A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486)
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission that occurs in a minority of newborns born to women with myasthenia gravis. Clinical features are usually present at birth or develop in the first 3 days of life and consist of hypotonia and impaired respiratory, suck, and swallowing abilities. This condition is associated with the passive transfer of acetylcholine receptor antibodies through the placenta. In the majority of infants the myasthenic weakness resolves (i.e., transient neonatal myasthenia gravis) although this disorder may rarely continue beyond the neonatal period (i.e., persistent neonatal myasthenia gravis). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p823; Neurology 1997 Jan;48(1):50-4)
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.
Conditions characterized by impaired transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This may result from disorders that affect receptor function, pre- or postsynaptic membrane function, or ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE activity. The majority of diseases in this category are associated with autoimmune, toxic, or inherited conditions.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.

TE671 cell-based ELISA for anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody determination in myasthenia gravis. (1/830)

BACKGROUND: Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from human muscles is the antigen used currently in radioimmunoprecipitation assays (RIPAs) for the determination of anti-AChR antibodies in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (MG). Our aim was to develop and validate an ELISA using TE671 cells as the source of AChR. METHODS: After TE671 cell homogenization, the crude AChR extract was used for plate coating. Anti-AChR antibodies were determined in 207 MG patients and in 77 controls. RESULTS: The mean intra- and interassay CVs (for two samples with different anti-AChR antibody concentrations) were 9.7% and 15.7%, respectively. Test sensitivity and specificity, for generalized MG, were 79.5% (95% confidence interval, 72.8-85.0%) and 96.1% (89.0-99.1%). The detection limit was 2 nmol/L. Anti-AChR antibody concentrations from 53 MG patients, as tested with our ELISA, showed good agreement with an RIPA with a mean difference (SD) of 1.0 (5.6) nmol/L. CONCLUSION: Our ELISA is a simple screening test for the diagnosis of MG and enables rapid and inexpensive patient follow-up.  (+info)

Myasthenia gravis and polymyositis as manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host-disease. (2/830)

Myasthenia gravis and polymyositis are each a rare manifestation of immune dysregulation in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We report a 4-year-old boy with idiopathic acquired aplastic anemia who developed myasthenia gravis 22 months and polymyositis 69 months after an allogeneic BMT (5/6 matched, MLC-nonreactive). The occurrence of both syndromes in one patient is unique. Autoimmune dysfunction may be associated with the development of cGVHD as demonstrated by the high incidence of prior aplastic anemia in BMT patients presenting with myasthenia gravis and polymyositis. Recognition of these neurologic manifestations is important in the diagnosis and treatment of cGVHD.  (+info)

Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis and CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression. (3/830)

Myasthenia gravis is one of the typical organ specific autoimmune disease and the CD5+ B-lymphocytes are known to be associated with the secretion of autoimmune antibodies. The authors performed the study to establish an animal model of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) by immunizing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and to understand CD5+ B-lymphocyte changes in peripheral blood of EAMGs. Lewis rats weighing 150-200 g were injected subcutaneously three times with 50 microg AChR purified from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata and Freund's adjuvant. The EAMG induction was assessed by evaluating clinical manifestations. The CD5+ B-lymphocyte was double stained using monoclonal PE conjugated anti-CD5+ and FITC conjugated anti-rat CD45R antibodies and calculated using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). In three out of ten Lewis rats injected with purified AChR, the EAMG models were established. The animals showed definite clinical weakness responded to neostigmine; they had difficulty in climbing the slope, or easily fell down from a vertical cage. The range of CD5+ B-lymphocytes of peripheral blood in the EAMG models was 10.2%-17.5%, which was higher than in controls. In conclusion, the EAMG models were successfully established and the CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression in peripheral blood increased in EAMGs. This provided indirect evidence of the autoimmune pathomechanism of human myasthenia gravis.  (+info)

Congenital myasthenia gravis: clinical and HLA studies in two brothers. (4/830)

Two brothers with congenital myasthenia gravis are described. In both, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia responded poorly to oral anticholinesterase therapy and to thymectomy. The brothers had two different HLA haplotypes and neither had the HLA-A1-B8-DW3 haplotypes which are commonly associated with myathenia gravis in adult-onset cases.  (+info)

The value of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis: a computer-assisted matched study. (5/830)

In the absence of a prospective randomized study of patients treated conservatively or with thymectomy, a computer-assisted retrospective matches study was devised. Of 563 patients treated for myasthenia gravis without thymoma up to 1965, 104 had thymectomy. With computer assistance, each surgical patient was matched with a medical patient on the basis of age, sex, and severity and duration of disease. On this basis 80 of the 104 surgical patients could be matched satisfactorily. There were 16 males and 64 females in each of the matched surgically treated and medical control groups. A complete remission was experienced by 27 of the 78 patients in the surgical group as compared to 6 of the medical group. Improvement was noted by 26 of 78 surgically treated patients and 13 of 78 receiving medical treatment. Survival for patients having thymectomy. Thirty-four patients in the medical group had died as compared to 11 in the surgical group. Comparison of survival in relation to sex, duration of symptoms, or age (less than 30 or less than 30 years) did not show a significant difference. Until more effective treatment is available for myasthenia gravis, thymectomy deserves consideration for both sexes, and with increased age or long duration of symptoms.  (+info)

Mice with IFN-gamma receptor deficiency are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (6/830)

IFN-gamma can either adversely or beneficially affect certain experimental autoimmune diseases. To study the role of IFN-gamma in the autoantibody-mediated experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of myasthenia gravis in humans, IFN-gammaR-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mutant C57BL/6 mice and congenic wild-type mice were immunized with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) plus CFA. IFN-gammaR-/- mice exhibited significantly lower incidence and severity of muscle weakness, lower anti-AChR IgG Ab levels, and lower Ab affinity to AChR compared with wild-type mice. Passive transfer of serum from IFN-gammaR-/- mice induced less muscular weakness compared with serum from wild-type mice. In contrast, numbers of lymph node cells secreting IFN-gamma and of those expressing IFN-gamma mRNA were strongly augmented in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice, reflecting a failure of negative feedback circuits. Cytokine studies by in situ hybridization revealed lower levels of lymphoid cells expressing AChR-reactive IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in AChR + CFA-immunized IFN-gammaR-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. No differences were found for AChR-reactive cells expressing IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta mRNA. These results indicate that IFN-gamma promotes systemic humoral responses in EAMG by up-regulating the production and the affinity of anti-AChR autoantibodies, thereby contributing to susceptibility to EAMG in C57BL/6-type mice.  (+info)

Scanning a DRB3*0101 (DR52a)-restricted epitope cross-presented by DR3: overlapping natural and artificial determinants in the human acetylcholine receptor. (7/830)

A recurring epitope in the human acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha subunit (alpha146-160) is presented to specific T cells from myasthenia gravis patients by HLA-DRB3*0101-"DR52a"-or by DR4. Here we first map residues critical for DR52a in this epitope by serial Ala substitution. For two somewhat similar T cells, this confirms the recently deduced importance of hydrophobic "anchor" residues at peptide p1 and p9; also of Asp at p4, which complements this allele's distinctive Arg74 in DRbeta. Surprisingly, despite the 9 sequence differences in DRbeta between DR52a and DR3, merely reducing the bulk of the peptide's p1 anchor residue (Trp149-->Phe) allowed maximal cross-presentation to both T cells by DR3 (which has Val86 instead of Gly). The shared K71G73R74N77 motif in the alpha helices of DR52a and DR3 thus outweighs the five differences in the floor of the peptide-binding groove. A second issue is that T cells selected in vitro with synthetic AChR peptides rarely respond to longer Ag preparations, whereas those raised with recombinant subunits consistently recognize epitopes processed naturally even from whole AChR. Here we compared one T cell of each kind, which both respond to many overlapping alpha140-160 region peptides (in proliferation assays). Even though both use Vbeta2 to recognize peptides bound to the same HLA-DR52a in the same register, the peptide-selected line nevertheless proved to depend on a recurring synthetic artifact-a widely underestimated problem. Unlike these contaminant-responsive T cells, those that are truly specific for natural AChR epitopes appear less heterogeneous and therefore more suitable targets for selective immunotherapy.  (+info)

