A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.
Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A lesion in the skin and subcutaneous tissues due to infections by MYCOBACTERIUM ULCERANS. It was first reported in Uganda, Africa.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
The movement of one cell into, through, and out of another cell.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

Recurrent, disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection caused by the same genotypically defined strain in an immunocompromised patient. (1/164)

An 81-year-old male with myasthenia gravis developed a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium marinum, which apparently resolved following local heat therapy. Five months later, the patient developed new skin lesions and pancytopenia. M. marinum was isolated from his bone marrow. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to determine if the skin and bone marrow isolates were clonally related. Digestion of the genomic DNA with the restriction enzymes SpeI and AseI yielded indistinguishable banding patterns. An epidemiologically unrelated control strain showed significant banding differences. The results suggest that the patient's recurrent, disseminated infection was due to recrudescence of his initial infection rather than reinfection by another strain.  (+info)

Activation of human neutrophils by mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids. (2/164)

The interaction between mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and phagocytes was studied. Human neutrophils were allowed to interact with each of four purified mycobacterial PGLs and the neutrophil production of reactive oxygen metabolites was followed kinetically by luminol-/isoluminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The PGLs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively, were shown to stimulate the production of oxygen metabolites, while PGLs from Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, respectively, were unable to induce an oxidative response. Periodate treatment of the M. tuberculosis PGL decreased the production of oxygen radicals, showing the importance of the PGL carbohydrate moiety for the interaction. The activation, however, could not be inhibited by rhamnose or fucose, indicating a complex interaction which probably involves more than one saccharide unit. This is in line with the fact that the activating PGLs from M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii contain tri- and tetrasaccharides, respectively, while the nonactivating PGLs from M. marinum and M. bovis BCG each contain a monosaccharide. The complement receptor 3 (CR3) has earlier been shown to be of importance for the phagocyte binding of mycobacteria, but did not appear to be involved in the activation of neutrophils by PGLs. The subcellular localization of the reactive oxygen metabolites formed was related to the way in which the glycolipids were presented to the cells.  (+info)

Comparative severity of experimentally induced mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp. (3/164)

Twenty striped bass Morone saxatilis and 20 hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus x O. aureus each received a single intramuscular injection of 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units per gram body weight of Mycobacterium marinum. Striped bass manifested significantly greater clinical and microscopic disease compared to tilapia. Whereas all the striped bass had died or were clinically ill by Day 8 post-infection, there was no apparent disruption of normal behaviour, physical appearance, or growth in any of the sacrificed or surviving tilapia. Histologically, granulomas in striped bass were generally larger and less discrete, with a higher proportion of heavily vacuolated macrophages, and large cores of necrotic cells. Visceral granulomas in tilapia were smaller, with a higher proportion of epithelioid macrophages, more pigment-containing cells, more peripheral lymphocytes, and virtually no central necrosis. Visceral granulomas were 18-fold more numerous in striped bass than in tilapia. Based upon histomorphometric data, mean proportions of acid-fast bacteria within pronephros granulomas were 4-fold greater in striped bass than tilapia, and striped bass granulomas averaged more than twice as large as tilapia granulomas. In the anterior kidney of striped bass, a positive correlation existed between mean mycobacterial proportions and mean necrosis scores. In tilapia, mean mycobacterial proportions correlated negatively with mean granuloma numbers, whereas there was no correlation between these parameters in striped bass. Results suggest that intrinsic functional differences in the immunologic systems of striped bass and hybrid tilapia may contribute to inter-species variation in mycobacteriosis susceptibility.  (+info)

Mycobacteriosis in wild rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus associated with cage farming in the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea. (4/164)

Infection patterns of Mycobacterium marinum were studied over a period of 3 yr in wild rabbitfish Siganus nivulatus populations associated with commercial mariculture cages and inhabiting various sites along the Israeli Red Sea coastline. Mycobacteriosis was first recorded from the Red Sea in 1990 in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and is absent from records of studies on parasites and diseases of wild rabbitfish carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. A sharp increase in the prevalence of the disease in cultured and wild fish in the region has occurred since. A total of 1142 rabbitfish were examined over a 3 yr period from inside mariculture net cages, from the cage surroundings and from several sites along the coast. Histological sections of spleens were examined for presence of granulomatous lesions. Overall prevalence levels of 50% were recorded in the rabbitfish sampled inside the net cages and 39% at the cages' close surroundings, 21% at a sandy beach site 1.2 km westwards, 35% at Eilat harbour 3 km to the south and 42% at a coral reef site about 10 km south of the cages. In addition, 147 fish belonging to 18 native Red Sea species were sampled from 2 sites, the net cage farm perimeter and the coral reef area, and examined for similar lesions. None of those from the coral reef were infected with Mycobacterium; however, 9 of 14 species collected from the cage surroundings were infected. An increase in prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the mariculture farm area was noted from 1995 to 1997. At the same time, a significant increase in prevalence was also apparent at the coral reef sampling site. Two M. marinum isolates from rabbitfish captured at Eilat harbour and the coral reef site were shown by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis to be identical to isolates from rabbitfish trapped inside the mariculture cages as well as isolates from locally cultured sea bass D. labrax. The implications of spreading of M. marinum infection in wild fish populations in the Gulf of Eilat are discussed.  (+info)

Granuloma-specific expression of Mycobacterium virulence proteins from the glycine-rich PE-PGRS family. (5/164)

Pathogenic mycobacteria, including the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, must replicate in macrophages for long-term persistence within their niche during chronic infection: organized collections of macrophages and lymphocytes called granulomas. We identified several genes preferentially expressed when Mycobacterium marinum, the cause of fish and amphibian tuberculosis, resides in host granulomas and/or macrophages. Two were homologs of M. tuberculosis PE/PE-PGRS genes, a family encoding numerous repetitive glycine-rich proteins of unknown function. Mutation of two PE-PGRS genes produced M. marinum strains incapable of replication in macrophages and with decreased persistence in granulomas. Our results establish a direct role in virulence for some PE-PGRS proteins.  (+info)

Incubation period and sources of exposure for cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection: case report and review of the literature. (6/164)

The diagnosis of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection is often delayed for months after presentation, perhaps because important clinical clues in the patient's history are frequently overlooked. Knowledge of the incubation period allows the clinician to target questions about the patient's history. Prompted by a case with a prolonged incubation period, we sought to determine more precisely the incubation period of M. marinum infection. The MEDLINE database for the period 1966-1996 was searched for information regarding incubation period and type of exposure preceding M. marinum infection. Ninety-nine articles were identified, describing 652 cases. Forty cases had known incubation periods (median, 21 days; range, 5-270 days). Thirty-five percent of cases had an incubation period > or =30 days. Of 193 infections with known exposures, 49% were aquarium-related, 27.4% were related to fish or shellfish injuries, and 8.8% were related to injuries associated with saltwater or brackish water. Because the incubation period for cutaneous M. marinum infection can be prolonged, patients with atypical cutaneous infections should be questioned about high-risk exposures that may have occurred up to 9 months before the onset of symptoms.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium marinum. (7/164)

