Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Caesalpinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of "Bird-Of-Paradise" is also used for other plants such as Heliconia (HELICONIACEAE) and Strelitzia (STRELITZIACEAE) and some birds. The common name of "Cat's-Claw" is more often used with UNCARIA. The common name of "Pernambuco" also refers to a state in Brazil. Furanoditerpenoid lactones and caesalpin are produced by members of this genus.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Spirurida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Hemoglobin E: An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Apitherapy: The medical use of honey bee products such as BEE VENOM; HONEY; bee pollen; PROPOLIS; and royal jelly.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Orthohepadnavirus: A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).CambodiaEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.PrimatesDrug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.SesquiterpenesPublic Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.IndiaDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Consumer Organizations: Organized groups of users of goods and services.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Great BritainLobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Collective Bargaining: The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Government PublicationsHealth Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Socialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Research Support, U.S. GovernmentIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.PakistanHealth Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
  • Yangon Region Government Mandalay Region Government Magway Region Government Sagaing Region Government Bago Region Government Ayeyarwady Region Government Taninthayi Region Government Kachin State Government Kayah State Government Kayin State Government Chin State Government Mon State Government Rakhine State Government Shan State Government The heads of the governments are chief ministers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cover: A Buddhist monk wearing face mask to help curb the spread of the new coronavirus, walks to collect morning alms from devotees in Yangon, Myanmar Monday, May 18, 2020. (vice.com)
  • YANGON, (PNA/Xinhua) - Myanmar government's Central Peace Making Work Committee and representatives of 15 rebel ethnic armed groups out of 17 began their first ever peace talks on Monday in six decades in Myitgyina, capital of northernmost Kachin state, local sources said. (philippinestoday.net)
  • YANGON: Myanmar troops seized $7 million worth of narcotics, precursors and equipment in a raid on drug labs in the restive north, the army said Monday, as it continues a war against ethnic rebels accused of profiting from the drug trade. (einnews.com)
  • After first attending a series of summit meetings in this gleaming capital city, built in just 10 years to house the new Myanmar government, the president traveled Thursday to a more storied city: Yangon, symbolic home of the opposition party, whose leaders are growing impatient with Obama's embrace of the sitting government. (latimes.com)
  • She joins us via Skype from Yangon, Myanmar. (npr.org)
  • Many people lined up in Buddhist temples, schools and government buildings early in the morning to vote, well before a heavy downpour beat down in Yangon an hour before voting ended peacefully in the late afternoon with no reports of major irregularities or violence. (csmonitor.com)
  • Myanmar factory workers hold placards which read 'To get at least 4,000 kyat a day,' as they stage a rally in Hlaingtharyar township, in suburb of Yangon, July 12, 2015. (voanews.com)
  • The workers marched outside an industrial zone in the country's largest city of Yangon and called for a daily minimum wage of $3.54 per day, well above the $3.18 rate proposed last month by the National Minimum Wage Committee, after negotiations between the government, employers and employees. (voanews.com)
  • The government temporarily imposed a ban on rice export to keep prices down, and Myanmar Economic Holding Corporation, a military-controlled conglomerate, has been seen selling subsidized rice and cooking oil in poorer sections of residential areas in Yangon. (jhu.edu)
  • Myanmar has 1132 public hospitals, ranging from 2000 bed major hospitals in Yangon and Naypyidaw to fewer than 20 beds in rural health clinics. (austrade.gov.au)
  • YANGON, Myanmar - A call for a Monday general strike by demonstrators in Myanmar protesting the military's seizure of power has been met by the ruling junta with a thinly veiled threat to use lethal force, raising the possibility of major clashes. (yahoo.com)
  • The twelve people from Myanmar included people from Yangon University, ministry and fishery research, hydrographic department, and methodology and hydrology. (mizzima.com)
