The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is most frequently isolated from bovine eyes in cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTIOUS), but also occurs in unaffected eyes and the nasal cavity of cattle.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A mucoprotein found in the cell wall of various types of bacteria. It has adjuvant and antitumor activities and has been used to augment the production of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found in soil and dairy products and as parasites on animals and man. Several are important pathogens.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A small plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
A genus of brush-tailed possums found chiefly in Australia and New Zealand. Secretions from their ANAL GLAND function both in defense and demarcating territory.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidative DEAMINATION of GLYCINE to glyoxylate and AMMONIA in the presence of NAD. In BACTERIA lacking transaminating pathways the enzyme can act in the reverse direction to synthesize glycine from glyoxylate and ammonia and NADH.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (1/2326)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Fluoroquinolone action against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: effects of a C-8 methoxyl group on survival in liquid media and in human macrophages. (2/2326)

When the lethal action of a C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid medium was measured, the compound was found to be three to four times more effective (as determined by measuring the 90% lethal dose) than a C-8-H control fluoroquinolone or ciprofloxacin against cells having a wild-type gyrA (gyrase) gene. Against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, the C-8 methoxyl group enhanced lethality when alanine was replaced by valine at position 90 of the GyrA protein or when aspartic acid 94 was replaced by glycine, histidine, or tyrosine. During infection of a human macrophage model by wild-type Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the C-8 methoxyl group lowered survival 20- to 100-fold compared with the same concentration of a C-8-H fluoroquinolone. The C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone was also more effective than ciprofloxacin against a gyrA Asn94 mutant of M. bovis BCG. In an M. tuberculosis-macrophage system the C-8 methoxyl group improved fluoroquinolone action against both quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant clinical isolates. Thus, a C-8 methoxyl group enhances the bactericidal activity of quinolones with N1-cyclopropyl substitutions; these data encourage further refinement of fluoroquinolones as antituberculosis agents.  (+info)

Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta. (3/2326)

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

Molecular markers demonstrate that the first described multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis outbreak was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (4/2326)

We genetically characterized multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains which caused a nosocomial outbreak of tuberculosis affecting six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and one HIV-negative staff member (E. Bouvet, E. Casalino, G. Mendoza-Sassi, S. Lariven, E. Vallee, M. Pernet, S. Gottot, and F. Vachon, AIDS 7:1453-1460, 1993). The strains showed all the phenotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis. They presented a high copy number of IS6110, the spacers 40 to 43 in the direct repeat locus, and the mtp40 fragment. They lacked the G-A mutation at position 285 in the oxyR gene and the C-G mutation at position 169 in the pncA gene. These genetic characteristics revealed that these were dysgonic, slow-growing M. tuberculosis strains mimicking the M. bovis phenotype, probably as a consequence of cellular alterations associated with the multidrug resistance. Spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis confirmed that the outbreak was due to a single strain. However, the IS6110 RFLP pattern of the strain isolated from the last patient, diagnosed three years after the index case, differed slightly from the patterns of the other six strains. A model of a possible genetic event is presented to explain this divergence. This study stresses the value of using several independent molecular markers to identify multidrug-resistant tubercle bacilli.  (+info)

Characterization of exochelins of the Mycobacterium bovis type strain and BCG substrains. (5/2326)

Pathogenic mycobacteria must acquire iron in the host in order to multiply and cause disease. To do so, they release abundant quantities of siderophores called exochelins, which have the capacity to scavenge iron from host iron-binding proteins and deliver it to the mycobacteria. In this study, we have characterized the exochelins of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine and occasionally of human tuberculosis, and the highly attenuated descendant of M. bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), widely used as a vaccine against human tuberculosis. The M. bovis type strain, five substrains of M. bovis BCG (Copenhagen, Glaxo, Japanese, Pasteur, and Tice), and two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis all produce the same set of exochelins, although the relative amounts of individual exochelins may differ. Among these mycobacteria, the total amount of exochelins produced is greatest in M. tuberculosis, intermediate in M. bovis, and smallest in M. bovis BCG.  (+info)

Characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps in mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan by capillary electrophoresis/electrospray mass spectrometry. (6/2326)

A new analytical approach based on capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) has provided new insight into the characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps from lipoarabinomannans (LAMs), which are key molecules in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. This analytical approach requires oligosaccharide labeling with the fluorophore 1-aminopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (APTS) by reductive amination at the reducing termini. Optimization of the separation and ionization conditions, such as the choice of capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrolyte buffers, is presented and discussed. Anionic separation of the mono and oligosaccharide APTS derivatives was finally achieved with aqueous triethylammonium formate buffer. It was found that in contrast to the triethylammonium phosphate buffer, the triethylammonium formate buffer was appropriate for CE/ESI-MS coupling analysis of APTS-carbohydrate derivatives. In this case, negative ESI-mass spectra of APTS-carbohydrate adducts showed mainly (M-2H)2-pseudomolecular ions and some sequence fragment ions allowing their non-ambiguous structural characterization at the picomolar level. This analytical approach was successfully applied to more complex mixtures of carbohydrates released by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The APTS-mannooligosaccharide cap adducts were separated by CE and their structural characterization achieved by CE/ESI-MS analyses. Mannooligosaccharide caps were routinely analyzed by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) from 50 fmol of lipoarabinomannans with mannosyl capping (ManLAMs) but sensitivity was about 50 times lower using ESI-MS detection.  (+info)

Oxygen depletion-induced dormancy in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. (7/2326)

Gradual depletion of oxygen causes the shift-down of aerobic growing Mycobacterium bovis BCG to an anaerobic synchronized state of nonreplicating persistence. The persistent culture shows induction of glycine dehydrogenase and alpha-crystallin-like protein and is sensitive to metronidazole.  (+info)

Different strategies for molecular differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in Sardinia, Italy. (8/2326)

Different genetic markers were used to analyze 22 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle in Sardinia and one human isolate. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting differentiated the strains into six patterns, whereas with enterobacterial repetitive consensus sequence primers produced seven clusters. PCR ribotyping followed by digestion with HaeIII and PvuII produced five and seven patterns, respectively. PCR with the (GTG)5 oligonucleotide primer showed the best discriminatory power, generating eight clusters among the strains analyzed.  (+info)

