The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is most frequently isolated from bovine eyes in cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTIOUS), but also occurs in unaffected eyes and the nasal cavity of cattle.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A mucoprotein found in the cell wall of various types of bacteria. It has adjuvant and antitumor activities and has been used to augment the production of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found in soil and dairy products and as parasites on animals and man. Several are important pathogens.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A small plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
A genus of brush-tailed possums found chiefly in Australia and New Zealand. Secretions from their ANAL GLAND function both in defense and demarcating territory.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidative DEAMINATION of GLYCINE to glyoxylate and AMMONIA in the presence of NAD. In BACTERIA lacking transaminating pathways the enzyme can act in the reverse direction to synthesize glycine from glyoxylate and ammonia and NADH.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (1/2326)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Fluoroquinolone action against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: effects of a C-8 methoxyl group on survival in liquid media and in human macrophages. (2/2326)

When the lethal action of a C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid medium was measured, the compound was found to be three to four times more effective (as determined by measuring the 90% lethal dose) than a C-8-H control fluoroquinolone or ciprofloxacin against cells having a wild-type gyrA (gyrase) gene. Against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, the C-8 methoxyl group enhanced lethality when alanine was replaced by valine at position 90 of the GyrA protein or when aspartic acid 94 was replaced by glycine, histidine, or tyrosine. During infection of a human macrophage model by wild-type Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the C-8 methoxyl group lowered survival 20- to 100-fold compared with the same concentration of a C-8-H fluoroquinolone. The C-8 methoxyl fluoroquinolone was also more effective than ciprofloxacin against a gyrA Asn94 mutant of M. bovis BCG. In an M. tuberculosis-macrophage system the C-8 methoxyl group improved fluoroquinolone action against both quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant clinical isolates. Thus, a C-8 methoxyl group enhances the bactericidal activity of quinolones with N1-cyclopropyl substitutions; these data encourage further refinement of fluoroquinolones as antituberculosis agents.  (+info)

Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta. (3/2326)

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

Molecular markers demonstrate that the first described multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis outbreak was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (4/2326)

We genetically characterized multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains which caused a nosocomial outbreak of tuberculosis affecting six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and one HIV-negative staff member (E. Bouvet, E. Casalino, G. Mendoza-Sassi, S. Lariven, E. Vallee, M. Pernet, S. Gottot, and F. Vachon, AIDS 7:1453-1460, 1993). The strains showed all the phenotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis. They presented a high copy number of IS6110, the spacers 40 to 43 in the direct repeat locus, and the mtp40 fragment. They lacked the G-A mutation at position 285 in the oxyR gene and the C-G mutation at position 169 in the pncA gene. These genetic characteristics revealed that these were dysgonic, slow-growing M. tuberculosis strains mimicking the M. bovis phenotype, probably as a consequence of cellular alterations associated with the multidrug resistance. Spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis confirmed that the outbreak was due to a single strain. However, the IS6110 RFLP pattern of the strain isolated from the last patient, diagnosed three years after the index case, differed slightly from the patterns of the other six strains. A model of a possible genetic event is presented to explain this divergence. This study stresses the value of using several independent molecular markers to identify multidrug-resistant tubercle bacilli.  (+info)

Characterization of exochelins of the Mycobacterium bovis type strain and BCG substrains. (5/2326)

Pathogenic mycobacteria must acquire iron in the host in order to multiply and cause disease. To do so, they release abundant quantities of siderophores called exochelins, which have the capacity to scavenge iron from host iron-binding proteins and deliver it to the mycobacteria. In this study, we have characterized the exochelins of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine and occasionally of human tuberculosis, and the highly attenuated descendant of M. bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), widely used as a vaccine against human tuberculosis. The M. bovis type strain, five substrains of M. bovis BCG (Copenhagen, Glaxo, Japanese, Pasteur, and Tice), and two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis all produce the same set of exochelins, although the relative amounts of individual exochelins may differ. Among these mycobacteria, the total amount of exochelins produced is greatest in M. tuberculosis, intermediate in M. bovis, and smallest in M. bovis BCG.  (+info)

Characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps in mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan by capillary electrophoresis/electrospray mass spectrometry. (6/2326)

A new analytical approach based on capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) has provided new insight into the characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps from lipoarabinomannans (LAMs), which are key molecules in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. This analytical approach requires oligosaccharide labeling with the fluorophore 1-aminopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (APTS) by reductive amination at the reducing termini. Optimization of the separation and ionization conditions, such as the choice of capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrolyte buffers, is presented and discussed. Anionic separation of the mono and oligosaccharide APTS derivatives was finally achieved with aqueous triethylammonium formate buffer. It was found that in contrast to the triethylammonium phosphate buffer, the triethylammonium formate buffer was appropriate for CE/ESI-MS coupling analysis of APTS-carbohydrate derivatives. In this case, negative ESI-mass spectra of APTS-carbohydrate adducts showed mainly (M-2H)2-pseudomolecular ions and some sequence fragment ions allowing their non-ambiguous structural characterization at the picomolar level. This analytical approach was successfully applied to more complex mixtures of carbohydrates released by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The APTS-mannooligosaccharide cap adducts were separated by CE and their structural characterization achieved by CE/ESI-MS analyses. Mannooligosaccharide caps were routinely analyzed by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) from 50 fmol of lipoarabinomannans with mannosyl capping (ManLAMs) but sensitivity was about 50 times lower using ESI-MS detection.  (+info)

Oxygen depletion-induced dormancy in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. (7/2326)

Gradual depletion of oxygen causes the shift-down of aerobic growing Mycobacterium bovis BCG to an anaerobic synchronized state of nonreplicating persistence. The persistent culture shows induction of glycine dehydrogenase and alpha-crystallin-like protein and is sensitive to metronidazole.  (+info)

Different strategies for molecular differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in Sardinia, Italy. (8/2326)

Different genetic markers were used to analyze 22 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle in Sardinia and one human isolate. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting differentiated the strains into six patterns, whereas with enterobacterial repetitive consensus sequence primers produced seven clusters. PCR ribotyping followed by digestion with HaeIII and PvuII produced five and seven patterns, respectively. PCR with the (GTG)5 oligonucleotide primer showed the best discriminatory power, generating eight clusters among the strains analyzed.  (+info)

Several groups have demonstrated the use of suicide plasmids for allelic exchange in fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria. The most efficient are those systems using a counterselectable marker; for mycobacteria, workers have successfully used rpsL (36,42), pyrF (26), and sacB(40). The most promising counterselectable system for the slow-growing mycobacteria is sacB, which confers sensitivity to sucrose. Methods using sacB were used for the targeted disruptions of ureC in M. bovis BCG (40) and M. tuberculosis (37) and theerp gene of M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis (8).. We decided to construct a new sacB suicidal vector, pYUB657, and test it for the construction of unmarked, in-frame deletion mutants in the slow-growing mycobacteria. In these studies, we saw an opportunity to examine homologous recombination in the mycobacteria from a practical standpoint. The bane of allelic exchange in slow-growing mycobacteria has been the propensity with which these organisms incorporate exogenous DNA into ...
BACKGROUND: There is currently no safe human challenge model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to enable proof-of-concept efficacy evaluation of candidate vaccines against tuberculosis. In vivo antimycobacterial immunity could be assessed using intradermal Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination as a surrogate for M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: Healthy BCG-naive and BCG-vaccinated volunteers were challenged with intradermal BCG. BCG load was quantified from skin biopsy specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture colony-forming units. Cellular infiltrate was isolated by suction blisters and examined by flow cytometry. Prechallenge immune readouts were correlated with BCG load after challenge. RESULTS: In BCG-naive volunteers, live BCG was detected at the challenge site for up to 4 weeks and peaked at 2 weeks. Infiltration of mainly CD15(+) neutrophils was observed in blister fluid. In previously BCG-vaccinated individuals, PCR analysis of skin biopsy
The drug brand named Vaccin BCG SSI contains generic salt - Bacillus Calmette - Guerin (BCG) Vaccine and is manufactured by Sanofi - Aventis.Vaccin BCG SSI is mainly associated with symptoms and indications - The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) - L03AX03 - BCG Vaccine ... brings latest bacillus calmette guerin news, views and updates from all top sources for the Indian Health industry.
The family of mycobacteria is composed of pathogenic and apathogenic bacteria. This study was performed with 3 members of this family, the most prominent pathogenic member, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG which was developed by attenuation of the bovine tuberculosis agent Mycobacterium bovis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis which is apathogenic and widely distributed in soil. A key to understanding mycobacteria and, especially, their resistance is to understand the complexity of their cell wall. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the cell wall and the transport of peptidoglycan precursors out of the cytoplasm to the bacterial surface by undecaprenyl monophosphate is central to cell wall synthesis. Therefore, deletion mutants of the undecaprenyl phosphokinase gene (upk) were generated in M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, and M. smegmatis. In the case of M. smegmatis it was shown that a delta upk deletion mutant, as with ...