In vitro activities of 17 antibiotics against 53 clinical strains of Mycobacterium marinum, an atypical mycobacterium responsible for cutaneous infections, were determined using the reference agar dilution method. Rifampin and rifabutin were the most active drugs (MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited [MIC(90)s], 0.5 and 0.6 microgram/ml, respectively). MICs of minocycline (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml), doxycycline (MIC(90), 16 microgram/ml), clarithromycin (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml), sparfloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microgram/ml), moxifloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microgram/ml), imipenem (MIC(90), 8 microgram/ml), sulfamethoxazole (MIC(90), 8 microgram/ml) and amikacin (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml) were close to the susceptibility breakpoints. MICs of isoniazid, ethambutol, trimethoprim, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin were above the concentrations usually obtained in vivo. For each drug, the MIC(50), geometric mean MIC, and modal MIC were very close, showing that all the strains had a similar susceptibility pattern. Percent agreement (within +/-1 log(2) dilution) between MICs yielded by the Etest method and by the agar dilution method used as reference were 83, 59, 43, and 24% for minocycline, rifampin, clarithromycin, and sparfloxacin, respectively. Reproducibility with the Etest was low, in contrast to that with the agar dilution method. In conclusion, M. marinum is a naturally multidrug-resistant species for which the agar dilution method is more accurate than the Etest for antibiotic susceptibility testing.  (+info)

Comparative genetic analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum reveals evidence of recent divergence. (8/164)

Previous studies of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum have suggested a very close genetic relationship between these species (99.6% identity). However, these organisms are phenotypically distinct and cause diseases with very different pathologies. To investigate this apparent paradox, we compared 3,306 nucleotides from the partial sequences of eight housekeeping and structural genes derived from 18 M. ulcerans strains and 22 M. marinum strains. This analysis confirmed the close genetic relationship inferred from the 16S rRNA data, with nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 98.1 to 99.7%. The multilocus sequence analysis also confirmed previous genotype studies of M. ulcerans that have identified distinct genotypes within a geographical region. Single isolates of both M. ulcerans and M. marinum that were shown by the sequence analysis to be the most closely related were then selected for further study. One- and two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the architecture and size of the genome from each species. Genome sizes of approximately 4.4 and 4.6 Mb were obtained for M. ulcerans and M. marinum, respectively. Significant macrorestriction fragment polymorphism was observed between the species. However, hybridization analysis of DNA cleaved with more frequently cutting enzymes identified significant preservation of the flanking sequence at seven of the eight loci sequenced. The exception was the 16S rRNA locus. Two high-copy-number insertion sequences, IS2404 and IS2606, have recently been reported in M. ulcerans, and significantly, these elements are not present in M. marinum. Hybridization of the AseI restriction fragments from M. ulcerans with IS2404 and IS2606 indicated widespread genome distribution for both of these repeated sequences. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that M. ulcerans has recently diverged from M. marinum by the acquisition and concomitant loss of DNA in a manner analogous to the emergence of M. tuberculosis, where species diversity is being driven mainly by the activity of mobile DNA elements.  (+info)