Detection of antibodies directed against the cytoplasmic region of the human acetylcholine receptor in sera from myasthenia gravis patients. (8/830)

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is the autoantigen in the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis (MG). Anti-AChR antibodies in MG sera bind mainly to conformational epitopes, therefore the determination of their specificities requires the use of native AChR. Antibody competition studies suggest that most MG antibodies are directed against the extracellular part of the molecule, whereas antibodies directed against the cytoplasmic region of the AChR have not been detected. To determine whether even small quantities of such antibodies exist in MG sera, we performed competition experiments based on the inhibition by MG sera of the binding of MoAbs to the human AChR, rather than inhibition by MoAbs of the binding of MG sera performed earlier. When MoAbs directed against cytoplasmic epitopes on the alpha or beta subunits (alpha 373-380 and beta 354-360) were used as test MoAbs, 17% or 9% of MG sera inhibited the binding of the anti-alpha or anti-beta subunit MoAbs, respectively, by > or = 50%. Non-specific inhibition was excluded. These results suggest the presence, in several MG sera, of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic regions of the AChR; yet these antibodies seemed to represent a relatively small proportion of the total anti-AChR antibodies. The corresponding epitopes may be involved in the inducing mechanisms in certain MG cases, and knowledge of the presence of such antibodies may be useful in understanding the autoimmune mechanism involved in MG.  (+info)

Myasthenia Gravis is a long-term autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that leads to muscle weakness. It occurs when communication between nerves and muscles is disrupted at the nerve endings, resulting in fewer impulses being transmitted to activate the muscles. This results in muscle weakness and rapid fatigue. The condition can affect any voluntary muscle, but it most commonly affects muscles of the eyes, face, throat, and limbs. Symptoms may include drooping eyelids (ptosis), double vision (diplopia), difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, and weakness in the arms and legs. The severity of symptoms can vary greatly from person to person, ranging from mild to life-threatening.

The disorder is caused by an abnormal immune system response that produces antibodies against the acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. These antibodies block or destroy the receptors, which leads to a decrease in the number of available receptors for nerve impulses to activate the muscle fibers.

Myasthenia Gravis can be treated with medications that improve communication between nerves and muscles, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, immunosuppressants, and plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to remove the harmful antibodies from the blood. With proper treatment, many people with Myasthenia Gravis can lead normal or nearly normal lives.

Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. In autoimmune myasthenia gravis, the immune system produces antibodies that attack the receptors at the junction between the nerve and muscle (the neuromuscular junction), impairing communication between the nerve and muscle and leading to muscle weakness.

The term "experimental" in this context typically refers to a research setting where the condition is being studied, rather than a specific medical definition for a type of myasthenia gravis. Experiments may involve investigating new treatment approaches, understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disease, or exploring potential causes and risk factors.

Therefore, 'Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental' generally means that researchers are studying autoimmune myasthenia gravis in an experimental setting to advance our knowledge and develop better treatment strategies for this condition.

Thymectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a part of the immune system located in the upper chest, behind the sternum (breastbone), and above the heart. It is responsible for producing white blood cells called T-lymphocytes, which help fight infections.

Thymectomy is often performed as a treatment option for patients with certain medical conditions, such as:

* Myasthenia gravis: an autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness and fatigue. In some cases, the thymus gland may contain abnormal cells that contribute to the development of myasthenia gravis. Removing the thymus gland can help improve symptoms in some patients with this condition.
* Thymomas: tumors that develop in the thymus gland. While most thymomas are benign (non-cancerous), some can be malignant (cancerous) and may require surgical removal.
* Myasthenic syndrome: a group of disorders characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, similar to myasthenia gravis. In some cases, the thymus gland may be abnormal and contribute to the development of these conditions. Removing the thymus gland can help improve symptoms in some patients.

Thymectomy can be performed using various surgical approaches, including open surgery (through a large incision in the chest), video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, using small incisions and a camera to guide the procedure), or robotic-assisted surgery (using a robot to perform the procedure through small incisions). The choice of surgical approach depends on several factors, including the size and location of the thymus gland, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise.

Cholinergic receptors are a type of receptor in the body that are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a chemical that nerve cells use to communicate with each other and with muscles. There are two main types of cholinergic receptors: muscarinic and nicotinic.

Muscarinic receptors are found in the heart, smooth muscle, glands, and the central nervous system. They are activated by muscarine, a type of alkaloid found in certain mushrooms. When muscarinic receptors are activated, they can cause changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and other bodily functions.

Nicotinic receptors are found in the nervous system and at the junction between nerves and muscles (the neuromuscular junction). They are activated by nicotine, a type of alkaloid found in tobacco plants. When nicotinic receptors are activated, they can cause the release of neurotransmitters and the contraction of muscles.

Cholinergic receptors play an important role in many physiological processes, including learning, memory, and movement. They are also targets for drugs used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis (a disorder that causes muscle weakness).

Thymoma is a type of tumor that originates from the thymus gland, which is a part of the immune system located in the chest behind the breastbone. Thymomas are typically slow-growing and often do not cause any symptoms until they have grown quite large or spread to other parts of the body.

Thymomas can be classified into different types based on their appearance under a microscope, such as type A, AB, B1, B2, and B3. These classifications are important because they can help predict how aggressive the tumor is likely to be and how it should be treated.

Symptoms of thymoma may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or swelling in the face or neck. Thymomas can also be associated with autoimmune disorders such as myasthenia gravis, which affects muscle strength and mobility. Treatment for thymoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, often followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to help prevent recurrence.

Pyridostigmine Bromide is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. It is primarily used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue.

Pyridostigmine works by blocking the action of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter essential for muscle contraction. By preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine, pyridostigmine helps to increase its levels at the neuromuscular junction, thereby improving muscle strength and function.

The bromide salt form of pyridostigmine is commonly used because it is more soluble in water, which makes it easier to administer orally as a liquid or tablet. The medication's effects typically last for several hours, and its dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response and any side effects experienced.

Common side effects of pyridostigmine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased salivation, sweating, and muscle cramps. In some cases, higher doses of the medication can lead to more severe side effects such as respiratory distress, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely while they are taking pyridostigmine and adjust the dosage as necessary to minimize side effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Thymus neoplasms are abnormal growths in the thymus gland that result from uncontrolled cell division. The term "neoplasm" refers to any new and abnormal growth of tissue, also known as a tumor. Thymus neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant thymus neoplasms are called thymomas or thymic carcinomas. Thymomas are the most common type and tend to grow slowly, invading nearby tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Thymic carcinomas are rarer and more aggressive, growing and spreading more quickly than thymomas.

Symptoms of thymus neoplasms may include coughing, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or swelling in the neck or upper chest. Treatment options for thymus neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Thymus hyperplasia is a condition where the thymus gland, which is a part of the immune system located in the upper chest beneath the breastbone, becomes enlarged due to an increase in the number of cells. This is different from a tumor, where there is an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign or cancerous.

Thymus hyperplasia can be classified into two types: true hyperplasia and lymphoid hyperplasia. True hyperplasia refers to an increase in the number of thymic epithelial cells, while lymphoid hyperplasia is an increase in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) within the thymus gland.

