Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Cordyceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Streptomyces griseus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Streptomyces antibioticus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Reishi: A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Lentinula: A genus of fungi of the family Tricholomataceae, order AGARICALES. The commonly known SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS are Lentinula edodes (also seen as Lentinus edodes).Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Flammulina: A genus of mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae, whose species are characterized by a slimy cap (FRUITING BODIES, FUNGAL).Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Coprinus: A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Polyporus: A genus of basidiomyceteous fungi in the family POLYPORACEAE found mostly on living trees or dead wood.Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.ChitinaseAspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Diaminopimelic AcidRhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Fungal Polysaccharides: Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Prodigiosin: 4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Antrodia: A genus of brown-rot fungi in the family Coriolaceae. The biologically active ingredients of its species have potential pharmaceutical value.Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Penicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.PolysaccharidesMicromonosporaceae: A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Effects of polysaccharides (FI0-b) from mycelium of Ganoderma tsugae on proinflammatory cytokine production by THP-1 cells and human PBMC (I). (1/385)

AIM: To compare the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides, FI0-b, and its formic acid-modified derivative, FI0-b-H, on production of human proinflammatory cytokines. METHODS: The polysaccharides were modified by formic acid. Cytokine production was quantitated by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for cytokines was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: FI0-b and FI0-b-H 4, 40, and 400 mg/L significantly downregulated interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) production by THP-1 cells induced by lypopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 or 10 mg/L and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) 200 nmol/L. At lower stimulation with LPS 10 mg/L and PMA 200 nmol/L, both polysaccharides significantly upregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) production by THP-1 cells. However, at higher stimulation with LPS 100 mg/L and PMA 200 nmol/L, they downregulated TNF alpha production. FI0-b-H downregulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) production by THP-1 cells at a lower-dose of LPS 1 mg/L and PMA 200 nmol/L, but upregulated IL-8 production at a higher-dose of LPS 10 mg/L and PMA 200 nmol/L. Production of cytokines (IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha) was transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally regulated by FI0-b and FI0-b-H. CONCLUSION: The water-soluble polysaccharides of Ganoderma tsugae mycelium have bidirectional immunomodulatory effects on cytokine production in different stimulatory conditions in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with FI0-b, FI0-b-H has more marked effects on human proinflammatory cytokine production.  (+info)

Effects of polysaccharides (FI0-c) from mycelium of Ganoderma tsugae on proinflammatory cytokine production by THP-1 cells and human PBMC (II). (2/385)

AIM: To study the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides. FI0-c, and its sulfated derivative, FI0-c-S, on production of human proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). METHODS: The herbal polysaccharides were modified by chlorosulfornic acid in dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). Cytokine production was measured by radioimmunoassay, mRNA for the cytokines was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: FI0-c 4 mg/L itself induced IL-1 alpha production by THP-1 cells without stimulants, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). On the other hand, FI0-c and FI0-c-S inhibited the IL-1 alpha production by THP-1 cells with these stimulants. FI0-c and FI0-c-S significantly upregulated TNF alpha production by THP-1 cells without stimulants or at a low dose of LPS 10 mg/L and PMA 200 nmol/L, whereas these polysaccharides markedly downregulated the TNF alpha production by a high dose of LPS 100 mg/L and PMA. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) responded to FI0-c and FI0-c-S in IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha production in a fashion similar to THP-1 cell responses. FI0-c 4 mg/L downregulated high-dose LPS- and PMA-induced IL-1 alpha or TNF alpha mRNA and their protein production by THP-1 cells. CONCLUSION: The water-soluble polysaccharides of Ganoderma tsugae mycelium have bidirectional immunomodulatory effects on cytokine production in different cell stimulatory conditions. Chemical modification of this polysaccharide changed the intensity of regulatory effect on cytokine production.  (+info)

A phosphate transporter gene from the extra-radical mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices is regulated in response to phosphate in the environment. (3/385)

The majority of vascular flowering plants are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These symbioses, termed arbuscular mycorrhizas, are mutually beneficial, and the fungus delivers phosphate to the plant while receiving carbon. In these symbioses, phosphate uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is the first step in the process of phosphate transport to the plant. Previously, we cloned a phosphate transporter gene involved in this process. Here, we analyze the expression and regulation of a phosphate transporter gene (GiPT) in the extra-radical mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices during mycorrhizal association with carrot or Medicago truncatula roots. These analyses reveal that GiPT expression is regulated in response to phosphate concentrations in the environment surrounding the extra-radical hyphae and modulated by the overall phosphate status of the mycorrhiza. Phosphate concentrations, typical of those found in the soil solution, result in expression of GiPT. These data imply that G. intraradices can perceive phosphate levels in the external environment but also suggest the presence of an internal phosphate sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Translocation and utilization of fungal storage lipid in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. (4/385)