  • Explore the ancient mysteries of Myanmar on this tour from Yangon. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • In March 2018, UN Special Rapporteur Yanghee Lee said the crimes against Rohingya in Myanmar "bear the hallmarks of genocide. (hrw.org)
  • In 2018 I was in Myanmar for a workshop, and at that time there was a big opening, and an invitation by the Myanmar government to call people and scientists from all over the world to participate in exploring the northern Andaman Sea and the coast of Myanmar. (mizzima.com)
  • The government temporarily lifted restrictions in five townships from September 2019 until February 2020 when they were reinstated - just as the coronavirus outbreak was beginning to spread around the world. (vice.com)
  • He told the 4th Emerging Asia Banking and FinTech Summit 2019 on Tuesday that Myanmar had fully drawn up the road map, which would be officially launched once approved by the cabinet. (consult-myanmar.com)
  • Jovi Seet, who manages PriceWaterhouseCooper's efforts in Myanmar , noted that foreign direct investments into Myanmar are thus far being directed at many of the country's longest standing problem areas: "If you think about where the country most needs development - physical infrastructure, power, connectivity - there has been improvement in allowing FDI in these areas. (forbes.com)
  • Neither the government nor any of the international groups or actors, however, has managed to come up with concrete, workable, or sustainable plans to solve the economic crisis in ways that could or would address the needs of the country's various impoverished communities. (jhu.edu)
  • While the recent political reforms in Myanmar hold promise for the country's future, its long-neglected healthcare system faces a number of challenges before it can deliver effective and affordable care to the people. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Although the government increased spending on healthcare in 2013, the rise brought healthcare spending to 3.9% of the country's total budget. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Come and see why, even when the country's reputation might have chilled, Myanmar still has the ability to stir. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • Since Myanmar is a member country of the United Nations and as the government has declared it would work with the U.N., we earnestly underscore the need to urgently implement the demands made by the Security Council," the NLD said. (nownews.com)
  • The United Nations said last week that the deadly pattern of migration across the Bay of Bengal would continue unless Myanmar ended discrimination. (reuters.com)
  • U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley urged the Myanmar government to end military operations, grant humanitarian access, and commit to aiding the safe return of civilians to their homes. (reuters.com)
  • WASHINGTON (CNN) -- The United Nations and the Red Cross began distributing relief supplies Tuesday to people affected by the devastating cyclone that killed at least 22,000 people in Myanmar on Friday. (cnn.com)
  • Rights activists and the United Nations say the Myanmar government needs to end all political detentions. (dailymirror.lk)
  • The Muslim minority is denied citizenship by the state and has been the target of festering Islamaophobia in mainly Buddhist Myanmar for years. (ndtv.com)
  • A clampdown by Thailand's military junta has made a well-trodden trafficking route into Malaysia - one of Southeast Asia's wealthiest economies - too risky for criminals who prey on Rohingya fleeing oppression in Buddhist-majority Myanmar and on Bangladeshis looking for better livelihoods abroad. (reuters.com)
  • The campaign has included the burning of Rohingya villages and fleeing Rohingya have described rape and shootings by Myanmar soldiers and Buddhist mobs that left them no option but to make the dangerous and sometimes deadly journey through jungles and by sea to Bangladesh. (nbcdfw.com)
  • Citing the three important players - the government, army and the Buddhist community of Myanmar - he says the "political government of the country needs to take the initiative and create a friendly environment so that the Rohingyas feel confident going back to their place," he said. (arabnews.com)
  • The government of Myanmar holds landmark peace talks with armed ethnic groups as part of efforts to bring an end to decades of conflict. (com.ng)
  • The official insisted that Myanmar does not allow shadow banking to prevent conflict of interest between banks and mobile financial services. (consult-myanmar.com)
  • LINCANG, China-When warplanes involved in fighting over northern Myanmar streaked across the border into China, an errant bomb killed Chinese farmers and put Beijing in a bind over a conflict it has tried to avoid. (wsj.com)
  • The new central government of the nation quickly worked to consolidate its power, marginalizing and angering tribal leaders and setting off more than a decade of armed conflict. (wikitravel.org)
  • The ominous signs of potential conflict drew attention outside Myanmar, with the U.S. reiterating that it stood with the people of Myanmar. (yahoo.com)
