preventive measures for NTM infections are not well established, but people with weakened immune systems or those who live in areas with high levels of NTM bacteria in the environment may be advised to take precautions such as avoiding contact with soil and water, wearing protective clothing and gloves when working with soil or water, and practicing good hygiene.
Types of Mycobacterium Infections:
1. Tuberculosis (TB): This is the most common Mycobacterium infection and is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, and spine.
2. Leprosy: This is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, which primarily affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes. It is also known as Hansen's disease.
3. Buruli ulcer: This is a skin infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium ulcerans, which is found in wet environments such as rivers, lakes, and swamps.
4. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): This is a group of bacteria that can cause a variety of diseases, including lung disease, disseminated disease, and cardiovascular disease.
5. Mycobacterium abscessus: This is a type of bacteria that can cause skin and soft tissue infections, as well as respiratory and disseminated diseases.
Symptoms of Mycobacterium Infections:
The symptoms of Mycobacterium infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common symptoms include:
* Coughing or difficulty breathing (in TB infections)
* Skin lesions or ulcers (in leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Fever, chills, and fatigue (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Swollen lymph nodes (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Joint pain or swelling (in some cases)
* Weight loss and loss of appetite (in severe cases)
Diagnosis of Mycobacterium Infections:
Diagnosing a Mycobacterium infection can be challenging, as the bacteria are slow-growing and require specialized culture techniques. Some common methods for diagnosing Mycobacterium infections include:
* Skin scrapings or biopsies (for leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Sputum or lung biopsy (for TB)
* Blood tests (for disseminated disease)
* Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans (to evaluate the extent of the infection)
Treatment of Mycobacterium Infections:
The treatment of Mycobacterium infections depends on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common treatments include:
* Antibiotics: For TB, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for at least 6 months. For leprosy, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, dapsone, and clofazimine for at least 12 months.
* Surgery: For Buruli ulcer, surgical debridement of the affected skin and tissue is often necessary.
* Supportive care: Patients with severe forms of the disease may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and wound care.
Prevention of Mycobacterium Infections:
Preventing the spread of Mycobacterium infections is crucial for controlling these diseases. Some common prevention measures include:
* Vaccination: For TB, vaccination with the BCG vaccine is recommended for infants and young children in high-risk areas.
* Screening: Screening for TB and leprosy is important for early detection and treatment of cases.
* Contact tracing: Identifying and testing individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Infection control measures: Healthcare workers should follow strict infection control measures when caring for patients with Mycobacterium infections to prevent transmission to others.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing: Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.
* Properly disposing of contaminated materials: Properly disposing of contaminated materials, such as used tissues and surfaces soiled with respiratory secretions, can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.
It is important to note that while these measures can help control the spread of Mycobacterium infections, they are not foolproof and should be combined with other prevention measures, such as early detection and treatment of cases, to effectively control these diseases.
1. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores on the face, arms, and legs. It is most commonly seen in children and is usually treated with antibiotics.
2. Cellulitis: A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth. It is often caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria and may require hospitalization for treatment.
3. MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus): A type of staph infection that is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin and soft tissue infections. It is often seen in hospitals and healthcare settings and can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces.
4. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes red, raised borders on the skin, often on the face, legs, or arms. It is caused by Streptococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
5. Folliculitis: An infection of the hair follicles that can cause redness, swelling, and pus-filled bumps. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
6. Boils: A type of abscess that forms when a hair follicle or oil gland becomes infected. They can be caused by either Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may require draining and antibiotics to treat.
7. Carbuncles: A type of boil that is larger and more severe, often requiring surgical drainage and antibiotics to treat.