Thymus hyperplasia can occur as a result of various factors, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and certain medications. In some cases, it may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during imaging studies or other medical tests. However, in other cases, it may cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and swallowing.

Treatment for thymus hyperplasia depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in others, medications or surgery may be required.

Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis is a condition characterized by muscle weakness in newborn babies, caused by the passive transfer of antibodies from the mother to the fetus. These antibodies target and disrupt the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, which are essential for normal muscle function.

The mother may have myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness due to the production of these harmful antibodies. During pregnancy, these antibodies can cross the placenta and affect the baby's neuromuscular system, leading to symptoms such as weak sucking, poor muscle tone, feeble movements, and respiratory distress.

Neonatal myasthenia gravis is usually temporary and resolves within a few weeks or months as the antibodies are cleared from the baby's circulation. In some cases, treatment with medications that improve neuromuscular transmission, such as anticholinesterase drugs, may be necessary to help manage symptoms until the condition resolves.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Blepharoptosis is a medical term that refers to the drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. It is usually caused by weakness or paralysis of the muscle that raises the eyelid, known as the levator palpebrae superioris. This condition can be present at birth or acquired later in life due to various factors such as aging, nerve damage, eye surgery complications, or certain medical conditions like myasthenia gravis or brain tumors. Blepharoptosis may obstruct vision and cause difficulty with daily activities, and treatment options include eyedrops, eye patches, or surgical correction.

Edrophonium is a type of medication called an anticholinesterase agent. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body that is important for muscle contraction. This results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine available to stimulate muscle contraction.

Edrophonium is used as a diagnostic aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It is also used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, which are medications that are sometimes given during surgery to temporarily paralyze muscles.

Edrophonium is administered intravenously (through a vein) and its effects usually begin within 30 seconds to 1 minute after injection and last for about 5 to 10 minutes. Common side effects of edrophonium include sweating, increased salivation, and muscle twitching. More serious side effects, such as seizures or cardiac arrest, can occur but are rare.

It is important to note that edrophonium should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

Plasmapheresis is a medical procedure where the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) is separated from the blood cells. The plasma, which may contain harmful substances such as antibodies or toxins, is then removed and replaced with fresh plasma or a plasma substitute. The remaining blood cells are mixed with the new plasma and returned to the body. This process is also known as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). It's used to treat various medical conditions including certain autoimmune diseases, poisonings, and neurological disorders.

Neostigmine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body, leading to an increase in its levels at the neuromuscular junction. This helps to improve muscle strength and tone by enhancing the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.

Neostigmine is primarily used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, a neurological disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It can also be used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants administered during surgery. Additionally, neostigmine may be used to diagnose and manage certain conditions that cause decreased gut motility or urinary retention.

It is important to note that neostigmine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential side effects, which can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased salivation, sweating, and muscle cramps. In some cases, it may also cause respiratory distress or cardiac arrhythmias.

I believe you may be mistaken when referring to "torpedo" in the context of medicine. The term "torpedo" is not typically used as a medical definition. Instead, it is a term that has various meanings in different fields such as physics, military, and anatomy (in relation to electric fishes).

However, if you are referring to the use of "torpedo" in the context of neuromuscular disorders, it may refer to a type of treatment called "neuromuscular electrical stimulation" or NMES. In this case, the term "torpedo" is used metaphorically to describe the electrical impulse that is delivered to the muscle to cause a contraction. This can be used as a therapeutic intervention for various neuromuscular conditions such as muscle weakness or paralysis.

If you have any further questions, please let me know and I will do my best to assist you!

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized synapse or chemical communication point, where the motor neuron's nerve terminal (presynaptic element) meets the muscle fiber's motor end plate (postsynaptic element). This junction plays a crucial role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation.

At the NMJ, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic nerve terminal into the synaptic cleft, following an action potential. Acetylcholine then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the generation of an end-plate potential. If sufficient end-plate potentials are generated and summate, they will trigger an action potential in the muscle fiber, ultimately causing muscle contraction.

Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction can result in various neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, where autoantibodies attack acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.

Diplopia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person sees two images of a single object. It is commonly known as double vision. This can occur due to various reasons, such as nerve damage or misalignment of the eyes. Diplopia can be temporary or chronic and can affect one or both eyes. If you're experiencing diplopia, it's essential to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

The thymus gland is an essential organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest, behind the sternum and surrounding the heart. It's primarily active until puberty and begins to shrink in size and activity thereafter. The main function of the thymus gland is the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which are crucial for cell-mediated immunity, helping to protect the body from infection and cancer.

The thymus gland provides a protected environment where immune cells called pre-T cells develop into mature T cells. During this process, they learn to recognize and respond appropriately to foreign substances while remaining tolerant to self-tissues, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Additionally, the thymus gland produces hormones like thymosin that regulate immune cell activities and contribute to the overall immune response.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

Nicotinic receptors are a type of ligand-gated ion channel receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the alkaloid nicotine. They are widely distributed throughout the nervous system and play important roles in various physiological processes, including neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Nicotinic receptors are composed of five subunits that form a ion channel pore, which opens to allow the flow of cations (positively charged ions) when the receptor is activated by acetylcholine or nicotine. There are several subtypes of nicotinic receptors, which differ in their subunit composition and functional properties. These receptors have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.

Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can result from nerve damage, muscle dysfunction, or brain injuries. They can cause abnormal eye alignment, limited range of motion, and difficulty coordinating eye movements. Common symptoms include double vision, blurry vision, strabismus (crossed eyes), nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), and difficulty tracking moving objects. Ocular motility disorders can be congenital or acquired and may require medical intervention to correct or manage the condition.

Eye manifestations refer to any changes or abnormalities in the eye that can be observed or detected. These manifestations can be related to various medical conditions, diseases, or disorders affecting the eye or other parts of the body. They can include structural changes, such as swelling or bulging of the eye, as well as functional changes, such as impaired vision or sensitivity to light. Examples of eye manifestations include cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and uveitis.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. It is caused by the presence of antibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in the neuromuscular junction, which disrupts the normal transmission of signals between nerves and muscles.

The symptoms of LEMS include proximal muscle weakness, which may affect the legs more than the arms, and autonomic dysfunction such as dry mouth and constipation. The weakness tends to improve with exercise but worsens after periods of rest. In some cases, LEMS can be associated with cancer, particularly small cell lung cancer.

Diagnosis of LEMS typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, electromyography (EMG) studies, and blood tests to detect VGCC antibodies. Treatment may include medications such as pyridostigmine, which improves neuromuscular transmission, or intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange, which help to reduce the immune response. In cases where LEMS is associated with cancer, treatment of the underlying malignancy can also improve muscle strength and function.

A motor endplate, also known as the neuromuscular junction, is the site where a motor neuron's axon terminal synapses with a muscle fiber. It is a specialized chemical synapse that allows for the transmission of electrical signals from the nervous system to the skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle contraction. The motor endplate is composed of several structures including the presynaptic membrane, which contains neurotransmitter-filled vesicles, and the postsynaptic membrane, which contains numerous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. When an action potential reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, where it binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane and causes the opening of ion channels, leading to the generation of an endplate potential that can trigger muscle contraction.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Bungarotoxins are a group of neurotoxins that come from the venom of some species of elapid snakes, particularly members of the genus Bungarus, which includes kraits. These toxins specifically bind to and inhibit the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are crucial for the transmission of signals at the neuromuscular junction.

There are three main types of bungarotoxins: α, β, and κ. Among these, α-bungarotoxin is the most well-studied. It binds irreversibly to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, preventing the binding of acetylcholine and thus blocking nerve impulse transmission. This results in paralysis and can ultimately lead to respiratory failure and death in severe cases.