  • Malaysia, which says it has already taken in 120,000 illegal migrants from Myanmar, has made it clear that it wants no more and its deputy prime minister said on Sunday that Myanmar must now take responsibility. (reuters.com)
  • However, there has been no sign yet of a coordinated response from regional governments over what to do with some 2,500 migrants who have landed in Malaysia and Indonesia over the past week or some 5,000 others still stranded at sea. (reuters.com)
  • White House spokesman Eric Schultz said that Washington continued to raise its concerns with Myanmar over the migrants "because of dire humanitarian and economic situations they face at home out of fear of ethnic and religious violence. (reuters.com)
  • The protection of migrants within Myanmar and in their destination countries is a national priority for the Government. (iom.int)
  • Migrants are often vulnerable to poorer health access and treatment and IOM works with the Myanmar Government and a range of international and local partners to improve migrant health outcomes. (iom.int)
  • Myanmar migrants in the region send large amounts of remittances which help boost the economy, much of it through unofficial channels. (iom.int)
  • Promoting the mainstreaming of migrant issues into Government policy and programmes, building capacity of our partners and ensuring effective advocacy and protection of Myanmar migrants are national priorities for the management migration in Myanmar. (iom.int)
  • Practitioners and policymakers from governments, international organizations and NGOs will benefit from its findings. (springer.com)
  • For the last several decades, the WHO , UN and various NGOs have all made up the difference between what a functioning public healthcare system should have been able to provide - in particular with respect to communicable diseases - and what little the government system was actually capable of delivering. (forbes.com)
  • The French foreign minister suggested the creation of a trust fund, which will be administered by non-government organizations (NGOs) to help ordinary people set up businesses. (jhu.edu)
  • To ensure its 56m people have access to better care, and mindful of the challenges, the administration is increasingly open to assistance from foreign governments, NGOs and private firms. (oxfordbusinessgroup.com)
  • But Tindyebwa acknowledges that for all the benefits the web might bring, governments are also as a result able to spy on the activities of citizens and NGOs. (euractiv.com)
  • A visa-free movement regime (FMR) exists in the four states along the Indo-Myanmar border, under which people from both countries can stay for up to 72 hours in the area with effective and valid permits issued by the designated authorities on either side. (hindustantimes.com)
  • This latest campaign of violence against Rohingya comes in the context of a long history of abuse and discrimination against Rohingya women by Myanmar authorities. (hrw.org)
  • Recently the U.N. also highlighted disturbing reports of Myanmar authorities laying landmines along the Bangladesh-Myanmar border. (brookings.edu)
  • But he stressed that the authorities at all levels recognized the problems and pointed to positive measures taken by the Government, such as the establishment of monitoring mechanisms to visit places of detention and proposals to amend the criminal code to include torture. (scoop.co.nz)
  • In 1961, more than 200 ethnic leaders from the Shan people, Kachin people, Red Karen, Karen people, Chin peoples, Mon people and Rakhine people met with ethnic Bamar (Burmese) central government authorities to draft a new form of government which would ensure the tribes both autonomy and self-determination within a federal system. (wikitravel.org)
  • China's relationship with Aung San Suu Kyi was largely suppressed under the military government. (atimes.com)
  • The military government, which rejected the results of the election, allegedly did not take kindly to China's initiative toward the NLD. (atimes.com)
  • A large number of Rohingya Mulisms have fled Myanmar and are seeking refuge in India following a crackdown by the military in Rakhine province. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The 15-member Security Council issued its first statement on Myanmar on Thursday in an attempt to pressure the military rulers - in charge of the isolated country since 1988 - to enter a dialogue with the opposition and make moves toward democratic reforms. (nownews.com)
  • Why Does the Myanmar Military Rebuff the Work of the Constitutional Amendment Committee? (irrawaddy.com)
  • As for Myanmar, U.S. President Barack Obama said in a routine note to Congress last week that Washington - while not curtailing engagement with Myanmar after decades of military rule - would maintain some sanctions on the country. (reuters.com)
  • He says the military will crush any 'color revolution' that threatens the government. (rfa.org)
