The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall of Mycobacterium species, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, providing them with unique characteristics such as resistance to acid-alkali stability, pigmentation, and protection against host immune responses.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is most frequently isolated from bovine eyes in cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTIOUS), but also occurs in unaffected eyes and the nasal cavity of cattle.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A mucoprotein found in the cell wall of various types of bacteria. It has adjuvant and antitumor activities and has been used to augment the production of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found in soil and dairy products and as parasites on animals and man. Several are important pathogens.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A small plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
A genus of brush-tailed possums found chiefly in Australia and New Zealand. Secretions from their ANAL GLAND function both in defense and demarcating territory.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidative DEAMINATION of GLYCINE to glyoxylate and AMMONIA in the presence of NAD. In BACTERIA lacking transaminating pathways the enzyme can act in the reverse direction to synthesize glycine from glyoxylate and ammonia and NADH.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (1/2326)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Fluoroquinolone action against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: effects of a C-8 methoxyl group on survival in liquid media and in human macrophages. (2/2326)

When the lethal action of a C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid medium was measured, the compound was found to be three to four times more effective (as determined by measuring the 90% lethal dose) than a C-8-H control fluoroquinolone or ciprofloxacin against cells having a wild-type gyrA (gyrase) gene. Against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, the C-8 methoxyl group enhanced lethality when alanine was replaced by valine at position 90 of the GyrA protein or when aspartic acid 94 was replaced by glycine, histidine, or tyrosine. During infection of a human macrophage model by wild-type Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the C-8 methoxyl group lowered survival 20- to 100-fold compared with the same concentration of a C-8-H fluoroquinolone. The C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone was also more effective than ciprofloxacin against a gyrA Asn94 mutant of M. bovis BCG. In an M. tuberculosis-macrophage system the C-8 methoxyl group improved fluoroquinolone action against both quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant clinical isolates. Thus, a C-8 methoxyl group enhances the bactericidal activity of quinolones with N1-cyclopropyl substitutions; these data encourage further refinement of fluoroquinolones as antituberculosis agents.  (+info)

Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta. (3/2326)

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

Molecular markers demonstrate that the first described multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis outbreak was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (4/2326)

We genetically characterized multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains which caused a nosocomial outbreak of tuberculosis affecting six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and one HIV-negative staff member (E. Bouvet, E. Casalino, G. Mendoza-Sassi, S. Lariven, E. Vallee, M. Pernet, S. Gottot, and F. Vachon, AIDS 7:1453-1460, 1993). The strains showed all the phenotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis. They presented a high copy number of IS6110, the spacers 40 to 43 in the direct repeat locus, and the mtp40 fragment. They lacked the G-A mutation at position 285 in the oxyR gene and the C-G mutation at position 169 in the pncA gene. These genetic characteristics revealed that these were dysgonic, slow-growing M. tuberculosis strains mimicking the M. bovis phenotype, probably as a consequence of cellular alterations associated with the multidrug resistance. Spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis confirmed that the outbreak was due to a single strain. However, the IS6110 RFLP pattern of the strain isolated from the last patient, diagnosed three years after the index case, differed slightly from the patterns of the other six strains. A model of a possible genetic event is presented to explain this divergence. This study stresses the value of using several independent molecular markers to identify multidrug-resistant tubercle bacilli.  (+info)

Characterization of exochelins of the Mycobacterium bovis type strain and BCG substrains. (5/2326)

Pathogenic mycobacteria must acquire iron in the host in order to multiply and cause disease. To do so, they release abundant quantities of siderophores called exochelins, which have the capacity to scavenge iron from host iron-binding proteins and deliver it to the mycobacteria. In this study, we have characterized the exochelins of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine and occasionally of human tuberculosis, and the highly attenuated descendant of M. bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), widely used as a vaccine against human tuberculosis. The M. bovis type strain, five substrains of M. bovis BCG (Copenhagen, Glaxo, Japanese, Pasteur, and Tice), and two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis all produce the same set of exochelins, although the relative amounts of individual exochelins may differ. Among these mycobacteria, the total amount of exochelins produced is greatest in M. tuberculosis, intermediate in M. bovis, and smallest in M. bovis BCG.  (+info)

Characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps in mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan by capillary electrophoresis/electrospray mass spectrometry. (6/2326)

A new analytical approach based on capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) has provided new insight into the characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps from lipoarabinomannans (LAMs), which are key molecules in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. This analytical approach requires oligosaccharide labeling with the fluorophore 1-aminopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (APTS) by reductive amination at the reducing termini. Optimization of the separation and ionization conditions, such as the choice of capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrolyte buffers, is presented and discussed. Anionic separation of the mono and oligosaccharide APTS derivatives was finally achieved with aqueous triethylammonium formate buffer. It was found that in contrast to the triethylammonium phosphate buffer, the triethylammonium formate buffer was appropriate for CE/ESI-MS coupling analysis of APTS-carbohydrate derivatives. In this case, negative ESI-mass spectra of APTS-carbohydrate adducts showed mainly (M-2H)2-pseudomolecular ions and some sequence fragment ions allowing their non-ambiguous structural characterization at the picomolar level. This analytical approach was successfully applied to more complex mixtures of carbohydrates released by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The APTS-mannooligosaccharide cap adducts were separated by CE and their structural characterization achieved by CE/ESI-MS analyses. Mannooligosaccharide caps were routinely analyzed by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) from 50 fmol of lipoarabinomannans with mannosyl capping (ManLAMs) but sensitivity was about 50 times lower using ESI-MS detection.  (+info)

Oxygen depletion-induced dormancy in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. (7/2326)

Gradual depletion of oxygen causes the shift-down of aerobic growing Mycobacterium bovis BCG to an anaerobic synchronized state of nonreplicating persistence. The persistent culture shows induction of glycine dehydrogenase and alpha-crystallin-like protein and is sensitive to metronidazole.  (+info)

Different strategies for molecular differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in Sardinia, Italy. (8/2326)

Different genetic markers were used to analyze 22 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle in Sardinia and one human isolate. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting differentiated the strains into six patterns, whereas with enterobacterial repetitive consensus sequence primers produced seven clusters. PCR ribotyping followed by digestion with HaeIII and PvuII produced five and seven patterns, respectively. PCR with the (GTG)5 oligonucleotide primer showed the best discriminatory power, generating eight clusters among the strains analyzed.  (+info)

"Mycobacterium bovis" is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle and other animals, and can also cause tuberculosis in humans, particularly in those who come into contact with infected animals or consume unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and survive for long periods in a dormant state, making them difficult to eradicate from the environment. "Mycobacterium bovis" is closely related to "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in humans, and both species share many genetic and biochemical characteristics.

"Mycobacterium" is a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are characterized by their complex cell walls containing large amounts of lipids. This genus includes several species that are significant in human and animal health, most notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy. Other species of Mycobacterium can cause various diseases in humans, including skin and soft tissue infections, lung infections, and disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. These bacteria are often resistant to common disinfectants and antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

'Mycobacterium tuberculosis' is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria that demonstrates acid-fastness. It is the primary causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. This bacterium has a complex cell wall rich in lipids, including mycolic acids, which provides a hydrophobic barrier and makes it resistant to many conventional antibiotics. The ability of M. tuberculosis to survive within host macrophages and resist the immune response contributes to its pathogenicity and the difficulty in treating TB infections.

M. tuberculosis is typically transmitted through inhalation of infectious droplets containing the bacteria, which primarily targets the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). The infection may result in a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease. LTBI represents a dormant state where individuals are infected with M. tuberculosis but do not show symptoms and cannot transmit the bacteria. However, they remain at risk of developing active TB throughout their lifetime, especially if their immune system becomes compromised.

Effective prevention and control strategies for TB rely on early detection, treatment, and public health interventions to limit transmission. The current first-line treatments for drug-susceptible TB include a combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis present significant challenges in TB control and require more complex treatment regimens.

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. It primarily affects cattle but can also spread to other mammals including humans, causing a similar disease known as zoonotic tuberculosis. The infection in animals typically occurs through inhalation of infectious droplets or ingestion of contaminated feed and water.

In cattle, the disease often affects the respiratory system, leading to symptoms such as chronic coughing, weight loss, and difficulty breathing. However, it can also affect other organs, including the intestines, lymph nodes, and mammary glands. Diagnosis of BTB typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and epidemiological data.

Control measures for BTB include regular testing and culling of infected animals, movement restrictions, and vaccination of susceptible populations. In many countries, BTB is a notifiable disease, meaning that cases must be reported to the authorities. Proper cooking and pasteurization of dairy products can help prevent transmission to humans.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

Mycobacterium infections are a group of infectious diseases caused by various species of the Mycobacterium genus, including but not limited to M. tuberculosis (which causes tuberculosis), M. avium complex (which causes pulmonary and disseminated disease, particularly in immunocompromised individuals), M. leprae (which causes leprosy), and M. ulcerans (which causes Buruli ulcer). These bacteria are known for their ability to resist destruction by normal immune responses and many disinfectants due to the presence of a waxy mycolic acid layer in their cell walls.

Infection typically occurs through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated materials. The severity and manifestations of the disease can vary widely depending on the specific Mycobacterium species involved, the route of infection, and the host's immune status. Symptoms may include cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, skin lesions, or lymphadenitis. Diagnosis often requires specialized laboratory tests, such as culture or PCR-based methods, to identify the specific Mycobacterium species involved. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and may require long-term therapy.

"Mycobacterium smegmatis" is a species of fast-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. This bacterium is known for its ability to form resistant colonies called biofilms. While it does not typically cause disease in humans, it can contaminate medical equipment and samples, potentially leading to misdiagnosis or infection. In rare cases, it has been associated with skin and soft tissue infections. It is often used in research as a model organism for studying mycobacterial biology and drug resistance due to its relatively harmless nature and rapid growth rate.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also involve other organs and tissues in the body. The infection is usually spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and microbiological tests such as sputum smear microscopy and culture. In some cases, molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used for rapid diagnosis.

Treatment usually consists of a standard six-month course of multiple antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. In some cases, longer treatment durations or different drug regimens might be necessary due to drug resistance or other factors. Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and early detection and treatment of infected individuals to prevent transmission.

"Mycobacterium avium is a species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is a slow-growing mycobacterium that is widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and water. M. avium is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated infection in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It is also known to cause pulmonary disease in elderly people with structural lung damage. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive in hostile environments for extended periods."