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is responsible for huge fluxes of photosynthetically fixed carbon from plants to the soil. Carbon is transferred from the plant to the fungus as hexose, but the main form of carbon stored by the mycobiont at all stages of its life cycle is triacylglycerol. Previous isotopic labeling experiments showed that the fungus exports this storage lipid from the intraradical mycelium (IRM) to the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Here, in vivo multiphoton microscopy was used to observe the movement of lipid bodies through the fungal colony and to determine their sizes, distribution, and velocities. The distribution of lipid bodies along fungal hyphae suggests that they are progressively consumed as they move toward growing tips. We report the isolation and measurements of expression of an AM fungal expressed sequence tag that encodes a putative acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; its deduced amino acid sequence suggests that it may function in the anabolic flux of carbon from lipid to carbohydrate. Time-lapse image sequences show lipid bodies moving in both directions along hyphae and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of labeling patterns after supplying 13C-labeled glycerol to either extraradical hyphae or colonized roots shows that there is indeed significant bidirectional translocation between IRM and ERM. We conclude that large amounts of lipid are translocated within the AM fungal colony and that, whereas net movement is from the IRM to the ERM, there is also substantial recirculation throughout the fungus.  (+info)

Synthesis of southern (C1'-C11') and eastern (C8-C18) fragments of pamamycin-607, an aerial mycelium-inducing substance of Streptomyces alboniger. (5/385)

Synthesis of the southern C1'-C11' and eastern C8-C18 fragments of pamamycin-607, an aerial mycelium-inducing substance of Streptomyces alboniger, was achieved. The southern fragment was synthesized by using the Evans aldol reaction and cis-selective iodoetherification as the key steps in a 9.6% overall yield (7 steps). The eastern fragment was constructed via the Julia coupling reaction and cis-selective iodoetherification in a 3.0% overall yield (8 steps from the known epoxide).  (+info)

Isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from the yeast and mycelial form of the dimorphic zygomycete Benjaminiella poitrasii: role of chitin metabolism for morphogenesis during regeneration. (6/385)

Experimental parameters for isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from the mycelial and yeast form cells of the dimorphic zygomycete Benjamininiella poitrasii are reported. Using a chitosanase containing preparation from Streptomyces sp. MCl we obtained protoplasts after 5 h incubation with a yield of 2+/-0.3 x 10(6) ml(-1) and 3+/-0.4 x 10(7) ml(-1) for the mycelial and yeast form, respectively. During regeneration under conditions triggering dimorphism the two morphological forms were observed after 36 h. Initially, for 10-12 h only an irregular mass was formed as a result of deregulated cell wall synthesis. Among the tested inhibitors influencing cell wall metabolism, chitin metabolism inhibitors showed distinctive effects on the regeneration of protoplasts suggesting that the respective enzymes significantly contribute to determining the morphogenesis of the dimorphic fungus B. poitrasii.  (+info)

PCR amplification and polymorphism analysis of the intergenic spacer region of ribosomal DNA in Tuber borchii. (7/385)

PCR amplification of the complete intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the Tuber borchii nuclear ribosomal repeat was obtained using universal primers CNL 12 and NS1rev. In order to improve amplification yield a specific primer, T1, was selected from a partial sequence of the IGS product. IGS diversity was characterized both at the intraindividual and intraspecific level. The results obtained at the intraindividual level showed 10% varying repeats on ten screened colonies, while at the intraspecific level the IGS polymorphism was evident as difference in length amplification between mycelial strains and fruit bodies: 3.5 kb and 2 kb respectively.  (+info)

Production of a monoclonal antibody specific to the genus Trichoderma and closely related fungi, and its use to detect Trichoderma spp. in naturally infested composts. (8/385)