Fish tank granuloma is a rare skin infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum, a non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. The organism is found worldwide in stagnant freshwater and saltwater environments including lakes, inadequately chlorinated swimming pools, and aquariums. In the United States, this skin infection is strongly associated with those who handle fish tanks, including pet shop workers and aquarium owners. Individuals who shuck raw oysters or prepare shellfish or sushi also have been reported with the skin disease. Infection occurs when water containing M. marinum enters through a break in the skin. A thorough history from infected individuals usually reveals an injury associated with cleaning fish tanks, changing aquarium water, or trauma from fish hooks. The skin infection is not spread from person to person. Fish tank granuloma presents as a slow-growing, inflamed red bump (nodule or plaque) at the trauma site. The lesion is often painful and may become ulcerated or crusted. Skin changes ...
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We have explored the relatively rapidly growing animal and human pathogen Mycobacterium marinum as an experimental model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. M. marinum, which has a lower temperature for optimal growth than does Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a much shorter generation time and can be safely studied in ordinary laboratory facilities and examined in multiple animal infection models. We have established an in vitro assay for its interaction with eukaryotic cells and shown that it persists in these cells in a temperature-specific fashion that correlates with its ability to cause disease in vivo at lower temperatures. Additionally, preliminary evidence that M. marinum causes a chronic disease with some features resembling tuberculosis in frogs of the species Rana pipiens is presented. ...
Successful treatment of refractory cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum with a combined regimen containing amikacin Yingxue Huang,* Xiulian Xu,* Yi Liu, Kan Wu, Wei Zhang, Pai Liu, Xuesi Zeng, Jianfang Sun, Yiqun Jiang, Hongsheng WangKey Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The incidence of Mycobacterium marinum infection has been increasing. First-line antituberculous drugs and other common antibiotics are effective for most cutaneous M. marinum infections; however, treatment failure still occurs in some rare cases. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with refractory cutaneous infection caused by M. marinum. Reasons for delayed diagnosis and related factors of the refractory infection are also discussed.Methods: Samples of lesional skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium for acid-fast
We develop a finite difference scheme to approximate the solution of a novel size-structured mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of |em| Mycobacterium marinum|/em| (Mm) in an aquatic environment. The model consists of a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations coupled with three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Existence and uniqueness results are established and convergence of the finite difference approximation to the unique bounded variation weak solution of the model is obtained. Numerical simulations demonstrating the accuracy of the method are presented. We also conducted preliminary studies on the key features of this model, such as various forms of growth rates (indicative of possible theories of development), and conditions for competitive exclusion or coexistence as determined by reproductive fitness and genetic spread in the population.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Environmental amoebae and mycobacterial pathogenesis. AU - Harriff, Melanie. AU - Bermudez, Luiz E.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Environmental amoebae have been shown to be a host to pathogenic mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium peregrinum can all grow inside Acanthamoeba and other environmental amoebae. Once ingested by Acanthamoeba, M. avium upregulates a number of genes, many of them similar to genes upregulated upon phagocytosis of M. avium by macrophages. Mycobacteria ingested by amoebae grow intracellularly, acquiring an invasive phenotype, evident when the bacterium escapes the infected amoeba. Once inside of amoeba, it has been shown that mycobacteria are protected from antibiotics and disinfectants, such as chlorine. This chapter describes methods employed for the study of the interaction of M. avium and Acanthamoeba.. AB - Environmental amoebae have been shown to be a host to pathogenic mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, ...
Eruptions in a patient with Crohns disease using infliximab: Culture revealed M.marinum, with positive IGRA (results were negative previously) Mycobacterium marinum Oppoturnistic bacteria that causes aquarium granuloma (affects individuals who work with fish or have aquarium at home). Most are acquired during the handling of the aquariums such as cleaning or changing the water. Typically…
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Although spontaneous resolution of the infection has been described, the current mainstay of treatment of M marinum infection is antibiotic therapy. As M marinum infection is relatively rare, there have been no clinical trials to guide optimal management. Thus, choice of antibiotic often relies on anecdotal evidence from previous cases. As mutational resistance is generally not observed for M marinum, susceptibility testing is not routinely recommended.13. Mycobacterium marinum appears to respond to minocycline followed by doxycycline. Other antibiotics that can be used are clarithromycin in combination with rifampin, rifampin and ethambutol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin.14. The duration of treatment is highly variable and often depends on the extent of the infection and the initial success of the antibiotic regimen. Typically, 3 to 4 months of treatment is required for superficial infections, and treatment should be continued for 1 to 2 months after complete resolution of ...
A thorough understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis in humans has been elusive in part because of imperfect surrogate laboratory hosts, each with its own idiosyncrasies. Mycobacterium marinum is the closest genetic relative of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is a natural pathogen of ectotherms. In this review, we present evidence that the similar genetic programs of M. marinum and M. tuberculosis and the corresponding host immune responses reveal a conserved skeleton of Mycobacterium host-pathogen interactions. While both species have made niche-specific refinements, an essential framework has persisted. We highlight genetic comparisons of the two organisms and studies of M. marinum in the developing zebrafish. By pairing M. marinum with the simplified immune system of zebrafish embryos, many of the defining mechanisms of mycobacterial pathogenesis can be distilled and investigated in a tractable host/pathogen pair ...
We showed that, after infection via the bloodstream, early granulomas were formed in the brain parenchyma and the ventricular system of both embryos and in larvae containing a fully developed BBB. Our experiments with Tg(Fli1:GFP)y1 casper embryos confirmed these findings and indicated that mycobacteria leave the bloodstream and are able to establish new granulomas in surrounding tissue; because individuals with an intact BBB do develop TBM, it is clear that mycobacteria traverse this barrier. However, the exact mechanism is not yet known.. The BBB consists of endothelial cells with tight junctions, surrounded by a continuous basement membrane and astroglial end-feet (Abbott et al., 2006), which limits the exchange of pathogens, pharmacological compounds, immune cells and mediators (Ransohoff et al., 2003). Three major mechanisms of traversal across this BBB are described for other causative pathogens of meningitis: transcellular migration, paracellular migration or the Trojan-horse mechanism ...
Tuberculosis is a multifactorial bacterial disease, which can be modeled in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Abdominal cavity infection with Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leads to a granulomatous disease in adult zebrafish, which replicates the different phases of human tuberculosis, including primary infection, latency and spontaneous reactivation. Here, we have carried out a transcriptional analysis of zebrafish challenged with low-dose of M. marinum, and identified intelectin 3 (itln3) among the highly up-regulated genes. In order to clarify the in vivo significance of Itln3 in immunity, we created nonsense itln3 mutant zebrafish by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis and analyzed the outcome of M. marinum infection in both zebrafish embryos and adult fish. The lack of functional itln3 did not affect survival or the mycobacterial burden in the zebrafish. Furthermore, embryonic survival was not affected when another mycobacterial challenge responsive intelectin, itln1, ...
2.4.1.251 GlcA-beta-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-alpha-1-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 4-beta-mannosyltransferase ...
AbstractThe infection by Mycobacterium marinum in humans is relatively uncommon. When it occurs, it mainly affects the skin, usually with a chronic, indolent and benign evolution. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, and a significant delay may be observed between the first symptoms to the final diagnosis. This present case reports a M. marinum infection in an immunocompetent patient that had a chronic undiagnosed injury on the dominant hand for at least five years. The patient had several medical consultations, without proper suspicion, hampering adequate diagnostic investigation. Histopathology detected tuberculoid granulomas, but showed no acid-fast bacilli. The culture in appropriate medium and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA)-hsp65 confirmed the diagnosis. Treatment with clarithromycin (1 g/day) for three months was effective. Although uncommon, this infection is a contact zoonosis. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to be aware of this ...