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of environmental mycobacteria that do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. They can be found in water, soil, and other natural environments. Some people may become infected with NTM, leading to various diseases depending on the site of infection, such as lung disease (most common), skin and soft tissue infections, lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease.

The clinical significance of NTM isolation is not always clear, as colonization without active infection can occur. Diagnosis typically requires a combination of clinical, radiological, microbiological, and sometimes molecular evidence to confirm the presence of active infection. Treatment usually involves multiple antibiotics for an extended period, depending on the species involved and the severity of disease.

Streptococcus bovis is a type of bacteria that is part of the Streptococcus genus. It is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic coccus (spherical) bacterium that is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals, including cattle, and can also be found in the human gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the colon.

There are several subspecies of Streptococcus bovis, including S. bovis biotype I (also known as Streptococcus gallolyticus), S. bovis biotype II/2, and S. bovis biotype II/1. Some strains of these bacteria have been associated with human diseases, such as endocarditis, bacteremia, and abscesses in various organs. Additionally, there is evidence to suggest that S. bovis biotype I may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

It's important to note that Streptococcus bovis is not a common cause of infection in healthy individuals, but it can cause serious infections in people with underlying medical conditions, such as valvular heart disease or a weakened immune system.

"Mycobacterium leprae" is a slow-growing, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium that is the causative agent of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease that primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, and mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract. The bacterium was discovered in 1873 by Gerhard Armauer Hansen, a Norwegian physician, and is named after him as "Hansen's bacillus."

"Mycobacterium leprae" has a unique cell wall that contains high amounts of lipids, which makes it resistant to many common disinfectants and antibiotics. It can survive and multiply within host macrophages, allowing it to evade the immune system and establish a chronic infection.

Leprosy is a treatable disease with multidrug therapy (MDT), which combines several antibiotics such as dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the progression of the disease and reduce its transmission to others.

Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) infections refer to illnesses caused by a group of bacteria called mycobacteria that do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and dust. They can be spread through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with contaminated materials.

NTM infections can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, skin, and soft tissues. Lung infections are the most common form of NTM infection and often occur in people with underlying lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis. Symptoms of NTM lung infection may include cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.

Skin and soft tissue infections caused by NTM can occur through direct contact with contaminated water or soil, or through medical procedures such as contaminated injections or catheters. Symptoms of NTM skin and soft tissue infections may include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage.

Diagnosis of NTM infections typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and laboratory tests to identify the specific type of mycobacteria causing the infection. Treatment may involve multiple antibiotics for an extended period of time, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) is a group of slow-growing mycobacteria that includes Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. These bacteria are commonly found in water, soil, and dust, and can cause pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated infection, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. The infection caused by MAC is often chronic and difficult to eradicate, requiring long-term antibiotic therapy.

"Mycoplasma bovis" is a species of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are characterized by their small size. They can cause various diseases in cattle, including pneumonia, mastitis (inflammation of the mammary gland), arthritis, and otitis (inflammation of the ear). The bacteria can be transmitted through direct contact between animals, contaminated milk, and aerosols. Infection with Mycoplasma bovis can result in decreased productivity and increased mortality in affected herds, making it a significant concern for the cattle industry. Diagnosis is often made through culture or PCR-based tests, and treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, although resistance to certain antibiotics has been reported. Prevention strategies include biosecurity measures such as testing and culling infected animals, as well as good hygiene practices to limit the spread of the bacteria.

"Mycobacterium fortuitum" is a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) species that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. It is a gram-positive, aerobic, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that can cause a variety of infections in humans, including skin and soft tissue infections, lung infections, and disseminated disease.

M. fortuitum is known for its ability to form colonies on solid media within one week, which distinguishes it from other slow-growing mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is also resistant to many common antibiotics, making treatment challenging. Infections caused by M. fortuitum are often associated with exposure to contaminated medical devices or procedures, such as contaminated tattoos, wound care, or invasive medical procedures.

It's important to note that while M. fortuitum can cause infections, it is not considered a highly virulent pathogen and most people who are exposed to it do not develop symptoms. However, individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may be at higher risk for severe disease.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

'Babesia bovis' is a species of intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that causes bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever or redwater fever, in cattle. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily from the genus Boophilus (e.g., Boophilus microplus).

The life cycle of 'Babesia bovis' involves two main stages: the sporozoite stage and the merozoite stage. Sporozoites are injected into the host's bloodstream during tick feeding and invade erythrocytes (red blood cells), where they transform into trophozoites. The trophozoites multiply asexually, forming new infective stages called merozoites. These merozoites are released from the infected erythrocytes and invade other red blood cells, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical signs of bovine babesiosis caused by 'Babesia bovis' include fever, anemia, icterus (jaundice), hemoglobinuria (the presence of hemoglobin in the urine), and occasionally neurologic symptoms due to the parasite's ability to invade and damage blood vessels in the brain. The disease can be severe or fatal, particularly in naïve animals or those exposed to high parasitemia levels.

Prevention and control strategies for bovine babesiosis include tick control measures, such as acaricides and environmental management, as well as vaccination using attenuated or recombinant vaccine candidates. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal drugs, such as imidocarb dipropionate or diminazene accurate, to reduce parasitemia and alleviate clinical signs.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

"Mycobacterium kansasii" is a slow-growing, gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is named after the state of Kansas where it was first isolated. This bacterium can cause pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis.

The symptoms of M. kansasii infection are similar to those of tuberculosis and can include cough, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and chest pain. The diagnosis of M. kansasii infection is usually made by culturing the bacterium from clinical specimens such as sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics such as rifampin, ethambutol, and isoniazid for an extended period of time, often up to 12-24 months.

"Mycobacterium marinum" is a slow-growing, gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is commonly found in fresh and saltwater environments, including aquariums and swimming pools. This pathogen can cause skin infections, known as swimmer's granuloma or fish tank granuloma, in individuals who have exposure to contaminated water. The infection typically occurs through minor cuts or abrasions on the skin, leading to a localized, chronic, and slowly progressive lesion. In some cases, disseminated infection can occur in people with weakened immune systems.

References:
1. Chan, R. C., & Cohen, S. M. (2017). Nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections. Clinics in dermatology, 35(4), 416-423.
2. Kohler, P., Bloch, A., & Pfyffer, G. E. (2002). Nontuberculous mycobacteria: an overview. Swiss medical weekly, 132(35-36), 548-557.
3. Sanguinetti, M., & Bloch, S. A. (2019). Mycobacterium marinum skin infection. American journal of clinical dermatology, 20(2), 219-226.

"Mycobacterium chelonae" is a rapidly growing, gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is widely distributed in the environment, particularly in water and soil. This organism can cause various types of infections in humans, ranging from localized skin and soft tissue infections to disseminated disease, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Infections are typically acquired through contaminated wounds, medical procedures, or inhalation of aerosolized particles. Common clinical manifestations include cutaneous abscesses, lung infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and ocular infections. Proper identification and targeted antimicrobial therapy are essential for the management of "Mycobacterium chelonae" infections.

Medical Definition:

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) is a type of mycobacteria that causes a chronic infectious disease known as paratuberculosis or Johne's disease in domestic and wild animals, particularly ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats, and deer. The infection primarily affects the intestines, leading to chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased milk production in affected animals.

M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a slow-growing mycobacteria, which makes it difficult to culture and identify. It is resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive in the environment for long periods, facilitating its transmission between animals through contaminated feces, water, food, or milk.

Human infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is rare, but it has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel condition in humans. However, the evidence for this association is still controversial and requires further research.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The infection typically enters the body when a person inhales droplets containing the bacteria, which are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB can vary but often include:

* Persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks and may produce phlegm or blood-tinged sputum
* Chest pain or discomfort, particularly when breathing deeply or coughing
* Fatigue and weakness
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever and night sweats
* Loss of appetite

Pulmonary TB can cause serious complications if left untreated, including damage to the lungs, respiratory failure, and spread of the infection to other parts of the body. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics that can last several months, and it is essential for patients to complete the full treatment regimen to ensure that the infection is fully eradicated.

Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of TB in children, and measures to prevent the spread of the disease, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, wearing a mask in public places, and avoiding close contact with people who have active TB.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Antitubercular agents, also known as anti-tuberculosis drugs or simply TB drugs, are a category of medications specifically used for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These drugs target various stages of the bacteria's growth and replication process to eradicate it from the body or prevent its spread.

There are several first-line antitubercular agents, including:

1. Isoniazid (INH): This is a bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
2. Rifampin (RIF) or Rifampicin: A bactericidal drug that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing the transcription of genetic information into mRNA. This results in the interruption of protein synthesis and ultimately leads to the death of the bacteria.
3. Ethambutol (EMB): A bacteriostatic drug that inhibits the arabinosyl transferase enzyme, which is responsible for the synthesis of arabinan, a crucial component of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is primarily active against actively growing bacilli.
4. Pyrazinamide (PZA): A bactericidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids and mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, particularly under acidic conditions. PZA is most effective during the initial phase of treatment when the bacteria are in a dormant or slow-growing state.

These first-line antitubercular agents are often used together in a combination therapy to ensure complete eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains. Treatment duration typically lasts for at least six months, with the initial phase consisting of daily doses of INH, RIF, EMB, and PZA for two months, followed by a continuation phase of INH and RIF for four months.

Second-line antitubercular agents are used when patients have drug-resistant TB or cannot tolerate first-line drugs. These include drugs like aminoglycosides (e.g., streptomycin, amikacin), fluoroquinolones (e.g., ofloxacin, moxifloxacin), and injectable bacteriostatic agents (e.g., capreomycin, ethionamide).

It is essential to closely monitor patients undergoing antitubercular therapy for potential side effects and ensure adherence to the treatment regimen to achieve optimal outcomes and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall in mycobacteria, including the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy. These acids contribute to the impermeability and resistance to chemical agents of the mycobacterial cell wall, making these organisms difficult to eradicate. Mycolic acids are unique to mycobacteria and some related actinomycetes, and their analysis can be useful in the identification and classification of these bacteria.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

"Mycobacterium phlei" is not a recognized medical condition or disease. Mycobacterium phlei is actually a species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is often used in laboratory settings as a reference strain for mycobacterial identification and research. This bacterium is not known to cause disease in humans and is generally considered to be non-pathogenic.

"Mycobacterium ulcerans" is a slow-growing mycobacterium that is the causative agent of a chronic infection known as Buruli ulcer. This bacterium is naturally found in aquatic environments and can infect humans through minor traumas or wounds on the skin. The infection typically begins as a painless nodule or papule, which may progress to form necrotic ulcers if left untreated. The bacteria produce a unique toxin called mycolactone, which is responsible for the extensive tissue damage and destruction observed in Buruli ulcers.