Several groups have demonstrated the use of suicide plasmids for allelic exchange in fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria. The most efficient are those systems using a counterselectable marker; for mycobacteria, workers have successfully used rpsL (36,42), pyrF (26), and sacB(40). The most promising counterselectable system for the slow-growing mycobacteria is sacB, which confers sensitivity to sucrose. Methods using sacB were used for the targeted disruptions of ureC in M. bovis BCG (40) and M. tuberculosis (37) and theerp gene of M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis (8).. We decided to construct a new sacB suicidal vector, pYUB657, and test it for the construction of unmarked, in-frame deletion mutants in the slow-growing mycobacteria. In these studies, we saw an opportunity to examine homologous recombination in the mycobacteria from a practical standpoint. The bane of allelic exchange in slow-growing mycobacteria has been the propensity with which these organisms incorporate exogenous DNA into ...
BACKGROUND: There is currently no safe human challenge model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to enable proof-of-concept efficacy evaluation of candidate vaccines against tuberculosis. In vivo antimycobacterial immunity could be assessed using intradermal Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination as a surrogate for M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: Healthy BCG-naive and BCG-vaccinated volunteers were challenged with intradermal BCG. BCG load was quantified from skin biopsy specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture colony-forming units. Cellular infiltrate was isolated by suction blisters and examined by flow cytometry. Prechallenge immune readouts were correlated with BCG load after challenge. RESULTS: In BCG-naive volunteers, live BCG was detected at the challenge site for up to 4 weeks and peaked at 2 weeks. Infiltration of mainly CD15(+) neutrophils was observed in blister fluid. In previously BCG-vaccinated individuals, PCR analysis of skin biopsy
The drug brand named Vaccin BCG SSI contains generic salt - Bacillus Calmette - Guerin (BCG) Vaccine and is manufactured by Sanofi - Aventis.Vaccin BCG SSI is mainly associated with symptoms and indications - The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) - L03AX03 - BCG Vaccine ... brings latest bacillus calmette guerin news, views and updates from all top sources for the Indian Health industry.
The family of mycobacteria is composed of pathogenic and apathogenic bacteria. This study was performed with 3 members of this family, the most prominent pathogenic member, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG which was developed by attenuation of the bovine tuberculosis agent Mycobacterium bovis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis which is apathogenic and widely distributed in soil. A key to understanding mycobacteria and, especially, their resistance is to understand the complexity of their cell wall. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the cell wall and the transport of peptidoglycan precursors out of the cytoplasm to the bacterial surface by undecaprenyl monophosphate is central to cell wall synthesis. Therefore, deletion mutants of the undecaprenyl phosphokinase gene (upk) were generated in M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, and M. smegmatis. In the case of M. smegmatis it was shown that a delta upk deletion mutant, as with ...
Few data are available regarding the induction of memory T-lymphocyte responses in cattle following Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Studies of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination provide an insight into the basis of antimycobacterial immunity that could be exploited for the development of more effective vaccination strategies. We used autologous dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) or pulsed with purified protein derivative from M. bovis (PPD-B) or M. avium (PPD-A) to assess responses of CD4+, CD8+ and WC1+ gammadelta TCR+ lymphocytes from BCG vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. Mycobacteria-specific CD4+ and CD8+, but not WC1+ gammadelta TCR+, memory T lymphocytes were demonstrated in BCG-vaccinated cattle. CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes proliferated and produced interferon (IFN)-gamma in response to BCG-infected or PPD-B-pulsed DC. Proliferative responses were greater for CD4+ than CD8+ lymphocytes, although secretion of IFN-gamma was
We demonstrate that both pathogens are capable of negatively affecting local and systemic immune responses towards each other by modifying cytokine phenotypes and by inducing general immune suppression. T. muris infection influenced non-specific and pathogen-specific immunity to M. bovis BCG by down-regulating pulmonary TH1 and Treg responses and inducing systemic TH2 responses. However, co-infection did not alter mycobacterial multiplication or dissemination and host pulmonary histopathology remained unaffected compared to BCG-only infected mice. Interestingly, prior M. bovis BCG infection significantly delayed helminth clearance and increased intestinal crypt cell proliferation in BALB/c mice. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in systemic helminth-specific TH1 and TH2 cytokine responses and significantly reduced local TH1 and TH2 responses in comparison to T. muris-only infected mice ...
A31 - Infection due to other mycobacteria: Pulmonary mycobacterial infection; Cutaneous mycobacterial infection; Other mycobacterial infections; Mycobacterial infection, unspecified: Diseases and Medical Conditions (ICD-10) from
Introduction: To participate effectively in the fight against tuberculosis (TB), mothers need to have a good knowledge of TB and its prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of mothers about TB and Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG). Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey performed from September to December 2015 in 4 health care facilities of Kinshasa. It concerned mothers of children who received BCG vaccine. The frequencies and chi-square of Pearson were used to report results. Results: A total of 380 couples of the children and their mothers were recruited. The median age of children was 16 months (ranges: 6 days to 59 months); 224 (58.9%) of them received BCG during the period recommended; 62 (16.3%) experienced a side effect. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between sides effects and the delayed vaccination. The average age of the mothers was 29.3 ± 6.4 years; 352 (92.6%) had heard about TB; 28 (7.4%) never heard about it; 168 (44.2%) knew that TB is a
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv includes a homologue of the CRP/FNR (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) family of transcription regulators encoded by Rv3676. Sequencing of the orthologous gene from attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strains revealed point mutations that affect the putative DNA-binding and cNMP-binding domains of the encoded protein. These mutations are not present in the published sequences of the Rv3676 orthologues in M. bovis, M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium leprae. An Escherichia coli lacZ reporter system was used to show that the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein binds to DNA sites for CRP, but this DNA binding was decreased or abolished with the Rv3676 protein counterparts from BCG strains. The DNA-binding ability of the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein was decreased by the introduction of base changes corresponding to the BCG point mutations. Conversely, the DNA binding of the BCG Rv3676 proteins from BCG strains
Our study is the first report of exceptional Mycobacterium bovis strains that have some characteristics of M. tuberculosis. The strains were isolated from 8 patients living in Kazakhstan. While molecular markers were typical for M. bovis, growth characteristics and biochemical test results were intermediate between M. bovis and M. tuberculosis.
A small ulcer which develops from the blister at the injection site, two to six weeks after injection. This may be painful and take several weeks or months to heal fully.Post that there will be scar on the sight of injection. If there is no scar , you may consult doctor as in some cases vaccine may fail.Uncommon side effects: Headache and a high temperature. ...
Memory T Lymphocytes Generated by Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination Reside within a CD4 CD44lo CD62 Ligandhi Population: In the lungs of mice vaccinated with
International Journal of Genomics is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles as well as review articles in all areas of genome-scale analysis. Topics covered by the journal include, but are not limited to: bioinformatics, clinical genomics, disease genomics, epigenomics, evolutionary genomics, functional genomics, genome engineering, and synthetic genomics.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenolic glycolipids of Mycobacterium bovis. T2 - New structures and synthesis of a corresponding seroreactive neoglycoprotein. AU - Chatterjee, D.. AU - Bozic, C. M.. AU - Knisley, C.. AU - Cho, S. N.. AU - Brennan, P. J.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - The glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as M. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside B described in the literature by others. However, when mycoside B obtained from M. bovis BCG, field isolates, and infected tissues was examined in detail, it was shown to be different from that described in the literature in some important respects. In particular, the glycosyl substituent is 2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnopyranose rather than 2-O-methyl-β-D-rhamnopyranose. With this information, a seroreactive neoglycoprotein (neoantigen) containing the 2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl substituent suitable for the serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis was ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is ...
BioAssay record AID 283668 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of oleic acid synthesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG NCTC 5692 with ethR-knockout mutant assessed as incorporation of [2-14C]acetate.
Today it is generally accepted that the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine protects against childhood tuberculosis (TB) but this immunity wanes with age, resulting in insufficient protection against adult pulmonary TB. Hence, one possible strategy to improve the protective efficacy of the BCG vaccine would be to boost in adulthood. In this study, using the mouse model, we evaluated the ability of two new TB vaccine candidates, heat-killed BCG (H-kBCG) and arabinomannan-tetanus toxoid conjugate (AM-TT), given intransally in a novel Eurocine adjuvant, to boost a primary BCG-induced immune response and to improve protection. Young C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with conventional BCG and, 6 months later, boosted intranasally with adjuvanted H-kBCG or AM-TT, or subcutaneously with BCG. Ten weeks after the booster, mice were challenged intravenously with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv. In spleens, there was a significant reduction of cfu counts in mice boosted with either H-kBCG or AM-TT vaccines
Enhanced apoptosis of BCG-infected macrophages has been shown to induce stronger dendritic cell-mediated cross-priming of T cells, leading to higher protection against tuberculosis (TB). Uncovering host effectors underlying BCG-induced apoptosis may then prove useful to improve BCG efficacy through …
BCG, Autoimmune Diabetes and M. Paratuberculosis. The recent NPJ Vaccine journal included an article by Kuhtreiber, et al. [1], wherein the authors reported that attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).
Scientists have been working on an improved vaccine against the tuberculosis bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis for almost 90 years. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) was developed in the early 20th century and contains attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacteria, the bovine tuberculosis pathogen that is transmissible to humans. BCG vaccination protects children in most cases against the disease, but not adults. Therefore, the vaccine has not contributed to reducing the global incidence of tuberculosis.. The VPM1002 vaccine, which was developed at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, is based on the BCG vaccine and contains genetically modified Mycobacterium bovis bacteria. A built-in gene makes it easier for the immune cells to recognise the bacteria; the organism can thus protect itself against actual infection with dangerous tuberculosis pathogens. VPM1002 is intended to replace the current BCG vaccine and will be administered to young children to protect them against ...
Modulation of humoral immune response to oral BCG vaccination by Mycobacterium bovis BCGMoreau Rio de Janeiro RDJ in healthy adults. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Protein kinase that regulates many aspects of mycobacterial physiology. Is a key component of a signal transduction pathway that regulates cell growth, cell shape and cell division via phosphorylation of target proteins.
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent sulfate ester dioxygenase, which oxidizes medium-chain alkyl-sulfate esters. Thus, catalyzes the oxygenolytic cleavage of 2-ethylhexyl sulfate (2-EHS), leading to the formation of succinate and 2-ethylhexanal. Has likely a role in sulfate scavenging in vivo.
We used genetic Multi-Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) data gathered from surveillance efforts to better understand the ongoing bovine tuberculosis (bTB) epidemic in Northern Irish cattle herds. We modelled the factors associated with Mycobacterium bovis MLVA genotype richness at three analytical scales; breakdown level, herd level, and patch level, and compared the results between dairy and non-dairy production types. In 83% of breakdowns and in 63% of herds, a single MLVA genotype was isolated. Five or more MLVA genotypes were found in less than 3 % of herds. Herd size and the total number of reactors were important explanatory variables, suggesting that increasing MLVA genotype richness was positively related to increases in the number of host animals. Despite their smaller relative size, however, the highest MLVA genotype richness values were observed in non-dairy herds. Increasing inwards cattle movements were important positive predictors of MLVA genotype richness, but mainly in non-dairy settings. The
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1KMP2 (Y2919_MYCBP), UPF0102 protein BCG_2919c. Mycobacterium bovis (strain BCG / Pasteur 1173P2)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1KNE3 (NUOC_MYCBP), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase subunit C. Mycobacterium bovis (strain BCG / Pasteur 1173P2)
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In this paper we demonstrate a high degree of protection of BCG vaccination against BTB in cattle. The degree of protection of around 75% is comparable to the best results reported over the years in studies where BCG was shown to be protective in cattle (e.g., references 8 and 9). In trials where significant protection has been reported in cattle, protection was characterized by significant reductions in disease-induced pathology and bacterial loads, rather than in sterilizing immunity (8, 9, 18, 52). Our findings confirm these earlier reports.. Although precise correlates of protection await definition, it is generally accepted that control of mycobacterial infections is characterized by the emergence of CD4+ cells producing type 1 cytokines and, in particular, IFN-γ. For example, mice in which the gene for IFN-γ was disrupted are unable to control disease and develop progressive and widespread tissue destruction (12, 22). Furthermore, the central role of IFN-γ in controlling human ...