Bungarotoxins are widely used in research as molecular tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, helping us better understand neuromuscular transmission and develop potential therapeutic strategies for various neurological disorders.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

'Electrophorus' is a scientific term that refers to a genus of electric fishes found in the Amazon River basin in South America. The name is most commonly associated with one species in particular, Electrophorus electricus, which is more popularly known as the electric eel. Despite its common name, the electric eel is not a true eel but rather a knifefish, related to catfishes and carps.

The term 'Electrophorus' comes from the Greek words "electron," meaning amber or electron (with a nod to its electrical properties), and "pherein," meaning to carry or bear. This name is fitting for the electric eel, as it has the remarkable ability to generate strong electric fields that it uses for hunting, navigation, and defense.

Electric eels possess specialized electric organs in their body, which are made up of electrocytes - cells that function like tiny batteries when stimulated. By stacking thousands of these electrocytes together, the electric eel can produce powerful electrical discharges reaching up to 600 volts and 1 ampere of current, enough to stun or even kill prey and deter potential predators.

In summary, 'Electrophorus' is a medical definition for a genus of electric fishes, with the most well-known species being the electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). These unique creatures have the ability to generate strong electric fields using specialized electric organs, which they use for hunting, navigation, and defense.

Neuromuscular junction diseases are a group of disorders that affect the functioning of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These diseases are characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, and can be caused by various factors such as autoimmune disorders, genetic mutations, or toxins.

Examples of neuromuscular junction diseases include myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS), and botulism. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the receptors in the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. LEMS is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve endings at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle weakness and decreased reflexes.

Congenital myasthenic syndromes are genetic disorders that affect the functioning of the neuromuscular junction from birth, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the ingestion of botulinum toxin, which can lead to paralysis of the muscles due to interference with nerve impulse transmission at the neuromuscular junction.

Treatment for neuromuscular junction diseases may include medications such as cholinesterase inhibitors, immunosuppressive drugs, or plasma exchange therapy, depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of the condition.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Plasma exchange, also known as plasmapheresis, is a medical procedure where the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) is separated from the blood cells. The plasma, which may contain harmful substances such as antibodies, clotting factors, or toxins, is then removed and replaced with fresh plasma or a plasma substitute. This process helps to remove the harmful substances from the blood and allows the body to replenish its own plasma with normal components. Plasma exchange is used in the treatment of various medical conditions including autoimmune diseases, poisonings, and certain types of kidney diseases.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