Mustelidae is not a medical term, but a biological term referring to a family of mammals that includes weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, and wolverines. These animals are characterized by their elongated bodies, short legs, and specialized scent glands used for marking territory and communication. While the study of these animals is not typically within the scope of medical science, understanding the biology and behavior of various species can have implications for public health, conservation efforts, and ecological research.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Tuberculin is not a medical condition but a diagnostic tool used in the form of a purified protein derivative (PPD) to detect tuberculosis infection. It is prepared from the culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB. The PPD tuberculin is injected intradermally, and the resulting skin reaction is measured after 48-72 hours to determine if a person has developed an immune response to the bacteria, indicating a past or present infection with TB. It's important to note that a positive tuberculin test does not necessarily mean that active disease is present, but it does indicate that further evaluation is needed.

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (M. avium-intracellulare) infection is a type of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease caused by the environmental pathogens Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, which are commonly found in water, soil, and dust. These bacteria can cause pulmonary infection, especially in individuals with underlying lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, or prior tuberculosis infection.

M. avium-intracellulare infection typically presents with symptoms like cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and sputum production. Diagnosis is established through a combination of clinical presentation, radiographic findings, and microbiological culture of respiratory samples. Treatment usually involves a multidrug regimen consisting of macrolides (such as clarithromycin or azithromycin), ethambutol, and rifamycins (such as rifampin or rifabutin) for an extended period, often 12-24 months. Eradication of the infection can be challenging due to the bacteria's inherent resistance to many antibiotics and its ability to survive within host cells.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Isoniazid is an antimicrobial medication used for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It is a first-line medication, often used in combination with other TB drugs, to kill the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that cause TB. Isoniazid works by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are essential components of the bacterial cell wall. This leads to bacterial death and helps to control the spread of TB.

Isoniazid is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It can be taken orally or given by injection. The medication is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as peripheral neuropathy, hepatitis, and skin rashes. Regular monitoring of liver function tests and supplementation with pyridoxine (vitamin B6) may be necessary to prevent or manage these side effects.

It is important to note that Isoniazid is not effective against drug-resistant strains of TB, and its use should be guided by the results of drug susceptibility testing. Additionally, it is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed to ensure the successful eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A tuberculin test is a medical procedure used to determine if someone has developed an immune response to the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The test involves injecting a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) from the TB bacteria under the skin, usually on the forearm. After 48-72 hours, the area is examined for signs of a reaction, such as swelling, redness, or hardness. A positive result suggests that the person has been infected with TB at some point in the past, although it does not necessarily mean that they have active TB disease. However, individuals who have a positive tuberculin test should be evaluated further to determine if they need treatment for latent TB infection or active TB disease.

A granuloma is a small, nodular inflammatory lesion that occurs in various tissues in response to chronic infection, foreign body reaction, or autoimmune conditions. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of epithelioid macrophages, which are specialized immune cells with enlarged nuclei and abundant cytoplasm, often arranged in a palisading pattern around a central area containing necrotic debris, microorganisms, or foreign material.

Granulomas can be found in various medical conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fungal infections, and certain autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. The formation of granulomas is a complex process involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, which aim to contain and eliminate the offending agent while minimizing tissue damage.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

'Mycobacterium lepraemurium' is not typically associated with human leprosy or any medical conditions affecting humans. It is a species of mycobacteria that primarily infects rodents, particularly mice and rats. This bacterium is the causative agent of a form of leprosy-like disease in these animals, known as murine leprosy.

Human infections with 'Mycobacterium lepraemurium' are extremely rare and have only been reported in a handful of cases worldwide. When they do occur, they usually result from close contact with infected rodents or their excrement. The disease caused by this bacterium in humans is typically milder than human leprosy and often resolves on its own without specific treatment.

Therefore, 'Mycobacterium lepraemurium' should not be confused with the mycobacterial species that cause leprosy in humans, such as 'Mycobacterium leprae' or 'Mycobacterium lepromatosis'.

Carnivora is an order of mammals that consists of animals whose primary diet consists of flesh. The term "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words "caro", meaning flesh, and "vorare", meaning to devour. This order includes a wide variety of species, ranging from large predators such as lions, tigers, and bears, to smaller animals such as weasels, otters, and raccoons.

While members of the Carnivora order are often referred to as "carnivores," it is important to note that not all members exclusively eat meat. Some species, such as raccoons and bears, have an omnivorous diet that includes both plants and animals. Additionally, some species within this order have evolved specialized adaptations for their specific diets, such as the elongated canines and carnassial teeth of felids (cats) and canids (dogs), which are adapted for tearing and shearing meat.

Overall, the medical definition of Carnivora refers to an order of mammals that have a diet primarily consisting of flesh, although not all members exclusively eat meat.

Paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). It primarily affects ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, although other animal species, including humans, can also be infected. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestines, leading to diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased milk production in affected animals.

Infection typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated feed or water, and the incubation period can range from several months to years. The bacteria are resistant to environmental degradation and can survive in soil, water, and feces for long periods, making control and eradication challenging.

While paratuberculosis is not considered a significant zoonotic disease, there is ongoing research into the potential link between MAP infection and Crohn's disease in humans, although this association remains controversial and unproven.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The disease mainly spreads through droplets from the nose and mouth of infected people.

Leprosy is characterized by granulomatous inflammation, which leads to the formation of distinctive skin lesions and nerve damage. If left untreated, it can cause progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. However, with early diagnosis and multidrug therapy (MDT), the disease can be cured, and disability can be prevented or limited.

The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies leprosy into two types based on the number of skin lesions and bacteriological index: paucibacillary (one to five lesions) and multibacillary (more than five lesions). This classification helps determine the appropriate treatment regimen.

Although leprosy is curable, it remains a public health concern in many developing countries due to its stigmatizing nature and potential for social exclusion of affected individuals.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Rifampin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as rifamycins. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, thereby preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including tuberculosis, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Legionella pneumophila. It is also used to prevent meningococcal disease in people who have been exposed to the bacteria.

Rifampin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. The medication is usually taken two to four times a day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Rifampin may be given alone or in combination with other antibiotics.

It is important to note that rifampin can interact with several other medications, including oral contraceptives, anticoagulants, and anti-seizure drugs, among others. Therefore, it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with rifampin.

Rifampin may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of urine, tears, sweat, and saliva to a reddish-orange color. These side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. However, if they persist or become bothersome, it is important to consult your healthcare provider.

In summary, rifampin is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections and prevent meningococcal disease. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin may interact with several other medications, and it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of body fluids.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Pyrazinamide is an antituberculosis agent, a type of medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is an antimicrobial drug that works by inhibiting the growth of the bacterium. Pyrazinamide is often used in combination with other TB drugs such as isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol.

The medical definition of Pyrazinamide is: a synthetic antituberculosis agent, C6H5N3O (a pyridine derivative), used in the treatment of tuberculosis, especially in combination with isoniazid and rifampin. It is converted in the body to its active form, pyrazinoic acid, which inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

It's important to note that Pyrazinamide should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and is usually prescribed for several months to ensure complete eradication of the TB bacteria. As with any medication, it can cause side effects, and individuals should report any unusual symptoms to their healthcare provider.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Cord factors are a group of glycolipids that are found on the surface of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. These cord factors are called "cord factors" because they help to form characteristic "cords" or cable-like structures when mycobacteria grow in clumps.

Cord factors contribute to the virulence of mycobacteria by inhibiting the ability of certain immune cells, such as macrophages, to destroy the bacteria. They do this by preventing the fusion of lysosomes (which contain enzymes that can break down and kill the bacteria) with phagosomes (the compartments in which the bacteria are contained within the macrophage). This allows the mycobacteria to survive and replicate inside the host cells, leading to the development of tuberculosis.

Cord factors have also been shown to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to tissue damage and the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Therefore, cord factors are an important target for the development of new therapies and vaccines against tuberculosis.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is a species of mycobacteria that was previously known to cause a type of infection called scrofula, which is a form of tuberculosis affecting the lymph nodes in the neck. However, it's important to note that this organism has rarely been implicated in human disease in recent years, and its clinical significance is currently unclear.

Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is an environmental mycobacteria, which means it can be found in soil and water, and it is not typically transmitted from person to person. Infections caused by this organism are usually acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water or through inhalation of aerosolized particles.

The symptoms of infection with Mycobacterium scrofulaceum depend on the site of infection and can include swollen lymph nodes, cough, fever, and weight loss. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics, but the optimal treatment regimen has not been well-studied due to the rarity of infections caused by this organism.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within mycobacteria, which include species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. These viruses are important tools in the study of mycobacterial biology, genetics, and evolution. They have also been explored for their potential therapeutic use in treating mycobacterial infections, including tuberculosis.

Mycobacteriophages typically have double-stranded DNA genomes that range in size from around 50 to 170 kilobases. They can be classified into different groups or "clusters" based on genetic similarities and differences. Some mycobacteriophages are temperate, meaning they can either replicate lytically (killing the host cell) or establish a persistent relationship with the host by integrating their genome into the host's chromosome as a prophage. Others are strictly lytic and always kill the host cell upon infection.

Understanding the biology of mycobacteriophages can provide insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host interactions, DNA replication, gene regulation, and other fundamental processes. Additionally, studying the diversity of mycobacteriophages can shed light on evolutionary relationships among different mycobacterial species and strains.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Minisatellites, also known as VNTRs (Variable Number Tandem Repeats), are repetitive DNA sequences that consist of a core repeat unit of 10-60 base pairs, arranged in a head-to-tail fashion. They are often found in non-coding regions of the genome and can vary in the number of times the repeat unit is present in an individual's DNA. This variation in repeat number can occur both within and between individuals, making minisatellites useful as genetic markers for identification and forensic applications. They are also associated with certain genetic disorders and play a role in genome instability.

"Mycobacterium xenopi" is a slow-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in water sources such as tap water and natural waterways. It is named after the South African frog (Xenopus laevis) from which it was first isolated.

"Mycobacterium xenopi" can cause pulmonary infections, especially in individuals with pre-existing lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, or prior tuberculosis infection. The symptoms of "M. xenopi" infection are similar to those of tuberculosis and can include cough, fever, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss.