TB in cattle is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Cattle, buffalo and bison are the natural hosts of M. bovis, but nearly all mammals are susceptible to the infection to a variable degree. The organism also has the capacity to infect and cause TB in humans. However, the risk of infection for the general public remains very low in industrialised countries with long-standing bovine TB control programmes and where pasteurisation of cows milk is either mandatory or commonly practised ...
We aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. Although information from many parts of the world was not available, data from 61 countries suggested a low global disease incidence. In regions outside Africa included in this study, overall median proportions of zoonotic TB of ≤1.4% in connection with overall TB incidence rates ≤71/100,000 population/year suggested low incidence rates. For countries of Africa included in the study, we multiplied the observed median proportion of zoonotic TB cases of 2.8% with the continental average overall TB incidence rate of 264/100,000 population/year, which resulted in a crude estimate of 7 zoonotic TB cases/100,000 population/year. These generally low incidence rates notwithstanding, available data indicated substantial consequences of this disease ...
Between 15 and 20% of patients with newly diagnosed urothelial cancer (UC) of the bladder will have high grade (HG) non-muscle invasive (NMI) disease including carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) and stage Ta and T1 tumors [1]. After transurethral resection of the cancer (TURBT), patients may undergo re-TURBT, but if no muscle invasive (MI) cancer is found most will receive an induction course of 6 weekly intravesical instillations of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG).
Human infection with Mycobacterium bovis is reported infrequently in the United Kingdom. Most cases involve previous consumption of unpasteurized milk. We report a rare occurrence of 2 incidents of cat-to-human transmission of M. bovis during a cluster of infection in cats.
We are using clone B-B4. It can be purchased from BioCare Medical. We were purchasing it from a different company, but it has been discontinued. The discontinuation of some antibodies has been the bane of my existence this year. As some companies have been bought by larger companies, this has become more of a problem (at least thats my perception). Patient care seems to take a back seat to profit margin. (please dont flame me!) Patti Loykasek BS, HTL, QIHC PhenoPath Laboratories Seattle, WA > Hi there, > > Does anybody has a clone recomendation for the antibody CD138?? > We used to use clone MI15 from Dako but were informed that it was > discontinued! > > And vendors for Mycobacterium bovis antibody? Dako is not working > well! > > > Sincerely, > > > Ms. K tia Catunda > Produ o > +55 12 3203-0612 (direto) > +55 12 3203-0633 (PABX) > > [email protected] > > > > _______________________________________________ > Histonet mailing list > [email protected] > ...
2KKL: Solution NMR structure of FHA domain of Mb1858 from Mycobacterium bovis. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium Target MbR243C (24-155).
Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a hypoxia-inducible state in which the bacteria are phenotypically insensitive to currently available
The incidence of systemic BCG infection has been reported to present from 3 to 7% [13], [14], [15], [16]. The scope of these complications range from fever, malaise, chills, sweats, weight loss, shortness of breath, and arthralgia, and accounts for one third of cases involving BCG infection [13], [14], [15], [16]. However, less commonly complications such as hepatitis [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], polyarthritis [24], [25], [26], or prosthetic joint infection [27] have also been reported, suggesting high level of clinical suspicion is required addressing atypical infective symptoms following BCG instillation.. Most systemic presentations generally appear earlier, within 8 to 12 weeks following instillation and up to 1 year [13]. Several risk factors for developing BCG systemic infection have been suggested, such as, recent interval to procedures breaching urothelial mucosal integrity, and poor technique during administration [28], [29], [30]. However, the paucity of studies ...
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We found evidence that the chromosomal parA and parB genes of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis are expressed from multiple promoters. To identify the promoter sequences that regulate the expression of the par genes, we mapped the transcription start sites of the par-mRNAs by primer extension and confirmed the activity of the identified promoters by transcriptional fusions to a fluorescent reporter. We also demonstrated that in M. bovis BCG the parA and parB genes are differentially expressed during the exponential and stationary growth phases.. In all microorganisms studied thus far, plasmid and chromosome-encoded partitioning genes are arranged in an operon. Transcription of the par genes is driven by one (in F and R1 plasmids, P1 prophage and C. crescentus) or two (in S. coelicolor) promoters located upstream of the gene encoding the ATPase (parA or sopA) [5, 7, 13, 15, 32]. The jag, gidB, parA and parB genes of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis shared orientation and close spacing, suggesting that ...
Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies ...
Read more about the Bacillus Of Calmette and Guerin Vaccine. This treatment helps prevent drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis.
Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (EPEC) é uma importante causa de diarreia infantil. EPEC adere no epitélio intestinal e causa uma lesão conhecida como attaching and effacing (A/E). Cepas recombinantes...
Tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic infectious disease common to humans and animals which has been caused by a rod shaped, acid fast bacterium, called Mycobacterium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase I study of immunotherapy with methanol extraction residue (MER) of bacillus Calmette Guerin. AU - Richman, S. P.. AU - Gutterman, J. U.. AU - Hersh, E. M.. AU - Burgess, M. A.. AU - Mavligit, G. M.. PY - 1977/10/23. Y1 - 1977/10/23. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 872144. AN - SCOPUS:0017374964. VL - 61. SP - 471. EP - 472. JO - Journal of the National Cancer Institute. JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute. SN - 0027-8874. IS - 3. ER - ...
Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains
The interruptions to supply of BCG (Bacillus Calmette - Guérin) powder for injections are due to manufacturing issues and are expected to be resolved as noted above.. Sanofi-Aventis have no stock available of either BCG Vaccine or ImmuCyst®, and have not been able to source substitute medicines under Section 19(A) as previously indicated.. Whilst the availability of OncoTICE® has been constrained to emergency requirements, HPS Pharmacies are now able to access supplies to meet individual patient needs.. Please retain this notice in a prominent position, including in other related business units as a reminder for all staff members until supply returns to normal.. Report any problems identified with medicines, vaccines or medical devices to the TGA.. Should you require further information regarding this matter, please do not hesitate to contact your Pharmacist at HPS Pharmacies, Sanofi-Aventis Australia on 1800 829 468, or Merck Sharp & Dohme Australia on 02 8988 8428.. Information regarding ...
Intravesical administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a cornerstone of adjuvant treatment for low-grade urothelial carcinoma. Complications from administration are relatively rare and generally evident within one month. Systemic BCG infections are typically diagnosed within 14 days post BCG administration; however, cases have been reported of infections being diagnosed as late as 17 years after treatment. Here, we describe the unusual case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who was diagnosed with disseminated BCG infection 3 years after initial adjuvant treatment for urothelial carcinoma. Résumé Ladministration intravésicale de Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) est la pierre angulaire du traitement adjuvant du carcinome urothéliales de faible teneur. Les complications de ladministration sont relativement rares et généralement évidentes dans un délai dun mois. Les infections systémiques du BCG sont généralement diagnostiquées dans les 14 jours après ladministration du BCG;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Failure of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔRD1 ΔpanCD double deletion mutant in a neonatal calf aerosol M. bovis challenge model. T2 - Comparisons to responses elicited by M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin. AU - Waters, W. Ray. AU - Palmer, Mitchell V.. AU - Nonnecke, Brian J.. AU - Thacker, Tyler C.. AU - Scherer, Charles F Capinos. AU - Estes, D. Mark. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Glatman-Freedman, Aharona. AU - Larsen, Michelle H.. PY - 2007/11/7. Y1 - 2007/11/7. N2 - An attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 knockout and pantothenate auxotroph (mc26030) vaccine administered at 2 weeks of age failed to protect calves from low dose, aerosol M. bovis challenge at 2.5 months of age. In contrast, M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG)-vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis-associated pathology as compared to non- and mc26030-vaccinates. Mycobacterial colonization was not impacted by vaccination. Positive prognostic indicators associated with reduced pathology in the BCG-vaccinated ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sahal Al-Hajoj, Ziad Memish, Naila Abuljadayel, Raafat AlHakeem, Fahad AlRabiah, Bright Varghese].
Leishmania tropica, an intracellular protozoan parasite, infects and replicates in macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice in vitro(1). Exposure of resident peritoneal macrophages to amastigotes for...
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In 2002, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (tb) among 500 cattle on Holeta Farm, near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was 48 per cent, and the farm was divided into positive and negative herds. After three consecutive rounds of skin testing and segregation of skin test-positive and -negative animals, the prevalence of bovine tb was reduced from 14 per cent to 1 per cent in the negative herd in a year. Spoligotyping of 41 isolates from 17 cows gave an identical and unique spoligotype pattern, which can be represented as the binary number 1100000101111110111111100010000000000100000, where 1 indicates the presence of a spacer and 0 represents a loss. This spoligotype pattern had not previously been reported on the Mycobacterium bovis spoligotype database, and it was therefore designated sb1176, Ethiopian M bovis strain 1 (embs1). The variable number tandem repeat (vntr) profile of the strain was 5254*33.1, which differed from the vntr profile of strains reported in Great Britain.. ...
Background:. Each year, more than half a million babies are infected with HIV by mother-to child transmission in developing countries. Many of these babies get sick and develop HIV disease (AIDS) at a very young age. Exposure to other infectious diseases may influence this early progression to AIDS. BCG is a live tuberculosis vaccine made from cow tuberculosis. It is routinely given at birth to most babies, also to babies born to HIV-positive mothers. BCG can cause disease (BCGosis) in HIV-infected babies. More importantly, BCG may also trigger immune responses in the body that lead to the spread of the HIV virus and early progression to AIDS.. Objective(s) and Hypothesis:. The researchers will investigate whether BCG causes progression of HIV by doing a clinical trial: babies born to HIV-positive mothers will be randomly allocated to get the BCG vaccine at birth or at 14 weeks of age. In these 2 groups of babies, the researchers will compare:. ...
Background:. Each year, more than half a million babies are infected with HIV by mother-to child transmission in developing countries. Many of these babies get sick and develop HIV disease (AIDS) at a very young age. Exposure to other infectious diseases may influence this early progression to AIDS. BCG is a live tuberculosis vaccine made from cow tuberculosis. It is routinely given at birth to most babies, also to babies born to HIV-positive mothers. BCG can cause disease (BCGosis) in HIV-infected babies. More importantly, BCG may also trigger immune responses in the body that lead to the spread of the HIV virus and early progression to AIDS.. Objective(s) and Hypothesis:. The researchers will investigate whether BCG causes progression of HIV by doing a clinical trial: babies born to HIV-positive mothers will be randomly allocated to get the BCG vaccine at birth or at 14 weeks of age. In these 2 groups of babies, the researchers will compare:. ...
Background: We have been determined that for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after becoming infected with tuberculosis, the damages in their hematologic..
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The live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) is a potent innate immune stimulator. Innate Immunity provides the host with the ability to immediately respond to invasion by pathogens and can ...
Several PCR systems have been developed for the detection of species belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC). The most commonly used one is based on primers that amplify segments of the IS6110 element, particularly targeting for the 123 bp (2) and 245 bp fragments (7). Another PCR system that yield successful identification of M. bovis isolates is focused on the amplification of a 500-bp DNA fragment inside the RvD1Rv2031c genomic sequence (4). A combination of conventional culture and biochemical techniques is the gold standard method currently used for the identification of M. bovis, which is laborious and time-consuming. In this study we carry out the molecular identification of pure cultures of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) isolated from suggestive bovine tuberculosis lesions. The molecular assay consists of a single-step multiplex PCR (m-PCR), based on two set primers already tested that yet to date have not been combined in a single PCR system. In this study, the assay targets ...
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The IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test is intended for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) antibody in cattle serum and plasma samples
The IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test is intended for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) antibody in cattle serum and plasma samples