Studies of the interactions between hyperparasitic fungi and their hosts are severely hampered by the absence of methods that allow the unambiguous identification of individual genera in complex environments that contain mixed populations of fungi, such as soil or compost. This study details the development of a monoclonal antibody (MF2) that allows the detection and recovery of Trichoderma spp. in naturally infested composts, and the visualization of hyperparasitic strains of Trichoderma during antagonistic interactions with their hosts. Murine monoclonal antibody MF2, of immunoglobulin class M (IgM), was raised against a protein epitope of a glycoprotein antigen(s) specific for species of the genus Trichoderma and for the closely related fungi Gliocladium viride, Hypomyces chrysospermus, Sphaerostilbella spp. and Hypocrea spp. MF2 did not react with antigens from Gliocladium catenulatum, Gliocladium roseum, Nectria ochroleuca and Clonostachys spp., nor with a range of unrelated soil- and compost-borne fungi. Extracellular production of the MF2 antigen was constitutive. Western-blotting analysis showed that MF2 bound to a ladder of proteins with apparent molecular masses in the range 35-200 kDa. Immunofluorescence studies showed that MF2 bound strongly to the cell walls of hyphae and phialides and the intercalary and terminal chlamydospores of Trichoderma spp., whereas immunogold electron microscopy revealed strong binding of MF2 to the cell walls and septa of hyphae and to the cell walls of phialoconidia. In immunofluorescence studies of dual cultures of Trichoderma and Rhizoctonia solani, only the cell walls of the hyperparasite, which coiled around the host, were stained by MF2. The specificity of MF2 enabled the development of a combined baiting-ELISA technique for the detection of Trichoderma spp. in naturally infested composts. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA-encoding regions of the isolates.  (+info)