Diagnosis of "M. xenopi" infection typically requires the isolation and identification of the organism from clinical specimens such as sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics such as macrolides, rifamycins, and aminoglycosides, and may require prolonged therapy for several months to a year or more.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

A tuberculoma is a granulomatous lesion in the brain caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically consists of caseating necrosis surrounded by a layer of epithelioid histiocytes, Langhans' giant cells, and lymphocytes. Tuberculomas can be single or multiple and may cause various neurological symptoms depending on their size and location. They are often associated with tuberculous meningitis but can also occur in immunocompromised individuals without obvious systemic infection.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Ethambutol is an antimycobacterial medication used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It works by inhibiting the synthesis of mycobacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. Ethambutol is often used in combination with other TB drugs, such as isoniazid and rifampin, to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of the bacteria.

The most common side effect of ethambutol is optic neuritis, which can cause visual disturbances such as decreased vision, color blindness, or blurred vision. This side effect is usually reversible if the medication is stopped promptly. Other potential side effects include skin rashes, joint pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.

Ethambutol is available in oral tablet and solution forms, and is typically taken once or twice daily. The dosage of ethambutol is based on the patient's weight, and it is important to follow the healthcare provider's instructions carefully to avoid toxicity. Regular monitoring of visual acuity and liver function is recommended during treatment with ethambutol.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Chaperonin 60, also known as CPN60 or HSP60 (heat shock protein 60), is a type of molecular chaperone found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Molecular chaperones are proteins that assist in the proper folding and assembly of other proteins. Chaperonin 60 is a member of the HSP (heat shock protein) family, which are proteins that are upregulated in response to stressful conditions such as heat shock or oxidative stress.

Chaperonin 60 forms a large complex with a barrel-shaped structure that provides a protected environment for unfolded or misfolded proteins to fold properly. The protein substrate is bound inside the central cavity of the chaperonin complex, and then undergoes a series of conformational changes that facilitate its folding. Chaperonin 60 has been shown to play important roles in mitochondrial protein import, folding, and assembly, as well as in the regulation of apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Defects in chaperonin 60 have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Glycolipids are a type of lipid (fat) molecule that contain one or more sugar molecules attached to them. They are important components of cell membranes, where they play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Glycolipids are also found on the surface of some viruses and bacteria, where they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders.

There are several different types of glycolipids, including cerebrosides, gangliosides, and globosides. These molecules differ in the number and type of sugar molecules they contain, as well as the structure of their lipid tails. Glycolipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cells, and they are transported to the cell membrane through vesicles.

Abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism or structure have been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of glycolipids can lead to conditions such as Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher's disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycolipids in cells.

A cell wall skeleton, also known as a cell wall matrix or cytoskeleton, is not a recognized term in human anatomy or medical physiology. However, the concept of a "cell wall" and "skeleton" is relevant in plant cells and some types of bacteria.

In plants, the cell wall skeleton refers to the rigid layer that surrounds the plasma membrane of plant cells. It provides structural support, protection, and shape to the cell. The primary components of the plant cell wall are cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, and proteins.

In bacteria, the cell wall skeleton is called the peptidoglycan layer, which is a rigid structure that surrounds the bacterial cell membrane. It provides protection and shape to the bacterial cell.

Therefore, it's essential to clarify the context in which you are asking about the "cell wall skeleton" for an accurate definition.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Chaperonins are a type of molecular chaperone found in cells that assist in the proper folding of other proteins. They are large, complex protein assemblies that form a protective cage-like structure around unfolded polypeptides, providing a protected environment for them to fold into their correct three-dimensional shape.

Chaperonins are classified into two groups: Group I chaperonins, which are found in bacteria and archaea, and Group II chaperonins, which are found in eukaryotes (including humans). Both types of chaperonins share a similar overall structure, consisting of two rings stacked on top of each other, with each ring containing multiple subunits.

Group I chaperonins, such as GroEL in bacteria, function by binding to unfolded proteins and encapsulating them within their central cavity. The chaperonin then undergoes a series of conformational changes that help to facilitate the folding of the encapsulated protein. Once folding is complete, the chaperonin releases the now-folded protein.

Group II chaperonins, such as TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) in humans, function similarly but have a more complex mechanism of action. They not only assist in protein folding but also help to prevent protein aggregation and misfolding. Group II chaperonins are involved in various cellular processes, including protein quality control, protein trafficking, and the regulation of cell signaling pathways.

Defects in chaperonin function have been linked to several human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

"Mycobacterium haemophilum" is a slow-growing, gram-positive, acid-fast bacterium that is a member of the Mycobacteriaceae family. It is an opportunistic pathogen that primarily causes skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. The bacterium requires enriched media containing hemoglobin or hemin for growth, which is why it is named "haemophilum." Infections caused by this bacterium can be difficult to diagnose and treat due to its slow growth rate and resistance to many first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Acyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydrogen atom) from one molecule to another. This transfer involves the formation of an ester bond between the acyl group donor and the acyl group acceptor.

Acyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. They are also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) by catalyzing the addition of an acyl group to these compounds, making them more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body.

Examples of acyltransferases include serine palmitoyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins.

Acyltransferases are classified based on the type of acyl group they transfer and the nature of the acyl group donor and acceptor molecules. They can be further categorized into subclasses based on their sequence similarities, three-dimensional structures, and evolutionary relationships.

Macrophage activation is a process in which these immune cells become increasingly active and responsive to various stimuli, such as pathogens or inflammatory signals. This activation triggers a series of changes within the macrophages, allowing them to perform important functions like phagocytosis (ingesting and destroying foreign particles or microorganisms), antigen presentation (presenting microbial fragments to T-cells to stimulate an immune response), and production of cytokines and chemokines (signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response).

There are two main types of macrophage activation: classical (or M1) activation and alternative (or M2) activation. Classical activation is typically induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to a proinflammatory response, enhanced microbicidal activity, and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Alternative activation, on the other hand, is triggered by cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, resulting in an anti-inflammatory response, tissue repair, and the promotion of wound healing.

It's important to note that macrophage activation plays a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes, including immune defense, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and even cancer progression. Dysregulation of macrophage activation has been implicated in several diseases, such as autoimmune disorders, chronic infections, and cancer.

Ethionamide is an antimicrobial medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB) caused by drug-resistant strains of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It belongs to a class of drugs called thioamides, which work by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to synthesize its cell wall.

Ethionamide is often used in combination with other TB medications to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains and improve treatment outcomes. Common side effects of ethionamide include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, as well as neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, and peripheral neuropathy.

It is important to note that the use of ethionamide should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious side effects and its effectiveness may be affected by drug interactions or individual patient factors.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

Intravesical administration refers to the instillation of medication directly into the bladder through a catheter or other medical device. This method is often used to deliver treatments for various bladder conditions, such as interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and chronic bladder infections. The medication is held in the bladder for a specified period, usually ranging from a few minutes to several hours, before being urinated out. This allows the medication to come into close contact with the bladder lining, potentially enhancing its effectiveness while minimizing systemic side effects.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Meningeal tuberculosis, also known as Tuberculous meningitis, is a severe form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which can spread through the bloodstream from a primary infection site in the lungs or elsewhere in the body.

In meningeal tuberculosis, the bacteria cause inflammation and thickening of the meninges, leading to increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edema, and vasculitis. These conditions can result in various neurological symptoms such as headache, fever, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits. If left untreated, meningeal tuberculosis can lead to severe complications, including brain damage, hydrocephalus, and even death.

Diagnosis of meningeal tuberculosis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, imaging studies, and sometimes molecular or culture-based tests to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the CSF. Treatment usually involves a prolonged course of antibiotics specifically designed to target TB, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, often administered for six to nine months or longer. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

"Moraxella" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the mucous membranes of humans and animals. They are non-motile and catalase-positive. Some species of Moraxella can cause infections in humans, such as M. catarrhalis, which is a common cause of respiratory tract infections like bronchitis and otitis media (middle ear infection) in children. Another species, M. nonliquefaciens, can be found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals, but it's not considered to be pathogenic.

It is worth noting that Moraxella genus was previously classified under the name Neisseria, but based on genetic and biochemical evidence, they are now considered separate genera.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to at least two of the first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampin. This makes MDR-TB more difficult and expensive to treat, requiring longer treatment durations and the use of second-line medications, which can have more severe side effects.

MDR-TB can occur when there are errors in prescribing or taking anti-TB drugs, or when people with TB do not complete their full course of treatment. It is a significant global health concern, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where TB is more prevalent and resources for diagnosis and treatment may be limited.

MDR-TB can spread from person to person through the air when someone with the infection coughs, speaks, or sneezes. People at higher risk of contracting MDR-TB include those who have been in close contact with someone with MDR-TB, people with weakened immune systems, and healthcare workers who treat TB patients.

Preventing the spread of MDR-TB involves early detection and prompt treatment, as well as infection control measures such as wearing masks, improving ventilation, and separating infected individuals from others. It is also important to ensure that anti-TB drugs are used correctly and that patients complete their full course of treatment to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

An armadillo is not a medical condition or term. It is a type of mammal that is native to the Americas, known for its distinctive armor-like shell. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or topic, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Bison" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to large, hoofed mammals that are part of the Bovidae family, which also includes cattle, buffalo, and antelope. The two most commonly known species of bison are the American bison (Bison bison) and the European bison, or wisent (Bison bonasus). These animals are native to North America and Europe, respectively, and have distinctive features such as a large head, humped back, and shaggy coat. They once roamed in great herds but were hunted to near extinction in the late 19th century. Conservation efforts have helped bring their populations back from the brink, although they still face threats from habitat loss and disease.

New World camelids are a family of mammals (Camelidae) that are native to South America. The family includes four species: the llama (Lama glama), the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). These animals are characterized by their long necks, long legs, and a pad on their chest instead of a true knee joint. They are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments with limited water and food resources.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a type of protein belonging to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which play a crucial role in the innate immune system's response to pathogens. TLR2 is primarily expressed on the surface of various immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells.

TLR2 recognizes a wide range of microbial components, such as lipopeptides, lipoteichoic acid, and zymosan, derived from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and certain viruses. Upon recognition and binding to these ligands, TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade that activates various transcription factors, leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and costimulatory molecules. This response is essential for the activation and recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, thereby contributing to the clearance of invading pathogens.