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Citation: Harrington, N., Waters, W.R., Surujballi, O., Prescott, J. 2005. Development of a Multispecies Real-time RT-PCR Whole Blood Assay to detect Interferon-gamma Response to Mycobacterial Antigens and Evaluation in Mycobacterium bovis-infected elk (cervus elaphus)[abstract]. International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis. p. 73. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: In North America, wild elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can be reservoirs for Mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of tuberculosis to other wildlife, to cattle, and to humans. Current diagnostic tests lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for accurate detection of infected wildlife populations. In other species, methods which assay the in vitro production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in response to mycobacterial antigens by ELISA or ELISPOT are more sensitive than other tests for tuberculosis. Unfortunately, these assays do not react with many ...
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in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2010), 48(8), 2802-8. This assessment aimed to elaborate a statistical nationwide model for analyzing the space-time dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in search of potential risk factors that could be used to better target ... [more ▼]. This assessment aimed to elaborate a statistical nationwide model for analyzing the space-time dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in search of potential risk factors that could be used to better target surveillance measures. A database comprising Mycobacterium bovis molecular profiles from all isolates obtained from Belgian outbreaks during the 1995-to-2006 period (n = 415) allowed the identification of a predominant spoligotype (SB0162). Various databases compiling 49 parameters to be tested were queried using a multiple stepwise logistic regression to assess bovine tuberculosis risk factors. Two isolate datasets were analyzed: the first included all Mycobacterium bovis isolates, while the second included only data related to ...
Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a major economic problem affecting farmers both in the UK and worldwide. In order to prevent and control bovine tuberculosis it is very important to be able to promptly and definitively diagnose infected animals. However, the current diagnostic tools show some limitations which can contribute to cause economic losses and to the transmission of the disease to other animals in a herd, to wildlife and potentially to humans. Therefore, there is an urgent need to have available new diagnostic methods that allow the definitive detection of bovine tuberculosis. In this work, the practical issues associated with the cost-effective production of two diagnostic kits that employ mycobacteriophage (ActiphageTM and ActiphageTM Rapid) were investigated. This technology exploits the ability of bacteriophage to infect live mycobacterial species in a strain specific manner. This technique was originally developed as a tool for the diagnosis ...
This thesis aimed to the identification of immune biomarkers of mycobacterial infection for better diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and also focused on new vaccination strategies with a particular emphasis on the immune responses in the respiratory tract using murine models.. Since the lung is the natural habitat for the M. tuberculosis, we reasoned that immune responses detected locally in the lungs would be good correlates of infection (Paper I). Likewise, immune responses induced in the respiratory tract following immunization would be more effective against mycobacterial infection. We showed that cytokines (IL-12, TNF, and IFN-γ) and cytokine receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) together with specific antibodies in the respiratory tract correlated better with the bacterial burden in the organs. In Paper II, we investigated the role of the BCG vaccination as a priming vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol. The results showed that the neonatal BCG vaccination primed the immune ...
ABSTRACT. Currently, tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem, is present in all regions of the world and remains one of the most deadly communicable diseases, particularly associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cases of TB Mycobacterium bovis more and more frequent, especially in vulnerable populations. TB caused by M. bovis clinical, radiological and histologically indistinguishable from tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis; however, there are some differences that make M. tuberculosis particular. The direct correlation between infection with M. bovis in cattle and human disease has been well documented, but the true prevalence is underestimated. Overall, the proportion of cases of human TB caused by M. bovis is low compared with M. tuberculosis, but its potential in the groups most at risk impact should not be underestimated by the impact on morbidity and mortality.. ...
Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and trehalose monomycolate (TMM), the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs), triacyl glycerol (TAG), pentacyl trehalose (PAT), phenolic glycolipid (PGL), and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG). Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM), diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG), phenylethanolamine (PE) and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs). These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen ...
Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing, aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. Similar to M. tuberculosis, M. bovis can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis in humans.. It is estimated that M. bovis was responsible for more losses among farm animals than all other diseases combined in the first half of the 20th century. Infection happens after bacterium is ingested. It is generally transmitted to humans via infected milk. Actual human infections are rare generally this is because pasteurization kills the bacteria.. The brushtail possum is the main vector in New Zealand. 40% of cows were infected in the 1930s. The risk of people contracting TB from cattle in Great Britain today is very low.. Badgers were identified as carriers 30 years ago. This caused a major battle between animal conservationists and farmers. Findings indicate that the rising incidence of disease can be reversed through rigid application of cattle-based control measures alone.. Other ...
In May 2017, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services was notified of a case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a man aged 77 years.
Free, official coding info for 2021 ICD-10-CM A31.0 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Obstet gyneco. Common indication for each individual patient, and situational : It can be recommended, dimethyl sulphoxide dmso and bacillus calmette guerin in patients with a poor erectile response, sources of photos: Onycholysis, terry nailshabif t clinical dermatology: A color guide to physical examination and history taking table. And undressing and dressing, the jvp is specific for hypogonadism with the parents. Studies were considered as a predictor for the treatment of premature heart disease share common risk factors for the. A tip of slit catheter or intermittent priapism. Diamete palpate the left midure - te note smooth concavity of the brainstem with motor urge incontinence. Other common pain provocation test: Painful arc test subacromial bursa are not clea however, repeat studies should be restricted unless there is no indication for circumcision. F i g u r e Male adolescents. Two other meta analyses have to lie on ulcerated cance the mucosal surfaces. Guidelines can never be ...
Following M. bovis infection, a marked in vitro expansion suggests that bovine γδ T cells can mount memory-like responses upon restimulation with mycobacterial Ag (Fig. 1) and (reviewed in Ref. 35). However, to date, a combination of surface markers that effectively identify effector/memory-like subsets of bovine Ag-specific γδ T cells have not been reported. In this study, we show that, compared with CD4 T cells, proliferating M. bovis-specific γδ T cells do not significantly alter CD45RO expression after restimulation with mycobacterial Ags in vitro. Our results agree with reports showing that γδ T cells from human TB patients do not modulate CD45RO expression compared with γδ T cells from noninfected subjects (16, 17). Thus, γδ T cells may acquire a preactivated state early in their development and thus, CD45RO is not useful to identify Ag-experienced γδ T cells. In contrast to CD45RO expression, we found that proliferating γδ T cells from M. bovis-infected cattle ...
Introduction: Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium caprae. Before widespread action conducted in Poland between 1959-1975 to combat bovine tuberculosis (BTB), about 40% of all tuberculosis cases in pigs was caused by the bovine...
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The World Health organization (WHO) reported that 10.4 million peoples were infected and 1.7 million peoples were died because of TB (WHO, 2016). TB control is difficult due to emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) TB and HIV-TB co-infections (Kaufmann and Parida 2007). Though, we have one approved TB vaccine Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Geurin (BCG), it gives protection only for childhood not for adulthood. Researchers using different approaches to replace older BCG vaccine strain by substitution of new genes in BCG or by construction new attenuated live M. tuberculosis vaccine ...
The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene
Tuberculosis (TB) kills more than 2 million people worldwide every year. The widely used TB vaccine, Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) has variable efficacy and has prompted the search for more effective vaccines. Although significant progress has been made in identifying protective Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen candidates, our poor understanding of how immune responses mediate protection in the lung remains a major hurdle to successful vaccine design. The major goal of my lab is to define the basic requirements for induction of protective immunity in the lung against pulmonary pathogens such as Mtb. Our past work has described a novel role for the cytokine Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in vaccine-induced immunity against tuberculosis. More recent work from my lab has utilized this information to target and boost lung Th17 responses to improve vaccine-induced immunity against tuberculosis. We have identified that mucosal immunization with Mtb antigen induces a population of lung-resident Th17 ...
A retrospective study (2004-2010) on 24 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n=18) and cattle (n=6) in Imperia province (Savona province has been included in the study just in 2006) was performed to detect the prevalence and distribution of antibiotic-resistant strains. Actually, in this area cases of M. bovis infections in wild boar were related to cases in cattle herds due to the overlapping of their respective habitat and pasture areas, suggesting the role of these animals as bio-indicator of the presence of M. bovis in the environment and, in consequence, in farm animals. Susceptibility of all M. bovis strains to antituberculous drugs (isoniazid-INH, rifampicin-RIF, ethambutol-EMB and streptomycin-STR) was detected by proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium using recommended critical concentration, while the 6 bovine M. bovis strains were tested by Versatrek method on liquid medium, too. The proportion method to assess the M. bovis susceptibility to ...
Setting: Although animal models of aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis have been reported using laboratory animals, a model of aerosol delivery of M. bovis to cattle has not been reported previously. Objective: Develop and characterize a model of aerosol delivery of M. bovis to cattle, and compare the distribution of lesions in cattle infected with either of two differen ...
Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but it confers incomplete and variable protection against pulmonary TB in humans and bovine TB (bTB) in cattle. Insights into the immune response induced by BCG offer an underexploited opportunity to gain knowledge that may inform the design of a more efficacious vaccine, which is urgently needed to control these major global epidemics. Humoral immunity in TB and bTB has been neglected, but recent studies supporting a role for antibodies in protection against TB has driven a growing interest in determining their relevance to vaccine development. In this manuscript we review what is known about the humoral immune response to BCG vaccination and re-vaccination across species, including evidence for the induction of specific B cells and antibodies; and how these may relate to protection from TB or bTB. We discuss potential explanations for often conflicting findings and consider how factors such as BCG strain
A group of known antigens affected by deletions from M. bovis is the ESAT-6 family. The ESAT-6 protein was originally described as a potent T cell antigen secreted by M. tuberculosis (20), and belongs to a ,20-membered family that contains other T cell antigens such as CFP-10 and CFP-7. The demonstration of an interaction between ESAT-6 and CFP-10 suggests that other members of the family may also act in pairs, possibly in a mix-and-match arrangement (21). However, six ESAT-6 proteins, encoded by Rv2346c, Rv2347c, Rv3619c, Rv3620c, Rv3890c (Mb3919c), and Rv3905c (Mb3935c) in M. tuberculosis, are missing or altered in M. bovis (Fig. 3). The consequences of their loss are difficult to predict, though they may impact on antigen load either singly or in combination.. The most striking degree of variation in the secretome is the elevated expression of two serodominant antigens, MPB70 and MPB83, in the bovine bacillus (22). MPB83 is a glycosylated cell wall-associated protein, whereas MPB70 is a ...
A PSQ assay targeting pncA is used for identification of Mycobacterium bovis. This assay does not differentiate between M. bovis and M. bovis BCG. ...
Macrophage-enriched peritoneal exudate cells from mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, macrophage-like tumor cells (PU 5-1.8), and peritoneal macrophages propagated in vitro with macrophage growth factor released tumoricidal activity into the culture medium within 2 to 3 h after stimulation with nanogram quantities of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The cytotoxic activities from each of the macrophage culture supernatants eluted from diethylaminoethyl-Sephacel columns at a sodium chloride concentration of 200 mM exhibited a molecular weight of 50,000 to 60,000 as estimated by gel filtration, were stable at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and were active at a pH range of 6 to 10. A rabbit antiserum directed against serum-derived cytotoxic activity (tumor-necrotizing factor) from BCG-infected and lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice inhibited all of the cytotoxic activities generated in vitro. This suggests that the macrophage-derived cytotoxins are identical with serum-derived cytotoxic factor, which ...
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans ...
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans ...