8. Erythrasma: A mild infection that causes small, red patches on the skin. It is caused by Corynebacterium bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
9. Cellulitis: An infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
10. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores or blisters on the skin, often around the nose, mouth, or limbs. It is caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
These are just a few examples of common skin infections and there are many more types that can occur. If you suspect you or someone else has a skin infection, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The symptoms of tenosynovitis can vary depending on the location of the affected tendon, but common symptoms include:
* Pain and tenderness in the affected area
* Swelling and redness in the affected area
* Stiffness and limited range of motion in the affected joint
* Difficulty moving the affected limb or joint
* Clicking or snapping sensation in the affected joint
Tenosynovitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Overuse or repetitive strain on the tendon
* Injury or trauma to the affected area
* Age-related wear and tear on the tendons
* Certain medical conditions, such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis
Treatment for tenosynovitis usually involves rest, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged tendon. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated tenosynovitis can lead to chronic pain and limited mobility.
Granulomas are formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and they serve as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent. The granuloma is characterized by a central area of necrosis, surrounded by a ring of immune cells, including macrophages and T-lymphocytes.
Granulomas are commonly seen in a variety of inflammatory conditions, such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and sarcoidosis. They can also occur as a result of infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections, and in the context of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
In summary, granuloma is a term used to describe a type of inflammatory lesion that is formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and serves as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent.
Some common types of fish diseases include:
1. Bacterial infections: These are caused by bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium. Symptoms can include fin and tail rot, body slime, and ulcers.
2. Viral infections: These are caused by viruses such as viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Symptoms can include lethargy, loss of appetite, and rapid death.
3. Protozoan infections: These are caused by protozoa such as Cryptocaryon and Ichthyophonus. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.
4. Fungal infections: These are caused by fungi such as Saprolegnia and Achlya. Symptoms can include fuzzy growths on the body and fins, and sluggish behavior.
5. Parasitic infections: These are caused by parasites such as Ichthyophonus and Cryptocaryon. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.
Diagnosis of fish diseases is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the fish's behavior and environment. Treatment options vary depending on the type of disease and the severity of symptoms, and can include antibiotics, antifungals, and medicated baths. Prevention is key in managing fish diseases, and this includes maintaining good water quality, providing a balanced diet, and keeping the fish in a healthy environment.
Note: The information provided is a general overview of common fish diseases and their symptoms, and should not be considered as professional medical advice. If you suspect your fish has a disease, it is recommended that you consult with a veterinarian or a qualified aquarium expert for proper diagnosis and treatment.
1. Impetigo: A highly contagious bacterial infection that causes sores on the face, arms, and legs.
2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): A type of bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause skin infections, including boils and abscesses.
3. Folliculitis: An infection of the hair follicles, often caused by bacteria or fungi, that can lead to redness, itching, and pus-filled bumps.
4. Cellulitis: A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area.
5. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that causes small, painful blisters on the skin, often around the mouth or genitals.
6. Human papillomavirus (HPV): A viral infection that can cause warts on the skin, as well as other types of cancer.
7. Scabies: A highly contagious parasitic infestation that causes itching and a rash, often on the hands, feet, and genital area.
8. Ringworm: A fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin, often on the arms, legs, or trunk.
These are just a few examples of infectious skin diseases, but there are many others that can affect the skin and cause a range of symptoms. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have an infectious skin disease, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
There are two main forms of TB:
1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.
TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.
Preventive measures against TB include:
1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.
Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.
Some common types of hand dermatoses include:
1. Contact dermatitis: This is a type of eczema that occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen. It can cause redness, itching, and dryness on the hands.
2. Psoriasis: This is a chronic condition that causes red, scaly patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the hands.
3. Eczema: This is a general term for a group of conditions that cause dry, itchy skin. It can affect the hands as well as other parts of the body.
4. Dermatitis herpetiformis: This is a condition that causes small blisters or bumps on the skin, often in conjunction with other symptoms such as fever and joint pain.
5. Urticaria: This is a condition that causes hives or itchy, raised welts on the skin. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and environmental exposures.
6. Angioedema: This is a condition that causes swelling of the deeper layers of skin, often in conjunction with hives or other symptoms.
7. Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum: This is a condition that affects people with diabetes and causes raised, darkened areas on the skin, often on the hands and feet.
8. Hand eczema: This is a type of eczema that specifically affects the hands, causing dryness, itching, and redness on the palms and soles.