  • The authors uncover this dynamic in Myanmar, a country transitioning from four decades of military rule. (cambridge.org)
  • Fearing that the new civilian government will assert authority over jade mining, the military initiated violence in mining townships. (cambridge.org)
  • As Myanmar started to transition in 2011, conflicts instigated by the military in jademining areas sharply rose. (cambridge.org)
  • And what she has said and what the rest of her ministers have said have, on the contrary, aligned the civilian government with the military. (npr.org)
  • Amnesty says those words, spoken by a military commander, sum up the mindset of Myanmar soldiers in dealing with the Muslim Rohingya, about 700 000 of whom have fled into Bangladesh. (news24.com)
  • Certainly, though, the election will not bring full democracy to this nation, which spent nearly five decades under brutal military rule and the last five years under a quasi-civilian government. (csmonitor.com)
  • Military leader General Ne Win led a coup d'etat which ousted the democratically elected government in 1962, and subsequently installed himself as leader. (wikitravel.org)
  • General Ne Win dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. (wikitravel.org)
  • The Myanmar military regime's harsh crackdown on popular demonstrations in September 2007 has generated intense international condemnation as well as other responses. (jhu.edu)
  • The article emphasizes the need for simultaneously devising new strategies to put pressure upon the Myanmar military regime to undertake economic reforms that not only address inefficiencies and mismanagements, but most particularly resonant with the needs of the majority of the population in Myanmar. (jhu.edu)
  • The assumption behind these punitive economic measures is that positive political developments are necessary for economic change, and therefore the Myanmar military regime must be required to implement some measures of democratic reform before sanctions are lifted and foreign aid and investment can return. (jhu.edu)
  • Of the more than 655,000 Rohingya who have fled to Bangladesh since the Myanmar military began its crackdown in late August, around 380,000 are minors, according to Save the Children, the international aid organization. (nytimes.com)
  • But the cooperation has frayed in the last decade as Myanmar has emerged from a half-century of isolation under a military junta. (nytimes.com)
  • A deadlock appeared inevitable since the government and military continued to insist that only by signing the existing ceasefire agreement could armed groups join the peace process. (crisisgroup.org)
  • After obtaining concessions from the Myanmar government and military, a Chinese envoy convinced representatives of the seven north-eastern armed groups to attend the conference. (crisisgroup.org)
  • More than 720,000 Rohingya fled into Bangladesh following a systematic campaign by the Myanmar military that began in August last year. (waaytv.com)
  • These are the winners in last fall's historic elections that saw pro-democracy parties roundly oust the military-led government. (csmonitor.com)
  • A recent Reuters report noted that Myanmar was the only developing country in Southeast Asia where spending on the military is higher than combined spending on healthcare and education. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Of 471 Rakhine villages selected for "clearance operations" by the military, 176 have been emptied, according to the Myanmar government, which has said it needs to clear out extremists. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Whenever I feel the pain [from the wound] or think about what the military people did in Myanmar, I remember that. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • He said the US should re-impose sanctions on Myanmar that were in place before it made transition from military to civilian rule. (france24.com)
  • The amnesty was one of at least a dozen the reformist, quasi-civilian government has granted since taking over in March 2011 from a military leadership. (dailymirror.lk)
  • Myanmar national security adviser Thaung Tun told Reuters on Monday that Myanmar would ensure those who left their homes could return, but there was "a process we have to discuss. (reuters.com)
  • After a meeting between delegations of the two countries in Dhaka on Friday, Kamal said Bangladesh has listed around 1.1 million Myanmar nationals who have crossed the border. (einnews.com)
  • Myanmar Home Minister Lt Gen Kyaw Swe arrived in Dhaka yesterday afternoon on a three-day visit to Bangladesh. (einnews.com)
  • Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, wo lambasted Myanmar for 'atrocities' during a visit to border camps last week, left Dhaka to address the annual UN gathering in New York . (france24.com)
  • The Myanmar Government estimate that there are 4.25 million Myanmar nationals living abroad. (iom.int)