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Genetic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis from a cattle herd in southernmost Brazil ...
... bovis tuberculosis? General symptoms of M. bovis tuberculosis may include fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Other symptoms ... Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) Newport 12 years ago 9,393 This is the position of the above message within the thread. ... Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Advertisement. Fast and Painless Constipation Relief. Oxygen Bowel Cleanser. ... from: Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) Fact Sheet ...
Mycobacterium bovis is the main cause of tuberculo-sis in cattle. At global scale and also in Iran, the most frequent currently ... Mycobacterium bovis is the main cause of tuberculo-sis in cattle. At global scale and also in Iran, the most frequent currently ... Euro Clinical Microbiology 2020 Isolation, molecular identification and genomic pattern of Mycobacterium bovis isolates ... ic knowledge of Mycobacterium bovis population structure in cattle farms of Shiraz.Fifty pathological samples from tuberculin- ...
The cellular immune activity of M. vaccae versus M. bovis strain BCG Pasteur GL-2 was analyzed by their capacity to induce an ... bovis strain BCG used as a vaccine, and the controversial success of M.vaccae as an immunotherapeutic agent, lead the TB ... "Immune Reactivity of Mycobacterium Bovis (Strain BCG) and Mycobacterium Vaccae". TANAFFOS (Respiration), 3, 4(autumn), 2004, 7- ... Immune Reactivity of Mycobacterium Bovis (Strain BCG) and Mycobacterium Vaccae, TANAFFOS (Respiration), 3(4(autumn)), pp. 7-18 ...
... and the failure of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to protect against disease, new vaccines against TB are ... In the light of the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium ... Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of prime-boost regimens with recombinant (delta)ureC hly+ Mycobacterium bovis BCG and ... Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of prime-boost regimens with recombinant (delta)ureC hly+ Mycobacterium bovis BCG and ...
Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG in lysosomes in vivo.. Microbes Infect. 19(11):515-526.* ...
Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG in lysosomes in vivo.. Microbes Infect. 19(11):515-526.* ...
Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG in lysosomes in vivo.. Microbes Infect. 19(11):515-526.* ...
Technical Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis (TB) complex and can cause TB in a broad range of ... Title: USE SWINE AS AN ANIMAL MODEL OF HUMAN TUBERCULOSIS TO DETERMINE THE RISK OF INFECTION WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS AFTER ... Results of this study indicate that swine, when used as an animal model of human TB, can become infected with M. bovis by ... In the present study, swine were challenged by the oral route with various doses of M. bovis. We determined that swine become ...
Denmark is officially free from Brucella abortus, B. melitensis and Mycobacterium bovis. ...
Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis ...
The wide susceptibility of mammals, including humans, to M. bovis led us to be concerned with the potential risks of acquiring ... caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other free-ranging Michigan wildlife has made ... The discovery of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ... The wide susceptibility of mammals, including humans, to M. bovis led us to be concerned with the potential risks of acquiring ...
Exposure to human alveolar lining fluid enhances Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Selective delipidation of Mycobacterium bovis BCG enables direct pulmonary vaccination and enhances protection against ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mucosal Immunol. 2019 May;12(3):805-815. doi: 10.1038/s41385-019-0148-2. Epub 2019 Feb 18. PMID: ...
Complement dependent and independent interaction between bovine conglutinin and Mycobacterium bovis BCG: implications in bovine ...
Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase Is Required for Synthesis of Mycolic Acids and Complex Lipids in Mycobacterium bovis BCG and ... bovis BCG to antibiotics that permeate the cell wall. Phenotypic traits are fully complemented by introduction of Mycobacterium ... We show that an in-frame deletion of Mycobacterium bovis BCG nat results in delayed entry into log phase, altered morphology, ... Mycolic acids represent a major component of the unique cell wall of mycobacteria. Mycolic acid biosynthesis is inhibited by ...
Mycobacterium bovis - Mycobacterium tuberculosis - One Health - Zoonotic tuberculosis.. *18michel583592.pdf. , Retour ©2014 OIE ...
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Mycobacterium Bovis Physicians in Ancient Greece. Editorial: Int J Cardiovasc Res. DOI: Hossain *Abstract ...
Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (M. bovis BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB). ... Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (M. bovis BCG) is the only vaccine available against ... Reference genome for the WHO reference strain for Mycobacterium bovis BCG Danish, the present tuberculosis vaccine. Published: ... Reference genome and comparative genome analysis for the WHO reference strain for Mycobacterium bovis BCG Danish, the present ...
A paper just published in the Veterinary Journal documents the first cases of transmission of Mycobacterium bovis* (the ...
Last year, the lab received a crown censure for nine safety lapses that exposed staff to live Mycobacterium bovis, an organism ...
... particularly of Mycobacterium bovis. PLoS ONE, 6 (11). e27369. ISSN 1932-6203 ...
Mycobacterium bovis in badgers found dead within North Pembrokeshire and parts of Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire (Welsh ...
TB, caused by the similar-sounding Mycobacterium bovis, has been a problem for farmed livestock since they arrived in the 19th ... M. bovis costs $203m to date - Brent Melville:. The costs of Mycoplasma bovis to the agricultural sector continue to stack up. ... "I think I would rather have cancer than Mycoplasma bovis.". That was the hard-hitting opening line in a letter from North Otago ... While Mycoplasma bovis has hogged the headlines recently, the progress of the TBfree programme to eradicate bovine tuberculosis ...
Mycobacterium bovis :. Burkholderia pseudomallei :. 2021-07-31. ...
MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. *SALMONELLA CHOLER AUREUS. Available in 750 ML Trigger spray, 5L and 25L. ...
Mycobacterium bovis in humans and in animals in Nigeria: an overview from 1975-2014. ... bovis, 71 represented M. africanum, and 205 represented other mycobacteria. Importantly, 1.3% (15/1131) of the M. tuberculosis ... we described the presence of Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis infections in humans and animals from 1975 to 2014. ... Zoonotic transmission of mycobacteria between humans and other animal species is an important aspect of the epidemiology of ...
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  • Mycobacterium bovis ( M. bovis ) is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB ). (
  • The Animal Health Board (AHB) operates a nationwide programme of cattle testing and cat control, with the goal of eradicating M. bovis from wild vector species across 2.5 million hectares - or one quarter - of New Zealand's at-risk areas, by 2026 and, eventually, eradicating the disease entirely. (
  • In the 1930s, 40% of cattle in the UK were infected with M. bovis and there were 50,000 new cases of human M. bovis infection every year. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing, aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. (
  • Other mammals have been found to be infected with M. bovis but it is less common than it is between cattle and badgers. (
  • M. bovis is most commonly found in cattle and other animals such as bison, elk, and deer. (
  • M. bovis transmission from cattle to people was once common in the United States. (
  • No. The Cooperative State-Federal Tuberculosis Eradication Program, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, state animal health agencies, and U.S. livestock producers, has nearly eliminated M. bovis infection from cattle in the United States. (
  • M. bovis , a bacterial species of the M. tuberculosis complex, is a pathogen that primarily infects cattle. (
  • In industrialized nations, human TB caused by M. bovis is rare because of milk pasteurization and culling of infected cattle herds ( 1 ). (
  • Products from unpasteurized cow's milk have been associated with certain infectious diseases and carry the risk of transmitting M. bovis if imported from countries where the bacterium is common in cattle. (
  • Cellular and humoral immune responses of cattle to purified Mycobacterium bovis antigens. (
  • Cellular responses to several purified antigens of Mycobacterium bovis were examined in experimentally infected cattle over a period of 36 months, using in vitro cellular proliferation and interferon-gamma assays. (
  • Zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease of humans caused by transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from cattle ( 1 ). (
  • M. bovis infection in humans occurs after direct contact with infected cattle, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or raw or undercooked meat, or (rarely) person-to-person transmission ( 2 ). (
  • M. bovis infection in cattle (bovine TB) has a major effect on meat and live animal export trade and dairy industry development and expansion ( 1 ). (
  • Failure to identify non-bovine reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis in a region with a history of infected dairy-cattle herds. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle and wildlife. (
  • We show that the detectability of viable M. bovis at badger setts and latrines is strongly linked to the frequency of M. bovis excretion by infected badgers, and that putative M. bovis in the environment is prevalent on a large proportion of endemic cattle farms in Britain. (
  • Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a persistent problem among UK cattle herds. (
  • Identification of these genes enabled integration of high-density genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, which revealed genomic regions associated with resilience to infection with M. bovis in cattle. (
  • In northeast Michigan, USA there is a focus of M. bovis infection in free-ranging white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) where infected deer have been implicated as the source of infection in 69 cattle herds from 1995 through 2017. (
  • The IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test (USDA) is intended for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis ( M. bovis ) antibody in cattle serum and plasma samples. (
  • Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an infectious disease originated by the presence of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle. (
  • The direct correlation between infection with M. bovis in cattle and human disease has been well documented, but the true prevalence is underestimated. (
  • Screening of a panel of overlapping synthetic peptides using sera from cattle immunised with MPB70 and cattle infected with M. bovis showed that two regions of the protein (residues 21-70 and 101-120) contain dominant B-cell epitopes. (
  • In Britain, the presence of M. bovis infection in European badgers ( Meles meles ) impedes the eradication of TB in cattle. (
  • Sequential serum samples obtained from Mycobacterium bovis -infected cattle were evaluated for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. (
  • These findings demonstrate the potential for new-generation antibody-based tests for the early detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis , unlike M. tuberculosis , has a wide host range, is the species most often isolated from tuberculous cattle, and has several wildlife maintenance hosts, including the Eurasian badger ( Meles meles ), brush-tailed possum ( Trichosurus vulpecula ), and white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ). (
  • The aim of this study was to identify relationships between Mycobacterium bovis strains from cattle in the State of Jalisco, and those of other States of México. (
  • We worked with the Animal Production, Welfare and Veterinary Sciences Department at Harper Adams University to systematically map evidence to investigate the possible influences of nutritional factors on the susceptibility of dairy cattle to Mycobacterium bovis, thereby determining ways to boost host immune responses and clearing of M. bovis infection in dairy cattle through nutrients, mirroring the host-directed therapy approaches to tuberculosis in humans. (
  • Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . (
  • 2. Cleaveland S, Shaw D J, Mfinangas G, Shirimag G, Kazwala R R, Eblate E, Sharp M 2007 Mycobacterum bovis in rural Tanzania: risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. (
  • Cattle were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , or Mycobacterium kansasii to compare the antigen-specific immune responses to various patterns of mycobacterial disease. (
  • Specific antibody responses were detected in all M. tuberculosis - and M. bovis -inoculated cattle 3 weeks after inoculation. (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily a human pathogen that demonstrates a high level of attenuation in cattle (as reviewed by Francis in 1947 [ 10 ]), whereas M. bovis has a wider host range and affects many domesticated and free-ranging mammals as well as humans. (