In summary, TLR2 is a vital pattern recognition receptor that helps the innate immune system detect and respond to various microbial threats by initiating an inflammatory response upon ligand binding.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Th1 cells, or Type 1 T helper cells, are a subset of CD4+ T cells that play a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response. They are characterized by the production of specific cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Th1 cells are essential for protecting against intracellular pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. They activate macrophages to destroy ingested microorganisms, stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies, and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection. Dysregulation of Th1 cell responses has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Pleural Tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) that involves the infection and inflammation of the pleura, which are the thin membranes that surround the lungs and line the inside of the chest cavity. This condition is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which can spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

In pleural tuberculosis, the bacteria reach the pleura either through direct extension from a nearby lung infection or via bloodstream dissemination. The infection can cause the pleura to become inflamed and produce excess fluid, leading to pleural effusion. This accumulation of fluid in the pleural space can cause chest pain, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

Diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis in the pleural fluid or tissue samples.

Treatment of pleural tuberculosis typically involves a standard course of anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT), which includes a combination of multiple antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The duration of treatment may vary depending on the severity of the infection and the patient's response to therapy. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the pleural effusion or remove the infected pleura.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A phagosome is a type of membrane-bound organelle that forms around a particle or microorganism following its engulfment by a cell, through the process of phagocytosis. This results in the formation of a vesicle containing the ingested material, which then fuses with another organelle called a lysosome to form a phago-lysosome. The lysosome contains enzymes that digest and break down the contents of the phagosome, allowing the cell to neutralize and dispose of potentially harmful substances or pathogens.

In summary, phagosomes are important organelles involved in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease.

"Cardiovascular Tuberculosis" refers to a form of tuberculosis (TB) where the bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) infects the heart or the blood vessels. This is a less common manifestation of TB, but it can have serious consequences if left untreated.

In cardiovascular TB, the bacteria can cause inflammation and damage to the heart muscle (myocarditis), the sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis), or the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and fever. In severe cases, it can cause heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias.

Cardiovascular TB is usually treated with a combination of antibiotics that are effective against the TB bacteria. The treatment may last for several months to ensure that all the bacteria have been eliminated. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves or vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes in patients with cardiovascular TB.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Mononuclear leukocytes are a type of white blood cells (leukocytes) that have a single, large nucleus. They include lymphocytes (B-cells, T-cells, and natural killer cells), monocytes, and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the body's immune system, including defending against infection and disease, and participating in immune responses and surveillance. Mononuclear leukocytes can be found in the bloodstream as well as in tissues throughout the body. They are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity, providing specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms to protect the body from harmful pathogens and other threats.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Splenic tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (ETB), which refers to a manifestation of the disease outside of the lungs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

In splenic tuberculosis, the infection involves the spleen (an organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen that filters blood and helps fight infection). The infection can occur through the hematogenous spread (dissemination via the bloodstream) from a primary focus elsewhere in the body, such as the lungs.

The disease presents with various symptoms, including fever, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). Diagnosis often requires a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and microbiological or histopathological confirmation. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multidrug antibiotics to eliminate the infection and prevent complications.

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that uses laboratory techniques to identify and analyze the genetic material (DNA, RNA) of pathogens or host cells to understand their distribution, transmission, and disease associations in populations. It combines molecular biology methods with epidemiological approaches to investigate the role of genetic factors in disease occurrence and outcomes. This field has contributed significantly to the identification of infectious disease outbreaks, tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, understanding the transmission dynamics of viruses, and identifying susceptible populations for targeted interventions.

Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare form of tuberculosis that affects the skin. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum. CTB can occur as a primary infection after direct inoculation of the skin with the bacteria, or it can be secondary to a distant focus of infection such as lung or lymph node TB.

The clinical presentation of CTB is varied and can include papules, nodules, pustules, ulcers, plaques, or scaly lesions. The lesions may be painless or painful, and they can be associated with systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

CTB can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, culture, and PCR testing. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics, often for six to nine months or more. The most commonly used drugs are isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Surgical excision may be necessary in some cases.

Prevention measures include early detection and treatment of pulmonary TB, BCG vaccination, and avoiding contact with people with active TB.

'Sus scrofa' is the scientific name for the wild boar, a species of suid that is native to much of Eurasia and North Africa. It is not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "buffaloes." The term generally refers to large, hoofed mammals that are native to Africa and Asia. In English language slang, the term "buffalo" is sometimes used to describe a lie or exaggeration, but this usage is not related to the medical field. If you have more context about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

Molecular typing is a laboratory technique used to identify and characterize specific microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, at the molecular level. This method is used to differentiate between strains of the same species based on their genetic or molecular differences. Molecular typing techniques include methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole genome sequencing (WGS). These techniques allow for high-resolution discrimination between strains, enabling epidemiological investigations of outbreaks, tracking the transmission of pathogens, and studying the evolution and population biology of microorganisms.

Interspersed Repeats or Interspersed Repetitive Sequences (IRSs) are repetitive DNA sequences that are dispersed throughout the eukaryotic genome. They include several types of repeats such as SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements), LINEs (Long INterspersed Elements), and LTR retrotransposons (Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons). These sequences can make up a significant portion of the genome, with varying copy numbers among different species. They are typically non-coding and have been associated with genomic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolution of genomes.

Alveolar macrophages are a type of macrophage (a large phagocytic cell) that are found in the alveoli of the lungs. They play a crucial role in the immune defense system of the lungs by engulfing and destroying any foreign particles, such as dust, microorganisms, and pathogens, that enter the lungs through the process of inhalation. Alveolar macrophages also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. They are important for maintaining the health and function of the lungs by removing debris and preventing infection.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

"Coyotes" is not a medical term. It refers to a species of canine native to North America, also known as Canis latrans. They are often the subject of study in fields such as zoology and ecology. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, I would be happy to help with that instead!

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They typically contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, and can be synthesized chemically to have specific sequences. Oligonucleotides are used in a variety of applications in molecular biology, including as probes for detecting specific DNA or RNA sequences, as inhibitors of gene expression, and as components of diagnostic tests and therapies. They can also be used in the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions and in the development of new drugs.

A DNA probe is a single-stranded DNA molecule that contains a specific sequence of nucleotides, and is labeled with a detectable marker such as a radioisotope or a fluorescent dye. It is used in molecular biology to identify and locate a complementary sequence within a sample of DNA. The probe hybridizes (forms a stable double-stranded structure) with its complementary sequence through base pairing, allowing for the detection and analysis of the target DNA. This technique is widely used in various applications such as genetic testing, diagnosis of infectious diseases, and forensic science.

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medical science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and injuries in non-human animals. The profession of veterinary medicine is dedicated to the care, health, and welfare of animals, as well as to the promotion of human health through animal research and public health advancements. Veterinarians employ a variety of diagnostic methods including clinical examination, radiography, laboratory testing, and ultrasound imaging. They use a range of treatments, including medication, surgery, and dietary management. In addition, veterinarians may also advise on preventative healthcare measures such as vaccination schedules and parasite control programs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "reindeer" is not a medical term. It is a large species of deer that is native to the Arctic and Subarctic regions of Europe, Siberia, and Greenland. They are known for their impressive antlers and their ability to survive in harsh, cold climates. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help!

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain cells in the body, known as phagocytes, engulf and destroy foreign particles, bacteria, or dead cells. This mechanism plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, have receptors on their surface that recognize and bind to specific molecules (known as antigens) on the target particles or microorganisms.

Once attached, the phagocyte extends pseudopodia (cell extensions) around the particle, forming a vesicle called a phagosome that completely encloses it. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an intracellular organelle containing digestive enzymes and other chemicals. This fusion results in the formation of a phagolysosome, where the engulfed particle is broken down by the action of these enzymes, neutralizing its harmful effects and allowing for the removal of cellular debris or pathogens.

Phagocytosis not only serves as a crucial defense mechanism against infections but also contributes to tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells and debris.

Alanine Dehydrogenase (ADH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between alanine and pyruvate with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH). This reaction plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly in the catabolism of alanine.

In humans, there are multiple isoforms of ADH that are expressed in different tissues and have different functions. The isoform known as ALDH4A1 is primarily responsible for the conversion of alanine to pyruvate in the liver. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, which is characterized by elevated levels of 4-hydroxybutyric acid in the urine and neurological symptoms.

Polysorbates are a type of nonionic surfactant (a compound that lowers the surface tension between two substances, such as oil and water) commonly used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. They are derived from sorbitol and reacted with ethylene oxide to create a polyoxyethylene structure. The most common types of polysorbates used in medicine are polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, and polysorbate 60, which differ in the number of oxyethylene groups in their molecular structure.

Polysorbates are often added to pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, solubilizers, or stabilizers. They help to improve the solubility and stability of drugs that are otherwise insoluble in water, allowing for better absorption and bioavailability. Polysorbates can also prevent the aggregation and precipitation of proteins in injectable formulations.

In addition to their use in pharmaceuticals, polysorbates are also used as emulsifiers in food products such as ice cream, salad dressings, and baked goods. They help to mix oil and water-based ingredients together and prevent them from separating. In cosmetics, polysorbates are used as surfactants, solubilizers, and stabilizers in a variety of personal care products.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to polysorbates, particularly those with sensitivities to sorbitol or other ingredients used in their production. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using products containing polysorbates in individuals who may be at risk for adverse reactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Mycobacteriaceae is a family of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that are characterized by their high content of mycolic acids in the cell wall. This family includes several medically important genera, most notably Mycobacterium and Mycobacteroides. Many species within this family are environmental organisms, found in soil and water, but some are significant human pathogens. They are known for their ability to resist decolorization by acid after being stained with a basic fuchsin stain, known as acid-fast bacilli (AFB). This property is due to the unique structure of their cell walls, which contain mycolic acids and other lipids that make them resistant to many chemical and physical agents.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the most well-known pathogen within this family. Other important human pathogens include Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species that can cause pulmonary and disseminated infections, and Mycobacterium abscessus, which can cause various types of skin and soft tissue infections.

Mycobacteriaceae are typically slow-growing organisms, with some species taking weeks to grow in culture. Diagnosis of mycobacterial infections often involves microbiological culture, histopathology, and sometimes molecular techniques such as PCR and gene sequencing. Treatment usually requires a combination of antibiotics that target different components of the bacterial cell wall due to their inherent resistance to many conventional antibiotics.

Intradermal tests are a type of allergy test that involves the injection of a small amount of allergen extract directly into the skin, usually the forearm or back. This is different from other types of allergy tests such as scratch tests or blood tests, which measure immune system responses to allergens in other ways.

During an intradermal test, a healthcare professional uses a fine needle to inject a small amount of allergen extract just beneath the surface of the skin. This creates a small wheal or bubble, and the area is then observed for signs of a reaction such as redness, swelling, or itching. These reactions indicate that the person has antibodies to the allergen and may be allergic to it.