  • This mycelium provides the fruiting body with nourishment, it helps plants growing around it to flourish, it is one of the biggest contributors to the decomposition of organic matter, and they are the next frontier when it comes to environmentally friendly materials and packaging. (scienceaid.net)
  • Beyond the fruiting body, most often times underground, there is an incredibly intricate infrastructure called Mycelium. (scienceaid.net)
  • Since 2007 a company called 'Ecovative Design' has been growing mycelium in agricultural waste, to produce alternatives to polystyrene and plastic. (scienceaid.net)
  • Ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelium, as well as the mycelium of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption of most plants and confers resistance to some plant pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "mycelia", though, like "fungi", is often used as the preferred plural form. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Mycelium Running (Ten Speed Press 2005), Stamets explores the use and applications of fungi in bioremediation-a practice called mycoremediation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stamets details methods of termite and ant control using nontoxic mycelia, and describes how certain fungi may be able to neutralize anthrax, nerve gas, and smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mycelium in fungi help contribute to the nutrients in the surrounding soil and play a vital part in the decomposition of organisms in their environment. (reference.com)
  • Klarenbeek 's Mycelium chair, which takes its name from the extensive threadlike root structure of fungi, combines organic matter with bioplastics to make a light and strong composite material that can be 3D-printed. (dezeen.com)
  • Mushroom manufacturer Fungi Perfecti teamed up with third-party immunology experts at Natural Immune Systems to study immune cell function properties in mushroom mycelium (the filament-like roots) and its fermented layer. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • He shows how patches of mycelium (the tangled, stringy mass that makes up the bulk of fungi) can be used to filter water flowing through - an application that might have particular value downslope from farm animals. (sindark.com)
  • The mycelia and the hyphae are both important parts of fungi, more commonly known as the mushroom. (differencebetween.net)
  • We knew that fungi were amazing, but I never appreciated that their mycelium spanned the multiverse! (permies.com)
  • It was shown possible to estimate the biomass of the external mycelium of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by use of the signature fatty acid 16:1w5 in soil and sand. (lu.se)
  • The results indicated that PLFAs reflect mycelium on the AM fungi and NLFAs storage structures.No effects of the AM mycelium on the bacterial community were recorded in an agricultural soil, even though the AM mycelium constituted a large part of the biomass. (lu.se)
  • In a study involving calcareous dune sand, the growth on the external AM mycelium decreased the amount of PLFA 18:2w6,9, indicating negative effects on growth of saprophytic fungi. (lu.se)
  • Star Trek Discovery, Mycelium & Lieutenant Paul Stamets - Consultant, homage or art imitating life? (permies.com)
  • Anyone else watching Star Trek Discovery and fascinated by the story of the galaxy wide Mycelium spore network and the scientific work being conducted by Lt. Paul Stamets ? (permies.com)
  • Did Paul Stamets consult for the series or did the writers read Mycelium Running and honour his work by naming the scientist character after him? (permies.com)
  • Paul Stamets(From the second Ted talk, who has done extensive amounts of research on Mycelium. (greengineers.org)
  • Mycelia of 26 fungal strains belonging to 24 different species were grown on agar plates and subjected to FTIR attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements. (rsc.org)
  • We analyzed B. cinerea mycelium from these two wild-type strains, introducing label-free shotgun nUPLC-MS(E) methodology to complement the 2-DE-MS-based approach. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Germination percent, length of the germination tubes of the conidiospores and growth rate of the mycelia were measured for 6 individual strains of the S and P group, respectively. (slu.se)
  • the use of mycelium for companion cultivation for the benefit and protection of plants. (fungi.com)
  • We are happy to announce that Dilan has received the Herbert M. Saylor Memorial Scholarship from the Sonoma County Mycological Association for her research in Demonstrating a Material Making Process Through the Cultivation of Mycelium Growth. (synbio.construction)
  • The natural active component water-soluble polysaccharides was isolated from mycelia, and three polysaccharide fractions HSP-1, HSP-2, and HSP-3 were purified with chromatography and the structures were identified. (omicsonline.org)
  • Nammex founder Jeff Chilton fears that the common practice of growing mycelium on a grain medium has flooded the market with less than optimal ingredients. (newhope.com)
  • In its Aurora, Colorado production facility, MycoTechnology is fermenting mycelia, later blast-drying them into an odorless, tasteless powder called ClearTaste-what marketing manager Hahn would call "the world's first organic universal bitter blocker. (wired.com)
  • We isolated two sets of basidiome cell lines (from spores and stipe cells) and one set of vegetative cell lines (from an attached rhizomorph) from a single contiguous Armillaria gallica mycelium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Mycelium spores are a significant part of the story. (permies.com)
  • In order to get that solid Styrofoam type of Mycelium I will have to create a ridged mold with the Mycelium spores that will constrict the growth into the shape of the mold and force it to compress itself within the confines of that mold. (greengineers.org)
  • Studies of the biological activity of constituents from I. rheades mycelium established inhibitory activity of the plant extracts on several digestive enzymes. (springer.com)
  • The effect of the polyphenolic extracts on the conidia germination, mycelium growth and integrity of the plasma membrane was evaluated. (gob.ar)
  • Mycelium close to the granules was sampled 3 times over a period of 11 weeks and the elemental content was investigated with particle induced X-ray emission. (lu.se)
  • The contents of P and K were similar in mycelium growing close to wood ash granules to those in control mycelium, while the Ca content increased from 23 +/- 21 mg g(-1) in controls to 63 +/- 8 mg g(-1) in mycelium growing close to wood ash granules. (lu.se)
  • The Ca content was also increased in other parts of the mycelium more distant from the wood ash. (lu.se)