  • Control efforts, including slaughter surveillance and test/cull campaigns, have dramatically reduced the prevalence of M. bovis infection in domestic cattle herds, thereby reducing the spread of M. bovis to humans. (
  • These techniques will prove useful for monitoring M. bovis in the environment and for elucidating transmission routes between wildlife and cattle. (
  • The second animal had had contact with experimentally infected cattle which were excreting M bovis and the third was from a commercial farm. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is increasingly being identified in domestic species other than cattle in Great Britain ( Defra 2008 ). (
  • In some animal species, for example, cattle ( Lyashchenko and others 1998 , 2004 ) and white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) ( Waters and others 2004 ), there is variation between individual animals in the serological response to certain antigens following M bovis infection. (
  • Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has an annual incidence in cattle of 0.5% in the Republic of Ireland and 4.7% in the UK, despite long-standing eradication programmes being in place. (
  • M. bovis causes TB in cattle which is a serious issue in the UK. (
  • WC1(+) gammadelta T cells of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle are highly responsive to M. bovis sonic extract (MBSE). (
  • Analysis of immune responses directed toward a recombinant early secretory antigenic target six-kilodalton protein-culture filtrate protein 10 fusion protein in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. (
  • Combined RNA-seq transcriptomic profiling and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified 193 significantly differentially expressed genes and 760 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), between CD4+ T cells from M. bovis infected and healthy cattle. (
  • This first analysis of the bovine CD4+ T cell methylome suggests that DNA methylation directly contributes to a distinct gene expression signature in CD4+ T cells from cattle infected with M. bovis. (
  • A novel Mycobacterium bovis antigen was identified from an expression library using sera from naturally infected cattle. (
  • Investigation of temporal changes in immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis in cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). (
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cattle and African buffaloes are major maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis in South Africa and therefore serve as a potential source of infection for other animals and humans. (
  • We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. (
  • We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies. (
  • Although information from many M. bovis , and cattle are the major reservoir ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Genotyping of the M. bovis strain indicated spoligotype SB0121, the most frequent type in Portugal, and a unique MIRU-VNTR profile that differed in two loci from the profiles of SB0121 bovine and deer strains from the same geographical area. (
  • Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (Smeg) and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains were constructed to express either BfpA or intimin. (
  • The progress of the diagnostic technics in the field of the molecular biology, seeking a better strains discrimination of M.bovis and M.tuberculosis was evidenced. (
  • However, DNA fingerprinting of 7 M. bovis isolates from a 2013 bovine tuberculosis outbreak indicated minimal homology with strains previously circulating in Panama. (
  • Identification by spoligotyping of a caprine genotype in Mycobacterium bovis strains causing human tuberculosis. (
  • This finding has supported a strategy of using PZA monoresistance as an initial screening tool for M. bovis , a strategy that risks missing cases of infection with M. bovis strains that have broader resistance. (
  • Intracellular growth and phagocytic rates of 18 M. bovis strains were heterogeneous. (
  • M. bovis strains differ depending on the host they are infecting and the geographic region they are located in. (
  • RD3, a 9.3-kb genomic segment present in virulent laboratory strains of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, was absent from BCG and 84% of virulent clinical isolates. (
  • The recent resurgence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal agent of tuberculosis (TB) has strengthened the need for new anti-TB drugs. (
  • To address this possibility, DNA from strains of mycobacteria other than M. bovis , that are routinely isolated from diagnostic samples, were tested for cross reactivity with the commonly used IS 6110 PCR primer pairs used to detect M. bovis . (
  • Comparison of primer specificity using reference strains of Mycobacteria commonly isolated from clinical samples. (
  • We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. (
  • Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. (
  • The virulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have 16 different regions of difference (RD) in their genome which encode some important antigens. (
  • A dynamic nomenclature proposal for isolates as M. bovis by whole-genome sequencing. (
  • 32 (32%) of the cases were culture-confirmed, and five (16%) of the 32 culture isolates were M. bovis . (
  • Whereas isolates of other species belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex usually are susceptible to pyrazinamide, M. bovis isolates typically are resistant. (
  • Isolates from suggestive bovine tuberculosis lesions were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) targeting for RvD1Rv2031c and IS6110 sequences, specific for M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex respectively. (
  • The m-PCR successfully identified as M. bovis 88.24% of the isolates. (
  • Another PCR system that yield successful identification of M. bovis isolates is focused on the amplification of a 500-bp DNA fragment inside the RvD1Rv2031c genomic sequence (4). (
  • In this study, the assay targets simultaneously the RvD1Rv2031c and IS6110 sequences, aiming to identify bacteria as MTC members as well as to distinguish M. bovis isolates from other members of this complex. (
  • Among these countries, only Costa Rica does not test M. tuberculosis complex isolates to identify M. bovis . (
  • We characterized and genotyped M. bovis isolates that reemerged in Panama during the 2013 outbreak of bovine TB. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is best identified by screening those isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that have any pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance, using a confirmatory test such as spoligotyping, biochemical testing, or genomic deletion analysis. (
  • The sensitivity for detection of M. bovis is lowered to 82% when only PZA-monoresistant isolates are screened. (
  • The isolates underwent biochemical testing for niacin and nitrate production for identification of species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, as the vast majority of isolates of M. bovis are niacin and nitrate negative ( 6 , 8 ). (
  • We performed a retrospective cohort study, which included all available isolates from San Francisco from 1991 to 1999 identified as M. bovis by nitrate and niacin testing and all isolates that were PZA resistant. (
  • For the identification of M. bovis , isolates were screened for the absence of the region of difference 4 (RD4) and RD9 ( 1 ). (
  • All M. bovis isolates were screened for the RD1 deletion, which is specific to M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) ( 1 ). (
  • PZA testing was random, and isolates of M. bovis as identified by biochemical testing were not more likely to have been tested than non- M. bovis isolates ( P = 0.54). (
  • Molecular typing of bacterial isolates provides a powerful approach for distinguishing Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) genotypes. (
  • In this study, we assessed the in vitro intracellular growth of 18 M. bovis isolates in bovine macrophages as an indicator of bacterial virulence and sought a relationship with the genotype identified by spoligotyping. (
  • Molecular typing of bacterial isolates based on polymorphisms in genomic DNA (genotyping) provides a powerful approach in distinguishing M. bovis s trains, and may further yet provide valuable insights into the maintenance and transmission of infection [ 3 ]. (
  • RD1, a 9.5-kb DNA segment found to be deleted from all BCG substrains, was conserved in all virulent laboratory and clinical isolates of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis tested. (
  • Molecular fingerprints of 337 M. bovis isolates from Jalisco, and 1152 from other States of México were included in the study. (
  • The WHO reported in 1998 that 3.1% of tuberculosis cases in humans worldwide are attributable to M. bovis and that in 0.4-10% of sputum isolates from patients in African countries, M. bovis is isolated. (
  • Based on Spoligotyping, eight of the isolates from both surveys were confirmed as M. bovis belonging to the SB 0120 Spoligotype. (
  • Mycobacterial isolates confirmed as M. bovis by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were observed in 17 of a total of 576 samples that were exposed to the secondary processing method of cooking. (
  • 5 years of age have been sent to the national refer- a result of Mycobacterium bovis BCG osteomyelitis/osteitis to ence mycobacterial laboratory for BCG detection ( 2 ). (
  • As the study of bacterial pathogenicity enters the postgenomic phase, the genome sequence of M. bovis promises to serve as a cornerstone of mycobacterial genetics. (
  • Alveolar macrophages are the key immune effector cells that first encounter M. bovis and how the macrophage epigenome responds to mycobacterial pathogens is currently not well understood. (
  • The most common epidemiological molecular typing methods for members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are: (a) insertion sequence 6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP), (b) spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), and (c) the analysis of the copy number of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). (
  • The requirement of IFN-γ and IL-12 in mediating resistance to mycobacterial infections has been also demonstrated by using genetically modified animals such as IFN-γ −/− or IFN-γR −/− and IL-12p40 −/− mice, which were unable to control M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infections ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (
  • Neutralization of TNF with anti-TNF Abs or with soluble TNFR1-Ig fusion protein during M. bovis and M. tuberculosis infections or the absence of a functional TNF gene increased sensitivity by inhibiting macrophage differentiation and the development of well-differentiated granulomas, resulting in mycobacterial overgrowth and rapid animal death ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ). (
  • While the role of RD1 in mycobacterial survival in amoebae could not be observed, isocitrate lyase and a transcriptional regulator (ClgR) might play some part in survival of M. bovis in A. castellanii. (
  • A library of ~2500 M. bovis mutants was also created and TraSH mutagenesis was performed to provide a systematic assessment of the importance of mycobacterial genes for intra-amoebic survival. (
  • M. bovis was also the progenitor for the M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine strain, the most widely used human vaccine. (
  • M. bovis was also the progenitor of the only current vaccine against tuberculosis, M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin, a strain that was attenuated by serial passage of M. bovis on potato slices soaked in ox-bile and glycerol over 13 years ( 7 ). (
  • On direct comparison of minimal sets of ordered clones from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries representing the complete genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur, two major rearrangements were identified in the genome of M. bovis BCG Pasteur. (
  • To overcome the associated experimental limitations, we established the attenuated BCG strain of M. bovis as a model organism to study the hypoxic life of the tubercle bacillus. (
  • Pappas M.G., Oster C.N., Nacy C.A. (1983) Intracellular Destruction of Leishmania Tropica by Macrophages Activated in Vivo with Mycobacterium Bovis Strain BCG. (
  • It is known that M. bovis strain virulence plays a role in prevalence and spread of the disease, suggesting that strain virulence and prevailing genotypes are associated. (
  • The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): mycobacterium bovis (bacillus calmette and guerin (bcg)) tice strain. (
  • Responses to MPB83 were detected for all M. bovis -infected animals regardless of the route or strain of M. bovis used for inoculation. (
  • The present study therefore investigated the mechanism of NO production in murine DCs induced by Mycobacterium bovis (M.bovis) and its attenuated strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection. (
  • The original BCG strain was developed at the Pasteur Institute, through attenuation of the bovine TB pathogen M. bovis, by 231 serial passages on potato slices soaked in glycerol-ox bile over a time-span of 13 years [ 1 ]. (
  • Production of MPT-64 recombinant protein from virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis', Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research , 19(2), pp. 108-112. (
  • It is related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the bacterium which causes tuberculosis in humans, and can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis in humans and other mammals. (
  • It is related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium which causes tuberculosis in humans. (