... at eMedicine Nair AG, Patil-Chhablani P, Venkatramani DV, Gandhi RA (October 2014). "Ocular myasthenia gravis ... Wolfe GI, Barohn RJ (2009). "Myasthenia Gravis: Classification and Outcome Measurements". Myasthenia Gravis and Related ... "Medications and Myasthenia Gravis (A Reference for Health Care Professionals)" (PDF). Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. ... Congenital myasthenia, the rarest form, occurs when genes are present from both parents. Juvenile myasthenia gravis is most ...
... (IM3OS) is a rare immune-related adverse event primarily associated ... myasthenia gravis and transaminitis: a case series and review". IMT. doi:10.2217/imt-2021-0225. Pathak, Ranjan; Katel, Anjan; ... "Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Myocarditis with Myositis/Myasthenia Gravis Overlap Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Cases ...
Globus pharyngis - commonly referred to as lumps in ones throat Myasthenia gravis - the thymus gland is thought to be necessary ... and seems to have an important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In patients the thymus is typically enlarged, and ... "Myasthenia gravis". The Lancet. 357 (9274): 2122-8. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(00)05186-2. PMID 11445126. S2CID 7218479. Stübgen, J ...
Olson, L. (1941). "Myasthenia Gravis". The American Journal of Nursing. 41 (1): 57-62. doi:10.2307/3415203. JSTOR 3415203. ...
In other instances it may be due to an abnormality of neuromuscular transmission, i.e., Myasthenia Gravis. In general, ...
"Myasthenia Gravis Disease , Learn all About the Allergy and Immune System Disorders that Affect the Human Body , Read ... Corday agreed, and a storyline played out with Maggie learning she has myasthenia gravis. The actress went into remission in ... In 1984, Rogers was diagnosed with the rare muscle disorder myasthenia gravis. This disease affected her facial muscles, and ...
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder where the body makes antibodies against either the acetylcholine receptor (AchR) ( ... It is not known if seronegative myasthenia gravis will respond to standard therapies. Neonatal MG is an autoimmune disorder ... Oftentimes, LEMS also occurs alongside myasthenia gravis. Treatment for LEMS consists of using 3,4-diaminopyridine as a first ... Bardhan, M.; Dogra, H.; Samanta, D. (2021). "Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis". StatPearls. StatPearls. PMID 32644361. Luigetti M, ...
"Neonatal myasthenia gravis; report of a case". British Medical Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1 (February 1953), pp. 314-6. PMID 13009187 ...
... formerly the Myasthenia Gravis Association is the leading UK charity for people with myasthenia gravis, congenital myasthenia, ... "Myasthenia Gravis Association". BBC Northern Ireland. Retrieved 29 May 2015. "Myaware". Suffolk County Council. Retrieved 29 ... The charity supports people with myasthenia and their families, increase public and medical awareness of the condition and ... Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and ocular myasthenia. The charity was established May 1976. ...
Things took a turn for the worse in the eighties when the character and I were diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, but at this ... "Myasthenia Gravis Disease , Learn all About the Allergy and Immune System Disorders that Affect the Human Body , Read ... Corday agreed, and a storyline played out with Maggie learning she has myasthenia gravis. The actress went into remission in ... In 1984, Suzanne Rogers was diagnosed with a rare muscle disorder called Myasthenia Gravis. This disease affected her facial ...
Autoimmune: myasthenia gravis. Bulbar palsy involves problems with function of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), the vagus ... The ocular muscles are spared and this differentiates it from myasthenia gravis. Genetic: Kennedy's disease, acute intermittent ...
Farmakidis C, Pasnoor M, Dimachkie MM, Barohn RJ (May 2018). "Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis". Neurologic Clinics. 36 (2): 311- ... are used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and in anaesthesia to reverse muscle blockade. The carbamate pesticides are also ...
"Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis". UpToDate. Retrieved 2023-07-11. Hood, Lucy (1999). The Tensilon Test. American Journal of ... patients with myasthenia gravis are able to complete these tasks more easily and with more strength than before the injection ... especially myasthenia gravis. It is also used to distinguish a myasthenic crisis from a cholinergic crisis in individuals ... thereby increasing muscle strength in myasthenia gravis. In newborns, a 0.15 mg/kg Neostigmine administered subcutaneously ...
... is a treatment for myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease. For about 60% of people with myasthenia gravis, ... In about 30% of cases, thymectomy results in permanent remission of myasthenia gravis, negating the need for any additional ... It usually results in remission of myasthenia gravis with the help of medication including steroids. However, this remission ... "Thymectomy for Myasthenia Gravis". Cleveland Clinic. 14 May 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2020. "Thymectomy information". ...
"The Myasthenia Gravis Association". Retrieved 19 September 2007. Obituary in The Times (Use dmy dates from June 2020, Use ... "MGFA Mourns passing of John Newsom-Davis, CBE, FRS". Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. Archived from the original on 17 ... President of the Myasthenia Gravis Association "On the day of the accident, Prof Newsom-Davis had visited a neurological clinic ... Myasthenia gravis, and of other diseases of the nerve-muscle junction, notably Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and acquired ...
... Gravis Article Barton JJ, Fouladvand M (2000). "Ocular aspects of myasthenia gravis". Semin Neurol. 20 (1): 7 ... Ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease of the neuromuscular junction resulting in hallmark variability in muscle weakness ... Kupersmith MJ, Ying G (October 2005). "Ocular motor dysfunction and ptosis in ocular myasthenia gravis: effects of treatment". ... "The effect of prednisone on the progression from ocular to generalized myasthenia gravis". J. Neurol. Sci. 217 (2): 131-3. doi: ...
myasthenia gravis Spencer, John (2005). Out of the Blue, Into the Black. Parrs Wood. ISBN 9781903158630. Retrieved 4 September ... Spencer was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis shortly after the tournament; his vision was affected and he won only two matches ...
Batocchi, AP; Evoli, A; Di Schino, C; Tonali, P (2000). "Therapeutic apheresis in myasthenia gravis". Therapeutic Apheresis. 4 ... Yazdi, MF; Baghianimoghadam, M; Nazmiyeh, H; Ahmadabadi, AD; Adabi, MA (2012). "Response to plasmapheresis in myasthenia gravis ... myasthenia gravis, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. During plasmapheresis, blood, which consists of blood cells and a ... pulmonary fibrosis Lambert-Eaton syndrome Microscopic polyangiitis Miller Fisher syndrome Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia gravis ...
Myasthenia gravis is another common autoimmune disease. This disease causes fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue. The ... Schwimmbeck, P.L., Dyrberg, T., Drachman, D.B. and Oldstone, M.B.A. (1989). "Molecular mimicry and myasthenia gravis. An ... with antibodies produced against HSV suggests that the virus is associated with the initiation of myasthenia gravis. Not only ...
A Pioneer in the Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis". MGA News. UK: The Myasthenia Gravis Association. Archived from the original ... Her article explaining the first case of myasthenia gravis being successfully treated with physostigmine was published in The ... Walker MB (1934). "Treatment of myasthenia gravis with physostigmine". Lancet. 1 (5779): 1200-1201. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00) ... making it useful for the treatment of cholinergic disorders and myasthenia gravis. More recently, physostigmine has been used ...
Greer M, Schotland M (July 1960). "Myasthenia gravis in the newborn". Pediatrics. 26: 101-8. doi:10.1542/peds.26.1.101. PMID ...
Myasthenia gravis and globus information". patient.info. Retrieved 29 April 2018. (Articles with short description, Short ...
It is used as an add-on therapy when steroid therapy is given by mouth for pemphigus and myasthenia gravis, as a "steroid- ... Richman DP, Agius MA (December 2003). "Treatment of autoimmune myasthenia gravis". Neurology. 61 (12): 1652-1661. doi:10.1212/ ... myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease), restrictive lung disease, and others. It is also an important ...
Walker MB (1935). "Potassium chloride in myasthenia gravis". Lancet. 2 (5836): 47. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)09382-5. ...
... this test can be used to clinically differentiate between ocular myasthenia gravis and normal individuals. Since myasthenia ... In myasthenia gravis, there is a variable weakness of skeletal muscles, which is exacerbated by repeated contraction. To cause ... Simpson test is a clinical test used in neurology to determine ocular myasthenia gravis. It was first described by the Scottish ... After a few minutes, the patient with myasthenia gravis starts to show drooping of upper eyelids, while normal individuals do ...
Myasthenia gravis, a condition characterised by severe muscle weakness is another potential adverse effect from tetrazepam. ... Vargas Ortega I, Canora Lebrato J, Díez Ruiz A, Rico Irles J (December 2000). "[Myasthenia gravis after tetrazepam treatment ...
Her 1973 article also describes the Mary Walker Effect, a clinical sign found in myasthenia gravis. She died on 13 September ... The first case of myasthenia gravis successfully treated with physostigmine was published in the Lancet in June 1934. In 1935, ... "Dr Mary Walker - A Pioneer in the Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis". MG -association UK. Retrieved 23 November 2008. Walker MB ( ... Walker MB (April 1973). "Some discoveries on myasthenia gravis: the background". Br Med J. 2 (5857): 42-3. doi:10.1136/bmj. ...
... and myasthenia gravis". Archives of Internal Medicine. 138 (9): 1402-3. doi:10.1001/archinte.1978.03630340072022. PMID 28708. ...
Myasthenia Gravis Rare Disease Network (MGNet). Henry J. Kaminski, M.D., George Washington University, Washington, DC. ...
Billingsley was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis in July 2018 and hospitalized. He died on July 16, 2022, in Bloomington, at ... "Hobie Billingsley Diagnosed with Myasthenia Gravis; Recovering in Hospital". Swimming World Magazine. July 13, 2018. Archived ...
Myasthenia Gravis at eMedicine Nair AG, Patil-Chhablani P, Venkatramani DV, Gandhi RA (October 2014). "Ocular myasthenia gravis ... Wolfe GI, Barohn RJ (2009). "Myasthenia Gravis: Classification and Outcome Measurements". Myasthenia Gravis and Related ... "Medications and Myasthenia Gravis (A Reference for Health Care Professionals)" (PDF). Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. ... Congenital myasthenia, the rarest form, occurs when genes are present from both parents. Juvenile myasthenia gravis is most ...