A simple scrape on the inside of the familys fish tank may end in amputation for Hannele Cox, 13. At age 8 the California girl contracted a rare strain of mycobacterium marinum and the infection has now spread to the bones of her right hand and doctors have been unable to stop it from spreading.
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General Information: This genus comprises a number of Gram-positive, acid-fast, rod-shaped aerobic bacteria and is the only member of the family Mycobacteriaceae within the order Actinomycetales. Like other closely related Actinomycetales, such as Nocardia and Corynebacterium, mycobacteria have unusually high genomic DNA GC content and are capable of producing mycolic acids as major components of their cell wall. Mycobacterium marinum is commonly found in fresh and salt water in North America. This bacterium, a close relative of M. tuberculosis, causes a tuberculosis-like disease in frogs, fish and other cold-blooded animals, and a peripheral granulomatous disease in humans. Human infections can be persistent and may lead to systemic infection and arthritis. M. marinum is photochromogenic, i.e. it produces bright yellow pigmentation (mainly beta-carotene) upon exposure to visible light. Infection is followed by a 2-8 week incubation period resulting in suppuration (pus) and organized ulcerating ...
General Information: This genus comprises a number of Gram-positive, acid-fast, rod-shaped aerobic bacteria and is the only member of the family Mycobacteriaceae within the order Actinomycetales. Like other closely related Actinomycetales, such as Nocardia and Corynebacterium, mycobacteria have unusually high genomic DNA GC content and are capable of producing mycolic acids as major components of their cell wall. Mycobacterium marinum is commonly found in fresh and salt water in North America. This bacterium, a close relative of M. tuberculosis, causes a tuberculosis-like disease in frogs, fish and other cold-blooded animals, and a peripheral granulomatous disease in humans. Human infections can be persistent and may lead to systemic infection and arthritis. M. marinum is photochromogenic, i.e. it produces bright yellow pigmentation (mainly beta-carotene) upon exposure to visible light. Infection is followed by a 2-8 week incubation period resulting in suppuration (pus) and organized ulcerating ...
Bacteria have the ability to adapt to different growth conditions and to survive in various environments. They have also the capacity to enter into dormant states and some bacteria form spores when exposed to stresses such as starvation and oxygen deprivation. Sporulation has been demonstrated in a number of different bacteria but Mycobacterium spp. have been considered to be non-sporulating bacteria. We recently provided evidence that Mycobacterium marinum and likely also Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Gu,rin can form spores. Mycobacterial spores were detected in old cultures and our findings suggest that sporulation might be an adaptation of lifestyle for mycobacteria under stress. Here we will discuss our current understanding of growth, cell division, and sporulation in mycobacteria.. ...
NEJM - Mycobacterium marinum The New England Journal of Medicine presents a case of a pet shop worker. His duties included cleaning fish tanks daily, which he did without wearing protective gloves. Includes a photograph ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) employs various strategies to modulate host immune responses to facilitate its persistence in macrophages. The Mtb cell wall contains numerous glycoproteins with unknown role in pathogenesis. Here, by using concavalinA and LC-MS analysis we identified a novel mannosylated glycoprotein phosphoribosyl- transferase, encoded by the Rv3242c, from Mtb cell walls. Homology modeling, bioinformatic analyses and assay of phosphoribosyltransferase activity measurement in Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing recombinant Rv3242c (MsmRv3242c) confirmed the mass spectrometry data. Using Mycobacterium marinum-zebrafish and the surrogate MsmRv3242c infection models, we proved that phosphoribosyltransferase is involved in mycobacterial virulence. Histological and infection assays showed that M. marinum mimG mutant, an Rv3242c orthologue in a pathogenic M. marinum strain, was strongly attenuated in adult zebrafish and also survived less in macrophages. In contrast, infection with ...
We are interested in the mechanisms by which hosts affect the course of bacterial infections. This includes the effects of immune responses, both in terms of eradicating the pathogen and in terms of causing unintended damage to the host. In order to address these issues, we use a model system in which the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster is infected with the broad-spectrum pathogen Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In the course of this work, we have found that this bacterial infection alters metabolic regulation in this host; the changes we observe are similar in many ways to the changes that are often observed in people with chronic infections. Our studies of the mechanistic basis of this metabolic change has led us to study the physiological regulation of metabolism in uninfected animals (since it has become clear that the changes induced by this infection are occurring via pathways not normally considered as important in metabolic ...
ALIBAUD L., ROMBOUTS Y., TRIVELLI X., BURGUIÈRE A., CIRILLO S.L., CIRILLO J.D., DUBREMETZ J.F., GUÉRARDEL Y., LUTFALLA G., KREMER L. A Mycobacterium marinum TesA mutant defective for major cell wall-associated lipids is highly attenuated in Dictyostelium discoideum and zebrafish embryos. Mol Microbiol., 2011, 80 (4), 919-934.. AMNIAI L., LIPPENS G., LANDRIEU I. Characterization of the AT180 epitope of phosphorylated Tau protein by a combined nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy approach. Biochem Biophys Res Commun., 2011, 412 (4), 743-746.. AUDRY M., JEANNEAU C., IMBERTY A., HARDUIN-LEPERS A., DELANNOY P., BRETON C.Current trends in the structure-activity relationships of sialyltransferases. Glycobiology, 2011, 21 (6), 716-726.. BALL S., COLLEONI C., CENCI U., RAJ J.N., TIRTIAUX C. The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis. J Exp Bot., 2011, 62 (6), 1775-1801.. BECKMANN S, ...
Mycobacterium abscessus-Induced Granuloma Formation Is Strictly Dependent on TNF Signaling and Neutrophil Trafficking.. Bernut A, Nguyen-Chi M, Halloum I, Herrmann JL, Lutfalla G, Kremer L.. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Nov 2;12(11):e1005986. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005986. eCollection 2016. Current perspectives on the families of glycoside hydrolases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: their importance and prospects for assigning function to unknowns.. van Wyk N, Drancourt M, Henrissat B, Kremer L.. Glycobiology. 2017 Jan;27(2):112-122. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cww099.. A unique PE_PGRS protein inhibiting host cell cytosolic defenses and sustaining full virulence of Mycobacterium marinum in multiple hosts.. Singh VK, Berry L, Bernut A, Singh S, Carrère-Kremer S, Viljoen A, Alibaud L, Majlessi L, Brosch R, Chaturvedi V, Geurtsen J, Drancourt M, Kremer L.. Cell Microbiol. 2016 Nov;18(11):1489-1507. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12606.. Experimental Models of Foamy Macrophages and Approaches for Dissecting the Mechanisms of ...
Rao, Tara (2010) Analysis of the multiple chaperonins of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Shah, Riddhi (2014) Functional analysis of Group 2 chaperonins from archaeal species in E. coli. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Ahmed, Mohammad Tabish (2010) Functional and structural characterisation of Mycobacterial Chaperonins. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Bell, Lawrence (2015) Project 1 - Inhibition of the oxireductase enzyme dpre1 of mycobacterium tuberculosis by two small compounds AND Project 2 - Investigating the role of the chaperonins of mycobacterium marinum. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Aggarwal, Nikhil (2015) Project 1: An IncP-1β plasmid present in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the Burns Unit of Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham AND Project 2: Acid detection by the EvgS/A two component system. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Pathak, Prachi P. (2014) Project 1: Characterization of EvgAS - two component ...
Every human generation has to recognize a new, and if possible anticipate, the relentless opportunism of bacteria, viruses, and other animalcules. Whatever changes occur in the way one live their lives or modify the biosphere or physical environment, they will provide novel niches for microbial occupation. In each case, microorganisms have taken advantage of newly available conditions or substances, exploiting individual's designs and often thwarting their purposes. It was two veterinarians from the United Kingdom who discovered that Mycobacterium marinum could proliferate in the inland bearded dragon, too. Once the mycobacterium was identified in the fish, however, the cause of the dragon's malady became obvious. About 10 years ago, reports on the microbial contamination of stem cell collections began to appear. The outcome, documented in Letters in Applied Microbiology, is disquieting reading. Both passive and active air sampling, together with monitoring of surfaces, revealed that the main
Lead, Chronic Disease, Diagnostic Test, Disease, DNA, Genome, Infections, Limit Of Detection, Melting, Mortalities, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium Marinum, Procedure, Sensitivity, Specificity, Temperature