  • Zuzana Kročová, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Entry of bacteria Mycobacterium bovis BCG into B lymphocytes Background: The objective of this work was to evaluate the entry of bacterium Mycobacterium bovis BCG into B lymphocytes and the role of selected receptors in this process. (
  • Using flow cytometry we evaluated the entry of bacterium M. bovis BCG-GFP into B lymphocytes and their subpopulations B1a, B1b and B2. (
  • One form of TB that is a particular problem in domestic animals is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) . (
  • The study showed that not only can M. bovis survive the cooking process but the survival of the bacterium will be determined by its unique adaptive changes to the surrounding composition of the environment. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic infectious disease common to humans and animals which has been caused by a rod shaped, acid fast bacterium, called Mycobacterium bovis . (
  • Generation of recombinant bacillus Calmette Guérin and Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing BfpA and intimin as vaccine vectors against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . (
  • The only vaccine ever approved for human tuberculosis was developed a century ago from an isolate of Mycobacterium bovis derived from a tuberculous cow. (
  • An effective BCG vaccine for deer would be of value in regions where free-ranging deer represent a potential source of M. bovis for livestock. (
  • Such a vaccine would also be beneficial to farmed deer where M. bovis represents a serious threat to trade and productivity. (
  • The live attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for the prevention of disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was derived from the closely related virulent tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis. (
  • Early immune response to the largely used Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intradermal vaccine remains ill defined. (
  • Notably, understanding inflammatory/innate response to the tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) might give some clues as to why BCG does not consistently protect adults against pulmonary disease ( 11 ). (
  • The only vaccine currently available against M. tuberculosis , Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), 3 has shown variable protective efficacy ranging from 0 to 85% in different studies ( 1 ). (
  • Tuberculosis is rising in the developing world due to poor health care, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, and the low protective efficacy of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. (
  • The bacillus Calmette-Guérin ( Mycobacterium bovis BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis ( 2 ). (
  • Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin ( M. bovis BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB). (
  • In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. (
  • Rosamund Chapman, Gerald Chege, Enid Shephard, Helen Stutz and Anna-Lise Williamson, " Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV Vaccine Vector", Current HIV Research (2010) 8: 282. (
  • Investigating the induction of vaccine-induced Th17 and regulatory T cells in healthy, Mycobacterium bovis BCG-immunized adults vaccinated with a new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A. (
  • Vaccine-induced protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent, at least in part, on a robust Th1 response, yet little is known of the ability of TB vaccines to induce other T-cell subsets which may influence vaccine efficacy. (
  • Safety and immunogenicity of a new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected individuals. (
  • Although the significance of M. bovis isolation in this vulture specimen could not be ascertained and despite the accepted notion that vultures are naturally resistant to microbial pathogens, the sanitary follow-up of Accipitridae vulture populations in TB-hotspot areas is essential to safeguard ongoing conservation efforts and also to evaluate the suitability of standing legislation on deliberate supplementary feeding schemes for menaced birds of prey. (
  • Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Antituberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen- Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance. (
  • Malama S, Muma JB, Olea- Popelka F, Mbulo G (2013) Isolation of Mycobacterium Bovis from Human Sputum in Zambia: Public Health and Diagnostic Significance. (
  • The two surveys provided an opportunity to document isolation of M. bovis from sputum samples from patients diagnosed with TB from both urban and pastoral areas of Zambia. (
  • Data on the prevalence of human disease due to M. bovis in Zambia and other developing countries is limited, owing to the technical problems posed by isolation and identification of this species during routine diagnosis [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Isolation of M. bovis from tissues harvested from suspect animals remains the gold standard for diagnosis. (
  • The optimized IMS method therefore has the potential to improve isolation of M. bovis from lymph nodes and hence the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. (
  • TB is caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), which include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium pinnipedii and Mycobacterium canettii [ 3 ]. (
  • caprae (2) and Mycobacterium pinnipedii subsp. (
  • We aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. (
  • 1.4% in connection with overall TB in- M. bovis or M. caprae . (
  • Mycobacterium caprae is a species of bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium and a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (
  • 1999 to species rank as Mycobacterium caprae comb. (
  • Similar to M. tuberculosis, M. bovis can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis in humans. (
  • M. bovis can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis-like infection in humans and other mammals. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in a range of animal species and man, with worldwide annual losses to agriculture of $3 billion. (
  • Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine clinical samples by PCR species-specific primers. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in most animal species, including man. (
  • The range of susceptible hosts to M. bovis is broad and includes most species of both livestock and wildlife. (
  • The findings demonstrate distinct patterns of predominant antigen recognition by different bovid species in M. bovis infection. (
  • More importantly, due to their slow-growth nature, the detection of pathogenic Mycobacterium species using culture methods is very time-consuming and thus extremely challenging. (
  • A cross-sectional study was carried out on wild artiodactyl species, including Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capraelus capraelus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) and mouflon (Ovis musimon), in Spain to assess the seroprevalence against Mycobacterium bovis or cross-reacting members of the Mycobcaterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), and to provide information on associated risk factors. (
  • For epidemiological studies, M. bovis detection techniques must be 100% species specific with robust and reliable quantification. (
  • Meanwhile, nitric oxide (NO) is a member of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generally considered to play a key role in the bactericidal process in innate immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection. (
  • The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in this species mostly relies on the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). (
  • Prior to 2003, the species was referred to as Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. (
  • In this study, we examined immune responses elicited in rhesus macaques following vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin expressing an HIV-1 Env V3 antigen (rBCG Env V3). (
  • Human tuberculosis caused by the Mycobacterium bovis: general considerations and the importance of the animal reservoirs. (
  • Seeking to know the epidemic data, etiology, pathogeny, diagnostics resources, transmission mechanisms, treatment, prevention and control of the tuberculosis caused by the Mycobacterium bovis in man, bovine and animal reservoirs, it took place this bibliographical revision to review the situation of the human tuberculosis caused by that mycobacteria worldwide, since there are few available data in Brazil. (
  • There is a great concern whether the pandemic HIV/AIDS will increase the number of cases of human tuberculosis caused by M.bovis, as occurred due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • de Kantor IN, LoBue PA, Thoen CO. Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean. (
  • Responses of bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T cells to protein and nonprotein antigens of Mycobacterium bovis. (
  • To prove its applicability, the sensing approach was employed to develop a colorimetric biosensor for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis. (
  • A student at the University of Nottingham's School of Veterinary Medicine and Science has been awarded the MSD Animal Health Connect Bursary Award 2011 for his research project titled 'Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in UK sheep at slaughter using quantitative PCR. (
  • Improved detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in bovine lymph node tissue using immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-based methods. (
  • The cell wall contains as high as 60% lipid, giving the mycobacteria their hydrophobic characteristics, slow growth and resistance to desiccation, disinfectants, acids and antibodies. (
  • Serum samples from M. bovis-infected animals were tested for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to MPB70/MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT6 chimeric proteins using Dual-Path Platform technology. (
  • 95% CI: 6.1-8.9) animals presented antibodies against M. bovis by both bPPD-ELISA and MPB83-ELISA. (
  • Gamma-irradiated whole M. bovis AF2122/97 cells and ethanol-extracted surface antigens of such cells were used to produce M. bovis -speci?c polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in rabbits and mice. (
  • M. bovis is usually transmitted to humans by consuming raw, infected cows milk, although it can also spread via aerosol droplets. (
  • Actual infections in humans are nowadays rare in developed countries, mainly because pasteurisation kills M. bovis bacteria in infected milk. (
  • Direct transmission from animals to humans through the air is thought to be rare, but M. bovis can be spread directly from person to person when people with the disease in their lungs cough or sneeze. (
  • Bovine tuberculosis is caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis , which can also cause disease in a range of other mammals, including humans. (
  • Clinical signs and pathological manifestations of M. bovis in humans can be identical to infection with the more common cause of human tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (
  • Zoonotic Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and Other Pathogenic Mycobacteria, Third Edition is a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the control and elimination of infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in animals and humans. (
  • Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovisinduced tuberculosis in humans. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) in humans may result from exposure to any one of the tubercle bacilli included within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e. (
  • M. bovis shows a high degree of virulence for both humans and animals [ 4 ]. (
  • This is despite the fact that M. bovis is associated with extra- pulmonary disease in humans [ 5 ]. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e. (
  • Prior to the initiation of control and eradication campaigns in the early to mid-1900s, M. bovis infection accounted for up to 30% of human tuberculosis cases, with M. bovis being transmitted to humans primarily by the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and contact with infected livestock. (
  • However, in developing countries, M. bovis infection of humans persists as a serious and relatively common zoonosis ( 16 ). (
  • Although Mycobacterium kansasii is not a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, it may cause disease in otherwise healthy humans, albeit infrequently, that is clinically indistinguishable from M. tuberculosis infection ( 1 , 3 ). (
  • Tuberculosis is a global burden with oneâ third of the worldâ s population infected with the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and an annual 1.4 million deaths from the disease. (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an aerosol-transmitted biosafety level 3 pathogen. (
  • The imminent completion of the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis will reveal the genetic blueprint for this most successful pathogen. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), an important animal pathogen with public health implications as it is a zoonosis. (
  • An isoelectric-focusing technique followed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis was used to investigate the immunoglobulin G response of tuberculous patients against each of the three components of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG antigen 85 complex. (
  • We show that BCG boosted by poxviruses expressing antigen 85A induced unprecedented 100% protection of guinea pigs from high-dose aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis , suggesting a strategy for enhancing and prolonging the efficacy of BCG. (