Myasthenia gravis is a disorder that causes weakness of the skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/myasthenia-gravis/ Myasthenia gravis. ... In most cases, myasthenia gravis is not inherited and occurs in people with no history of the disorder in their family. About 3 ... People can develop myasthenia gravis at any age. For reasons that are unknown, it is most commonly diagnosed in women younger ...
... designed to reduce pathogenic IgG antibodies and block the IgG recycling process in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis ... All had a Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living score of at least 5 (, 50% nonocular) on a background of a stable dose ... Rapid Rx Quiz: Myasthenia Gravis Treatments * 2001/viewarticle/fda-greenlights-balfaxar-warfarin-reversal-urgent-surgery- ... "There are significant unmet medical needs for people living with myasthenia gravis, as with many other rare diseases," Billy ...
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a relatively rare autoimmune disorder in which antibodies form against acetylcholine nicotinic ... What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease thats categorized as a type II hypersensitivity that ... encoded search term (Myasthenia Gravis) and Myasthenia Gravis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Myasthenia Gravis Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Oct 19, 2023 * Author: Aashit K Shah, MD, FAAN, FANA; Chief Editor: Nicholas ...
... and AChR deficiency was found at the neuromuscular junction in human myasthenia gravis (MG) [36]. By 1977 the autoimmune ... Myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndromes Ann Neurol. 1984 Nov;16(5):519-34. doi: 10.1002/ana.410160502. ... and AChR deficiency was found at the neuromuscular junction in human myasthenia gravis (MG) [36]. By 1977 the autoimmune ...
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular system. It causes muscle weakness and fatigue. ... How is myasthenia gravis treated?. Myasthenia gravis is a treatable disease and most patients will live a relatively normal ... Myasthenia Gravis (MG). People with myasthenia gravis (MG) have muscle weakness that worsens throughout the day. This ... What is myasthenia gravis?. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, meaning the bodys immune system mistakenly ...
Show your support for Myasthenia Gravis Awareness with the Myasthenia Gravis Awareness Personal Checks. These checks feature a ... Show your support for Myasthenia Gravis Awareness with the Myasthenia Gravis Awareness Personal Checks. These checks feature a ... Myasthenia Gravis Awareness Personal Checks. Image color is enhanced to show details ... Guard your Myasthenia Gravis Awareness Personal Checks from unauthorized use of up to $25,000 for only $ ...
... leading patient advocacy organization solely dedicated to finding a cure for the rare neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis ( ... Whats New in MG Research: Descartes-08, and RNA CAR T-cell (rCAR-T) therapy for generalized myasthenia gravis and other ... If you have questions, feel free to contact Dova Levin at dlevin@myasthenia.org. ...
... leading patient advocacy organization solely dedicated to finding a cure for the rare neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis ( ... 14th Annual Myasthenia Gravis Patient and Caregiver Educational Regional Conference - Houston. 10/7/2023 7:00 AM - 1:00 PM ... 14th Annual Myasthenia Gravis Patient and Caregiver Educational Regional Conference - Houston (10/7/2023 7:00 AM - 1:00 PM) ... If you have questions, feel free to contact Dova Levin at dlevin@myasthenia.org. ...
"Using machine learning to predict response to therapy may change the way we treat Myasthenia gravis and possibly other rare ... Explore to predict the risk of hospitalization arising due to Myasthenia gravis. The platform will also help doctors predict ... UNIVERSITÄTSMEDIZIN BERLIN FOR HOSPITALIZATION RISK PREDICTION IN MYASTHENIA GRAVIS ... Universitätsmedizin Berlin for Hospitalization Risk Prediction in Myasthenia Gravis ...
Online download statistics by month: March 1999 to October ...
Dear Reader: Myasthenia gravis is a long-term disease that adversely affects the skeletal muscles. These are the muscles that, ... Myasthenia gravis does not affect the involuntary muscles, such as the heart, or those that line the blood vessels, organs, ... When someone has myasthenia gravis, their skeletal muscles become weak and quickly grow fatigued when in use. ... Dear Doctors: Can you please talk about myasthenia gravis? Our oldest daughter has been diagnosed with it. Shes 33 and lives ...
Neurology specialists with Lehigh Valley Health Network can help you understand and manage myasthenia gravis. ... Myasthenia gravis is a chronic, complex autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy neuromuscular connections. ... Myasthenia gravis is a chronic, complex autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy neuromuscular connections. Neurology ... specialists with Lehigh Valley Health Network can help you understand and manage myasthenia gravis. ...
2019 MDA Engage Myasthenia Gravis (MG) Symposium. */ Saturday, November 2, 2019. Registration: 8:30 AM. Event: 9:15am-5:00pm ( ...
Target audience Neurologists, paediatric neurologists, general practitioners, and other interested parties Location Rīga Stradiņš University (16 Dzirciema iela, Riga) Fee No fee Programme volume 8 academic hours / 12 TIP Language
Read all information of Myasthenia gravis symptoms, treatments, causes, tests & preventions. ...
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a relatively rare autoimmune disorder in which antibodies form against acetylcholine nicotinic ... What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease thats categorized as a type II hypersensitivity that ... What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease thats categorized as a type II hypersensitivity that ... encoded search term (Myasthenia Gravis) and Myasthenia Gravis What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disorder caused by a breakdown in the communication between nerves and muscles. Read ... Home , Patient Care , Conditions and Treatment , Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia Gravis: Symptoms & Treatments ... Myasthenia Gravis - What it is ​Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a chronic, autoimmune disorder caused by a breakdown in the ... Myasthenia Gravis - Causes and Risk Factors ​MG affects all ages, sex and ethnic groups. It is most common in young adult women ...
Because myasthenia gravis with MuSK antibodies is rare (≈10% of myasthenia gravis cases) (7), the potential role of HEV ... confirmed the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.. Given this association of myasthenia and acute HEV infection, we suspected the ... Diagnosis and therapy of myasthenia gravis with antibodies to muscle-specific kinase. Autoimmun Rev. 2013;12:931-5. DOIPubMed ... Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Immunocompetent Woman On This Page ...
Myasthenia gravis cost-effectiveness of therapy ‎ (← links). *Myasthenia gravis future or investigational therapies ‎ (← links) ... Myasthenia gravis natural history, complications and prognosis ‎ (← links). *Myasthenia gravis other diagnostic studies ‎ (← ... Pages that link to "Myasthenia gravis physical examination". ← Myasthenia gravis physical examination ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Special:WhatLinksHere/Myasthenia_gravis_physical_examination" ...
Information on Myasthenia Gravis with there causes, symptoms and treatment. ... Myasthenia Gravis. What is Myasthenia Gravis ? Myasthenia gravis produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal ... Causes of Myasthenia Gravis. Myasthenia gravis is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. For an unknown reason, the patients ... Signs & Symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis. The first noticeable symptoms of myasthenia gravis may be weakness of the eye muscles, ...
Kellen led Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America through a strategic review, resulting in a new mission statement, goals, and ... The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) was operating with strained resources that inhibited investment in important ... and increase awareness of Myasthenia Gravis (MG). ... Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA). Empowering ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Myasthenia gravis. ... Ephedrine for myasthenia gravis, neonatal myasthenia and the ... Myasthenia gravis Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... People with myasthenia gravis might wake up feeling fine, but get progressively weaker as the day goes on and by the end of the ... Myasthenia gravis preferentially affects young women in their 20s and 30s and older men in their 60s and 70s, but the cause of ...
What do you know about the pathophysiology of myasthenia gravis? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. ... Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease where there are fewer receptors than normal. The few existing receptors are blocked ... Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis * Myasthenia Gravis and Pregnancy * Emergent Management of Myasthenia Gravis ... Myasthenia Gravis: Exercise and Lifestyle Considerations * Journal Summary: Vitiligo * Myasthenia Gravis: Who Really Benefits ...
Myasthenia gravis associated with nivolumab therapy in patient with lung adenocarcinoma. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & ...
Thymoma complicated with myasthenia gravis and Good syndrome - a therapeutic conundrum: a case report.. ... Thymoma complicated with myasthenia gravis and Good syndrome - a therapeutic conundrum: a case report. ... Thymomas are known to be associated with myasthenia gravis and Good syndrome. Good syndrome is the association of thymoma with ... Thymoma complicated with myasthenia gravis and Good syndrome - a therapeutic conundrum: a case report. ...
... ... To identify the variables that predict disease outcome (measured by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America Post Intervention ...
... significantly improved symptoms and reduced immunoglobulin autoantibody levels in patients with myasthenia gravis. ... "To understand myasthenia gravis, youre to understand how the immune system works," Ramchandren stated. "In a very simplistic ... "We have the proof of concept with our phase 2 trial in myasthenia gravis where we were able to show that treatment with ... Myasthenia gravis is a rare chronic autoimmune and neuromuscular disease that affects the communication between nerves and ...
MuSK Antibody Positive Myasthenia Gravis in a 38-year old West Indian Female ...
  • In most people with myasthenia gravis, however, additional muscles in the face and neck are affected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other muscles in the body are also affected in some people with myasthenia gravis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Weakness of the muscles in the chest wall and the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm) can cause breathing problems in some people with myasthenia gravis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear why the immune system malfunctions in people with myasthenia gravis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with myasthenia gravis are at increased risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune thyroid disease and systemic lupus erythematosus . (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with myasthenia gravis (MG) have muscle weakness that worsens throughout the day. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • People with myasthenia gravis might wake up feeling fine, but get progressively weaker as the day goes on and by the end of the day they might feel very weak, sometimes even getting weaker with repetitive movements like chopping vegetables. (osmosis.org)