Intradermal tests are often used when other types of allergy tests have been inconclusive or when a healthcare professional wants to confirm the results of a previous test. They can be used to diagnose a variety of allergies, including those to insect venom, medications, and environmental allergens such as pollen or mold.

It's important to note that intradermal tests carry a higher risk of causing a severe allergic reaction than other types of allergy tests, so they should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals in a medical setting where appropriate treatments are available.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the class of aminoglycosides and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial death.

Streptomycin is primarily used to treat a variety of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis, brucellosis, plague, tularemia, and certain types of bacterial endocarditis. It is also used as part of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Like other aminoglycosides, streptomycin has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use is typically limited to cases where other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.

It's important to note that the use of streptomycin requires careful monitoring of drug levels and kidney function, as well as regular audiometric testing to detect any potential hearing loss.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

Immunologic tests are a type of diagnostic assay that detect and measure the presence or absence of specific immune responses in a sample, such as blood or tissue. These tests can be used to identify antibodies, antigens, immune complexes, or complement components in a sample, which can provide information about the health status of an individual, including the presence of infection, autoimmune disease, or immunodeficiency.

Immunologic tests use various methods to detect these immune components, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), Western blots, immunofluorescence assays, and radioimmunoassays. The results of these tests can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage medical conditions, monitor treatment effectiveness, and assess immune function.

It's important to note that the interpretation of immunologic test results should be done by a qualified healthcare professional, as false positives or negatives can occur, and the results must be considered in conjunction with other clinical findings and patient history.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a naturally occurring protein that is primarily produced by activated macrophages and dendritic cells, which are types of immune cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response, particularly in the development of cell-mediated immunity.

IL-12 is composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which combine to form a heterodimer. This cytokine stimulates the differentiation and activation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, which are important for fighting intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. IL-12 also enhances the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells, which can directly kill infected or malignant cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IL-12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. As a result, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-12 or its signaling pathways have been explored as potential treatments for these conditions.

Ebenaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes approximately 700 species, distributed across 5-6 genera. It is a widely distributed family, found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The family includes several economically important trees, such as those in the genus Diospyros, which includes persimmons and ebony.

Ebony trees are particularly known for their hard, dense, and dark-colored wood, which has been used for centuries to make high-quality furniture, musical instruments, and other decorative items. The wood is so dense that it sinks in water, and it has a fine texture with a smooth finish.

Ebenaceae family members are characterized by their opposite leaves, small flowers with four or five petals, and fleshy fruits. Some species have medicinal properties, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as diarrhea, fever, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that the safety and efficacy of these treatments have not been thoroughly studied or proven by scientific research.

A granuloma in the respiratory tract refers to a small nodular lesion that forms in the lung tissue due to an ongoing immune response. It is typically composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, and other inflammatory cells that cluster together around a foreign substance or organism that the body cannot eliminate.

Granulomas can form in response to various stimuli, including infectious agents such as mycobacteria (tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria), fungi, and parasites, as well as non-infectious causes like inhaled particles (e.g., silica, beryllium) or autoimmune diseases (e.g., sarcoidosis).

These lesions can cause damage to the lung tissue over time, leading to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. Diagnosis often involves imaging studies like chest X-rays or CT scans, followed by biopsy and microscopic examination to confirm the presence of granulomas and identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive medications.

"Trichosurus" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the family Phalangeridae, which includes several species of marsupials commonly known as "possums." The most well-known species is the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), which is native to Australia and New Guinea.

In a medical or veterinary context, a possum might be mentioned in relation to bites or scratches from these animals, or as a potential carrier of zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans). However, "Trichosurus" itself is not a medical term.

Glycine dehydrogenase, also known as glycine cleavage system protein P or glycine synthase, is a mitochondrial enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the catabolism of glycine, an amino acid. This enzyme complex is composed of four separate proteins (P-protein, H-protein, T-protein, and L-protein) that work together to catalyze the reversible conversion of glycine into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and a molecule of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate.

The reaction can be summarized as follows:

Glycine + Tetrahydrofolate + NAD+ ↔ Ammonia + Carbon Dioxide + Methylenetetrahydrofolate + NADH

This pathway is essential for the metabolism of glycine, and its dysfunction has been linked to several genetic disorders, such as non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, which can result in neurological impairments and other health issues.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell communication, and regulation of physiological functions.
2. Antigen: An antigen is a foreign substance (usually a protein) that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. They are recognized by the immune system as non-self and stimulate the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells, like T-cells, to eliminate the threat.
3. T-Cell: T-cells, also known as T-lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. T-cells have receptors on their surface called T-cell receptors (TCRs) that enable them to recognize and respond to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells.
4. gamma-delta (γδ) T-Cell: Gamma-delta (γδ) T-cells are a subset of T-cells that possess a distinct T-cell receptor (TCR) composed of gamma and delta chains. Unlike conventional T-cells, which typically recognize peptide antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, γδ T-cells can directly recognize various non-peptide antigens, such as lipids, glycolipids, and small metabolites. They are involved in the early stages of immune responses, tissue homeostasis, and cancer surveillance.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Clofazimine is an antimycobacterial medication used mainly in the treatment of leprosy (Hansen's disease) and also has some activity against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. It is an oral riminophenazine dye that accumulates in macrophages and bacterial cells, where it inhibits mycobacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Its side effects include skin discoloration, gastrointestinal symptoms, and potential eye toxicity.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "antelopes" is a common name that refers to a group of hoofed mammals in the family Bovidae. They are not a medical term or concept. Antelopes are known for their speed and agility, and they are found primarily in Africa, with a few species in Asia.

If you have any questions related to biology, veterinary medicine, or any other scientific field, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

Capreomycin is an antibiotic drug that is primarily used to treat tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to other first-line medications. It belongs to a class of drugs called cyclic polypeptides, which work by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Capreomycin is administered via intramuscular injection and is typically used in combination with other anti-TB drugs as part of a multidrug regimen.

The medical definition of 'Capreomycin' is:

A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces capreolus, used in the treatment of tuberculosis, particularly drug-resistant strains. It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and is administered intramuscularly.

T-lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The two main types of T-lymphocytes are CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which are defined by the presence or absence of specific proteins called cluster differentiation (CD) molecules on their surface.

CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, play a crucial role in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages, to mount an immune response against pathogens. They also produce cytokines that help regulate the immune response.

CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells, directly kill infected cells or tumor cells by releasing toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes.

The balance between these two subsets of T-cells is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and mounting effective immune responses against pathogens while avoiding excessive inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, the measurement of T-lymphocyte subsets is essential in diagnosing and monitoring various immunological disorders, including HIV infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a type of cytokine, which are signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Specifically, IL-2 is a growth factor for T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. It is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells (also known as T helper cells) and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells, including effector T cells and regulatory T cells. IL-2 also has roles in the activation and function of other immune cells, such as B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Dysregulation of IL-2 production or signaling can contribute to various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and cancer.