The Health Department said there have been 30 reported cases of the infection caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium marinum.
I have always found Reefkeeping to offer excellent advice and information. Mycobacterium marinum: The Fish Disease You Could Catch by Steven Pro -...
May 18th, 11:30 AM May 18th, 12:00 PM Mathematical Modeling for the Transmission Dynamics of {\it Mycobacterium marinum} Incorporating Intra-host Variability. ALC 1102. ...
Fish Tanks: Reviews and Advice Deciding on the right fish tank that is sized Can be a daunting task. You might not understand how large they will become and what size are ideal for the fish which you would like to maintain. As a result, until you pick the fish tank, you need to do a little research on the type of fish you expect to maintain. If you know you will store a large fish its advisable to find a sizable 500 litre fish tank and locate the correct installation. As expected, larger fish tanks are Preferable to aquariums that are smaller as they help the fish flourish in the surroundings. Additionally, water volumes that are greater assist provide for air flow and dilute toxins. Larger fish tanks bicycle. Below are a few ideas on picking up a large fish tank. Availability. Larger fish tanks Arent easy to Come by in a inexpensive prize. As such, you need to discover the resources for the purchase. For instance, you can attempt to locate someone whos seeking to discard a used one. You are ...
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Kaspar Szymanski posted pictures of the Google Dublin office showing some interesting things they have there, including a Google Fish Tank. The fish tank has Google logos, a computer, and of course f
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TY - THES. T1 - Mycobacterial virulence - a delicate balance. AU - Weerdenburg, E.M.. N1 - Geneeskunde Naam instelling promotie: VU University Naam instelling onderzoek: VU University medical center. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. M3 - PhD Thesis - Research VU Amsterdam, graduation VU Amsterdam. ER - ...
Tuberculosis is a major and growing problem worldwide, and much effort has gone into understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. One of the perplexing issues is the role of macrophage apoptosis in vivo. Apoptosis of cultured macrophages has been observed in response to infection; however, the relevance of this response in vivo is unclear, and there are conflicting reports on whether apoptosis is more beneficial to the bacteria or the host. The Mycobacterium 19 kDa lipoprotein is a potent inducer of macrophage apoptosis in vitro and so we wanted to examine the role of this protein in vivo. To do this we used a M. marinum-zebra fish infection model of mycobacterial pathogenesis and compared the ability of wild-type versus 19 kDa lipoprotein-deficient (lpqH-) bacteria to induce apoptosis. We examined induction of apoptosis in a murine macrophage cell line (J774) and in zebra fish embryos using TUNEL labeling with fluorescent microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of the murine macrophages and ...
Material:PVC tarpaulin Model Number:KSD-002 Name:foldable PVC tarpaulin fish tank kio pond Material of frame pvc pipe Tank volume 1.80m to 78.00m3 Production capacity 2000pcs for one month Usage Fish Raising/water storage/swimming Read More.Contact Now Wholesale Pvc Fish Tank Item name:Wholesale PVC fish tank,PVC fish tank,Collapsible fish tank Size:6.0 x 1.50 m Shape:Round. ...
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Hi everyone! Im a newbie so I should probably introduce myself! Im louisa and Im 16. Ive never had a fish tank before a few days ago (other than little bowls I put guppies in when I was little but
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mycobacteriosis in cultured striped bass from California.. AU - Hedrick, Ronald. AU - McDowell, T.. AU - Groff, J.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) juveniles raised in an intensive culture system had chronic mortality resulting from infections with Mycobacterium marinum. Approximately one-half of a population of 900 yearlings succumbed to the disease and 80% of those remaining were infected. The bacteria were isolated on Petrignanis medium after 7 days at 25 C and subcultures grew at temperatures from 20 to 37 C. The disease was characterized by systemic nodular lesions in all major organs. Older tubercles contained numerous acid-fast bacilli. Chemotherapy by feeding rifampin (6 mg/100 g of food for 60 days) was not an effective treatment. Subclinical mycobacteriosis in adult striped bass may be the source for vertical transmission to their progeny.. AB - Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) juveniles raised in an intensive culture system had ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
ABSTRACT: Partial migration, by which contingents within populations undertake divergent migrations, is common in marine fishes but remains poorly documented. Intrapopulation groups of fish with similar seasonal migration behaviors were noted early in the fisheries literature and have attracted increased interest for their role in population resilience to environmental change and fishing. Here, we used acoustic telemetry to test historical hypotheses on contingent structure for striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Hudson River, New York (USA), which harbors one of the largest populations of this species. Season and region of release were used as design elements to evaluate 3 principal contingents. In total, 51 implanted striped bass were detected in New York Harbor (NYH), Hudson River, and other estuarine and coastal receiver arrays from June 2010 through December 2011. Multivariate analyses of ,500000 recoveries confirmed predictions of 3 broad contingent behaviors, viz. those that principally ...
Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration, Mather, M. E., Finn John, Pautzke S. M., Fox D., Savoy T., Brundage H. M., Deegan Linda A., and Muth R. M. , Journal of Fish Biology, 12/2010, Volume 77, p.2326 - 2337, (2010) ...
Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration, Mather, M. E., Finn John, Pautzke S. M., Fox D., Savoy T., Brundage H. M., Deegan Linda A., and Muth R. M. , Journal of Fish Biology, 12/2010, Volume 77, p.2326 - 2337, (2010) ...
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Different individuals show different levels of resistance to infections and develop different pathologies in response to infections. We are interested in why this is the case. We use the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster as a model host to study these questions; this allows us to screen for genes that affect the progress of infection in a rapid and unbiased fashion. All of our experiments originate from a simple genetic screen. Mutant flies are infected with Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium closely-related to the causative agent of tuberculosis, or with Mycobacterium smegmatis, a related non-pathogen. We select lines of flies that die more quickly or more slowly than wild-type controls and identify the mutation that gives rise to this phenotype. We then try to understand what this phenotype tells us about the function of the mutated gene. So far, our work on this system has focused on the mechanisms of pathogenesis. We have found that this infection causes progressive loss of metabolic stores, ...
Background: During infection by intracellular pathogens, a highly complex interplay occurs between the infected cell trying to degrade the invader and the pathogen which actively manipulates the host cell to enable survival and proliferation. Many intracellular pathogens pose important threats to human health and major efforts have been undertaken to better understand the host-pathogen interactions that eventually determine the outcome of the infection. Over the last decades, the unicellular eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum has become an established infection model, serving as a surrogate macrophage that can be infected with a wide range of intracellular pathogens. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA-sequencing to analyze the transcriptional response of D. discoideum when infected with Mycobacterium marinum and Legionella pneumophila. The results were compared to available data from human macrophages.. Results: The majority of the transcriptional regulation triggered by the two pathogens ...
While the optimum temperature for growth is 35°C, Flavobacterium marinum is tolerant of temperatures between 15°C and 45°C. The optimal pH for growth is close to neutral conditions; however, F. marinum has been cultured between pH values of 5.5-8.5. This particular strain of Flavobacterium prefers saline environments, but is cultivable in freshwater systems. ...
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view 4 full verison photos of freshwater fish tank - photo #3 - I have Four fresh Water fish tanks, and I really enjoy all that I do with them. I have Chiclids, Angel Fish, Tertras, Tiger Barbs, Catfish, Upside Down swimming...
Survival of M. tuberculosis within the host macrophage phagosome requires that the bacilli be capable of resisting the normal microbicidal mechanisms of these potent leukocytes. The catalase-peroxidase protein (KatG) was implicated early in studies of mycobacterial pathogenesis because of the availability of mutants which had lost KatG function through the acquisition of isoniazid resistance. Even with these mutants, the relative contribution of the enzyme to mycobacterial survival within the host phagocyte has remained unclear. Some of the disparity in the published studies may be attributable to the use of a wide variety of model systems for evaluating virulence in which the actual effector molecules involved in mycobacterial killing may differ (e.g., nitric oxide synthase-mediated killing in murine macrophages [5, 7, 8] versus ROI-mediated killing in human mononuclear phagocytes [21]). Conflicting results may also be due to the comparison of nonisogenic strains of bacteria which may have ...