Treatment for hand dermatoses depends on the underlying cause and can include topical creams or ointments, medications, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding irritants and allergens, keeping the hands moisturized, and protecting them from extreme temperatures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected skin or repair damaged tissue.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms on your hands, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Buruli ulcer is most commonly seen in children and young adults, and the infection is more prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The disease may be acquired through contact with contaminated water or soil, or through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person.
The symptoms of Buruli ulcer can vary in severity and may include:
* Painless ulcers or nodules on the skin
* Swelling and redness around the affected area
* Loss of mobility or disfigurement if the infection is severe or left untreated
Buruli ulcer can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical debridement of the affected tissue. In some cases, amputation may be necessary if the infection is severe or has caused significant tissue damage.
Prevention of Buruli ulcer is challenging, but it can be reduced by:
* Improving access to clean water and sanitation
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil
* Seeking medical attention promptly if skin lesions or ulcers develop.
Overall, Buruli ulcer is a debilitating and disfiguring disease that can have significant social and economic impacts on individuals and communities. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes for those affected.
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- A sign of Mycobacterium marinum infection is a non-healing red sore on the skin. (medicinenet.com)
- Mycobacterium marinum infection of the hand is shown above. (medicinenet.com)
- The first signs of infection with M. marinum include a reddish or tan skin bump called a granuloma. (medicinenet.com)
- People are prone to this infection when there is minor trauma to an extremity like the forearm before or during contact with marine animals like fish or turtles, or just an aquarium, saltwater, or freshwater. (medicinenet.com)
- Who is at risk for Mycobacterium marinum infection? (medicinenet.com)
- What are the symptoms of Mycobacterium marinum infection? (medicinenet.com)
- For this reason, M marinum infection can often be misdiagnosed as sporotrichosis. (medscape.com)
- Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum in a patient with anorexia nervosa. (medscape.com)
- Twenty-eight cases of Mycobacterium marinum infection: retrospective case series and literature review. (medscape.com)
- Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT) infection: an emerging disease in infliximab-treated patients. (medscape.com)
- Mycobacterium marinum infection in the setting of antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy for Crohn's disease. (medscape.com)
- Mycobacterium marinum: a potential immunotherapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (medscape.com)
- Aubry A, Chosidow O, Caumes E, Robert J, Cambau E. Sixty-three cases of Mycobacterium marinum infection: clinical features, treatment, and antibiotic susceptibility of causative isolates. (medscape.com)
- di Meo N, Stinco G, Trevisini S, De Marchi S, Albano A, Trevisan G. Sporotrichoid Mycobacterium marinum infection in an elderly woman. (medscape.com)
- Vanhooteghem O, Theate I, De Schaetzen V. Periungual Mycobacterium marinum Infection following a Fish Manicure. (medscape.com)
- Mycobacterium marinum infection occurring on the face. (medscape.com)
- This bacterial infection is caused by Mycobacterium marinum . (medlineplus.gov)
- A total of 35 cases of invasive M. marinum disease were then reviewed, according to patient age and sex, symptoms, source of infection, immune impairment, time to diagnosis, and type as well as duration of therapy ( 2 - 24 ) ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
- Immunologic impairment was a frequent component of invasive M. marinum infections: 14 (40%) of case-patients received a steroid injection at the site of infection, and 9 (26%) were receiving systemic steroids for various indications. (cdc.gov)
- While M.yocobacterium marinum infections usually arise from aquatic trauma in healthy hosts, delayed diagnosis and immune suppression contribute to the pathogenesis of invasive infection. (cdc.gov)
- If M. mariunm infection is suspected, the laboratory staff should be notified so that cultures are incubated at optimal temperatures in order to isolate M. marinum . (antimicrobe.org)
- Culture confirmed M. marinum infection was reported in 66 patients from 1996 to 1998 in France, with an infection incidence of about 0.04 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year ( 7a ). (antimicrobe.org)