Few data are available regarding the induction of memory T-lymphocyte responses in cattle following Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Studies of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination provide an insight into the basis of antimycobacterial immunity that could be exploited for the development of more effective vaccination strategies. We used autologous dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) or pulsed with purified protein derivative from M. bovis (PPD-B) or M. avium (PPD-A) to assess responses of CD4+, CD8+ and WC1+ gammadelta TCR+ lymphocytes from BCG vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. Mycobacteria-specific CD4+ and CD8+, but not WC1+ gammadelta TCR+, memory T lymphocytes were demonstrated in BCG-vaccinated cattle. CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes proliferated and produced interferon (IFN)-gamma in response to BCG-infected or PPD-B-pulsed DC. Proliferative responses were greater for CD4+ than CD8+ lymphocytes, although secretion of IFN-gamma was
We demonstrate that both pathogens are capable of negatively affecting local and systemic immune responses towards each other by modifying cytokine phenotypes and by inducing general immune suppression. T. muris infection influenced non-specific and pathogen-specific immunity to M. bovis BCG by down-regulating pulmonary TH1 and Treg responses and inducing systemic TH2 responses. However, co-infection did not alter mycobacterial multiplication or dissemination and host pulmonary histopathology remained unaffected compared to BCG-only infected mice. Interestingly, prior M. bovis BCG infection significantly delayed helminth clearance and increased intestinal crypt cell proliferation in BALB/c mice. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in systemic helminth-specific TH1 and TH2 cytokine responses and significantly reduced local TH1 and TH2 responses in comparison to T. muris-only infected mice ...
A31 - Infection due to other mycobacteria: Pulmonary mycobacterial infection; Cutaneous mycobacterial infection; Other mycobacterial infections; Mycobacterial infection, unspecified: Diseases and Medical Conditions (ICD-10) from
Introduction: To participate effectively in the fight against tuberculosis (TB), mothers need to have a good knowledge of TB and its prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of mothers about TB and Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG). Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey performed from September to December 2015 in 4 health care facilities of Kinshasa. It concerned mothers of children who received BCG vaccine. The frequencies and chi-square of Pearson were used to report results. Results: A total of 380 couples of the children and their mothers were recruited. The median age of children was 16 months (ranges: 6 days to 59 months); 224 (58.9%) of them received BCG during the period recommended; 62 (16.3%) experienced a side effect. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between sides effects and the delayed vaccination. The average age of the mothers was 29.3 ± 6.4 years; 352 (92.6%) had heard about TB; 28 (7.4%) never heard about it; 168 (44.2%) knew that TB is a
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv includes a homologue of the CRP/FNR (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) family of transcription regulators encoded by Rv3676. Sequencing of the orthologous gene from attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strains revealed point mutations that affect the putative DNA-binding and cNMP-binding domains of the encoded protein. These mutations are not present in the published sequences of the Rv3676 orthologues in M. bovis, M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium leprae. An Escherichia coli lacZ reporter system was used to show that the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein binds to DNA sites for CRP, but this DNA binding was decreased or abolished with the Rv3676 protein counterparts from BCG strains. The DNA-binding ability of the M. tuberculosis Rv3676 protein was decreased by the introduction of base changes corresponding to the BCG point mutations. Conversely, the DNA binding of the BCG Rv3676 proteins from BCG strains
Our study is the first report of exceptional Mycobacterium bovis strains that have some characteristics of M. tuberculosis. The strains were isolated from 8 patients living in Kazakhstan. While molecular markers were typical for M. bovis, growth characteristics and biochemical test results were intermediate between M. bovis and M. tuberculosis.
A small ulcer which develops from the blister at the injection site, two to six weeks after injection. This may be painful and take several weeks or months to heal fully.Post that there will be scar on the sight of injection. If there is no scar , you may consult doctor as in some cases vaccine may fail.Uncommon side effects: Headache and a high temperature. ...
Memory T Lymphocytes Generated by Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination Reside within a CD4 CD44lo CD62 Ligandhi Population: In the lungs of mice vaccinated with
International Journal of Genomics is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles as well as review articles in all areas of genome-scale analysis. Topics covered by the journal include, but are not limited to: bioinformatics, clinical genomics, disease genomics, epigenomics, evolutionary genomics, functional genomics, genome engineering, and synthetic genomics.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenolic glycolipids of Mycobacterium bovis. T2 - New structures and synthesis of a corresponding seroreactive neoglycoprotein. AU - Chatterjee, D.. AU - Bozic, C. M.. AU - Knisley, C.. AU - Cho, S. N.. AU - Brennan, P. J.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - The glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as M. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside B described in the literature by others. However, when mycoside B obtained from M. bovis BCG, field isolates, and infected tissues was examined in detail, it was shown to be different from that described in the literature in some important respects. In particular, the glycosyl substituent is 2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnopyranose rather than 2-O-methyl-β-D-rhamnopyranose. With this information, a seroreactive neoglycoprotein (neoantigen) containing the 2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl substituent suitable for the serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis was ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is ...
BioAssay record AID 283668 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of oleic acid synthesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG NCTC 5692 with ethR-knockout mutant assessed as incorporation of [2-14C]acetate.
Today it is generally accepted that the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine protects against childhood tuberculosis (TB) but this immunity wanes with age, resulting in insufficient protection against adult pulmonary TB. Hence, one possible strategy to improve the protective efficacy of the BCG vaccine would be to boost in adulthood. In this study, using the mouse model, we evaluated the ability of two new TB vaccine candidates, heat-killed BCG (H-kBCG) and arabinomannan-tetanus toxoid conjugate (AM-TT), given intransally in a novel Eurocine adjuvant, to boost a primary BCG-induced immune response and to improve protection. Young C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with conventional BCG and, 6 months later, boosted intranasally with adjuvanted H-kBCG or AM-TT, or subcutaneously with BCG. Ten weeks after the booster, mice were challenged intravenously with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv. In spleens, there was a significant reduction of cfu counts in mice boosted with either H-kBCG or AM-TT vaccines
Enhanced apoptosis of BCG-infected macrophages has been shown to induce stronger dendritic cell-mediated cross-priming of T cells, leading to higher protection against tuberculosis (TB). Uncovering host effectors underlying BCG-induced apoptosis may then prove useful to improve BCG efficacy through …
BCG, Autoimmune Diabetes and M. Paratuberculosis. The recent NPJ Vaccine journal included an article by Kuhtreiber, et al. [1], wherein the authors reported that attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).
Scientists have been working on an improved vaccine against the tuberculosis bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis for almost 90 years. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) was developed in the early 20th century and contains attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacteria, the bovine tuberculosis pathogen that is transmissible to humans. BCG vaccination protects children in most cases against the disease, but not adults. Therefore, the vaccine has not contributed to reducing the global incidence of tuberculosis.. The VPM1002 vaccine, which was developed at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, is based on the BCG vaccine and contains genetically modified Mycobacterium bovis bacteria. A built-in gene makes it easier for the immune cells to recognise the bacteria; the organism can thus protect itself against actual infection with dangerous tuberculosis pathogens. VPM1002 is intended to replace the current BCG vaccine and will be administered to young children to protect them against ...
Modulation of humoral immune response to oral BCG vaccination by Mycobacterium bovis BCGMoreau Rio de Janeiro RDJ in healthy adults. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Protein kinase that regulates many aspects of mycobacterial physiology. Is a key component of a signal transduction pathway that regulates cell growth, cell shape and cell division via phosphorylation of target proteins.
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent sulfate ester dioxygenase, which oxidizes medium-chain alkyl-sulfate esters. Thus, catalyzes the oxygenolytic cleavage of 2-ethylhexyl sulfate (2-EHS), leading to the formation of succinate and 2-ethylhexanal. Has likely a role in sulfate scavenging in vivo.
We used genetic Multi-Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) data gathered from surveillance efforts to better understand the ongoing bovine tuberculosis (bTB) epidemic in Northern Irish cattle herds. We modelled the factors associated with Mycobacterium bovis MLVA genotype richness at three analytical scales; breakdown level, herd level, and patch level, and compared the results between dairy and non-dairy production types. In 83% of breakdowns and in 63% of herds, a single MLVA genotype was isolated. Five or more MLVA genotypes were found in less than 3 % of herds. Herd size and the total number of reactors were important explanatory variables, suggesting that increasing MLVA genotype richness was positively related to increases in the number of host animals. Despite their smaller relative size, however, the highest MLVA genotype richness values were observed in non-dairy herds. Increasing inwards cattle movements were important positive predictors of MLVA genotype richness, but mainly in non-dairy settings. The
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1KMP2 (Y2919_MYCBP), UPF0102 protein BCG_2919c. Mycobacterium bovis (strain BCG / Pasteur 1173P2)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1KNE3 (NUOC_MYCBP), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase subunit C. Mycobacterium bovis (strain BCG / Pasteur 1173P2)
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In this paper we demonstrate a high degree of protection of BCG vaccination against BTB in cattle. The degree of protection of around 75% is comparable to the best results reported over the years in studies where BCG was shown to be protective in cattle (e.g., references 8 and 9). In trials where significant protection has been reported in cattle, protection was characterized by significant reductions in disease-induced pathology and bacterial loads, rather than in sterilizing immunity (8, 9, 18, 52). Our findings confirm these earlier reports.. Although precise correlates of protection await definition, it is generally accepted that control of mycobacterial infections is characterized by the emergence of CD4+ cells producing type 1 cytokines and, in particular, IFN-γ. For example, mice in which the gene for IFN-γ was disrupted are unable to control disease and develop progressive and widespread tissue destruction (12, 22). Furthermore, the central role of IFN-γ in controlling human ...
TB in cattle is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Cattle, buffalo and bison are the natural hosts of M. bovis, but nearly all mammals are susceptible to the infection to a variable degree. The organism also has the capacity to infect and cause TB in humans. However, the risk of infection for the general public remains very low in industrialised countries with long-standing bovine TB control programmes and where pasteurisation of cows milk is either mandatory or commonly practised ...
We aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. Although information from many parts of the world was not available, data from 61 countries suggested a low global disease incidence. In regions outside Africa included in this study, overall median proportions of zoonotic TB of ≤1.4% in connection with overall TB incidence rates ≤71/100,000 population/year suggested low incidence rates. For countries of Africa included in the study, we multiplied the observed median proportion of zoonotic TB cases of 2.8% with the continental average overall TB incidence rate of 264/100,000 population/year, which resulted in a crude estimate of 7 zoonotic TB cases/100,000 population/year. These generally low incidence rates notwithstanding, available data indicated substantial consequences of this disease ...