  • The study of the oceans is crucial for countries such as India and Myanmar because it helps governments to predict and manage responses to climatic and ocean changes, particularly monsoon rains and drought, and the dangers posed by potentially deadly cyclones. (mizzima.com)
  • Mizzima recently interviewed an Indian oceanography specialist Dr V Ramaswamy in Goa, India to discuss his work and cooperation with Myanmar to keep a close eye on the oceans and to allow the countries a better chance of handling extreme weather conditions - not least the type of damage seen in Myanmar as a result of 2008 Cyclone Nargis. (mizzima.com)
  • There were twelve people from Myanmar and nineteen from India. (mizzima.com)
  • So they have invited people from all over the world, so our views were sought, and many countries said that the basis of the studies is the work done by India and Myanmar in 2002. (mizzima.com)
  • Abdus Salam, the top government administrator in the Cox's Bazar district hospital, said that some 150,000 children will be immunized over seven days for measles, rubella and polio. (france24.com)
  • The ministry of home affairs (MHA) is reviewing the impact of a bilateral agreement with Myanmar , which allows free movement of people from the two countries within 16km of the Indo-Myanmar border. (hindustantimes.com)
  • UNICEF has been working with the Government and the people of Myanmar since 1950. (unicef.org)
  • The world's longest-running internet shutdown has left over a million people in Myanmar in the dark for a year, and many of those in the affected region don't even know about the global coronavirus pandemic. (vice.com)
  • However, the vast majority of people in Myanmar rely on mobile internet to access online information. (vice.com)
  • MSF calls on the Myanmar government to take action to ensure displaced people, and those cut off from services, have proper shelter and access to healthcare. (msf.org.uk)
  • MSF has been providing healthcare in Myanmar since 1992, providing medical care to millions of people hailing from countless ethnic origins. (msf.org.uk)
  • Across Myanmar, MSF provides more than 28,000 people with lifesaving anti-retroviral treatment for AIDS and was amongst the very first responders to cyclones Nargis and Giri providing medical assistance, survival items and clean water sources for tens of thousands of people. (msf.org.uk)
  • The Kayan people of Myanmar are a subgroup of the Karenni people ( Red Karen). (worldatlas.com)
  • The government of Myanmar will continue to implement the seven-step roadmap together with the people," the statement said, referring to the junta's plan that promises a new constitution and an eventual transition to democratic rule. (nownews.com)
  • The Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC) has suggested that apparel stitching factories be set up in Ponnakyun, Sittwe in a bid to create job opportunities for local people and also stop migration. (consult-myanmar.com)
  • Merlin , a UK specialist health charity is coordinating an emergency response to help the thousands of people affected by Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar. (prweb.com)
  • The Myanmar government says about 400 people have been killed in the fighting. (reuters.com)
  • Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi) should agree that these people belong to her country and that Myanmar is their country. (reuters.com)
  • There are another half a million "internally displaced people" in camps in eastern Myanmar. (thaindian.com)
  • Talking to this newspaper, Mozammel Haque Chowdhury, secretary general of Bangladesh Jatri Kalyan Samity, said, "The ill effort to victimise people and put the government in a precarious situation is not expected in any way. (thedailystar.net)
  • Of the 53.9 million people living within Myanmar, 70 per cent live in rural areas. (iom.int)
  • With only one doctor for every 2772 people and only one psychiatric hospital in the country, Myanmar ranks 190 out of 191 in overall health system performance, according to the World Health Organization. (austrade.gov.au)
  • Foreign Minister Winston Peters today acknowledged the ruling of the International Court of Justice in relation to the Rohingya people in Myanmar. (beehive.govt.nz)
  • The supplies should be enough for 10,000 people, the agency said, and will be distributed through a disaster management committee that has been established by the Myanmar government. (cnn.com)
  • In Jaipur, Rajasthan's capital, a city of 30 lakh people that is bustling with traditional bazaars, offices and modern buildings, there are pockets where government beneficence does not reach and where hundreds of families work to eke out a survival without any social security. (newsblaze.com)
  • Not only has the government failed to pay some people for weeks, but CBC-Radio-Canada now reveals that it has overpaid others for a total of almost $70 million and only about one-third of that has been recovered. (rcinet.ca)
  • It is not a new development: in 2011, the Egyptian government cut internet and mobile access to 80 million people when protesters gathered in Cairo's Tahrir square. (euractiv.com)