The genus Flavobacterium is found in a variety of environments, including soil, fresh and saline acquatic systems, and arctic. The microbe Flavobacterium marinum was first isolated in a saltwater sample from the Indian Ocean (49°39′18′′ E 37°47′22′′ S), collected at a depth of 800m. ...
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The ASPCA has listed them toxic to dogs and cats. I should edit, toxic to SOME animals. Dracaena may not be toxic to humans, I think we handle Oxalate better. Also the sites you linked list them as toxic :). I dont wish to say they are terrible plants for a fish tank, they probably wont harm fish, but I think there are a variety of marginal/bog plants which are better suited and wont cause a scare if a child/dog chews on it. ( aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control/… ) - Meep Dec 21 13 at 3:03 ...
I might be getting a 30 gallon fish tank and i want to know how many goldfish can fit in it. Also, how can you mesure a fish to see how big it is and what types of goldfish should i get?
San Franciscos Medical Examiner is investigating the discovery of a body, found inside a large fish tank in a home on Clara Street in the SOMA district, according to a report by the San Francisco Chronicle.
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Tuberculosis remains a worldwide health concern, largely due to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensive-drug-resistant (XDR) |i|Mycobacterium ...
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Ammonia is sometimes present in tap water, ammonia is very toxic to aquarium fish. Let us explain how the ammonia got into your tap water
A page with description and needs of Bacopa caroliniana when grown in aquariums. Also links to other related plands and articles on fishkeeping.
Keeping your goldfish in a goldfish bowl may not be the best choice for the health of your goldfish, but with a little bit of extra work and care, it is possible to make this a decent option for your fish ...
After her nap, we ran a few errands. We went to the pet store to get cat food, where I introduced Eliza to the fishies! Pets.Mart has a huge wall of fish tanks and since she was in the Ergo, she had a great, up-close view of the fish, and she was absolutely enthralled. She stared and stared... it was so cute. Perhaps there is a fish tank in our future? Then we headed to the grocery store and to pick up dinner, she is such a trooper when we run errands, she just hangs out with mama (well, on mama :) and looks around. Though it takes us a while because we can hardly make it through a store without multiple people commenting on how adorable/sweet/cute/precious/smiley/happy she is. She definitely turns heads, that girl. Im one proud Mama ...
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Striped bass is classified as an anadromous fish, meaning it migrates from salt water to fresh water during the spawning season. Striped bass is a flaky and relatively firm textured fish that has a mild but distinctive flavor that is highly prized. Striped bass is known as suzuki when prepared for sushi.FARM 2 MARKET p
ZmpI-mediated release of the cell wall-associated CD2831 protein into the culture supernatant.A, schematic representation of CD2831. The relevant characteristic
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Cellos first trip inside Bass Pro Shops! Cello was greeted with treats and pets as soon as we walked in ! Inside Bass Pro Shops Cello had fun watching the bass swim by in the huge fish tank! And while we shopped for a new hoodie, Cello got lots of lovin from another Bass Pro…
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Sleeping with the fishes takes on a less sinister meaning thanks to a new bed design that places your head directly below a 650-gallon fish tank. For the low, low price of $11,500, you can rest easy knowing you dont have to purchase matching lamps, which are included. Despite the price and any claustrophobia or concerns about leaky seams you might have, the design is pretty awesome. And its not even the weirdest or most expensive in this list, which includes a floating bed and one made of solid ...
Build Your Aquarium is run by a group of fish tank enthusiasts with over 20 years in the hobby. Our goal is to cater to both experienced and new aquarium owners alike. We publish daily articles that bring value to the fishkeeping community.. Category: Freshwater ...
An article that describes Visitherm, Rena and Jewel heaters for a fish tank, and gives advice on choosing the right one. The page also offers friendly discussions.
I am going on vacation for about 18 days. My grandma is going to be at our house watching the dogs and the fish tanks. I have a couple tanks that I
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  • Mycobacterium marinum infection simulating interstitial granuloma annulare: a report of two cases. (medscape.com)
  • Bouricha M, Castan B, Duchene-Parisi E, Drancourt M. Mycobacterium marinum infection following contact with reptiles: vivarium granuloma. (medscape.com)
  • Mycobacterium marinum infections, commonly known as fish tank granuloma, produce nodular or ulcerating skin lesions on the extremities of healthy hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • Fish tank granuloma caused by Mycobacterium marinum . (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, our adapted zebrafish- M. marinum infection model for studying granuloma formation in the brain will allow for the detailed analysis of both bacterial and host factors involved in TBM. (biologists.org)
  • Exposure to Mycobacterium marinum can lead to a rare infection known as " swimming pool granuloma " or " aquarium granuloma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • M marinum also causes fish tank granuloma on the hands of aquarium owners. (patientcareonline.com)
  • Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium Marinum Granuloma in Striped Bass Moro" by D. T. Gauthier, W. K. Vogelbein et al. (odu.edu)
  • The zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum infection model recapitulates many aspects of human-M. tuberculosis infection and is used as a model to investigate the structural components of the mycobacterial granuloma. (centenary.org.au)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the zebrafish-M. marinum granuloma contains foam cells and that the transdifferentiation of macrophages into foam cells is driven by the mycobacterial ESX1 pathogenicity locus. (centenary.org.au)
  • 3 Based on its historical association with swimming pools and fish tanks, M marinum infection is also commonly known as swimming pool granuloma or fish tank granuloma . (cfp.ca)
  • In this work, we studied a Mycobacterium marinumsecA2 mutant with an impaired capacity to initiate granuloma formation in zebrafish embryos. (vu.nl)
  • Eleven isolates of Mycobacterium species as well as an antimycobacterial Salinispora arenicola strain were cultured from the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica . (wiley.com)
  • The 16S rRNA, rpo B, and hsp 65 genes from these Mycobacterium isolates were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated alignment showed the formation of a large clade with Mycobacterium poriferae isolated previously from another sponge species. (wiley.com)
  • The separation of these Mycobacterium isolates into three species-level groups was evident from sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses. (wiley.com)
  • 1963.-An exploration was made of the effect of environmental temperature on infections with Mycobacterium marinum of mice, young opossums, and bats, and of 50 species of poikilothermic animals. (asm.org)
  • Susceptibility to M. marinum was found throughout these species. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, preliminary evidence that M. marinum causes a chronic disease with some features resembling tuberculosis in frogs of the species Rana pipiens is presented. (asm.org)
  • Here, we describe a laboratory animal model for M. marinum disease in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), a natural host species. (asm.org)
  • MAC includes the species Mycobacterium avium (A-vee-um) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (in-truh-sel-yoo-LAR-e) and most commonly causes lymphadenitis and lung disease in otherwise healthy people. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum , species resembling M. avium , M. gordonae , M. peregrinum , M. scrofulaceum and M. terrae, and the new species M. shottsii have been isolated from diseased and healthy bass. (odu.edu)
  • The type species is Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum is a type of bacteria that can be found in the intestines of many marine and freshwater species of fish worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • A Mycobacterium marinum mel2 mutant is defective for growth in macrophages that produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. (oregonstate.edu)
  • nov., a slow-growing, scotochromogenic species, is a member of the Mycobacterium simiae complex. (nih.gov)
  • ANSWER: Mycobacterium marinum is a bacteria species closely related to tuberculosis. (staugustine.com)
  • We assessed the ability of an in-house database, consisting of 111 hsp65 sequences from putative and valid Mycobacterium species or described groups, to identify 689 mycobacterial clinical isolates from 35 species or groups. (asm.org)
  • A preliminary assessment indicated that hsp65 sequencing confirmed the identification of 79.4% of the isolates from the 32 species examined, including all Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates, all isolates from 13 other species, and 95.6% of all M. avium - M. intracellulare complex isolates. (asm.org)