Between 15 and 20% of patients with newly diagnosed urothelial cancer (UC) of the bladder will have high grade (HG) non-muscle invasive (NMI) disease including carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) and stage Ta and T1 tumors [1]. After transurethral resection of the cancer (TURBT), patients may undergo re-TURBT, but if no muscle invasive (MI) cancer is found most will receive an induction course of 6 weekly intravesical instillations of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG).
Human infection with Mycobacterium bovis is reported infrequently in the United Kingdom. Most cases involve previous consumption of unpasteurized milk. We report a rare occurrence of 2 incidents of cat-to-human transmission of M. bovis during a cluster of infection in cats.
We are using clone B-B4. It can be purchased from BioCare Medical. We were purchasing it from a different company, but it has been discontinued. The discontinuation of some antibodies has been the bane of my existence this year. As some companies have been bought by larger companies, this has become more of a problem (at least thats my perception). Patient care seems to take a back seat to profit margin. (please dont flame me!) Patti Loykasek BS, HTL, QIHC PhenoPath Laboratories Seattle, WA > Hi there, > > Does anybody has a clone recomendation for the antibody CD138?? > We used to use clone MI15 from Dako but were informed that it was > discontinued! > > And vendors for Mycobacterium bovis antibody? Dako is not working > well! > > > Sincerely, > > > Ms. K tia Catunda > Produ o > +55 12 3203-0612 (direto) > +55 12 3203-0633 (PABX) > > [email protected] > > > > _______________________________________________ > Histonet mailing list > [email protected] > ...
2KKL: Solution NMR structure of FHA domain of Mb1858 from Mycobacterium bovis. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium Target MbR243C (24-155).
Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a hypoxia-inducible state in which the bacteria are phenotypically insensitive to currently available
The incidence of systemic BCG infection has been reported to present from 3 to 7% [13], [14], [15], [16]. The scope of these complications range from fever, malaise, chills, sweats, weight loss, shortness of breath, and arthralgia, and accounts for one third of cases involving BCG infection [13], [14], [15], [16]. However, less commonly complications such as hepatitis [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], polyarthritis [24], [25], [26], or prosthetic joint infection [27] have also been reported, suggesting high level of clinical suspicion is required addressing atypical infective symptoms following BCG instillation.. Most systemic presentations generally appear earlier, within 8 to 12 weeks following instillation and up to 1 year [13]. Several risk factors for developing BCG systemic infection have been suggested, such as, recent interval to procedures breaching urothelial mucosal integrity, and poor technique during administration [28], [29], [30]. However, the paucity of studies ...
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We found evidence that the chromosomal parA and parB genes of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis are expressed from multiple promoters. To identify the promoter sequences that regulate the expression of the par genes, we mapped the transcription start sites of the par-mRNAs by primer extension and confirmed the activity of the identified promoters by transcriptional fusions to a fluorescent reporter. We also demonstrated that in M. bovis BCG the parA and parB genes are differentially expressed during the exponential and stationary growth phases.. In all microorganisms studied thus far, plasmid and chromosome-encoded partitioning genes are arranged in an operon. Transcription of the par genes is driven by one (in F and R1 plasmids, P1 prophage and C. crescentus) or two (in S. coelicolor) promoters located upstream of the gene encoding the ATPase (parA or sopA) [5, 7, 13, 15, 32]. The jag, gidB, parA and parB genes of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis shared orientation and close spacing, suggesting that ...
Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies ...
Read more about the Bacillus Of Calmette and Guerin Vaccine. This treatment helps prevent drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis.
Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (EPEC) é uma importante causa de diarreia infantil. EPEC adere no epitélio intestinal e causa uma lesão conhecida como attaching and effacing (A/E). Cepas recombinantes...
Tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic infectious disease common to humans and animals which has been caused by a rod shaped, acid fast bacterium, called Mycobacterium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase I study of immunotherapy with methanol extraction residue (MER) of bacillus Calmette Guerin. AU - Richman, S. P.. AU - Gutterman, J. U.. AU - Hersh, E. M.. AU - Burgess, M. A.. AU - Mavligit, G. M.. PY - 1977/10/23. Y1 - 1977/10/23. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 872144. AN - SCOPUS:0017374964. VL - 61. SP - 471. EP - 472. JO - Journal of the National Cancer Institute. JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute. SN - 0027-8874. IS - 3. ER - ...
Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains
The interruptions to supply of BCG (Bacillus Calmette - Guérin) powder for injections are due to manufacturing issues and are expected to be resolved as noted above.. Sanofi-Aventis have no stock available of either BCG Vaccine or ImmuCyst®, and have not been able to source substitute medicines under Section 19(A) as previously indicated.. Whilst the availability of OncoTICE® has been constrained to emergency requirements, HPS Pharmacies are now able to access supplies to meet individual patient needs.. Please retain this notice in a prominent position, including in other related business units as a reminder for all staff members until supply returns to normal.. Report any problems identified with medicines, vaccines or medical devices to the TGA.. Should you require further information regarding this matter, please do not hesitate to contact your Pharmacist at HPS Pharmacies, Sanofi-Aventis Australia on 1800 829 468, or Merck Sharp & Dohme Australia on 02 8988 8428.. Information regarding ...
Intravesical administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a cornerstone of adjuvant treatment for low-grade urothelial carcinoma. Complications from administration are relatively rare and generally evident within one month. Systemic BCG infections are typically diagnosed within 14 days post BCG administration; however, cases have been reported of infections being diagnosed as late as 17 years after treatment. Here, we describe the unusual case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who was diagnosed with disseminated BCG infection 3 years after initial adjuvant treatment for urothelial carcinoma. Résumé Ladministration intravésicale de Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) est la pierre angulaire du traitement adjuvant du carcinome urothéliales de faible teneur. Les complications de ladministration sont relativement rares et généralement évidentes dans un délai dun mois. Les infections systémiques du BCG sont généralement diagnostiquées dans les 14 jours après ladministration du BCG;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Failure of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔRD1 ΔpanCD double deletion mutant in a neonatal calf aerosol M. bovis challenge model. T2 - Comparisons to responses elicited by M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin. AU - Waters, W. Ray. AU - Palmer, Mitchell V.. AU - Nonnecke, Brian J.. AU - Thacker, Tyler C.. AU - Scherer, Charles F Capinos. AU - Estes, D. Mark. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Glatman-Freedman, Aharona. AU - Larsen, Michelle H.. PY - 2007/11/7. Y1 - 2007/11/7. N2 - An attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 knockout and pantothenate auxotroph (mc26030) vaccine administered at 2 weeks of age failed to protect calves from low dose, aerosol M. bovis challenge at 2.5 months of age. In contrast, M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG)-vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis-associated pathology as compared to non- and mc26030-vaccinates. Mycobacterial colonization was not impacted by vaccination. Positive prognostic indicators associated with reduced pathology in the BCG-vaccinated ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sahal Al-Hajoj, Ziad Memish, Naila Abuljadayel, Raafat AlHakeem, Fahad AlRabiah, Bright Varghese].
Leishmania tropica, an intracellular protozoan parasite, infects and replicates in macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice in vitro(1). Exposure of resident peritoneal macrophages to amastigotes for...
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In 2002, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (tb) among 500 cattle on Holeta Farm, near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was 48 per cent, and the farm was divided into positive and negative herds. After three consecutive rounds of skin testing and segregation of skin test-positive and -negative animals, the prevalence of bovine tb was reduced from 14 per cent to 1 per cent in the negative herd in a year. Spoligotyping of 41 isolates from 17 cows gave an identical and unique spoligotype pattern, which can be represented as the binary number 1100000101111110111111100010000000000100000, where 1 indicates the presence of a spacer and 0 represents a loss. This spoligotype pattern had not previously been reported on the Mycobacterium bovis spoligotype database, and it was therefore designated sb1176, Ethiopian M bovis strain 1 (embs1). The variable number tandem repeat (vntr) profile of the strain was 5254*33.1, which differed from the vntr profile of strains reported in Great Britain.. ...
Background:. Each year, more than half a million babies are infected with HIV by mother-to child transmission in developing countries. Many of these babies get sick and develop HIV disease (AIDS) at a very young age. Exposure to other infectious diseases may influence this early progression to AIDS. BCG is a live tuberculosis vaccine made from cow tuberculosis. It is routinely given at birth to most babies, also to babies born to HIV-positive mothers. BCG can cause disease (BCGosis) in HIV-infected babies. More importantly, BCG may also trigger immune responses in the body that lead to the spread of the HIV virus and early progression to AIDS.. Objective(s) and Hypothesis:. The researchers will investigate whether BCG causes progression of HIV by doing a clinical trial: babies born to HIV-positive mothers will be randomly allocated to get the BCG vaccine at birth or at 14 weeks of age. In these 2 groups of babies, the researchers will compare:. ...
Background:. Each year, more than half a million babies are infected with HIV by mother-to child transmission in developing countries. Many of these babies get sick and develop HIV disease (AIDS) at a very young age. Exposure to other infectious diseases may influence this early progression to AIDS. BCG is a live tuberculosis vaccine made from cow tuberculosis. It is routinely given at birth to most babies, also to babies born to HIV-positive mothers. BCG can cause disease (BCGosis) in HIV-infected babies. More importantly, BCG may also trigger immune responses in the body that lead to the spread of the HIV virus and early progression to AIDS.. Objective(s) and Hypothesis:. The researchers will investigate whether BCG causes progression of HIV by doing a clinical trial: babies born to HIV-positive mothers will be randomly allocated to get the BCG vaccine at birth or at 14 weeks of age. In these 2 groups of babies, the researchers will compare:. ...