- The two major risk factors for M. marinum infection in immunocompetent patients are exposure to M. marinum -infested waters and the presence of superficial cuts or abrasions. (antimicrobe.org)
- Although there has been no reported change in M. marinum infection prevalence and frequency in the developed world since the AIDS epidemic, several cases of disseminated infection in AIDS patients have been described ( 46 , 65 ). (antimicrobe.org)
- The average incubation period for M. marinum infection is 21 days, although it may be as long as 270 days and 35% of cases have an incubation period of 30 days ( 3 ). (antimicrobe.org)
- Given the optimal growth temperature of M. marinum , the infection is primarily localized to the coolest region of the body, which is the skin. (antimicrobe.org)
- B. Mycobacterium marinum infection. (aafp.org)
- Mycobacterium marinum infection), cat-scratch disease and toxoplasmosis. (aafp.org)
- M. marinum infection (fish tank granuloma) may closely resemble lymphangitic sporotrichosis. (aafp.org)
- In this section the different phases of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis will be reviewed. (springer.com)
- A process which is thought to be analogous to the susceptibility of zebrafish to Mycobacterium marinum infection. (springer.com)
- Bakhsh WR , Mesfin A . Mycobacterium kansasii infection of the spine in a patient with sarcoidosis: a case report and literature review. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- While the child originally had a small wound that quickly healed, five months later it grew to a rare bacterial infection known as Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum). (ctvnews.ca)
- The doctors who researched the findings say this is likely the first time a case of M. marinum infection is reported from an iguana bite, citing that most iguana bites are linked to other bacterial infections like a staph infection (staphylococcus aureus). (ctvnews.ca)
- This story has been updated to clarify M. marinum is a bacterial infection and not a viral infection. (ctvnews.ca)
- M. marinum grows optimally at 28° to 32° C (within 2-3 weeks), while fails to grow on primary isolation at 37°C, a feature that distinguishes this species from M. kansasii. (antimicrobe.org)
- Mycobacterium kansasii , one such NTM, is responsible for causing pulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Mycobacterium kansasii causing septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in a child. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Yano T , Okuda S , Kato K , Kato K , Kishimoto T . Mycobacterium kansasii osteomyelitis in a patient with AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Schnadig VJ , Quadri SF , Boyvat F , Borucki M . Mycobacterium kansasii osteomyelitis presenting as a solitary lytic lesion of the ulna: fine-needle aspiration findings and morphologic comparison with other mycobacteria. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Multiple cranial osteolytic lesions due to Mycobacterium kansasii in a patient with AIDS. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Mycobacterium kansasii osteomyelitis of the scaphoid. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- These proteins, (ESAT-6 and CFP-10) are absent from all BCG strains and from most non-tuberculous mycobacteria with the exception of M. kansasii, M. szulgai and M. marinum. (cdc.gov)
- Mycobacterium marinum ( M. marinum ) is a slow-growing atypical mycobacterium that is commonly found in bodies of fresh or saltwater in many parts of the world. (medicinenet.com)
- Mycobacterium marinum is a type of bacteria commonly found in freshwater and saltwater aquariums and ponds. (cdc.gov)
- Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental bacteria capable of causing an opportunistic myriad of infections. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Lead researcher Jordan Mah from Stanford University School of Medicine said the iguana's cold-blooded body is likely what stabilized the bacteria since M. marinum thrives in lower temperatures. (ctvnews.ca)
- Contact with different species of environmental Mycobacterium can cause acquired immunity to M. tuberculosis or increase the efficacy of BCG vaccine protection (M. vaccae, M. microti), although some species of these bacteria reduce the efficacy of BCG vaccine (M. scrofulaceum) [8,10-13]. (who.int)
- Mycobacterium chelonae bacteremia in a patient taking infliximab and prednisone. (nih.gov)
- The most common species isolated were Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. flavescens and M. chelonae. (who.int)
- Les espèces les plus couramment isolées étaient Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. flavescens et M. chelonae. (who.int)
- The results from these analyses consistently support the existence of five distinct monophyletic groups within the genus Mycobacterium at the highest level, which are designated as the " Tuberculosis-Simiae ," " Terrae," " Triviale ," " Fortuitum-Vaccae ," and " Abscessus-Chelonae " clades. (frontiersin.org)