  • 18 ) reported amplifying a fragment of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene ( hsp65 ) to detect and, coupled with species-specific probes, identify mycobacteria from clinical samples. (asm.org)
  • We compare the knowledge of the zebrafish innate immune system with that of human and mammalian models and discuss results from transcriptomic analyses that show clear specificity in responses to different bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella and Mycobacteria species. (hindawi.com)
  • abstract = "Summary: The pathogenicity of mycobacteria is closely associated with their ability to export virulence factors. (vu.nl)
  • ABSTRACT: Twenty striped bass Morone saxatilis and 20 hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus x O. aureus each received a single intramuscular injection of 1.6 x 10 6 colony forming units per gram body weight of Mycobacterium marinum . (int-res.com)
  • ABSTRACT: A panel of 15 Mycobacterium marinum isolates was characterized by biochemical tests, sequencing the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (ITS) region and the heat shock protein 65 gene ( hsp65) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (int-res.com)
  • Whole genome sequence of M. marinum (M strain) was first published in 2008 and later with the emerge of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), marinum type strain or patient isolates genome sequences were published. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sixty-three cases of Mycobacterium marinum infection: clinical features, treatment, and antibiotic susceptibility of causative isolates. (medscape.com)
  • The molecular typing methods used so far for Mycobacterium ulcerans isolates have not been able to identify genetic differences among isolates from Africa. (asm.org)
  • Discrimination of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium haemophilum in Clinical Isolates and Specimens by Multiplex PCR Assay and Prediction of Drug Susceptibility. (nih.gov)
  • In previous work, sequencing based on a 441-bp portion of the hsp65 gene has proven to efficiently classify isolates within the Mycobacterium genus but provides low resolution for distinguishing among members of the M. avium complex. (asm.org)
  • Ostland VE, Watral V, Whipps CM, Austin FW, St-Hilaire S, Westerman ME, Kent ML (2008) Biochemical, molecular, and virulence characteristics of select Mycobacterium marinum isolates in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and zebrafish Danio rerio . (int-res.com)
  • Aubry A, Chosidow O, Caumes E, Robert J, Cambau E. Sixty-three cases of Mycobacterium marinum infection. (springer.com)
  • Any of various rod-shaped, aerobic, often pathogenic bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium marinum (M marinum) . (medlineplus.gov)
  • M marinum bacteria can live in fresh and salt water, unchlorinated swimming pools, and aquarium tanks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mycobacterium marinum is a type of bacteria that causes disease in fish, reptiles, and amphibians. (cdc.gov)
  • We performed co-culture experiments using marine-derived Aspergillus niger with Mycobacterium smegmatis, a mycolic acid-containing bacteria. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Antigens common to pathogenic bacteria that induce broad immune responses, such as the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of the genera Listeria, Mycobacterium , or Streptococcus , whose sequences present more than 95% homology at the N-terminal GAPDH 1−22 peptide, are putative candidates for universal vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • I looked up your local creek: It is contaminated by fecal bacteria (presumably from untreated sewage), not by M. marinum. (staugustine.com)
  • Mycobacterium marinum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that is present worldwide in salt water, brackish water, and still or streaming fresh water. (cfp.ca)
  • Mycobacterium marinum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium responsible for skin infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, resistant strains of M marinum have been reported. (medscape.com)
  • Evidence for antagonism of sponge-derived Salinispora against sponge-derived Mycobacterium strains from the same sponge specimen and the production of antimycobacterial antibiotics by this Salinispora strain suggest that the synthesis of such antibiotics may have functions in competition between sponge microbial community members. (wiley.com)
  • When a person ' s immune system is weakened, however, as in people who have HIV or AIDS , several strains of mycobacteria can cause opportunistic infections* . (encyclopedia.com)
  • These strains are called mycobacteria other than tuberculosis, or MOTT. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Collectively, we conclude that the M. marinum G strains are unique and may represent a distinct virulence phenotype in HSB, but this trend was not consistent in zebrafish. (int-res.com)
  • Initial phylogenetic studies using the gene 16S rDNA sequence data shows M. marinum is close to the M. tuberculosis and M. ulcerans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analyses have suggested that M. ulcerans recently diverged from M. marinum ( 5 , 21 , 26 ), which is a well-known fish pathogen and can cause limited granulomatous skin infections in humans ( 10 , 11 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Buruli Ulcer: Mycobacterium Ulcerans Disease [Internet]. (nih.gov)
  • Drugs for treating Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans disease). (nih.gov)
  • To test this hypothesis on a genome-wide level, we determined for the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium marinum whether it uses conserved strategies to exploit host cells from both protozoan and vertebrate origin. (nih.gov)
  • We have explored the relatively rapidly growing animal and human pathogen Mycobacterium marinum as an experimental model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Parrish N, Luethke R, Dionne K, Carroll K, Riedel S. Case of Mycobacterium marinum infection with unusual patterns of susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: In vitro & in vivo experimental susceptibility of Mycobacterium marinum to augmentin. (who.int)
  • Mycobacterium marinum tenosynovitis: three case reports and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Invasive Mycobacterium marinum disease (tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis) may be an increasingly common manifestation of M. marinum infection that presents unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. (springer.com)
  • Mycobacterium marinum tenosynovitis in a patient on etanercept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria other than mycobacterium avium complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Mycobacterium avium complex consists of epidemiologically distinct subsets. (asm.org)
  • Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are ubiquitous in the environment and have a wide source range, causing disease in various mammals and birds, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, and pulmonary disease in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. (asm.org)
  • nontuberculous mycobacteria mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis or M. bovis, consisting of nonpathogens and pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and infections in otherwise normal individuals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In pathogens like Mycobacteria, sHSPs are immuno-dominant antigens, enabling survival of the pathogen within the host and contributing to disease persistence. (anl.gov)
  • Here, we will discuss six zebrafish models for important human pathogens ( Mycobacterium , Salmonella , Burkholderia , Staphylococcus , Shigella and Candida ), emphasizing the novel insights that these models have recently provided into macrophage biology and highlighting how this could lead to the finding of new host-derived therapeutic strategies. (biologists.org)
  • Our data illustrate that the two acute disease-causing pathogens, E. tarda and S. typhimurium , elicit a highly similar proinflammatory gene induction profile, while the chronic disease-causing pathogen, M. marinum , induces a weaker and delayed innate immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • Olecranon bursitis secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii infection in a patient receiving infliximab for Behcet's disease. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Therefore, M. marinum contains different sets of virulence factors that are tailored for specific hosts. (nih.gov)
  • The hallmark of tuberculosis, granulomas are promoted by Mycobacterium virulence factors, and they have long been considered a structural advantage to the host. (begellhouse.com)
  • Dolenc-Voljc M, Zolnir-Dovc M. Delayed diagnosis of Mycobacterium marinum infection: A case report and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Van Herendael BH, Dreessen P, Jeurissen A. Fishy Business: the Value of the QuantiFERON-TB Test in the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium marinum Skin Lesions. (medscape.com)
  • This bacterial infection is caused by Mycobacterium marinum . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Upon infection of embryos with an M. marinum ESX-1 mutant, only small clusters and scattered isolated phagocytes with high bacterial loads were present in the brain tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Mycobacterium chelonae infection associated with adalimumab therapy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mycobacterium chelonae Bergey et al. (atcc.org)
  • Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. (atcc.org)
  • Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found in water and soil that can cause local cutaneous infections in immunocompetent hosts but more frequently affects immunocompromised patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Herein, we report a case of sporotrichoid-like distribution of cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus on significant immunosuppressive medications. (hindawi.com)