Background: We have been determined that for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after becoming infected with tuberculosis, the damages in their hematologic..
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The live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) is a potent innate immune stimulator. Innate Immunity provides the host with the ability to immediately respond to invasion by pathogens and can ...
Several PCR systems have been developed for the detection of species belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC). The most commonly used one is based on primers that amplify segments of the IS6110 element, particularly targeting for the 123 bp (2) and 245 bp fragments (7). Another PCR system that yield successful identification of M. bovis isolates is focused on the amplification of a 500-bp DNA fragment inside the RvD1Rv2031c genomic sequence (4). A combination of conventional culture and biochemical techniques is the gold standard method currently used for the identification of M. bovis, which is laborious and time-consuming. In this study we carry out the molecular identification of pure cultures of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) isolated from suggestive bovine tuberculosis lesions. The molecular assay consists of a single-step multiplex PCR (m-PCR), based on two set primers already tested that yet to date have not been combined in a single PCR system. In this study, the assay targets ...
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The IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test is intended for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) antibody in cattle serum and plasma samples
The IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test is intended for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) antibody in cattle serum and plasma samples
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Citation: Harrington, N., Waters, W.R., Surujballi, O., Prescott, J. 2005. Development of a Multispecies Real-time RT-PCR Whole Blood Assay to detect Interferon-gamma Response to Mycobacterial Antigens and Evaluation in Mycobacterium bovis-infected elk (cervus elaphus)[abstract]. International Conference on Mycobacterium bovis. p. 73. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: In North America, wild elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can be reservoirs for Mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of tuberculosis to other wildlife, to cattle, and to humans. Current diagnostic tests lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for accurate detection of infected wildlife populations. In other species, methods which assay the in vitro production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in response to mycobacterial antigens by ELISA or ELISPOT are more sensitive than other tests for tuberculosis. Unfortunately, these assays do not react with many ...
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in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2010), 48(8), 2802-8. This assessment aimed to elaborate a statistical nationwide model for analyzing the space-time dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in search of potential risk factors that could be used to better target ... [more ▼]. This assessment aimed to elaborate a statistical nationwide model for analyzing the space-time dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in search of potential risk factors that could be used to better target surveillance measures. A database comprising Mycobacterium bovis molecular profiles from all isolates obtained from Belgian outbreaks during the 1995-to-2006 period (n = 415) allowed the identification of a predominant spoligotype (SB0162). Various databases compiling 49 parameters to be tested were queried using a multiple stepwise logistic regression to assess bovine tuberculosis risk factors. Two isolate datasets were analyzed: the first included all Mycobacterium bovis isolates, while the second included only data related to ...
Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a major economic problem affecting farmers both in the UK and worldwide. In order to prevent and control bovine tuberculosis it is very important to be able to promptly and definitively diagnose infected animals. However, the current diagnostic tools show some limitations which can contribute to cause economic losses and to the transmission of the disease to other animals in a herd, to wildlife and potentially to humans. Therefore, there is an urgent need to have available new diagnostic methods that allow the definitive detection of bovine tuberculosis. In this work, the practical issues associated with the cost-effective production of two diagnostic kits that employ mycobacteriophage (ActiphageTM and ActiphageTM Rapid) were investigated. This technology exploits the ability of bacteriophage to infect live mycobacterial species in a strain specific manner. This technique was originally developed as a tool for the diagnosis ...
This thesis aimed to the identification of immune biomarkers of mycobacterial infection for better diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and also focused on new vaccination strategies with a particular emphasis on the immune responses in the respiratory tract using murine models.. Since the lung is the natural habitat for the M. tuberculosis, we reasoned that immune responses detected locally in the lungs would be good correlates of infection (Paper I). Likewise, immune responses induced in the respiratory tract following immunization would be more effective against mycobacterial infection. We showed that cytokines (IL-12, TNF, and IFN-γ) and cytokine receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) together with specific antibodies in the respiratory tract correlated better with the bacterial burden in the organs. In Paper II, we investigated the role of the BCG vaccination as a priming vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol. The results showed that the neonatal BCG vaccination primed the immune ...
ABSTRACT. Currently, tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem, is present in all regions of the world and remains one of the most deadly communicable diseases, particularly associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cases of TB Mycobacterium bovis more and more frequent, especially in vulnerable populations. TB caused by M. bovis clinical, radiological and histologically indistinguishable from tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis; however, there are some differences that make M. tuberculosis particular. The direct correlation between infection with M. bovis in cattle and human disease has been well documented, but the true prevalence is underestimated. Overall, the proportion of cases of human TB caused by M. bovis is low compared with M. tuberculosis, but its potential in the groups most at risk impact should not be underestimated by the impact on morbidity and mortality.. ...
Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and trehalose monomycolate (TMM), the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs), triacyl glycerol (TAG), pentacyl trehalose (PAT), phenolic glycolipid (PGL), and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG). Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM), diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG), phenylethanolamine (PE) and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs). These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen ...
Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing, aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. Similar to M. tuberculosis, M. bovis can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis in humans.. It is estimated that M. bovis was responsible for more losses among farm animals than all other diseases combined in the first half of the 20th century. Infection happens after bacterium is ingested. It is generally transmitted to humans via infected milk. Actual human infections are rare generally this is because pasteurization kills the bacteria.. The brushtail possum is the main vector in New Zealand. 40% of cows were infected in the 1930s. The risk of people contracting TB from cattle in Great Britain today is very low.. Badgers were identified as carriers 30 years ago. This caused a major battle between animal conservationists and farmers. Findings indicate that the rising incidence of disease can be reversed through rigid application of cattle-based control measures alone.. Other ...
In May 2017, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services was notified of a case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a man aged 77 years.
Free, official coding info for 2021 ICD-10-CM A31.0 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Obstet gyneco. Common indication for each individual patient, and situational : It can be recommended, dimethyl sulphoxide dmso and bacillus calmette guerin in patients with a poor erectile response, sources of photos: Onycholysis, terry nailshabif t clinical dermatology: A color guide to physical examination and history taking table. And undressing and dressing, the jvp is specific for hypogonadism with the parents. Studies were considered as a predictor for the treatment of premature heart disease share common risk factors for the. A tip of slit catheter or intermittent priapism. Diamete palpate the left midure - te note smooth concavity of the brainstem with motor urge incontinence. Other common pain provocation test: Painful arc test subacromial bursa are not clea however, repeat studies should be restricted unless there is no indication for circumcision. F i g u r e Male adolescents. Two other meta analyses have to lie on ulcerated cance the mucosal surfaces. Guidelines can never be ...
Following M. bovis infection, a marked in vitro expansion suggests that bovine γδ T cells can mount memory-like responses upon restimulation with mycobacterial Ag (Fig. 1) and (reviewed in Ref. 35). However, to date, a combination of surface markers that effectively identify effector/memory-like subsets of bovine Ag-specific γδ T cells have not been reported. In this study, we show that, compared with CD4 T cells, proliferating M. bovis-specific γδ T cells do not significantly alter CD45RO expression after restimulation with mycobacterial Ags in vitro. Our results agree with reports showing that γδ T cells from human TB patients do not modulate CD45RO expression compared with γδ T cells from noninfected subjects (16, 17). Thus, γδ T cells may acquire a preactivated state early in their development and thus, CD45RO is not useful to identify Ag-experienced γδ T cells. In contrast to CD45RO expression, we found that proliferating γδ T cells from M. bovis-infected cattle ...
Introduction: Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium caprae. Before widespread action conducted in Poland between 1959-1975 to combat bovine tuberculosis (BTB), about 40% of all tuberculosis cases in pigs was caused by the bovine...
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The World Health organization (WHO) reported that 10.4 million peoples were infected and 1.7 million peoples were died because of TB (WHO, 2016). TB control is difficult due to emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) TB and HIV-TB co-infections (Kaufmann and Parida 2007). Though, we have one approved TB vaccine Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Geurin (BCG), it gives protection only for childhood not for adulthood. Researchers using different approaches to replace older BCG vaccine strain by substitution of new genes in BCG or by construction new attenuated live M. tuberculosis vaccine ...
The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene
Tuberculosis (TB) kills more than 2 million people worldwide every year. The widely used TB vaccine, Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) has variable efficacy and has prompted the search for more effective vaccines. Although significant progress has been made in identifying protective Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen candidates, our poor understanding of how immune responses mediate protection in the lung remains a major hurdle to successful vaccine design. The major goal of my lab is to define the basic requirements for induction of protective immunity in the lung against pulmonary pathogens such as Mtb. Our past work has described a novel role for the cytokine Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in vaccine-induced immunity against tuberculosis. More recent work from my lab has utilized this information to target and boost lung Th17 responses to improve vaccine-induced immunity against tuberculosis. We have identified that mucosal immunization with Mtb antigen induces a population of lung-resident Th17 ...
A retrospective study (2004-2010) on 24 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n=18) and cattle (n=6) in Imperia province (Savona province has been included in the study just in 2006) was performed to detect the prevalence and distribution of antibiotic-resistant strains. Actually, in this area cases of M. bovis infections in wild boar were related to cases in cattle herds due to the overlapping of their respective habitat and pasture areas, suggesting the role of these animals as bio-indicator of the presence of M. bovis in the environment and, in consequence, in farm animals. Susceptibility of all M. bovis strains to antituberculous drugs (isoniazid-INH, rifampicin-RIF, ethambutol-EMB and streptomycin-STR) was detected by proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium using recommended critical concentration, while the 6 bovine M. bovis strains were tested by Versatrek method on liquid medium, too. The proportion method to assess the M. bovis susceptibility to ...