- Nontuberculous mycobacteria: opportunistic environmental pathogens for predisposed hosts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- and Mycobacterium ulcerans we performed an environmental survey that allowed the detection of both pathogens in urban vs . rural areas, and during rainy vs . dry weather conditions. (plos.org)
- A number of non-tuberculous mycobacterium species are opportunistic pathogens and ubiquitously form biofilms. (microbialcell.com)
- The genus Mycobacterium contains 188 species including several major human pathogens as well as numerous other environmental species. (frontiersin.org)
- Based on the results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analyses and numerous identified molecular signatures, which consistently and strongly support the division of known mycobacterial species into the five described clades, we propose here division of the genus Mycobacterium into an emended genus Mycobacterium encompassing the " Tuberculosis-Simiae " clade, which includes all of the major human pathogens, and four novel genera viz. (frontiersin.org)
- Frehel C , Ryter A , Rastogi N , David H . The electron-transparent zone in phagocytized Mycobacterium avium and other mycobacteria: formation, persistence and role in bacterial survival. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- In HIV-infected men who have sex with men, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasmic encephalitis, fungal infections, and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease have decreased in incidence (9). (cdc.gov)
- Rotcheewaphan S, Lemon JK, Desai UU, Henderson CM, Zelazny AM . "Rapid one-step protein extraction method for the identification of mycobacteria using MALDI-TOF MS." (2019) Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. (nih.gov)
- In the end, we have described the biofilms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis. (microbialcell.com)
- Comparison of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli ulcer) and Leptospira sp. (plos.org)
- M. marinum causes disease in many poikilothermic fresh or salt waterfish species over a wide geographic distribution ( 54 ). (antimicrobe.org)
- at 29°C, the temperature at which we grow M marinum , we get vast numbers of competing bacterial and yeast species out of flies. (openwetware.org)
- ABSTRACT This research compared the numbers and types of different Mycobacterium species in soil samples taken from 2 areas of Golestan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 1 with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and 1 with a low prevalence. (who.int)
- There are currently 71 recognized or proposed species of Mycobacterium , all of which, except M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, are considered as environmental mycobacteria and can usually be isolated from environmental samples including water, soil and dust . (who.int)
- We have discussed the biofilms of several pathogenic non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species in context to the in vivo pathologies. (microbialcell.com)
- We report here comprehensive phylogenomics and comparative genomic analyses on 150 genomes of Mycobacterium species to understand their interrelationships. (frontiersin.org)
- Phylogenetic trees were constructed for the 150 species based on 1941 core proteins for the genus Mycobacterium , 136 core proteins for the phylum Actinobacteria and 8 other conserved proteins. (frontiersin.org)
- Additionally, the overall genome similarity amongst the Mycobacterium species was determined based on average amino acid identity of the conserved protein families. (frontiersin.org)
- In parallel, our comparative analyses of proteins from mycobacterial genomes have identified 172 molecular signatures in the form of conserved signature indels and conserved signature proteins, which are uniquely shared by either all Mycobacterium species or by members of the five identified clades. (frontiersin.org)
- At the time of writing, the genus Mycobacterium consists of 188 species with validly published names ( www.namesforlife.com ) ( Parte, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In this study we utilise biotagging, a novel genome-wide profiling approach based on cell type-specific in vivo biotinylation in zebrafish to analyse the initial response of neutrophils to Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis used to model tuberculosis. (ox.ac.uk)
- Besides pathogenic NTMs, Mycobacterium smegmatis is often used as a model organism for understanding mycobacterial physiology and has been studied extensively for understanding the mycobacterial biofilms. (microbialcell.com)
- Marinum is a relative of the organism which causes tuberculosis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Lata CJ, Edgar K, Vaughan S. Clinical Implications for the Timely Diagnosis of Mycobacterium marinum in the Age of Biologic Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. (medscape.com)