  • A rabbit serum against the recombinant antigen recognized a protein of 27 kDa in cellular extracts from M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. (
  • The aim of the present study was cloning, expression and purification of MPT-64 as a protein antigen of M. bovis in a prokaryotic system for the usage in the future diagnostic studies. (
  • Indeed, NOS2 −/− mice are highly sensitive to M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infections ( 17 , 18 ) but, in contrast, they show an enhanced resistance to Mycobacterium avium infection ( 19 ). (
  • This study therefore, highlights the public health significance of M. bovis in Zambia and the importance of screening for M. bovis as part of routine diagnosis procedures. (
  • Due to the protean manifestations, low rates of tissue and cerebrospinal fluid culture positivity, and lack of consensus diagnostic guidelines, diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium bovis is a clinical challenge. (
  • The result of this study indicated that MPT-64 recombinant protein (24 kDa) has been successfully expressed and purified in a prokaryotic system, so this protein could be used for differential diagnosis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium , in suspected BTB cases. (
  • Here we describe the 4,345,492-bp genome sequence of M. bovis AF2122/97 and its comparison with the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae . (
  • The genome sequence therefore offers major insight on the evolution, host preference, and pathobiology of M. bovis . (
  • With the availability of the genome sequence of M. bovis , we are now in a position to address the genetic basis of key phenotypic traits of the bovine tubercle bacillus. (
  • The complete genome sequence of M. bovis ( 5 ) has been used to design primers flanking a region of difference (RD4) between the sequence of M. bovis DNA and that of other M. tuberculosis complex members ( 1 ). (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is intrinsically resistant to pyrazinamide (PZA), and the prevalence of clinical infection with M. bovis is low in countries with good bovine tuberculosis control programs. (
  • At the same time, we estimated the prevalence of M. bovis in San Francisco. (
  • Here, we report on the application of molecular technology (PCR) to quantify the prevalence of M. bovis in the environment and to explore its epidemiological significance. (
  • Prevalence of latent an d active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exp osed to cattleinfected by Mycobacterium bovis. (
  • 14. Michel A L, Hlokwe T M, Coetzee M L, Mare L, Connoway L V P, Rutten M G, Kremer K 2008 High genetic diversity of M. bovis in a low prevalence setting in South Africa. (
  • Immunisation with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to protect against bTB. (
  • It was analyzed the main animal reservoirs of M.bovis existent in full detail, with emphasis to those of larger importance in the transmission of the human and animal tuberculosis due to this agent. (
  • Direct aerosol contact is thought to be the primary route of infection between conspecifics, whereas indirect transmission via an environmental reservoir of M. bovis is generally perceived not to be a significant source for infection. (
  • In cases where a wildlife reservoir of M. bovis infection exists, eradication has been difficult, if not impossible ( 2 ) due to transmission of M. bovis from livestock to wildlife (spillover) and subsequent transmission from wildlife back to livestock (spillback). (
  • The other additional factor that these developing countries are now facing is the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which favours human-to-human transmission of M. bovis leading rapidly to disease [ 4 ]. (
  • Result: 'A study of within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection from newly purchased infecte. (
  • Not all M. bovis infections progress to TB disease, so there might be no symptoms at all. (
  • M. bovis dispersion into Panama highlights the need for enhanced genotype testing to track zoonotic infections. (
  • Adding IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test (USDA) to bTB control programs will increase detection by identifying infections other tests miss. (
  • The test performance of cell-mediated immunity (CMI-) and humoral immunity (HI-) based assays for the detection of M. bovis infections in buffaloes was compared to identify the test or test combination that provided the highest sensitivity in the study. (
  • Furthermore, much experimental data indicates that pulmonary local immunity is important for protection against respiratory infections including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that pulmonary immunisation is highly effective. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is a facultative intracellular parasite. (
  • Our results suggest that M. bovis intracellular growth and phagocytosis are independent of the bacterial lineage identified by spoligotyping. (
  • In the present study, free-living amoeba (A. castellanii) has been used to study the genetic factors required for the intracellular survival of M. bovis. (
  • Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is endemic in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population in the Kruger National Park and other conservation areas in South Africa. (
  • Molecular analysis of genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis BCG and virulent M. bovis. (
  • We employed subtractive genomic hybridization to identify genetic differences between virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and avirulent BCG. (
  • The reintroduction of RD1 into BCG repressed the expression of at least 10 proteins and resulted in a protein expression profile almost identical to that of virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (
  • While infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulted in very rapid death of TNF/LT-α −/− mice, it also resulted in survival of Tm TNF tg mice which presented an increase in the number of CFU in spleen (5-fold) and lungs (10-fold) as compared with bacterial load of wild-type mice. (
  • Badgers are an important wildlife reservoir of M. bovis in the United Kingdom, and infected badgers can excrete the organism into the environment ( 4 , 13 ). (
  • A total of 1166 badgers (14% of total)proactively culled during the RBCT were found to be tuberculous, offering a unique opportunity to study the pathology caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a large sample of badgers. (
  • One animal was from a group of five calves which had been inoculated intranasally with M bovis, and the organism was recovered once only from nasal mucus sampled 100 days after inoculation. (
  • Nine pathogenic mycobacteria, including one M. bovis isolate, were cultured from the oropharynx of nine of the surveyed vultures ( n = 55), sampled in recovery centres or in artificial feeding stations. (
  • Zoonotic Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and Other Pathogenic Mycobacteria offers valuable information for public health officials, medical doctors, state and federal regulatory veterinarians, veterinary practitioners, and animal caretakers. (
  • 3,123 (91%) of these had spoligotype results, of which 35 (1%) were M. bovis . (
  • The Mycobacterium bovis protein MPB70 has been identified as a B-cell target with diagnostic potential in measurement of pre- and post-skin-test antibody responses. (
  • From 6 to 16 weeks after M. tuberculosis inoculation, the antibody responses waned, whereas the responses persisted with M. bovis infection. (
  • In New Zealand, the eradication of bovine tuberculosis is confounded by a continuing problem of wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis , especially in the brushtail possum ( Trichosurus vulpecula ) ( 3 ). (
  • Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis ( M. bovis ), continues to be an important livestock disease in many countries, and its control and eradication is complicated by the lack of sensitive tests as well as the presence of significant wildlife reservoirs. (
  • Wildlife reservoirs have made M. bovis eradication from national herds in several developed countries, including the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and the United States, particularly difficult ( 3 , 4 , 16 ). (
  • This study describes the development and optimization of an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method to isolate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissues. (
  • Desenvolvimento de cepas de Mycobacterium bovis Calmette-Guérin (BCG) e Mycobacterium smegmatis que expressam fatores de virulência de Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (EPEC). (
  • EPEC adere no epitélio intestinal e causa uma lesão conhecida como attaching and effacing (A/E). Cepas recombinantes de Mycobacterium smegmatis (Smeg) e Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) foram construídas para expressar BfpA ou Intimina. (
  • Despite NO production, they were unable to kill BCG or the nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis . (
  • However, in areas of the developing world where pasteurisation is not routine, M. bovis is a relatively common cause of human tuberculosis. (
  • This limitation was overcome in a previous study by using immunomagnetic capture (IMC) to extract cells of M. bovis from mixed cell communities with a polyclonal antibody to M. bovis BCG and thus enabling cultivation of M. bovis from soil samples for the first time ( 13 ). (
  • In this work the use of an immunomagnetic separation capture followed by PCR (IMS-PCR) based on the IS6110 element showed a detection threshold corresponding to 10 CFU in M. bovis -spiked PBS. (
  • citation needed] Mycobacterium tuberculosis group bacteria are 1.0 - 4.0µm long by 0.2 - 0.3 µm wide in tissues. (
  • Greater specificity could be achieved by using a monoclonal antibody, MBS43 ( 14 , 15 ), which recognizes MPB83, a glycosylated cell wall-associated protein ( 8 ), differentiating M. bovis from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex ( 6 ). (
  • The major protein of M. bovis 64 (MPT-64) is one of the main immune-stimulating antigens which are encode by RD-2 region. (
  • Cloning of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene encoding a purifed protein derivative protein that elicits strong tuberculosis-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity. (
  • The past 100 years of research has had little impact on this conclusion in developing countries, whereas in some countries in the developed world with a wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of bovine tuberculosis. (
  • In people, M. bovis causes TB disease that can affect the lungs, lymph nodes, and other parts of the body. (
  • Four soil samples were used as negative controls, two from an area where bTB is nonendemic and two from an area where bTB is endemic that had tested negative for M. bovis by the MPB70 PCR ( 16 ). (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is endemic in Michigan's white-tailed deer and has been circulating since 1994. (
  • M. bovis is transmitted among wildlife by different routes of infection, including direct and indirect paths [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • The disease is caused by M. bovis , a Gram-positive bacillus with zoonotic potential that is highly genetically related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative agent of human tuberculosis ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • is another mycobacterium that can cause TB disease in people. (
  • M. bovis causes a relatively small proportion, less than 2%, of the total number of cases of TB disease in the United States. (
  • The pasteurization process, which destroys disease-causing organisms in milk by rapidly heating and then cooling the milk, eliminates M. bovis from milk products. (
  • M. bovis is usually resistant to one of the antibiotics, pyrazinamide, typically used to treat TB disease. (
  • According to the available disease timelines in the information database, M. bovis has been isolated from countries in all continents, except Antarctica [ 2 ]. (
  • Disease expression ranged from colonization with associated pathology ( M. bovis infection) and colonization without pathology ( M. tuberculosis infection) to no colonization or pathology ( M. kansasii infection). (
  • Identification and removal of M. bovis-infected animals from the herd at early stages of infection is important for effective disease management and relies on the strategic application of ante-mortem diagnostic tests. (
  • Therefore, information of the BTB status of the herd, exposure to environmental mycobacteria, and an understanding of the aim of the disease management plan is required. (
  • Furthermore, there are no genes unique to M. bovis , implying that differential gene expression may be the key to the host tropisms of human and bovine bacilli. (
  • In this experimental study, the mpt-64 gene with 687 bp has been proliferated from M. bovis whole genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. (
  • Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify Mycobacterium bovis cells in naturally infected soil and badger feces. (
  • We report here the first use of an M. bovis -specific real-time PCR to detect and quantify M. bovis DNA in environmental samples and confirm the presence of viable cells of M. bovis by using IMC, immunofluorescence, and cultivation. (
  • He sought to confirm if bovine TB could be detected using molecular analysis methods, and successfully demonstrated that amplification methods were accurate and sensitive enough to detect Mycobacterium bovis DNA in a range of positive samples. (

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