  • SUMMARY: Changes in the ethanol-soluble carbohydrate content of Agaricus bisporus mycelium and sporophores grown on semi-defined media and commercial compost were studied. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • fimicola and cellulose was found to be an effective source of carbon to enhance the mycelium growth and rate of sporulation while calcium nitrate was found to be an active source of nitrogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • You can give the rotting process a boost by adding a nitrogen source after the mycelium has had a chance to penetrate the new wood, which usually takes about three months. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mycology centre of the Agriculture Faculty at the University of Bologna offered me the possibility to work at their Lab and make some in vitro tests with mycelia. (mycelium-tectonics.com)
  • In English The interactions between external mycorrhizal mycelia and saprophytic microorganisms were studied in experiments with growth chambers specially designed to enable the mycelia to develop in root-free soil compartments. (lu.se)
  • While the wood sits impassively, as logs will do, long strands of mushroom - or mycelium - are infiltrating the grain and starting to decompose it. (sindark.com)
  • But Chilton is concerned that the common practice of growing mycelium on a grain medium-a methodology that Jeff helped popularize in the 1990s before abandoning it in 2005-has now flooded the market with less than optimal ingredients. (newhope.com)
  • And because mycelium is typically grown on grain, mycelium products can contain as much as 70 percent starch. (newhope.com)
  • In creating the Mycelium shoe we explore a computational design approach to emulating biologically grown structures. (virtualshoemuseum.com)
  • They are grown using mycelium - "nature's glue" - which is formaldehyde-free, safe, and healthy and produces panels that are strong, machinable and fire-resistant. (greengineers.org)
  • Two new ubiquinones, named antrocinnamone and 4-acetylantrocamol LT3, were isolated along with six known ubiquinones from Antrodia cinnamomea (Polyporaceae) mycelium. (mdpi.com)
  • Chang, W.-L. In Vitro Anticancer Activity and Structural Characterization of Ubiquinones from Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelium. (mdpi.com)
  • Yen I-C, Lee S-Y, Lin K-T, Lai F-Y, Kuo M-T, Chang W-L. In Vitro Anticancer Activity and Structural Characterization of Ubiquinones from Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelium. (mdpi.com)
  • To enhance production of Antrodia cinnamomea triterpenoids (ACTs) from mycelia in solid-state culture, α-terpineol was added to the medium as an elicitor at an optimal concentration of 0.05 mL L −1 . (rsc.org)
  • After harvesting by Monodur filtration, mycelia are washed twice with sterile dH 2 O, separated from the filter by scraping using a spatula (Figure 1B) and transferred to 2 ml-Eppendorf tubes containing a 5 mm-diameter glass bead. (bio-protocol.org)
  • I didn't plan ahead and think about how to bake these to get a nice solid, sterile mycelium brick. (pcaveney.com)
  • In this study, we utilized Drosophila model system mimicking Huntington's disease (HD) to exam the neuroprotective effects of the ethanol extraction of P. hepiali mycelium (PHE). (omicsonline.org)
Mycelium, Mycelium Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com
Mycelium, Mycelium Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com (alibaba.com)
Is psylocybe in mycelium? - Mushroom Cultivation - Shroomery Message Board
Is psylocybe in mycelium? - Mushroom Cultivation - Shroomery Message Board (shroomery.org)
Ecosocial | mycelium
Ecosocial | mycelium (mycelium.lu)
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A Magical Mushroom Powder Blocks Bitterness in Food | WIRED (wired.com)
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Good Omens Series Will Come to Amazon and the BBC in 2018 | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Messenger as Metaphor: The Galaxy Game by Karen Lord | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Roses Are Red: A Love Like Blood by Marcus Sedgwick | Tor.com (tor.com)
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True Blood Season 6, Ep. 4: "At Last" | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Star Trek The Original Series Rewatch: "The Infinite Vulcan" | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Ben Aaronovitch's Peter Grant Series Optioned for UK TV Adaptation | Tor.com (tor.com)
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The Monster's Million Faces | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Doctor Who</em> S5, EP11: "The... (tor.com)
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Fiction Affliction: November Releases in Science Fiction | Tor.com (tor.com)
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This Exoplanet May Have an Atmosphere; Could It Support Life? | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Marvel's Cloak & Dagger Casts Tandy and Tyrone | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Arthur C. Clarke's Childhood's End & Larry Niven's Ringworld Coming to SyFy | Tor.com (tor.com)
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Scooped rooflights and sinuous forms define Strasbourg tennis clubhouse by Paul Le Quernec (dezeen.com)
Kilo Design's Woobi Play air-pollution mask is designed to appeal to children
Kilo Design's Woobi Play air-pollution mask is designed to appeal to children (dezeen.com)
U-Joints exhibition examines the diverse world of construction joints
U-Joints exhibition examines the diverse world of construction joints (dezeen.com)
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Farm 432: Insect Breeding kitchen appliance by Katharina Unger (dezeen.com)
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Telescopic contact lenses zoom in and out with right and left winks (dezeen.com)
Front's sleeping animals for Vitra are companions for the home
Front's sleeping animals for Vitra are companions for the home (dezeen.com)
Humanscale's Milan design week installation mimics movements of visitors
Humanscale's Milan design week installation mimics movements of visitors (dezeen.com)
Iron-framed glass panels divide Rome apartment with open-plan feel
Iron-framed glass panels divide Rome apartment with open-plan feel (dezeen.com)
Heatherwick's Vessel at Hudson Yards claims ownership of visitor photos
Heatherwick's Vessel at Hudson Yards claims ownership of visitor photos (dezeen.com)
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Next-Gene 20 by various architects | Dezeen (dezeen.com)
Mycelium - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mycelium - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (simple.wikipedia.org)
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7 Green Insulation Types for New and Existing Buildings (buildings.com)
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Events :: LONDON DESIGN FESTIVAL (londondesignfestival.com)
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Books By Paul Stamets - Fungi Perfecti (fungi.com)
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10 of Nature's Most Advanced Nonhuman Minds - Listverse (listverse.com)
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Design That Grows With You : TreeHugger (treehugger.com)
Reddit: the front page of the internet
Reddit: the front page of the internet (reddit.com/user/ttotten/)