  • The thymus gland in many people with myasthenia gravis is often abnormal, and removal of the thymus gland can reduce symptoms. (labovick.com)
  • To address this problem, Dr Weber and his colleagues examined the use of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in 27 people with myasthenia gravis and a control group of 28 healthy people. (medscape.com)
  • The first noticeable symptoms of myasthenia gravis may be weakness of the eye muscles, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. (family-health-information.com)
  • Drugs to avoid Commonly-used medications like ciprofloxacin or certain other antibiotics, beta-blockers like propranolol, calcium channel blockers, Botox, muscle relaxants, lithium, magnesium, verapamil and more, can worsen the symptoms of myasthenia gravis. (turningtooneanother.net)
  • Some of the most common symptoms of myasthenia gravis include visual problems like drooping eyelids and double vision, trouble swallowing, hoarseness, trouble pronouncing words, and weakness of the neck or limbs. (labovick.com)
  • There is also a whole community of people who do not have any currently known biomarkers however have all of the classic symptoms of myasthenia gravis. (mgholisticsociety.org)
  • Task Force of the Medical Scientific Advisory Board of the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. (medscape.com)
  • The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) was operating with strained resources that inhibited investment in important programs. (kellencompany.com)
  • To identify the variables that predict disease outcome (measured by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America Post Intervention Status/MGFA-PIS) in adult patients with ACRA- positive generalized MG that underwent thymectomy and who had been followed-up for at least 2 years following thymectomy. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In June, the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America will hold a series of events educating the public about this rare disorder. (pacpark.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular junction disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "ocular myasthenia gravis" describes a subtype of MG where muscle weakness is confined to the eyes, i.e. extraocular muscles, m. levator palpebrae superioris, and m. orbicularis oculi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myasthenia gravis is a disorder that causes weakness of the skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a form of the disorder called ocular myasthenia, the weakness remains confined to the eye muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a relatively rare acquired, autoimmune disorder caused by an antibody-mediated blockade of neuromuscular transmission resulting in skeletal muscle weakness and rapid muscle fatigue. (medscape.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal) muscles. (family-health-information.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis , is a Latin expression that literally means "grave muscle weakness," which perfectly describes the weakness that happens when this autoimmune disease affects the skeletal muscles . (osmosis.org)
  • Myasthenia Gravis (pronounced My-as-theen-ee-a grav-us) comes from the Greek and Latin words meaning "grave muscular weakness. (pacpark.com)
  • The degree of muscle weakness involved in MG varies greatly among patients, ranging from a localized form, limited to eye muscles (ocular myasthenia), to a severe or generalized form in which many muscles - sometimes including those that control breathing - are affected. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • There's no cure for myasthenia gravis, but treatment can help relieve signs and symptoms, such as weakness of arm or leg muscles, double vision, drooping eyelids, and difficulties with speech, chewing, swallowing and breathing. (turningtooneanother.net)
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. (turningtooneanother.net)
  • What does myasthenia gravis weakness feel like? (turningtooneanother.net)
  • Myasthenia gravis is characterized by episodic muscle weakness and easy fatigability caused by autoantibody- and cell-mediated destruction of acetylcholine receptors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease that presents with fatigable muscle weakness caused by the autoantibodies mostly to acetylcholine receptor (AChR). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular autoimmune disorder characterized by weakness and disability in the voluntary muscles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by variable weakness of voluntary muscles, which often improves with rest and worsens with activity. (diseasereference.net)
  • In myasthenia gravis, weakness occurs when the nerve impulse to initiate or sustain movement does not adequately reach the muscle cells. (diseasereference.net)
  • However, the relationship between the thymus problems and the specific immune system malfunction that occurs in myasthenia gravis is not well understood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, many adults with myasthenia gravis have an enlarged thymus gland. (labovick.com)
  • Individuals with myasthenia gravis may undergo a thymectomy (removal of the thymus gland) to treat their condition. (labovick.com)
  • The role of the thymus in myasthenia is unclear, but 65% of patients have thymic hyperplasia, and 10% have a thymoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Based on the mechanism of autoimmune disease and antibodies, invasive skeletal muscle molecules, thymus status, genetic characteristics, disease phenotype and response to treatment, myasthenia gravis is divided into early and late ocular subtypes (OMG), seronegative, thymoma, LRP4, MuSk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some cases, myasthenia gravis may be associated with tumors of the thymus (an organ of the immune system). (diseasereference.net)
  • Babies of mothers with myasthenia may have symptoms during their first few months of life, known as neonatal myasthenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This temporary occurrence of symptoms is called transient neonatal myasthenia gravis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, about one in 10 babies born to women with MG develop a temporary condition called neonatal myasthenia. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Three distinct groups of patients were found Group 1, Transient Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis (TNMG) represented 6.8% 9 (n=6) of the total number of patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with thymomas require thymectomy, which leads to remission in adult-onset myasthenia in about 40% of patients if done in the first 2 years after diagnosis. (family-health-information.com)
  • These data, combined with physical examination, confirmed the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of myasthenia gravis may be delayed if the symptoms are subtle or variable. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Harding A. Pediatric Myasthenia Diagnosis Can Be Challenging, Study Shows. (medscape.com)
  • If you've been following me for a while, you may know that I have recently received a confirmed diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis (MG). I'll go into more about WHAT. (insicknessandnevermind.com)
  • Recap: Conquer MG Webinar - March 18, 2021 You've received a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. (myastheniagravis.org)
  • Orphan designation was granted in 2022 by the European Commission to zilucoplan for the treatment of myasthenia gravis. (acnr.co.uk)
  • Randomized Trial of Thymectomy in Myasthenia Gravis. (medscape.com)
  • Myasthenia Gravis: Who Really Benefits From Thymectomy? (medscape.com)
  • Myasthenia is treated medically with cholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressants , and, in selected cases, thymectomy. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis can affect the extraocular muscles , which control movement of the eye as well as the eyelids , so individuals might have diplopia or double vision , as well as ptosis, or drooping eyelids. (osmosis.org)
  • Ocular myasthenia gravis involves only extraocular muscles. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The measurement of these potentials was developed to assess vestibular function, but the researchers adapted the approach to detect a decrement in the extraocular muscles of myasthenia patients. (medscape.com)
  • In some individuals, it only affects eyelids and extraocular muscles, representing ocular myasthenia. (pacificneuroscienceinstitute.org)
  • Thymomas are known to be associated with myasthenia gravis and Good syndrome. (iasp-pain.org)
  • MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis: clinical and electrodiagnostic patterns. (medscape.com)
  • We report a case of HEV infection in an immunocompetent woman who had muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) antibody-positive myasthenia gravis associated with HEV replication. (cdc.gov)
  • Zilucoplan is a subcutaneous (SC), self-administered peptide inhibitor of complement component 5 (C5 inhibitor) for the treatment of adult patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive (AChR-Ab+) generalised myasthenia gravis (gMG). (acnr.co.uk)
  • New, prolonged follow-up results from the Phase III CHAMPION-MG trial open-label extension (OLE) showed that Ultomiris (ravulizumab-cwvz) demonstrated long-term efficacy in adults with anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody-positive generalised myasthenia gravis (gMG), with improvements in activities of daily living, muscle strength and quality of life, sustained through 60 weeks. (cision.com)
  • Zinman L, Ng E, Bril V. IV immunoglobulin in patients with myasthenia gravis: a randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • Charité's Integrated Myasthenia Center at the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center is currently working with HealthNextGen, a clinical artificial intelligence start-up to predict Myasthenic crisis and response to therapy for their patients as well as provide objective clinical decision support for their treatment plans. (prweb.com)
  • Dr. Philipp Mergenthaler, MD, Principal Investigator for Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and fellow of the Charité - Berlin Institute of Health Clinical Scientist Program said, "Our collaboration with HNG will open the way for targeted immunosuppressive treatment for our patients and personalized medicine in Myasthenia gravis. (prweb.com)
  • We are now in a unique position to apply HealthNextGen's leading deep machine learning and analytic capabilities to truly make a difference in the lives of Myasthenia gravis patients. (prweb.com)