... in African wildlife Mycobacterium bovis in African wildlife Tuberculosis - Mycobacterium bovis - Health ... Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of ... Delahay, R.J.; De Leeuw, A.N.S.; Barlow, A.M.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cheeseman, C.L. (2002). "The status of Mycobacterium bovis ... Phillips, C.J.C.; Foster, C.R.W.; Morris, P.A.; Teverson, R. (2001). "The transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection to ...
Kubica, T.; Rusch-Gerdes, S.; Niemann, S. (1 July 2003). "Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae Caused One-Third of Human M. bovis- ... Mycobacterium caprae is a species of bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium and a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex ... It is also synonymous with the name Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae.[citation needed] M. caprae is a causative agent of ... December 2009). "Human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in Spain, 2004-2007". Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13 ...
Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in cattle. Since tuberculosis can be spread to humans, milk is pasteurized to kill any ... caused by Mycobacterium leprae) and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (caused by Mycobacterium avium complex) in ... caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and other diseases caused by atypical mycobacteria, such as leprosy ( ... Mycobacterium are slow-growing rod-shaped bacilli that are slightly curved or straight, and are considered to be Gram positive ...
"The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (13): 7877-82. ... 1998). "Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence". Nature. 393 (6685): 537-44. ... including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Yersinia pestis and Salmonella typhi. As well as providing complete catalogues of the ...
2003). "The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (13): 7877-82. Bibcode:2003PNAS ... 2005). "The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (35 ... 1998). "Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence". Nature. 393 (6685): 537-44. ...
An effort to eradicate bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis from the cattle and deer herds of New Zealand has been ... The M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) includes four other TB-causing mycobacteria: M. bovis, M. africanum, M. canetti, and M. ... Thoen C, Lobue P, de Kantor I (February 2006). "The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis". Veterinary Microbiology. ... Mycobacteria infect many different animals, including birds, fish, rodents, and reptiles. The subspecies Mycobacterium ...
Prinzis S, Chatterjee D, Brennan PJ (November 1993). "Structure and antigenicity of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis ... "Structural features of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Determination of molecular mass by laser desorption mass ... purified from Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium kansasii induce TNF-alpha and IL-8 secretion by a CD14-toll-like ... These types of LAMs are most commonly found in more pathogenic Mycobacterium species such as M. tuberculosis, M. leprae, and M ...
... the molecular evolution of Mycobacterium bovis". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4 (9): 670-681. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1472. ISSN ...
... the molecular evolution of Mycobacterium bovis". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4 (9): 670-681. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1472. ISSN ...
"Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG". BMC Biochemistry. 11: 21. doi:10.1186/1471-2091- ...
Prior to this, it was considered to be synonymous with Mycobacterium bovis. M. suricattae is transmitted by respiratory ... Drewe, J, Foote, A, Sutcliffe, R, Pearce, G (2009). "Pathology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild meerkats (Suricata ... Mycobacterium suricattae is a species of the tuberculosis complex of the genus Mycobacterium. It causes tuberculosis in ...
In particular, it is not used to treat other mycobacteria; Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium leprae are innately resistant ... Pyrazinamide is only used in combination with other drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin in the treatment of Mycobacterium ... Speirs RJ, Welch JT, Cynamon MH (June 1995). "Activity of n-propyl pyrazinoate against pyrazinamide-resistant Mycobacterium ... Klemens SP, Sharpe CA, Cynamon MH (January 1996). "Activity of pyrazinamide in a murine model against Mycobacterium ...
"Antitumor activity of deoxyribonucleic acid fraction from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. I. Isolation, physicochemical ...
"Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in human urine". Water Science & Technology. 63 (6): 1075-80. ... including Salmonella typhi and paratyphi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis' - in a relatively short time span: a storage time of ... C has been recommended to prevent transmission of mycobacteria when recycling human urine. Recommended storage times to kill ...
"Leucine auxotrophy restricts growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in macrophages". Infection and Immunity. 64 (5): 1794-1799. doi: ... SecA1 they found to be essential, but SecA2 they found to be nonessential but conserved across mycobacteria suggesting its ... Brown also explored the sec-dependent protein export pathway in mycobacterium, the main protein export pathway into the ... Brown helped to develop a novel method to study the mechanisms underlying mycobacterium replication in mononuclear phagocytes. ...
Kuria, Joseph N.; Gathogo, Stephen M. (4 March 2013). "Concomitant fungal and Mycobacterium bovis infections in beef cattle in ...
"The status of Mycobacterium bovis infection in UK wild mammals: A review". The Veterinary Journal. 164 (2): 90-105. doi:10.1053 ... In New Zealand, deer are thought to be important as vectors picking up M. bovis in areas where brushtail possums Trichosurus ...
"In silico enzyme function prediction in hypothetical proteins of Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97". Journal of Pharmacy Research. ...
Importation of alpacas infected with Mycobacterium bovis from the United Kingdom to Poland and potential for serodiagnostic ... bovis outbreak in alpacas in the country. They also were first to show that alpacas counterattack M. bovis earlier than most ... "Review of Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in South African Wildlife". Frontiers in Veterinary ... hosts, even though the response is not always ultimately successful and M. bovis may still be fatal. This is believed to ...
Bacterial products: killed bacteria of the species Bordetella pertussis, Mycobacterium bovis,[citation needed] toxoids. MPL ( ... Freund's complete adjuvant is a solution of inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil developed in 1930. It is not ...
Mycobacterium bovis also causes TB in this species worldwide. Krajewska‐Wędzina et al., 2020 detect M. bovis in individuals ... "Review of Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in South African Wildlife". Frontiers in Veterinary ...
The vaccine was originally developed from Mycobacterium bovis, which is commonly found in cattle. While it has been weakened, ... Exposure to environmental mycobacteria (especially Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium intracellulare ... In this study, the UK school children had a low baseline cellular immunity to mycobacteria which was increased by BCG; in ... This effect is called masking because the effect of BCG is masked by environmental mycobacteria. Clinical evidence for this ...
Grode, L. (25 August 2005). "Increased vaccine efficacy against tuberculosis of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacille ... A recombinant BCG vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is being developed that expresses Listeriolysin O and lacks Urease ...
Choi KP, Kendrick N, Daniels L (May 2002). "Demonstration that fbiC is required by Mycobacterium bovis BCG for coenzyme F(420) ...
Identification of ovothiol A in Leishmania donovani and structural analysis of a novel thiol from Mycobacterium bovis". Eur. J ...
Identification of ovothiol A in Leishmania donovani and structural analysis of a novel thiol from Mycobacterium bovis". ... from Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows structural homology to the GNAT family of N-acetyltransferases". Protein Science. 12 (9 ...
An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis infection in a pack of English Foxhounds (2016-2017). Transbound Emerg ... The dogs eat raw meat and there was speculation about the diet containing the M. bovis that causes TB as the meat comes from ... areas impacted by M. bovis. In 2005, the American Kennel Club reported that the English and American Foxhounds were their least ...
"Oral delivery of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in a lipid formulation induces resistance to pulmonary tuberculosis in mice". ...
A current example is the use of BCG vaccine made from Mycobacterium bovis to protect against tuberculosis. The subgroup of ... The live Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine developed by Calmette and Guérin is not made of a contagious strain but contains a ...
... bovis, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium microti and Mycobacterium pinnipedii are later heterotypic synonyms of ... Mycobacteria possess capsules and most do not form endospores. M. marinum and perhaps M. bovis have been shown to sporulate; ... Mycobacteria Mycobrowser: Genomic and proteomic database for pathogenic mycobacteria CDC - Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) ... Whereas Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae are pathogenic, most mycobacteria do not cause disease unless they enter skin ...
Mycobacterium bovis in African wildlife Mycobacterium bovis in African wildlife Tuberculosis - Mycobacterium bovis - Health ... Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of ... Delahay, R.J.; De Leeuw, A.N.S.; Barlow, A.M.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cheeseman, C.L. (2002). "The status of Mycobacterium bovis ... Phillips, C.J.C.; Foster, C.R.W.; Morris, P.A.; Teverson, R. (2001). "The transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection to ...
Find out more information about Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) in humans from this fact sheet. ... Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans. What is Mycobacterium bovis?. In the United States, the majority of ... Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is another mycobacterium that can cause TB disease in people. ... How do I know if Ive been infected with M. bovis?. Most people are at very low risk for being infected with M. bovis. People ...
Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Smear-Positive Human Tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland Cite CITE. Title : Mycobacterium bovis ... "Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Holstein Friesian Cattle, Iran" 14, no. 12 (2008). Tadayon, Keyvan et al. "Mycobacterium bovis ... Mycobacterium bovis caused 3% of human tuberculosis cases in southwest Ireland during 1998-2006. Of 11 M. bovis strains ... "Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Smear-Positive Human Tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland" 14, no. 12 (2008). Ojo, Olabisi et al ...
We previously showed that treatment with Mycobacterium bovis BCG killed by extended freeze-drying (EFD BCG) modulates ... Background: We previously showed that treatment with Mycobacterium bovis BCG killed by extended freeze-drying ...
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is another mycobacterium that can cause TB disease in people. M. bovis is mo ... in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by ... Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans. What is Mycobacterium bovis? In the United States, the majority of ... Home Medical News Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans from Deer Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in ...
Background: Mycobacterium bovis linked to cause bovine tuberculosis has been investigated and functionally annotated for ... In silico?enzyme function prediction in?hypothetical proteins of Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97. Journal: Journal of Pharmacy ... Methods: As M. bovis genome codes in total 25% hypothetical proteins, we used CDD BLAST, INTERPRSCAN, PFAM and CATH domain ... Conclusion: These proteins could be the markers, to investigate about their fate in the metabolism of M. bovis. ...
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant ... Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. Either Ad85A or MVA85A ... Viral Booster Vaccines Improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Induced Protection against Bovine Tuberculosis ... Viral Booster Vaccines Improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Induced Protection against Bovine Tuberculosis ...
... Login ... The prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. Durnez ... A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in different ... From 8 out of 42 milk samples (19%) atypical mycobacteria were cultured. A higher prevalence of M. bovisinfection in the ...
Injection of cell-wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis BCG draining to a sentinel lymph node eliminates both lymph node ... We chose the cell-wall skeleton of M. bovis BCG (BCGCWS) and investigated the potential of monotherapy without exogenous tumor ...
Successive use of shared space by badgers and cattle: implications for Mycobacterium bovis transmission ... Successive use of shared space by badgers and cattle: implications for Mycobacterium bovis transmission ...
Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in Bulgaria: insight into transmission and phylogeography gained through whole-genome ... Background: This study aimed to characterize recent Mycobacterium bovis/M. caprae isolates from Bulgaria by whole‑ genome ... WGS data were used for phylogenetic analysis that also included M. bovis global dataset. Thirty‑seven M. bovis/caprae isolates ... Phylogeographically, both M. bovis clades had limited circulation in northeastern Bulgaria while the majority of the studied ...
Immune Responses to the Enduring Hypoxic Response Antigen Rv0188 Are Preferentially Detected in Mycobacterium bovis Infected ... Immune Responses to the Enduring Hypoxic Response Antigen Rv0188 Are Preferentially Detected in Mycobacterium bovis Infected ... title = "Immune Responses to the Enduring Hypoxic Response Antigen Rv0188 Are Preferentially Detected in Mycobacterium bovis ... Immune Responses to the Enduring Hypoxic Response Antigen Rv0188 Are Preferentially Detected in Mycobacterium bovis Infected ...
In vitro Anti-mycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis ... In vitro Anti-mycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis ... In vitro Anti-mycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis ... In vitro Anti-mycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis ...
Human Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis New York City, 2001-2004 MMWR 2005; 54 (No. 24) ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission in a Newborn Nursery and Maternity Ward - New York City, 2003. MMWR 2005; 54 (No. RR-50 ...
... including Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium kansasii, and from BCG vaccination. [8] ... Papulonecrotic tuberculid secondary to Mycobacterium bovis. Arch Dermatol. 1978 Apr. 114(4):564-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for mycobacteria varies. In a series of 12 cases in India, PCR positivity was ... TB Gold in Tube Test and Tuberculin Skin Test in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2017 ...
"An African origin for Mycobacterium bovis". dx.doi.org. Diakses tanggal 2020-12-23.. ... "Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tuberculosis". Todars Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Diakses tanggal 21 Desember 2020.. ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) adalah spesies bakteri patogen dalam famili Mycobacteriaceae serta menjadi penyebab dari ... Ryan, Kenneth J.; Ray, C. George (2004). "Mycobacteria". Sherris Medical Microbiology : an Introduction to Infectious Diseases ...