  • She is a big advocate of people publishing information about political and government leaders online and asking questions. (euractiv.com)
  • Not only can governments get information on people but they can also prevent the spread of it. (euractiv.com)
  • If the trend in southern Africa continues then most people are not going to know how to filter information and data, meaning there is a risk that the web will just be used as a manipulation tool by governments," he explained. (euractiv.com)
  • Although governments are taking actions in protection the monkeys, but it's more important to improve the living standard of local people and heighten public awareness on conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and wildlife. (eurekalert.org)
  • Faltering government reforms and raging violence against ethnic minorities have led Obama and U.S. officials to downgrade their praise for Myanmar, which recently began to emerge from years of totalitarian rule and was quickly embraced by the Obama administration. (latimes.com)
  • The EU, United States and other Western countries have increased aid and investment and suspended most sanctions, partly in response to Myanmar freeing of hundreds of political prisoners and other liberal reforms unimaginable under the juntas that ruled for 49 unbroken years. (dailymirror.lk)
  • The Ministry of the Office of the Union Government is a ministry-level body that serves the Government of Myanmar. (wikipedia.org)
  • In forming the Ministry of the Office of the Union Government, the office routine work will be carried out with the labor forces of the set-up of the Office of the Union Government. (wikipedia.org)
  • While official estimates are that Myanmar only receives $118 million USD in remittances in 2015, the then Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Security estimated that remittances could be as high as $8 billion USD. (iom.int)
  • For example, according to a 2012 annual report published by the Myanmar Ministry of Health, rural health centres have only increased from 1,337 to 1,565 since 1988. (bangkokpost.com)
  • A statement by the Bangladesh foreign ministry said the return effort envisages 'considering the family as a unit,' with Myanmar providing temporary shelter for those returning before rebuilding houses for them. (com.sa)
  • A recent report from the Myanmar Ministry of Post and Telecom states that mobile penetration has reached 90% (or 89.38% rather), and the number of Internet users has reached 39 million, according to supply-side data. (lirneasia.net)
  • In partnership with the Government and the civil society, UNICEF's current focus of work aims at reducing child mortality, improving access and quality of education and protecting children from violence, abuse and exploitation. (unicef.org)
  • With implications beyond Myanmar, the authors argue that outgoing generals can use instability to retain rents where plausible challengers to state authority provide a pretense for violence. (cambridge.org)
  • Despite calls from international rights groups for stronger action to stop the violence in Myanmar, there appears to be little appetite within the wider international community for more robust intervention, writes Lynn Kuok. (brookings.edu)
  • The region's leaders must show compassion for the Rohingya and push Myanmar to take steps to end the violence, discrimination, and persecution that forced out the Rohingya. (msf.org.au)
  • Fire consumes the home of Sakhina Begum, a Rohingya woman, on Thursday amid a continued campaign of violence in Myanmar. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The State and Region Governments (Burmese: ပြည်နယ်နှင့်တိုင်းဒေသကြီးအစိုးရအဖွဲ့များ) are the sub-cabinet of each states and regions of Myanmar. (wikipedia.org)
  • MANDALAY, Myanmar - On a recent sweltering afternoon on the Irrawaddy River, about 10 miles upstream from the city of Mandalay, a Burmese fisherman tapped a small teak dowel against the hull of his squat wooden boat, producing a xylophonic beat. (nytimes.com)
  • Director-General and Spokesman of the President's Office U Zaw Htay refuted the false executive order proliferating on Facebook, which is said to have been issued by the top office, the Global New Light of Myanmar reported. (sentinelassam.com)
  • Instead, the Myanmar government puts the blame on Western economic sanctions for the nation's economic woes. (jhu.edu)
  • U.S. officials are reportedly set to urge that Secretary of State Rex Tillerson formally declare ethnic cleansing is going on as lawmakers seek new sanctions against Myanmar. (nbcdfw.com)
  • also must-reads for anyone seeking a better understanding of the displaced population on the Thai-Myanmar border. (springer.com)
  • Patients seeking care on the Thai-Myanmar border report that bribery is a common and a widely accepted aspect of getting healthcare in Myanmar. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Rebel spokesman Htun Myat Lin told The Associated Press the Kokang fighters made the declaration in response to an appeal by China for a peace along the border region and to ensure that elections expected in Myanmar later this year are peaceful in the area. (voanews.com)