Setting: Although animal models of aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis have been reported using laboratory animals, a model of aerosol delivery of M. bovis to cattle has not been reported previously. Objective: Develop and characterize a model of aerosol delivery of M. bovis to cattle, and compare the distribution of lesions in cattle infected with either of two differen ...
Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but it confers incomplete and variable protection against pulmonary TB in humans and bovine TB (bTB) in cattle. Insights into the immune response induced by BCG offer an underexploited opportunity to gain knowledge that may inform the design of a more efficacious vaccine, which is urgently needed to control these major global epidemics. Humoral immunity in TB and bTB has been neglected, but recent studies supporting a role for antibodies in protection against TB has driven a growing interest in determining their relevance to vaccine development. In this manuscript we review what is known about the humoral immune response to BCG vaccination and re-vaccination across species, including evidence for the induction of specific B cells and antibodies; and how these may relate to protection from TB or bTB. We discuss potential explanations for often conflicting findings and consider how factors such as BCG strain
A group of known antigens affected by deletions from M. bovis is the ESAT-6 family. The ESAT-6 protein was originally described as a potent T cell antigen secreted by M. tuberculosis (20), and belongs to a ,20-membered family that contains other T cell antigens such as CFP-10 and CFP-7. The demonstration of an interaction between ESAT-6 and CFP-10 suggests that other members of the family may also act in pairs, possibly in a mix-and-match arrangement (21). However, six ESAT-6 proteins, encoded by Rv2346c, Rv2347c, Rv3619c, Rv3620c, Rv3890c (Mb3919c), and Rv3905c (Mb3935c) in M. tuberculosis, are missing or altered in M. bovis (Fig. 3). The consequences of their loss are difficult to predict, though they may impact on antigen load either singly or in combination.. The most striking degree of variation in the secretome is the elevated expression of two serodominant antigens, MPB70 and MPB83, in the bovine bacillus (22). MPB83 is a glycosylated cell wall-associated protein, whereas MPB70 is a ...
A PSQ assay targeting pncA is used for identification of Mycobacterium bovis. This assay does not differentiate between M. bovis and M. bovis BCG. ...
Macrophage-enriched peritoneal exudate cells from mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, macrophage-like tumor cells (PU 5-1.8), and peritoneal macrophages propagated in vitro with macrophage growth factor released tumoricidal activity into the culture medium within 2 to 3 h after stimulation with nanogram quantities of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The cytotoxic activities from each of the macrophage culture supernatants eluted from diethylaminoethyl-Sephacel columns at a sodium chloride concentration of 200 mM exhibited a molecular weight of 50,000 to 60,000 as estimated by gel filtration, were stable at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and were active at a pH range of 6 to 10. A rabbit antiserum directed against serum-derived cytotoxic activity (tumor-necrotizing factor) from BCG-infected and lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice inhibited all of the cytotoxic activities generated in vitro. This suggests that the macrophage-derived cytotoxins are identical with serum-derived cytotoxic factor, which ...
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans ...
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans ...
... in African wildlife Mycobacterium bovis in African wildlife Tuberculosis - Mycobacterium bovis - Health ... Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of ... Delahay, R.J.; De Leeuw, A.N.S.; Barlow, A.M.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S.; Cheeseman, C.L. (2002). "The status of Mycobacterium bovis ... Phillips, C.J.C.; Foster, C.R.W.; Morris, P.A.; Teverson, R. (2001). "The transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection to ...
Kubica, T.; Rusch-Gerdes, S.; Niemann, S. (1 July 2003). "Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae Caused One-Third of Human M. bovis- ... Mycobacterium caprae is a species of bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium and a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex ... It is also synonymous with the name Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae.[citation needed] M. caprae is a causative agent of ... December 2009). "Human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in Spain, 2004-2007". Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13 ...
Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in cattle. Since tuberculosis can be spread to humans, milk is pasteurized to kill any ... The Mycobacteria species that causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is an airborne bacterium ... The genus Mycobacterium is a slow growing bacteria, made up of small rods that are slightly curved or straight, and are ... Some mycobacteria are free-living saprophytes, but many are pathogens that cause disease in animals and humans. ...
"The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (13): 7877-82. ... 1998). "Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence". Nature. 393 (6685): 537-44. ... including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Yersinia pestis and Salmonella typhi. As well as providing complete catalogues of the ...
2003). "The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (13): 7877-82. Bibcode:2003PNAS ... 2005). "The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (35 ... 1998). "Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence". Nature. 393 (6685): 537-44. ...
An effort to eradicate bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis from the cattle and deer herds of New Zealand has been ... The M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) includes four other TB-causing mycobacteria: M. bovis, M. africanum, M. canetti, and M. ... Thoen C, Lobue P, de Kantor I (February 2006). "The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis". Veterinary Microbiology. ... Mycobacteria infect many different animals, including birds, fish, rodents, and reptiles. The subspecies Mycobacterium ...
Prinzis S, Chatterjee D, Brennan PJ (November 1993). "Structure and antigenicity of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis ... "Structural features of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Determination of molecular mass by laser desorption mass ... purified from Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium kansasii induce TNF-alpha and IL-8 secretion by a CD14-toll-like ... These types of LAMs are most commonly found in more pathogenic Mycobacterium species such as M. tuberculosis, M. leprae, and M ...
... the molecular evolution of Mycobacterium bovis". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4 (9): 670-681. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1472. ISSN ...
"Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG". BMC Biochemistry. 11: 21. doi:10.1186/1471-2091- ...
In particular, it is not used to treat other mycobacteria; Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium leprae are innately resistant ... Pyrazinamide is only used in combination with other drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin in the treatment of Mycobacterium ... Klemens, S.P.; Sharpe, C.A.; Cynamon, M.H. (1996). "Activity of pyrazinamide in a murine model against Mycobacterium ... 2011). "Pyrazinamide inhibits trans-translation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Science. 333 (6049): 1630-32. Bibcode:2011Sci ...
"Antitumor activity of deoxyribonucleic acid fraction from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. I. Isolation, physicochemical ...
Prior to this, it was considered to be synonymous with Mycobacterium bovis. M. suricattae is transmitted by respiratory ... Drewe, J, Foote, A, Sutcliffe, R, Pearce, G (2009). "Pathology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild meerkats (Suricata ... Mycobacterium suricattae is a species of the tuberculosis complex of the genus Mycobacterium. It causes tuberculosis in ...
"Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in human urine". Water Science & Technology. 63 (6): 1075-80. ... Storage of urine kills bacterial pathogens encountered in urine - including Salmonella typhi and paratyphi and Mycobacterium ... C has been recommended to prevent transmission of mycobacteria when recycling human urine. Recommended storage times to kill ...
"Leucine auxotrophy restricts growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in macrophages". Infection and Immunity. 64 (5): 1794-1799. doi: ... SecA1 they found to be essential, but SecA2 they found to be nonessential but conserved across mycobacteria suggesting its ... Brown also explored the sec-dependent protein export pathway in mycobacterium, the main protein export pathway into the ... Brown helped to develop a novel method to study the mechanisms underlying mycobacterium replication in mononuclear phagocytes. ...
Kuria, Joseph N.; Gathogo, Stephen M. (4 March 2013). "Concomitant fungal and Mycobacterium bovis infections in beef cattle in ...
"The status of Mycobacterium bovis infection in UK wild mammals: A review". The Veterinary Journal. 164 (2): 90-105. doi:10.1053 ... In New Zealand, deer are thought to be important as vectors picking up M. bovis in areas where brushtail possums Trichosurus ...
"In silico enzyme function prediction in hypothetical proteins of Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97". Journal of Pharmacy Research. ...
Importation of alpacas infected with Mycobacterium bovis from the United Kingdom to Poland and potential for serodiagnostic ... bovis outbreak in alpacas in the country. They also were first to show that alpacas counterattack M. bovis earlier than most ... "Review of Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in South African Wildlife". Frontiers in Veterinary ... hosts, even though the response is not always ultimately successful and M. bovis may still be fatal. This is believed to ...
Mycobacterium bovis also causes TB in this species worldwide. Krajewska‐Wędzina et al., 2020 detect M. bovis in individuals ... "Review of Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in South African Wildlife". Frontiers in Veterinary ...
The vaccine was originally developed from Mycobacterium bovis, which is commonly found in cattle. While it has been weakened, ... Exposure to environmental mycobacteria (especially Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium intracellulare ... In this study, the UK school children had a low baseline cellular immunity to mycobacteria which was increased by BCG; in ... This effect is called masking because the effect of BCG is masked by environmental mycobacteria. Clinical evidence for this ...
Grode, L. (25 August 2005). "Increased vaccine efficacy against tuberculosis of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacille ... A recombinant BCG vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is being developed that expresses Listeriolysin O and lacks Urease ...
Choi KP, Kendrick N, Daniels L (May 2002). "Demonstration that fbiC is required by Mycobacterium bovis BCG for coenzyme F(420) ...
Identification of ovothiol A in Leishmania donovani and structural analysis of a novel thiol from Mycobacterium bovis". Eur. J ...
Identification of ovothiol A in Leishmania donovani and structural analysis of a novel thiol from Mycobacterium bovis". ... from Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows structural homology to the GNAT family of N-acetyltransferases". Protein Science. 12 (9 ...
An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis infection in a pack of English Foxhounds (2016-2017). Transbound Emerg ... The dogs eat raw meat and there was speculation about the diet containing the M. bovis that causes TB as the meat comes from ... areas impacted by M. bovis. In 2005, the American Kennel Club reported that the English and American Foxhounds were their least ...
"Oral delivery of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in a lipid formulation induces resistance to pulmonary tuberculosis in mice". ...