1998) Enhanced surveillance of Mycobacterium bovis in humans. Communicable Disease Weekly 8(32):281-284, . ... 1999) Molecular markers demonstrate that the first described multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium bovis outbreak was due to ... The overwhelming majority of the UK population is at negligible risk fromMycobacterium bovis infection because of milk ... This service is available from, for example, the Mycobacterium Reference Unit in London, the Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory ...
Tuberculosis (TB). Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, or ... Mycobacterium bovis, and/or Mycobacterium africanum). State laws also should require drug susceptibility tests for all patients ... Reporting requirements for laboratory directors vary from reporting at the time of identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Mycobacterium africanum). TB Control Officer. A person appointed by the state to be responsible for the administration of state ...
Categories: Mycobacterium bovis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Zoonotic TB is a form of TB in people caused by Mycobacterium bovis. While the most common route of transmission of M. bovis to ... Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily affects the lung. It may spread to other organs. ... Extra pulmonary tuberculosis is infection of tissues and organs other than the lungs by mycobacterium tuberculosis and related ...
BCG, the century-old TB vaccine, is derived from the live bacteria Mycobacterium bovis. It is considered safe and widely used ...
Rapid and simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in invasive flies by ...
Two United Kingdom residents developed tuberculosis after contact with a domesticated cat infected with Mycobacterium bovis ...
Background: Mycobacterium bovis (bTB) is a potential health hazard to dairy workers. This study uses the One Health wholistic ...
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strain of Mycobacterium bovis. Patient should have Mantoux skin test prior to vaccine administration ... M. bovis strain in the vaccine, immunologically similar to M. tuberculosis, produces cell-mediated immunity and simulates M. ... particulary those given via IV or oral routes and those with activity against mycobacteria. ... particulary those given via IV or oral routes and those with activity against mycobacteria. ...
Bacteria isolated from human lung tissue infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. ... Dried living culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis. Botulinum. Botulinum; Clostridium botulinum. 12CH. Bacteria ... Solution from the concentrated soluble products of growth of the bovine tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis). ... Solution from the concentrated soluble products of growth of the tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). ...
OBrien, D. J. et al. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging white-tailed deer, Michigan, USA, 1995-2000. Prev. ...
  • Background: Mycobacterium bovis linked to cause bovine tuberculosis has been investigated and functionally annotated for several hypothetical proteins' ability of enzyme activity as per the conserved domain present. (researchbib.com)
  • Other zoonotic diseases such as rabies, brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis ) have been controlled or eliminated in several industrialized countries, but remain endemic in developing regions. (who.int)
  • M. tuberculosis yang ditemukan pada tahun 2019 memiliki 9 sub spesies antara lain M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, M. africanum, M. canetti, M. bovis, M. caprae, M. microti, M. pinnipedii, M. mungi, dan M. orygis . (wikipedia.org)
  • M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, or Mycobacterium africanum). (cdc.gov)
  • Other related bacteria (called mycobacteria), such as Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium africanum , occasionally cause a similar disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • BCG, the century-old TB vaccine, is derived from the live bacteria Mycobacterium bovis. (innovations-report.com)
  • bTB is a highly contagious and deadly disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). (wcl.org.uk)
  • It is related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium which causes tuberculosis in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid and simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Infections Many species of mycobacteria exist. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) in Newborns Tuberculosis is a contagious infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Contact with different species of environmental Mycobacterium can cause acquired immunity to M. tuberculosis or increase the efficacy of BCG vaccine protection (M. vaccae, M. microti), although some species of these bacteria reduce the efficacy of BCG vaccine (M. scrofulaceum) [8,10-13]. (who.int)
  • Efficacy of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine delivered to European badgers ( Meles meles ) through edible bait. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1.4% in connection with overall TB in- M. bovis or M. caprae . (cdc.gov)
  • Background: This study aimed to characterize recent Mycobacterium bovis/M. caprae isolates from Bulgaria by whole‑ genome sequencing (WGS) to gain a first insight into their molecular diversity, transmission, and position within the global phylogeography of this important zoonotic species. (pulawy.pl)
  • Thirty‑seven M. bovis/caprae isolates from Bulgaria were studied and 34 of them were SNP genotyped. (pulawy.pl)
  • Phylogeographically, both M. bovis clades had limited circulation in northeastern Bulgaria while the majority of the studied isolates (M. caprae) were from central and western provinces. (pulawy.pl)
  • Conclusion: The obtained WGS analysis positioned the Bulgarian isolates within the global phylogeography of M. bovis/M. caprae. (pulawy.pl)
  • Hypothetically, the observed phylogenetic diversity may not have resulted from livestock trade routes, but instead may reflect the deeply rooted M. bovis/M. caprae phylogeography of Europe. (pulawy.pl)
  • Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although information from many M. bovis , and cattle are the major reservoir ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • M. bovis is most commonly found in cattle and other animals such as bison, elk, and deer. (cdc.gov)
  • M. bovis transmission from cattle to people was once common in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • No. The Cooperative State-Federal Tuberculosis Eradication Program, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, state animal health agencies, and U.S. livestock producers, has nearly eliminated M. bovis infection from cattle in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in different cattle herd management systems in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. (or.tz)
  • Total prevalences of 2.5% and 10.1% were found for M. bovisinfection and atypical mycobacterioses respectively, with more M. bovis-infection in cattle in the extensive management system and more atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in the intensive management system. (or.tz)
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to identify antigens that may potentially disclose cattle with latent M. bovis infection. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Actual infections in humans are nowadays rare in developed countries, mainly because pasteurisation kills M. bovis bacteria in infected milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all M. bovis infections progress to TB disease, so there might be no symptoms at all. (cdc.gov)
  • Papulonecrotic tuberculid-like lesions have also been associated with other mycobacterial infections, including Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium kansasii, and from BCG vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Infections Caused by Bacteria Related to Tuberculosis (TB) Many species of mycobacteria exist. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In people, M. bovis causes TB disease that can affect the lungs, lymph nodes, and other parts of the body. (cdc.gov)
  • The DosR regulon and the Enduring Hypoxic Response (EHR) define a group of M. tuberculosis genes that are specifically induced in bacilli exposed in vitro to conditions thought to mimic the environment encountered by Mycobacteria during latent infection. (aber.ac.uk)
  • ABSTRACT Previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad85A) expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A to boost may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Local Lung Immune Response to Mycobacterium bovis Challenge after BCG and M. bovis Heat-Inactivated Vaccination in European Badger ( Meles meles ). (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, the in vitro activity of root of Calpurnia aurea, seeds of Ocimum basilicum, leaves of Artemisia abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were evaluated against M. tuberculosis and M. bovis strains. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • They were investigated for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis and M. bovis strains. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • The emergence of MdR-TB and extensively drug-resistant TB (XdR-TB) has raised special concerns in relation to the international spread of par- ticularly dangerous strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • M. bovis can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis-like infection in humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. bovis is usually transmitted to humans by consuming raw milk from infected cows, although it can also spread via aerosol droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct transmission from animals to humans through the air is thought to be rare, but M. bovis can be spread directly from person to person when people with the disease in their lungs cough or sneeze. (cdc.gov)
  • Another reason for the medical importance of environmental Mycobacterium is the potential impact on the immune response. (who.int)
  • We chose the cell-wall skeleton of M. bovis BCG (BCGCWS) and investigated the potential of monotherapy without exogenous tumor antigens. (ddtjournal.com)
  • However, when we determined the production of additional cytokines induced by the M. bovis antigens PPD-B or ESAT-6/CFP-10, we detected significantly greater PPD-B-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in animals recognizing Rv0188 (i.e. those with limited or no pathology). (aber.ac.uk)
  • There are currently 71 recognized or proposed species of Mycobacterium [1], all of which, except M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, are considered as environmental mycobacteria and can usually be isolated from environmental samples including water, soil and dust [2]. (who.int)
  • We analyzed 98 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex platform to enhance SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global burden with one -third of the world's population infected with the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and annually 1.4 million deaths occur due to the disease. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e. (cdc.gov)
  • These bacteria plus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and some others are called the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A dynamic nomenclature proposal for isolates as M. bovis by whole-genome sequencing. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: As M. bovis genome codes in total 25% hypothetical proteins, we used CDD BLAST, INTERPRSCAN, PFAM and CATH domain search programs to find the enzyme functionality in these proteins. (researchbib.com)
  • The pasteurization process, which destroys disease-causing organisms in milk by rapidly heating and then cooling the milk, eliminates M. bovis from milk products. (cdc.gov)
  • Milk samples were taken from tuberculin positive animals and analysed for the presence of mycobacteria. (or.tz)
  • From 8 out of 42 milk samples (19%) atypical mycobacteria were cultured. (or.tz)
  • ABSTRACT This research compared the numbers and types of different Mycobacterium species in soil samples taken from 2 areas of Golestan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 1 with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and 1 with a low prevalence. (who.int)
  • The most common species isolated were Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. flavescens and M. chelonae. (who.int)
  • The species Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the one that causes tuberculosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The other mycobacteria species that cause disease are discussed here. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our objective in this research was to These facultative pathogens can cause compare the number and types of different infection, especially among immunosup- species of Mycobacterium in the soil from pressed or immunodeficient patients [ 4 ]. (who.int)
  • citation needed] M. bovis is similar in structure and metabolism to M. tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in M. bovis, glycolytic intermediates are unable to enter into oxidative metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no specific studies have been performed, M. bovis seemingly must rely on amino acids or fatty acids as an alternative carbon source for energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion: These proteins could be the markers, to investigate about their fate in the metabolism of M. bovis. (researchbib.com)
  • Tuberculosis is a chronic contagious infection caused by the airborne bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for mycobacteria varies. (medscape.com)
  • The different environmental mycobacteria are very similar and for many years were mistakenly assumed to be M. tuberculosis in patients [1,2]. (who.int)
  • The different environ- the Caspian Sea, has one of the highest rates mental mycobacteria are very similar and of incidence of TB in the country (45.5 per for many years were mistakenly assumed to 100 000). (who.int)
  • Background: Mycobacterium bovis (bTB) is a potential health hazard to dairy workers. (cdc.gov)
  • People are most commonly infected with M. bovis by eating or drinking contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike M. tuberculosis, M. bovis lacks pyruvate kinase activity, due to pykA containing a point mutation that affects binding of Mg2+ cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isolated compounds 1 - 12 were evaluated for their antimycobacterium activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis in both dormant and active phases. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Similarly 1 , 7 , and 8 exhibited inhibitory activity against M. bovis with IC 50 values in the range of 4.1-98.5 µM (MIC 13.7-161.0 µM) in the active phase and 4.1-111.1 µM (MIC 13.0-166.4 µM) in the dormant phase. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente recherche a comparé le nombre et les types des différentes espèces de Mycobacterium dans des échantillons de sol prélevés dans deux zones de la province de Golestan (République islamique d'Iran), l'une ayant une forte prévalence tuberculeuse et l'autre une faible prévalence. (who.int)
  • citation needed] Mycobacterium tuberculosis group bacteria are 1.0-4.0 µm long by 0.2-0.3 µm wide in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, summer of 2001, a total of 220 soil samples the relative incidence of the environmental were taken from humid and wet mud from a Mycobacterium spp. (who.int)
  • The cell wall contains as high as 60% lipid, giving the mycobacteria their hydrophobic characteristics, slow growth, and resistance to desiccation, disinfectants, acids and antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequencies of environmental Mycobacterium in the low-prevalence area were much higher than in the high-prevalence area, perhaps due to different environmental factors. (who.int)
  • citation needed] During the first half of the 20th century, M. bovis is estimated to have been responsible for more losses among farm animals than all other infectious diseases combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, healthcare providers might not know that a person has M. bovis instead of M. tuberculosis . (cdc.gov)

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