  • They are part of our current accelerator class and we are thrilled they are partnering with one of the most prestigious hospitals in Europe to offer a solution that can transform the future of caring for patients with Myasthenia gravis and other diseases. (prweb.com)
  • Nearly all patients who eventually develop generalized myasthenia gravis do so within two or three years of first displaying symptoms. (turningtooneanother.net)
  • Should myasthenia gravis patients undertake an exercise program? (turningtooneanother.net)
  • About 10 to 20% of patients with generalized myasthenia have no antibodies to acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in serum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, anti-MuSK antibodies do not occur in most patients with AChR antibodies or with isolated ocular myasthenia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The results of systematic review of drug evaluation in patients with myasthenia gravis showed that Mycophenolate and Immunoglobulin or plasma exchange drugs have positive effects in the treatment of MG. It also represents the positive effect of immunoglobulin or plasma exchange on reducing SFEMG index and QMGS index and the positive effect of Mycophenolate in reducing MG-ADL index, SFEMG and Anti-AChR antibodies index. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common type of symptom in patients with myasthenia gravis is ocular symptoms, which appear as ptosis and diplopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients that only have eye symptoms (ocular myasthenia gravis), may progress to have generalized myasthenia over time. (diseasereference.net)
  • Risk of extrathymic cancer in patients with myasthenia gravis in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study. (medscape.com)
  • Newly diagnosed patients learn to cope with myasthenia gravis' physical and social challenges in an atmosphere of encouragement, positive feedback, compassion, empathy and understanding. (myasthenia-ca.org)
  • This is a peer mentoring service whereby newly diagnosed patients are paired with myasthenia gravis patient mentors who have lived successfully with myasthenia gravis for a substantial period of time. (myasthenia-ca.org)
  • Cooling of eyelid for at least 2 minutes with an ice pack (ice test) improves ptosis in more than 95% of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). (kieran101.com)
  • Systematic reviews 2005 and myasthenic conditions brain and they can often complain of patients treated with long-term evaluation of myasthenia. (myjuicecup.com)
  • Patients with myasthenia gravis mg is no headache symptoms of azathioprine are commenting. (myjuicecup.com)
  • Typically, as muscles fatigue in patients with myasthenia gravis, there is a decrease in their response to stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • In the myasthenia patients, there was a rapid decline in the amplitude of response from the second to the ninth stimulus. (medscape.com)
  • Ten of 13 patients with isolated ocular myasthenia showed a decrement in response. (medscape.com)
  • They were a tiny bit younger than the myasthenia patients. (medscape.com)
  • Group 3, Juvenile Myasthenia (JMG) comprised 76% of the patients (n=66). (bvsalud.org)
  • Thymoma complicated with myasthenia gravis and Good syndrome - a therapeutic conundrum: a case report. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Hatanaka y, or worsen initially, save my work in at home in myasthenia gravis: a thymoma in those whose adverse reactions. (myjuicecup.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis affects about 20 per 100,000 people worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuro-muscular junction which results from antibodies that block or destroy nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the junction between the nerve and muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies normally bind to specific foreign particles and germs, marking them for destruction, but the antibody in myasthenia gravis attacks a normal human protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Evoli A, Tonali PA, Padua L. Clinical correlates with anti-MuSK antibodies in generalized seronegative myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • Martignago S, Fanin M, Albertini E, Pegoraro E, Angelini C. Muscle histopathology in myasthenia gravis with antibodies against MuSK and AChR. (medscape.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis is a chronic, complex autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy neuromuscular connections. (lvhn.org)
  • Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease: it features antibodies directed against the body's own proteins. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Individuals with myasthenia gravis may also take immunosuppressant medications to suppress the production of abnormal antibodies. (labovick.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that connects the nerve to the muscle (NMJ) [ 4 ], which is produced by different antibodies against synaptic membrane proteins [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Myasthenia Gravis is most commonly diagnosed my checking for abnormal levels of acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChR), muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) or low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 (LRP4). (mgholisticsociety.org)
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a relatively rare autoimmune disorder in which antibodies form against acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • If myasthenia is suspected, blood tests checking for Acetylcholine Receptor Antibodies will be drawn. (pacificneuroscienceinstitute.org)
  • Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a chronic, autoimmune disorder caused by a breakdown in the communication between nerves and muscles in the neuromuscular junction. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • Myasthenia Gravis ( my-us-THEE-nee-uh GRAY-vis) is a rare chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease that impacts the voluntary muscles. (mgholisticsociety.org)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Pathophysiology of Myasthenia Gravis - Medscape - Sep 15, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers believe that variations in particular genes may increase the risk of myasthenia gravis, but the identity of these genes is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some individuals, it does not entirely disappear, and persistence increases the risk of myasthenia. (pacificneuroscienceinstitute.org)
  • In myasthenia gravis, because of the abnormal immune response, less AChR is present, which reduces signaling between nerve and muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved efgartigimod ( Vyvgart , argenx), a first-in-class, targeted therapy for adults with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) who test positive for the antiacetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical comparison of anti-MuSK- vs anti-AChR-positive and seronegative myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • More than a decade ago myasthenic symptoms were observed in rabbits immunized with acetylcholine receptor (AChR) [119] and AChR deficiency was found at the neuromuscular junction in human myasthenia gravis (MG) [36]. (nih.gov)
  • Cite this: FDA Approves New Myasthenia Gravis Drug - Medscape - Dec 17, 2021. (medscape.com)
  • Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare, frequently more severe, subtype of MG with different pathogenesis, and peculiar clinical features. (unime.it)
  • Rarely, an inherited genetic defect in the neuromuscular junction results in a similar condition known as congenital myasthenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is an antibody-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Congenital myasthenia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that begins in childhood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Group 2, Congenital Myasthenia (CMG) represented 17.2% of cases 9 (n=15). (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Andreas Meisel, MD, Professor of Neurology and Head of the Integrated Myasthenia Center said: "Using machine learning to predict response to therapy may change the way we treat Myasthenia gravis and possibly other rare diseases. (prweb.com)
  • Neurology specialists with Lehigh Valley Health Network can help you understand and manage myasthenia gravis. (lvhn.org)
  • Treatment of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of refractory myasthenia: "rebooting" with high-dose cyclophosphamide. (medscape.com)
  • What natural treatment is good for myasthenia gravis? (turningtooneanother.net)
  • What is the best treatment for myasthenia gravis? (turningtooneanother.net)
  • There have been several preliminary studies on the epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in different parts of the world and the effectiveness of common drugs in its treatment, but there has been no comprehensive study of the efficacy of common drugs in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, this study aimed to determine the epidemiology of myasthenia gravis globally and the effectiveness of common drugs in its treatment using systematic review and meta-analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new treatment option, eculizumab, is a monoclonal antibody, a protein developed to block a portion of the immune system that contributes to myasthenia. (pacificneuroscienceinstitute.org)
  • Children with myasthenia gravis may present to the ophthalmologist first, with symptoms such as unilateral or bilateral blepharoptosis , diplopia , strabismus or ophthalmoplegia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder, which occurs when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Myasthenia gravis occurs at any age, but incidence is highest in women ages 18 to 25 and in men ages 50 to 60. (family-health-information.com)
  • Myasthenia Gravis occurs in all races, both genders, and at any age. (tcremembers.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder of nerves and muscles that occurs when nerves and muscles don't communicate well. (pacificneuroscienceinstitute.org)
  • None of the testing we do is good at pinpointing whether a patient has myasthenia," he told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis is caused by an error in communication between nerves and muscles. (labovick.com)
  • There are significant unmet medical needs for people living with myasthenia gravis, as with many other rare diseases," Billy Dunn, MD, director, Office of Neuroscience, FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said in a news release. (medscape.com)
  • Myasthenia is one of over 7000 rare diseases. (mgholisticsociety.org)
  • After two unsuccessful management firms fell short of delivering the strategic thinking and operational quality required, MGFA reached out to Kellen to help them restructure the organization, develop fundraising, and increase awareness of Myasthenia Gravis (MG). (kellencompany.com)
  • The Pacific Wheel will be lit in teal on June 30th to help MGFA celebrate Myasthenia Gravis Awareness Month. (pacpark.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis affects the voluntary muscles of the body, such as those which control the eyes, limbs, throat, and mouth. (labovick.com)