  • The historical talks involving the largest number of ethnic armed groups came two days after leaders of 17 ethnic armed groups signed an 11-point framework agreement themselves in Laiza of the state to prepare for a nationwide ceasefire deal with the government. (philippinestoday.net)
  • The ethnic armed groups' 11-point draft framework agreement, which mainly called for holding political dialogue with the government soonest after the latter promises a ceasefire with all the groups, will be presented for the two-day talks. (philippinestoday.net)
  • The government side was headed by Vice Chairman of the Central Peace-Making Work Committee U Aung Min, while the 15 ethnic armed groups were represented by their leaders. (philippinestoday.net)
  • The Myitgyina talks are expected to work out a comprehensive ceasefire paper for the final signing of a nationwide ceasefire accord between the government and the ethnic armed groups. (philippinestoday.net)
  • A total of 17 ethnic armed groups signed an 11-point framework agreement among themselves at the closing of their four-day Conference of Leaders of Ethnic Armed Groups in the border town of Laiza, northernmost Kachin state, for further negotiation for a nationwide ceasefire with the government. (philippinestoday.net)
  • More money is being channelled into the sector as officials seek to build a 21st-century education system to help push Myanmar into the ranks of the upper-middle-income nations by 2030. (oxfordbusinessgroup.com)
  • Trump says the move is needed to prevent terrorist attacks and allow the government to put in place more stringent vetting procedures. (reuters.com)
  • The event had been delayed by three months as the government struggled to convince more armed groups to sign the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA). (crisisgroup.org)
  • As a result, fifteen of 21 armed groups were present for the opening - the eight that signed the ceasefire agreement and the seven in the new Wa alliance - a symbolically important win for the government. (crisisgroup.org)
  • They remain unwilling to sign the current ceasefire agreement and the government remains unwilling to revise it. (crisisgroup.org)
  • IOM provides logistical and operational support to the family reunification of Myanmar nationals whose family members are residing overseas. (iom.int)
  • But even if citizens in the affected region were able to get online, the government has also blocked thousands of websites. (vice.com)
  • The Rohingya are a stateless minority group, not recognised as citizens by the Government of Myanmar. (msf.org.uk)
  • Although she was prohibited from becoming the President due to a clause in the constitution - her late husband and children are foreign citizens - she assumed the newly created role of State Counsellor , a role akin to a Prime Minister or a head of government . (wikipedia.org)
  • It will assess the rationale behind these varying measures and their impacts upon Myanmar citizens, the economy, and the regime's survival and future prospects. (jhu.edu)
  • When Myanmar opened to the West, one of the first sectors multinationals were most excited to pursue was the healthcare market. (forbes.com)
  • While government spending on healthcare is increasing, much of what will drive the growth for multinationals in Myanmar will be out of pocket spending by individual consumers. (forbes.com)
  • While the increase is promising, Myanmar remains one of the world's lowest countries in terms of total money allocated to healthcare. (bangkokpost.com)
  • According to the World Bank, Myanmar is in the lowest percentile for government effectiveness, regulatory quality, and control of corruption-all key factors when it comes to ensuring that the increased spending on healthcare reaches intended targets. (bangkokpost.com)
  • However, it is important that the government also play a role in contributing to reliable, consistent, and long-term data collection and analysis that can help identify priorities in healthcare delivery and investment. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Because Myanmar faces a long road in rebuilding its ailing healthcare system, a strategic and measured approach must be employed. (bangkokpost.com)
  • In Urumqi, in the Xinjiang region, Han Chinese, brought there by Beijing to water down the Muslim, independent-thinking Uighurs, claim that Uighurs are attacking them in the streets with hypodermic needles filled with the AIDS virus, and complain the government isn't doing enough to protect them. (toledoblade.com)
  • The explosion a week and a half ago came after jets had circled the frontier for days, occasionally bombing targets in the Myanmar region of Kokang. (wsj.com)
  • The government of Myanmar, in advance of elections set for next year, allegedly clamped down militarily on separatists in the Kokang region, which borders China. (toledoblade.com)