  • AFB culture and stain were positive for the rapid grower, Mycobacterium chelonae . (hindawi.com)
  • Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium commonly found in water and soil. (hindawi.com)
  • Marinum is a relative of the organism which causes tuberculosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Considering the occurrence of the antimycobacterial organism Salinispora in marine sponges, the question arises as to whether any selective pressure for the evolution of its antimycobacterial compounds has acted - for example a competitive advantage in an environment in which mycobacteria co-occur and even compete for similar resources. (wiley.com)
  • 2 Mycobacterium marinum was first described in 1926 as the organism responsible for the death of fish in a Philadelphia, Pa, aquarium. (cfp.ca)
  • Mycobacteria are relatively resistant to ROS, but RNS inhibit growth of, and possibly even kill, mycobacteria in activated macrophages. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Since J774A.1 murine macrophages produce high levels of ROS and RNS upon activation with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), we examined the effects of IFN-gamma on ROS and RNS production by these cells as well as the effects on growth of M. marinum in these cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These observations demonstrate that the M. marinum mel2 locus plays a role in resistance to ROS and RNS produced by activated macrophages. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In this work, we studied the effects of ESX-5 in embryonic and adult zebrafish using Mycobacterium marinum. (nih.gov)
  • We have adapted the zebrafish model of Mycobacterium marinum infection (zebrafish- M. marinum model) to study TBM. (biologists.org)
  • However, this traditional view has been challenged recently, largely due to the evidence originating from the M. marinum -zebrafish model. (begellhouse.com)
  • While M.yocobacterium marinum infections usually arise from aquatic trauma in healthy hosts, delayed diagnosis and immune suppression contribute to the pathogenesis of invasive infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The exact mechanism of Mycobacterium virulence, pathogenesis, and persistence is not fully understood. (begellhouse.com)
  • The M. marinum reference strain ATCC 927 T did not produce mortality in HSB. (int-res.com)
  • We recently constructed a Mycobacterium marinum mel2 locus mutant, which is known to affect macrophage infection. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We found that an M. marinum mutant with mutation of the first gene in the mel2 locus, melF, is defective for growth in IFN-gamma-plus-lipopolysaccharide-treated J774A.1 cells and that this defect is abrogated by the presence of either inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase or ROS scavengers. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Mycobacterium marinum is a mycobacterium which can infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis indicates that Mycobacterium marinum customizes its virulence mechanisms for survival and replication in differe. (nih.gov)
  • M. marinum E11 genome. (nih.gov)
  • CC Mycobacterium marinum M, complete genome. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis alters the production of secondary metabolites by marine-derived Aspergillus niger. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection with extensive cutaneous eruption and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. (medscape.com)
  • Incubation period and sources of exposure for cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection: case report and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • We conducted a retrospective case series and literature review of M. marinum infection to better understand the clinical spectrum of invasive versus cutaneous disease. (springer.com)
  • Distinguishing between invasive and cutaneous M. marinum infection may have important consequences in terms of antibiotic choice and need for adjunctive surgery. (springer.com)
  • Reintroduction of etanercept during treatment of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Rapid resolution of Mycobacterium marinum chronic skin infection during lenalidomide therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • A recent case report showed that lenalidomide, a thalidomide derivative used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rapidly resolved a chronic biopsy-proven M marinum skin infection refractory to conventional treatment. (medscape.com)
  • M. marinum causes a chronic granulomatous, nonlethal disease in immunocompetent frogs. (asm.org)
  • M. marinum infection should be considered in chronic sporotrichoid skin lesions, particularly when there is a clinical suspicion on an infectious cause, and it could lead to successful treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mycobacterium marinum is emerging as an important human pathogen in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • The strain marinum was first identified by Aronson in 1926 and it is observed as a pathogenic mycobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • the generalization and specialization of a pathogenic mycobacterium. (springer.com)
  • The effect of augmentin alone and in combination with various beta-lactam antibiotics was studied against a pathogenic Mycobacterium, M. marinum. (who.int)
  • Atypical mycobacteria are commonly found in the environment, like in soil and water, and in food. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atypical mycobacteria are related to the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), but they often are resistant to the drugs used to treat TB. (encyclopedia.com)
  • anonymous mycobacteria , atypical mycobacteria nontuberculous mycobacteria . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mycobacterium marinum infections in humans and tracing of its possible environmental sources. (medscape.com)
  • Second only to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, members of the MAC are the mycobacteria most frequently isolated from humans in developed countries. (asm.org)
  • Finally, a diagnosis of a Mycobacterium marinum infection was established with the help of tissue biopsy and culture, and the patient received appropriate antibiotic treatment with the desired effect. (beds.ac.uk)
  • By comparing the proteomic profile of cell envelope fractions from the secA2 mutant with wild type M.marinum, we identified putative SecA2-dependent substrates. (vu.nl)
  • Azithromycin can be an alternative to clarithromycin in other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, but its efficacy is unknown in M marinum infection. (medscape.com)
  • Although some mycobacteria can live on human skin or in the nose, atypical mycobacterial infections are not known to spread from person to person. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cardenal-Muñoz E, Arafah S, López-Jiménez AT, Kicka S, Falaise A, Bach F, Schaad O, King JS, Hagedorn M, Soldati T. (2017) Mycobacterium marinum antagonistically induces an autophagic response while repressing the autophagic flux in a TORC1- and ESX-1-dependent manner. (unige.ch)
  • A tissue biopsy for histology and culture from a nonulcerated area close to the lesion is the most important diagnostic tool to detect M marinum . (cfp.ca)
  • Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis receiving infliximab therapy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mycobacterium marinum is a slow growing mycobacterium (SGM) belonging to the genus Mycobacterium and the phylum Actinobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • We concluded that DC vaccines loaded with L. monocytogenes GAPDH recombinant proteins are cross-reactive vaccines that seem to be valuable tools in adult vaccination against Listeria, Mycobacterium , and Streptococcus taxonomic groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris. (odu.edu)
  • We develop a finite difference scheme to approximate the solution of a novel size-structured mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) in an aquatic environment. (aimsciences.org)
  • Immunogenic behaviour of Mycobacterium marinum (SATO) in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, their capacity to confer protection in vaccinated mice against challenges with L. monocytogenes, M. marinum , or S. pneumoniae validated their efficiency as cross-reactive vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we investigated the genes responsible for virulence to Dictyostelium by screening 1728 transposon mutants of the Mycobacterium marinum NTUH-M6094 strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together our experiments indicate that ESX-5-mediated protein secretion is used by M. marinum to establish a moderate and persistent infection. (nih.gov)
  • Dodecameric structure of a small heat shock protein from Mycobacterium marinum M. (anl.gov)
  • Analysis of SecA2-dependent substrates in Mycobacterium marinum identifies protein kinase G (PknG) as a virulence effector. (vu.nl)
  • For this purpose, mycobacteria possess different protein secretion systems, including the accessory Sec translocation pathway, SecA2. (vu.nl)
  • Local and disseminated infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum: an unusual cause of subcutaneous nodules. (medscape.com)
  • Atypical mycobacterial (my-ko-bak-TEER-e-ul) infections are infections caused by mycobacteria* other than those that cause tuberculosis* . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Those who are most at risk include people with weakened immune systems and people who handle fish, are exposed to contaminated water in aquariums, or swim in fresh or salt water that contains the mycobacterium. (encyclopedia.com)

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