A current example is the use of BCG vaccine made from Mycobacterium bovis to protect against tuberculosis. The subgroup of ... The live Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine developed by Calmette and Guérin is not made of a contagious strain but contains a ...
Mycobacteria have an outer membrane. They possess capsules, and most do not form endospores. M. marinum and perhaps M. bovis ... Mycobacteria Mycobrowser: Genomic and proteomic database for pathogenic mycobacteria CDC - Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) ... Whereas Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae are pathogenic, most mycobacteria do not cause disease unless they enter skin ... "Targeted replacement of the mycocerosic acid synthase gene in Mycobacterium bovis BCG produces a mutant that lacks mycosides". ...
Oettinger, T.; Jørgensen, M.; Ladefoged, A.; Hasløv, K.; Andersen, P. (1999). "Development of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG ... In 1901 at the London Congress on Tuberculosis, Koch stated on theoretical grounds that M bovis, which infects cows, was not ... British attendees disagreed, and later Theobald Smith and the English Royal Commission empirically established that M bovis was ...
The BCG vaccine, infant dose, contains between 100,000 and 400,000 colony-forming unit of live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis. ...
Although most common Mycobacterium species which causes tuberculosis is M. tuberculosis, TB is also caused by M. bovis and M. ... africanum and occasionally by opportunistic Mycobacteria which are: M. Kansaii, M. malmoense, M. simiae, M. szulgai, M. xenopi ... the world's most serious public health problem is an infectious bacterial disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium. ...
Rainwater DL, Kolattukudy PE (1985). "Fatty acid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ...
Blood-testis barrier in testicular anatomy Blood-thymus barrier Bovine tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, a disease ...
Bacillus subtilis 168 Bos taurus (cow) Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode worm) Candida albicans SC5314 Canis familiaris (dog) ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129 Neurospora crassa OR74A Nicotiana tomentosiformis Oryctolagus ...
The main aspatokinases are lysC (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and many other bacteria), ask (Mycobacterium bovis, ...
Mycobacterium bovis) from wild vector species across 2.5 million hectares - or one quarter - of New Zealand's at-risk areas by ... Mycoplasma bovis, a bacterial disease known to cause a range of serious conditions in cattle was detected in New Zealand in ... GERARD HUTCHING (28 May 2018). "Q&A on Mycoplasma bovis: Untangling truth from fiction of cattle disease". ... Ministry for Primary Industries (7 June 2019). "What is Mycoplasma bovis?". Retrieved 19 August 2019. ...
In 1950, a Newark-based physician named Virginia Livingston published a paper claiming that a specific Mycobacterium was ... Gold JS, Bayar S, Salem RR (July 2004). "Association of Streptococcus bovis bacteremia with colonic neoplasia and extracolonic ...
In countries where cow milk infected with Mycobacterium bovis has been eliminated (due to culling of infected cows and ... pasteurization), primary tuberculosis is usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and almost always begins in the lungs. ...
Mycobacterium bovis,[citation needed] toxoids Plant saponins from Quillaja (see Quil A), soybean, Polygala senega Cytokines: IL ... Freund's complete adjuvant is a solution of inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil developed in 1930. It is not ...
Possums are vectors of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), which is a major threat to the dairy, beef, and deer farming ... Board operates a nationwide programme of cattle testing and possum control with the goal of eradicating Mycobacterium bovis ...
Kirsten I. Bos, Verena J. Schuenemann, G. Brian Golding, Hernán A. Burbano, Nicholas Waglechner, Brian K. Coombes, Joseph B. ... "Genome-Wide Comparison of Medieval and Modern Mycobacterium leprae". Science. 341 (6142): 179-183. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..179S ... PMID 21993626.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) V. J. Schuenemann, K. Bos, S. DeWitte, S. Schmedes, J ... Bos, A. Herbig, C. Economou, A. Benjak, P. Busso, A. Nebel, J. L. Boldsen, A. Kjellström, H. Wu, G. R. Stewart, G. M. Taylor, P ...
Schuenemann VJ, Singh P, Mendum TA, Krause-Kyora B, Jäger G, Bos KI, et al. (July 2013). "Genome-wide comparison of medieval ... Scholia has a topic profile for Mycobacterium leprae. The genome of Mycobacterium leprae "Mycobacterium leprae". NCBI Taxonomy ... The closest relative to Mycobacterium leprae is Mycobacterium lepromatosis. These species diverged 13.9 million years ago (95% ... tuberculosis have been lost in the Mycobacterium leprae genome.Due to Mycobacterium leprae's reliance on a host organism, many ...
Because of this and the fact that cows are a natural host of Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen in humans as well, it is hoped ...
Some vaccine platforms have been tested in M. ulcerans-infected mice, mostly based on the Mycobacterium bovis strain used in ... Buruli ulcer is caused by infection of the skin with the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans. M. ulcerans is a mycobacterium, ... It is more distantly related to other slow-growing mycobacteria that infect humans, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which ... "Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection)". World Health Organization. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 17 ...
Isoxyl inhibits M. bovis with six hours of exposure, which is similar to isoniazid and ethionamide, two other prominent anti-TB ... December 2003). "Unique mechanism of action of the thiourea drug isoxyl on Mycobacterium tuberculosis". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (52 ... has considerable antimycobacterial activity in vitro and is effective against multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium ...
Alan Cooper Kirsten Bos Joachim Burger M. Thomas P. Gilbert Johannes Krause Svante Pääbo Hendrik Poinar David Reich Beth ... Donoghue HD, Spigelman M, Zias J, Gernaey-Child AM, Minnikin DE (1998). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in calcified ...
She has investigated infectious diseases in cattle including Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis), sheep (caseous ...
An African origin for Mycobacterium bovis. Evol Med Public Health. 2020 Jan 31;2020(1):49-59 Gagneux S, DeRiemer K, Van T, Kato ... In 2019, M. tuberculosis was found in a genetically related complex group of Mycobacterium species called Mycobacterium ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Scholia has a topic profile for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Bos KI, Harkins KM, Herbig A, Coscolla M, Weber N, Comas I, Forrest SA, Bryant JM, Harris SR, Schuenemann VJ, Campbell TJ, ...
Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a major mortality factor in badgers, though infected badgers ...
Bacillus Calmettle-Guerin (TheraCys) is a live attenuated vaccine which makes use of Mycobacterium bovis strain for bladder ...
M. tuberculosis). Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is another mycobacterium that can cause TB disease in people. M. bovis is most ... Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis? In the United States, the majority of ... How do I know if Ive been infected with M. bovis?. Most people are at very low risk for being infected with M. bovis. People ... How can M. bovis infection be prevented?. The most commonly reported source of M. bovis infection in people is the consumption ...
Report of the WHO Meeting on Zoonotic Tuberculosis (‎Mycobacterium bovis, Geneva, 15 November 1993 / with the participation of ... Report of the WHO working group on zoonotic tuberculosis (‎Mycobacterium bovis, Mainz, Germany, 14 June 1994 / with the ... WHO Working Group on Zoonotic Tuberculosis (‎Mycobacterium bovis)‎ 1994: Mainz, Germany)‎; World Health Organization. ... Guidelines for speciation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex / John M. Grange, Malcolm D. Yates and Isabel N. de ...
Mycobacterium bovis in a free-ranging black rhinoceros, Kruger National Park, South Africa, 2016. ...
Novel assays for detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in free-ranging african rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, Ceratotherium ...
In 1995, lions in Kruger National Park were discovered to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis), a non- ... It is therefore likely that lions are a spill-over species for M. bovis and that the prevalence and spread of M. bovis in ... bovis transmission in Krugers lion population. We varied M. bovis transmission rates from buffalo to lion, from mother to cub ... The model suggests that transmission of M. bovis from buffalo to lions dominates the spread of bovine tuberculosis in Kruger ...
Evaluation of the treatment with isoniazid carried out in bovines naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis ... Evaluation of the treatment with isoniazid carried out in bovines naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis ... bovis culture isolated from a non-cured animal. ...
Antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG assessed as bacterial growth inhibition at 10 ug/ml by MABA relative to ...
Activity of 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. ... Activity of 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. Together they form ...
... developed being attracted to the lesions in a shift towards a Th2 response against the increasing amounts of mycobacteria. ... Sheep have been traditionally considered as less susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (Mbovis) infection than other domestic ... Upregulation of IL-17A, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in early-stage granulomas induced by Mycobacterium bovis in cattle. Transbound Emerg ... Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 1: Review of epidemiology and laboratory ...
Title : Human Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Taiwan Personal Author(s) : Jou, Ruwen;Huang, Wei-Lun;Chiang, Chen- ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission among Elderly Persons, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 2009-2015 Cite ... Title : Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission among Elderly Persons, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 2009-2015 Personal Author(s ...
Infection of Mice with Mycobacterium bovis-Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Suppresses Allergen-induced Airway Eosinophilia Klaus ... Klaus Josef Erb, John W. Holloway, Alexandra Sobeck, Heidrun Moll, Graham Le Gros; Infection of Mice with Mycobacterium bovis- ... In this report we address the question of whether an infection with an attenuated form of Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus ... We have investigated this issue by combining an intranasal Mycobacterium bovis-Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection with a ...
Higher prevalence of antibodies to African swine fever virus and Mycobacterium bovis were detected in warthogs from the Greater ... Antibody prevalence to African swine fever virus, Mycobacterium bovis, foot-and-​mouth disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, ... Antibody prevalence to African swine fever virus, Mycobacterium bovis, foot-and-​mouth disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, ... At the univariate analysis, M. bovis seropositivity was significantly different among age categories, with 49% (35/71) of ...