- Some synonyms for Mycobacterium marinum skin infections include tropical fish granuloma, fish tank granuloma, and fish tank granuloma. (medicinenet.com)
- Mycobacterium marinum infections, commonly known as fish tank granuloma, produce nodular or ulcerating skin lesions on the extremities of healthy hosts. (cdc.gov)
- Produce lesiones cutáneas y granulomas en el hombre (granuloma de las piscinas). (bvsalud.org)
- Patients sometimes undergo long courses of antifungal treatments before further spreading of the Mycobacterium elicits a repeat biopsy and culture. (medscape.com)
- The different environmental mycobacteria are very similar and for many years were mistakenly assumed to be M. tuberculosis in patients [1,2]. (who.int)
- Skin infections with Mycobacterium marinum in humans are relatively uncommon and are usually acquired from contact with the contents of aquariums or fish. (medicinenet.com)
- According to a case report presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases conference , M. marinum is usually only reported in fish however it has infected humans through skin wounds coming into contact with contaminated fresh or saltwater. (ctvnews.ca)
- Mycobacteria-laden droplet nuclei are formed when a patient with active pulmonary TB coughs and can remain suspended in the air for several hours. (springer.com)
- In vivo and in vitro growth of Mycobacterium marinum at homoeothermic temperatures. (medscape.com)
- The frequencies of environmental Mycobacterium in the low-prevalence area were much higher than in the high-prevalence area, perhaps due to different environmental factors. (who.int)
- Transmission of Mycobacterium marinum from fish to a very young child. (medscape.com)
- M. marinum , which was first isolated in 1926 by Aronson from dead saltwater fish in the Philadelphia aquarium ( 6 ), was recognized as a human pathogen in 1951 by Norden and Linell, who isolated it from skin lesions in swimmers who had bathed in a contaminated pool in Sweden ( 51 ). (antimicrobe.org)
- Almost half (49%) of M. marinum infections are aquarium related, 27% are related to fish or shellfish injuries and 9% are related to injuries associated with salt water or brackish water ( 3 ). (antimicrobe.org)
- Morgan, an experienced boat captain, says he was recently pricked by a fish - and believes he got Mycobacterium Marinum after touching more fish. (ktnv.com)
- A Medaka fish infected with Mycobacterium marinum as seen under fluorescent imaging. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
- The Mycobacteriology laboratory maintains a large, on-going collection of clinical isolates of mycobacteria used for patient-care and research purposes. (nih.gov)
- In this work, we demonstrate the utility of flow cytometry and whole genome sequencing (WGS) to diagnose disseminated M. marinum unmasked by IRIS following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. (nih.gov)
- Distinguishing disseminated Mycobacterium marinum from multifocal cutaneous disease in persons with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS can present a diagnostic challenge, especially in the context of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). (nih.gov)
- Mycobacterium marinum , a non-tuberculous pathochromogen with an intermediate growth rate between rapidly and slowly growing mycobacteria, belongs to group I of the Runyon classification ( 57a ). (antimicrobe.org)
- Culture of mycobacteria from biological samples is difficult, because mycobacteria grow very slowly and are easily out-competed. (openwetware.org)
- However, the relative incidence of the environmental Mycobacterium spp. (who.int)
- Under Dr. Zelazny's direction, the laboratory has pioneered the use of MALDI TOF mass spectrometry for the identification of mycobacteria and fungi and developed new diagnostic assays for identification and typing of rapidly growing mycobacteria and in particular M. abscessus and more recently the evaluation of a proteomic method direct detection of mycobacteria in patient samples. (nih.gov)
- Three weeks later, olecranon bursa aspirate fluid cultures incubated on chocolate agar and 7H11 plates at 31°C, as well as on algae slant, and mycobacterial growth indicator tubes incubated at 37°C grew M.ycobacterium marinum . (cdc.gov)
- Mycobacterium marinum does not typically grow at normal body temperature, which is why it remains localized to the cooler skin surface. (medicinenet.com)
- Mycobacterium neoaurum bacteremia in an immunodepressed patient]. (nih.gov)
- Case reports from English language MEDLINE articles since 1966 under the subject heading Mycobacterium marinum were cross-referenced with articles containing the following text words: disseminated, osteomyelitis, arthritis, synovitis, and bursitis. (cdc.gov)
- This underlines the importance of ensuring that tissue samples obtained are cultured for mycobacteria. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Cholesterol metabolism: a potential therapeutic target in Mycobacteria. (bvsalud.org)