... bovis was 25/54 (46.3%). Real-time PCR using atpE was positive for mycobacteria on the genus level in 18/18 (100%) and 5/5 (100 ... The skin test suffers from interference from non-tuberculous mycobacteria able to cause false-positive reactions in cattle and ... bovis isolation, real-time and simplex PCR, and flow Cytometry. The tuberculin test is the reference test in Egypt, the ... of tissue samples and isolates, respectively; simplex PCR detected M. bovis in 44/54 (81.5%) and 25/25 (100%) of tissue samples ...
Inhibition of phago-lysosome fusion and foam cell formation by Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a Niemann-Pick type C1 like ... Inhibition of phago-lysosome fusion and foam cell formation by Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a Niemann-Pick type C1 like ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), enclosing M. bovis as one of its animal-adapted members causing tuberculosis (TB) in ... mutation and positive selection enlightens diversification drivers of Mycobacterium bovis. * Articles in SCI Journals ... mutation and positive selection enlightens diversification drivers of Mycobacterium bovis. ... Based on this work, recombination in M. bovis cannot be excluded and should thus be a topic of further effort in future ...
Impaired protection against Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection in IL-15-deficient mice」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがま ... Impaired protection against Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection in IL-15-deficient mice. In: Journal of ... Impaired protection against Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection in IL-15-deficient mice. Journal of ... Impaired protection against Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection in IL-15-deficient mice. / Saito, Kimika
Adaptation and Diagnostic Potential of a Commercial Cat Interferon Gamma Release Assay for the Detection of Mycobacterium bovis ... Adaptation and Diagnostic Potential of a Commercial Cat Interferon Gamma Release Assay for the Detection of Mycobacterium bovis ... Adaptation and Diagnostic Potential of a Commercial Cat Interferon Gamma Release Assay for the Detection of Mycobacterium bovis ...
The only available vaccine is M. bovis/BCG, an attenuated mycobacterium that activates the innate and the acquired immune ... In this study we showed that macrophages phagocytose M. bovis/BCG bacilli with higher efficiency when they are cultured without ... The interest of our observations is to show that under the metabolic stress implied in phosphate deprivation, mycobacteria ... These observations are relevant to understand how M. bovis/BCG induces protective immunity. ...
Freeze-dried preparation of inactivated Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Copenhagen vaccine strain (ATCC-27290) diluted in a negative ...
Mycobacterium bovis (BCG kas(B)) antimicrobial susceptibility data. ... Mycobacterium bovis (BCG + kas(B)). -. -. 0.2 - ?. Cerulenin 415. Mycobacterium bovis (BCG + kas(B)). -. -. 0.25 - ?. Isoxyl ( ... Mycobacterium bovis (BCG + kas(B)). -. -. 2 - ?. Ethionamide (Trecator). 415. Mycobacterium bovis (BCG + kas(B)). -. -. 100 - ? ... Mycobacterium bovis (BCG + kas(B)). -. -. 0.05 - ?. Isoniazid (INH, Laniazid, Nydrazid, Rifamate). 415. ...
keywords = "BCG, Mycobacterium bovis, O deficiency, O; α-crystallin-like stress protein, Ribosomal binding protein, Ribosome", ... Dive into the research topics of The 16-kDa α-crystallin-like protein of Mycobacterium bovis BCG is produced under conditions ... T1 - The 16-kDa α-crystallin-like protein of Mycobacterium bovis BCG is produced under conditions of oxygen deficiency and is ... The 16-kDa α-crystallin-like protein of Mycobacterium bovis BCG is produced under conditions of oxygen deficiency and is ...
Natural variation in immune responses to neonatal mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG) vaccination in a cohort of ... Natural variation in immune responses to neonatal mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG) vaccination in a cohort of ... Interferon-gamma (IFN-) is required for immunity to mycobacteria and used as a marker of immunity when new vaccines are tested ... Methodology/Principal Findings 236 healthy Gambian babies were vaccinated with M. bovis BCG at birth. IFN-, interleukin (IL)-5 ...
Inhibition of phago-lysosome fusion and foam cell formation by Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a Niemann-Pick type C1 like ... Inhibition of phago-lysosome fusion and foam cell formation by Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a Niemann-Pick type C1 like ...
Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. Either Ad85A or MVA85A ... of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis ... Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis. ... Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis. ...
Mycobacterium avium Complex [‎1]‎. Mycobacterium bovis [‎9]‎. Mycobacterium Infections [‎9]‎. Mycobacterium Infections, ...
Cloning and sequencing of the SECY gene homolog from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Author(s). Jin Koo Kim; Jeong Hyun Kim; Sang Jae ... The complete nucleotide sequence of a 1513 bp fragment of Mycobacterium bovis BCG containing the secY gene homolog and partial ... Cloning and sequencing of the SECY gene homolog from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. ...
Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis & M. tuberculosis from cattle of some farms in north India--possible relevance in human health ... Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis & M. tuberculosis from cattle of some farms in north India--possible relevance in human health ... M. bovis in milk indicates the need to investigate the transmission to human in such settings. Isolation of M. bovis and/or M. ... M. bovis [6/40(15%)] and M. tuberculosis [4/14(28.5%)] were also isolated from milk. Only 3/40 (7.5%) isolates of M.bovis could ...
  • In 1995, lions in Kruger National Park were discovered to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis), a non-endemic disease maintained by the park's buffalo. (
  • The model suggests that transmission of M. bovis from buffalo to lions dominates the spread of bovine tuberculosis in Kruger National Park. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis is a serious pathogen that causes chronic bovine tuberculosis (TB). (
  • Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis. (
  • Spatial perturbation caused by a badger ( Meles meles ) culling operation: implications for the function of territoriality and the control of bovine tuberculosis ( Mycobacterium bovis ). (
  • Bovine tuberculosis is among the primary zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis which has significant impact on the health of livestock and human. (
  • Bovine tuberculosis is a common zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis which affects a wide range of animals and humans [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • This fact sheet describes Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) in humans. (
  • Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) attributable to Mycobacterium bovis stays a serious downside in each the developed and growing international locations. (
  • The prevalence, distribution and severity of detectable pathological lesions in badgers naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. (
  • Infection can also occur from direct contact with a wound, such as what might occur during slaughter or hunting, or by inhaling the bacteria in air exhaled by animals infected with M. bovis. (
  • People who might be at higher risk of M. bovis infection should talk to their healthcare providers about whether they should be regularly screened for TB infection. (
  • No. The Cooperative State-Federal Tuberculosis Eradication Program, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, state animal health agencies, and U.S. livestock producers, has nearly eliminated M. bovis infection from cattle in the United States. (
  • Cattle outside the United States, particularly in developing countries, might not have the same level of inspection for M. bovis infection. (
  • How can M. bovis infection be prevented? (
  • The most commonly reported source of M. bovis infection in people is the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. (
  • Novel assays for detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in free-ranging african rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, Ceratotherium simum) and implications for conservation. (
  • Sheep have been traditionally considered as less susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (Mbovis) infection than other domestic ruminants such as cattle and goats. (
  • We have investigated this issue by combining an intranasal Mycobacterium bovis -Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection with a murine model of allergen, (ovalbumin [OVA]) induced airway eosinophilia. (
  • To investigate the potential role of endogenous IL-15 in mycobacterial infection, we examined protective immunity in IL-15-deficient (IL-15 -/- ) mice after infection with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or recombinant OVA-expressing BCG (rBCG-OVA). (
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis typically occurs in cattle and animals transmit infection to each other. (
  • Isolation of M. bovis and/or M. tuberculosis from apparently healthy cattle indicates sub-clinical infection in the herd. (
  • Under the hypothesis that the oral route could be playing a more relevant role in transmission, diagnosis and disease persistence than previously thought, this study was performed to assess the course of TB infection in cattle and its effects on diagnosis depending on the route of entry of Mycobacterium bovis . (
  • Oral exposure to M . bovis could represent a more relevant route of infection than previously thought. (
  • Malkin J, Shrimpton A, Wiselka M, Barer MR, Duddridge M, Perera N. Olecranon bursitis secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii infection in a patient receiving infliximab for Behcet's disease. (
  • Histopathology of Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis Infection Complicating Intravesical BCG Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma. (
  • Specific Recognition of Mycobacterial Protein and Peptide Antigens by γδ T Cell Subsets following Infection with Virulent Mycobacterium bovis. (
  • So, long way to say that we've been doing this a long time and any infection caused by M. tuberculosis , be it in humans or in animals--elephants, lions, elk, and also in cows, which is caused by related bacteria, M. bovis --we can fingerprint. (
  • The granuloma is capable of limiting growth of mycobacteria but also is a good environment from which the bacteria may disseminate [ 5 ]. (
  • TB is caused by bacteria (germs) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • Bacteria: Mycobacterium avium ssp. (
  • Contact with different species of environmental Mycobacterium can cause acquired immunity to M. tuberculosis or increase the efficacy of BCG vaccine protection (M. vaccae, M. microti), although some species of these bacteria reduce the efficacy of BCG vaccine (M. scrofulaceum) [8,10-13]. (
  • Previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad85A) expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A to boost may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. (
  • Draft genome sequences of two Bison-type and two Sheep-type strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. (
  • Complete genome sequence of a type III ovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. (
  • LAMP technology: Rapid identification of Brucella and Mycobacterium avium subsp. (
  • The treatment in this herd did not cause selection of isoniazid-resistant strains as demonstrated by the isoniazid sensitivity test carried out in M. bovis culture isolated from a non-cured animal. (
  • In addition, the emergence of MDR-TB in recent years has raised special concerns in relation to the international spread of particularly dangerous strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (
  • Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with several episodes of tuberculosis]. (
  • The emergence of MdR-TB and extensively drug-resistant TB (XdR-TB) has raised special concerns in relation to the international spread of par- ticularly dangerous strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (
  • These proteins, (ESAT-6 and CFP-10) are absent from all BCG strains and from most non-tuberculous mycobacteria with the exception of M. kansasii, M. szulgai and M. marinum. (
  • M. bovis is most commonly found in cattle and other animals such as bison, elk, and deer. (
  • M. bovis transmission from cattle to people was once common in the United States. (
  • Are all cattle infected with M. bovis? (
  • Although information from many M. bovis , and cattle are the major reservoir ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • In this study, 1500 buffaloes and 2200 cattle were tested by single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test and compared with the detection rates of M. bovis isolation, real-time and simplex PCR, and flow Cytometry. (
  • The skin test suffers from interference from non-tuberculous mycobacteria able to cause false-positive reactions in cattle and other species. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis & M. tuberculosis from cattle of some farms in north India--possible relevance in human health. (
  • The choice of appropriate clinical specimen is very important for isolation of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from cattle. (
  • The present study reports the isolation of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis from different types of specimens from cattle suspected to be suffering from tuberculosis in certain organized cattle farms in north India. (
  • Twenty-eight cattle, sensitized by injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis, were used. (
  • In developed countries, the occurrence of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis has meaningfully declined because of mandatory pasteurization of milk together with tuberculin skin testing of cattle followed by culling/slaughtering the infected cattle [ 8 ]. (
  • Not all M. bovis infections progress to TB disease, so there might be no symptoms at all. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis notoriously causes detrimental infections in bovines and humans. (
  • Infections with Mycobacterium bovis or atypical Mycobacterium species have been reported. (
  • As other MTBC members, M. bovis is postulated as a strictly clonal, slowly evolving pathogen, with apparently no signs of recombination or horizontal gene transfer. (
  • A closer look on genes prone to horizontal gene transfer in the MTBC ancestor and included in the 3R (DNA repair, replication and recombination) system revealed a global average negative value for Taijima's D neutrality test, suggesting that past selective sweeps and population expansion after a recent bottleneck remain as major evolutionary drivers of the obligatory pathogen M. bovis in its struggle with the host. (
  • CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, it is imperative that M. bovis be considered as a pathogen of concern to people living in rural areas of Tanzania. (
  • IFN-, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 responses to purified protein derivative (PPD), killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KMTB), M. tuberculosis short term culture filtrate (STCF) and M. bovis BCG antigen 85 complex (Ag85) were measured in a whole blood assay two months after vaccination. (
  • It is therefore likely that lions are a spill-over species for M. bovis and that the prevalence and spread of M. bovis in buffalos will be the biggest predictor of prevalence and spread of M. bovis in the lion population. (
  • Antibody prevalence to African swine fever virus, Mycobacterium bovis, foot-and-​mouth disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, influenza A virus, and Brucella and Leptospira spp. (
  • Higher prevalence of antibodies to African swine fever virus and Mycobacterium bovis were detected in warthogs from the Greater Kruger National Park ecosystem in comparison to lower prevalence of antibodies to M. bovis and no antibodies to African swine fever virus in warthogs from uMhkuze Game Reserve. (
  • ABSTRACT This research compared the numbers and types of different Mycobacterium species in soil samples taken from 2 areas of Golestan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 1 with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and 1 with a low prevalence. (
  • The frequencies of environmental Mycobacterium in the low-prevalence area were much higher than in the high-prevalence area, perhaps due to different environmental factors. (
  • 1.4% in connection with overall TB in- M. bovis or M. caprae . (
  • M. tuberculosis , M. africanum , M. canettii , M. bovis , M. caprae , M. pinnipedii , M. microti , and M. mungi ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • The deleted region for RD12 (RD12 oryx ) was larger than that for M. bovis and M. caprae . (
  • Direct transmission from animals to humans through the air is thought to be rare, but M. bovis can be spread directly from person to person when people with the disease in their lungs cough or sneeze. (
  • The microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an ancient cohabiter with humans, infecting almost 3 billion people worldwide, 10% of them developing clinical disease. (
  • There are currently 71 recognized or proposed species of Mycobacterium [1], all of which, except M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, are considered as environmental mycobacteria and can usually be isolated from environmental samples including water, soil and dust [2]. (
  • The culture isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and M. bovis on the basis of biochemical tests. (
  • Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. (
  • Individuals infected with M. tuberculosis complex organisms (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, M. canetti) usually have lymphocytes in their blood that recognize these and other mycobacterial antigens. (
  • abstract = "A 16-kDa protein, identical to the α-crystallin-like stress protein, was induced under O2-deficient culture conditions and bound principally to the 30S ribosomal subunits of Mycobacterium bovis BCG substrain Tokyo (BCG). (
  • We analyzed 98 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex platform to enhance SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity. (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), enclosing M. bovis as one of its animal-adapted members causing tuberculosis (TB) in terrestrial mammals, is a paradigmatic model of bacterial evolution. (
  • RESULTS: A total of 54 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were obtained, of them 40 were identified as M.bovis and 14 as M. tuberculosis. (
  • In 2008, a total of 94 (10.7%) isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were resistant to at least one of the anti-tuberculosis agents. (
  • The oryx bacilli are Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms for which phylogenetic position and host range are unsettled. (
  • The differential r/m average values obtained across the clonal complexes of M. bovis in our dataset are consistent with the general notion that the extent of recombination may vary widely among lineages assigned to the same taxonomical species. (
  • RESULTS: Overall, 31 (70.5%) of the mycobacterialisolates recovered from all forms of tuberculosis were identified as M. tuberculosis, seven (16.0%) were identified as M. bovis, and six (13.6%) were other mycobacterial species. (
  • The most common species isolated were Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. flavescens and M. chelonae. (
  • we found that together with PstS-1, the membranes of Pi-deprived mycobacteria express the mycobacterial adhesins LpqH, LprG, and the APA antigen, glycoproteins that are not directly involved in phosphate regulation. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the involvement of Mycobacterium bovis in tuberculosis cases presenting at tuberculosis (TB) clinics in rural areas in these zones. (
  • This report prepared by the Australian Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory Network provides an analysis of tuberculosis cases in 2008 and 2009, which were bacteriologically confirmed. (
  • These observations are relevant to understand how M. bovis/ BCG induces protective immunity. (
  • The pasteurization process, which destroys disease-causing organisms in milk by rapidly heating and then cooling the milk, eliminates M. bovis from milk products. (
  • In this study we showed that macrophages phagocytose M. bovis /BCG bacilli with higher efficiency when they are cultured without phosphate. (
  • After phagocytosis, mycobacteria can be lysed within the phagolysosome, although virulent bacilli have developed the ability to avoid destruction impeding the fusion of the phagosome with the lysosome, thus transforming the MO in a friendly niche where they proliferate and persist [ 2 , 4 ]. (
  • Herein, we show that M. bovis /BCG bacilli grown without phosphate are engulfed with increased efficiency by MO, an event that was associated with decreased phagosome acidification. (
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the number of MOs with engulfed or bound bacilli was significantly higher with Pi-deprived mycobacteria (Fig. 1 a, b). (
  • The only available vaccine is M. bovis/BCG , an attenuated mycobacterium that activates the innate and the acquired immune system after being phagocytosed by macrophages and dendritic cells. (
  • Freeze-dried preparation of inactivated Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Copenhagen vaccine strain (ATCC-27290) diluted in a negative lymph node supernatant. (
  • This liquid drug is made from a strain of Mycobacterium bovis - the same bacterium used to create the tuberculosis vaccine. (
  • In this work, we applied comparative genomics to a whole genome sequence (WGS) dataset composed by 70 M. bovis from different lineages (European and African) to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversification in M. bovis . (
  • M. bovis [6/40(15%)] and M. tuberculosis [4/14(28.5%)] were also isolated from milk. (
  • M. bovis in milk indicates the need to investigate the transmission to human in such settings. (
  • Studies showed that BTB is still common in these developing countries where routine milk pasteurization is not practiced, and an estimated 10-15% of human tuberculosis incidences are because of M. bovis [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Interferon-gamma (IFN-) is required for immunity to mycobacteria and used as a marker of immunity when new vaccines are tested. (
  • A smaller M. bovis dataset (n = 42) from a multi-host TB endemic scenario was then subjected to additional analyses, with the identification of more than 1,800 sites wherein at least one strain showed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). (
  • Another reason for the medical importance of environmental Mycobacterium is the potential impact on the immune response. (
  • Plasma cells and mainly B lymphocytes increased considerably as the granuloma developed being attracted to the lesions in a shift towards a Th2 response against the increasing amounts of mycobacteria. (
  • Les espèces les plus couramment isolées étaient Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. flavescens et M. chelonae. (
  • The interest of our observations is to show that under the metabolic stress implied in phosphate deprivation, mycobacteria respond upregulating adhesins that could improve their capacity to infect macrophages. (
  • Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from human cases of cervical adenitis in Tanzania: A cause for concern? (
  • Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. (
  • These include direct or indirect inhalation, oropharyngeal exposure and/or ingestion of M. bovis and, more unlikely because of the active eradication programs, transplacental or mammary transmission [ 17 ]. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is another mycobacterium that can cause TB disease in people. (
  • How common is human disease with M. bovis? (
  • 2 We merged a stochastic, spatial, individually-based lion simulation model with a disease model to investigate the relative importance of different modes of M. bovis transmission in Kruger's lion population. (
  • Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. (
  • Investigation of M. bovis both in animal and human population still leftover low in such underdeveloped regions particularly in Africa despite the disease remains a possible health risk. (
  • Still, recombination reveals a weaker effect on M. bovis diversity compared with mutation (overall r/m = 0.037). (
  • When used in medicine, Mycobacterium bovis is weakened to reduce harm to your body. (