A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A class of amoeboid EUKARYOTES that forms either filiform subpseudopodia or lobopodia. Characteristics include the absence of sorocarps, sporangia, or similar fruiting bodies. Lobosea were formerly members of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina, under the old five kingdom paradigm.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
An acute tick-borne arbovirus infection causing meningoencephalomyelitis of sheep.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) - Major mosquito vector: Culex annulirostris. Japanese encephalitis - Several mosquito ... bovine encephalitis. Medical entomology also includes scientific research on the behavior, ecology, and epidemiology of ... camptorhynchus and Culicoides marksi Kunjin encephalitis (mosquitoes) ...
... (MVEV) is a zoonotic flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. It is the ... MVEV is related to Kunjin virus, which has a similar ecology, but a lower morbidity rate. Although the arbovirus is endemic to ... The majority of MVEV infections are sub-clinical, i.e. do not produce disease symptoms, although some people may experience a ... "Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection-Fact Sheet". Department of Health and Ageing. Archived from the original on 18 ...
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) Alfuy virus St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) Usutu ... Effective inactivated Japanese encephalitis and Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines were introduced in the middle of the 20th ... Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSE) Tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex Absettarov virus Deer tick virus (DT) Gadgets ... The Japanese encephalitis group appears to have evolved in Africa 2000-3000 years ago and then spread initially to South East ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
... is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... Encephalitis Global Inc. Offering information and support to encephalitis survivors, caregivers and loved ones. ... Similar diseases that are spread by mosquitoes include: Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... with glial nodule encephalitis". Acta Neuropathologica. 11 (1): 29-44. doi:10.1007/bf00692793. PMID 5748997.. ... or based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons,[43] vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)[45][48] or filovirus- ... Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00362-1. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents,[4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans.[5] Only one lethal ... Cause of a fatal case of human encephalitis". Science. 203 (4385): 1127-1129. Bibcode:1979Sci...203.1127W. doi:10.1126/science. ...
... virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).[3] While most ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70,000 cases reported annually.[25] ... Japanese encephalitis resource library [2]. *CDC Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
Australian encephalitis(英语:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) *MVEV(英语:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) ... 虫媒病毒性脑炎:Tick-borne encephalitis(英语:Tick-borne encephalitis) *TBEV(英语:Tick-borne encephalitis virus) ... California encephalitis(英语:California encephalitis) *CEV(英语:California encephalitis virus) ... 圣路易斯脑炎(英语:Saint Louis encephalitis) *SLEV(英语:St.
Australian encephalitis(英語:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) *MVEV(英語:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) ... 蟲媒病毒性腦炎:Tick-borne encephalitis(英語:Tick-borne encephalitis) *TBEV(英語:Tick-borne encephalitis virus) ... California encephalitis(英語:California encephalitis) *CEV(英語:California encephalitis virus) ... 聖路易斯腦炎(英語:Saint Louis encephalitis) *SLEV(英語:St.
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), ... Jia XY, Briese T, Jordan I, Rambaut A, Chi HC, Mackenzie JS, Genetic analysis of West Nile New York 1999 encephalitis virus [ ... Giladi M, Metzkor-Cotter E, Martin DA, Siegman-Igra Y, Korczyn AD, Rosso R, West Nile encephalitis in Israel, 1999: the New ... Tick-borne encephalitis in dogs: neuropathological findings and distribution of antigen. Acta Neuropathol. 1998;95:361-6. DOI ...
MVEV) and Kunjin (KUNV) viruses. MVEV causes the disease Murray Valley encephalitis (formerly known as Australian encephalitis ... MVEV is also responsible for occasional epidemics of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia, the most recent occurring in 1974 ... A single case of Murray Valley encephalitis was reported from Central Australia. MVEV activity was also detected at Minindee in ... Encephalitis is less frequent in cases of Kunjin virus infection and these encephalitis cases have a lower rate of severe ...
MVEV, Murray Valley encephalitis virus; WNV, West Nile virus; -, negative. Eq, result in equivocal range of the assay. IgG and ... Ig, immunoglobulin; ZIKV, Zika virus; DENV, dengue virus type 1-4 mixture; YFV, yellow fever virus; JEV, Japanese encephalitis ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV); red bars: 10−1 and blue bars: 10−3; (d) Tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain Langaat ... AF253419), and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) were reused from another work [25]. USUV Austria 2001 (939/01) and ... R. S. Lanciotti, J. T. Roehrig, V. Deubel et al., "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in ... J. N. Hanna, S. A. Ritchie, D. A. Phillips et al., "Japanese encephalitis in north Queensland, Australia, 1998," Medical ...
Species: Murray Valley encephalitis virus Name[edit]. Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Murray_Valley_encephalitis_virus&oldid=6037623" ...
An isolate of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) was included to enable a comparison with another Australian pathogenic ... Data for MVEV and WNVKUN infections are shown.. Additional file 2: Table S1. Information on the isolates used in these ... Hence, the cells were permissive to WNVKUN (and MVEV) infection. RNA from the cells was then used to measure gene induction as ... This may have been due to different growth kinetics for MVEV replication, as the assay was optimized for WNVKUN, resulting in ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne virus. It is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serological ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is found across Australia, Papua New Guinea and Irian ... Report of a suspected case of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection in Victoria. A 69-year-old man from the Murray ... Animal models of MVEV have shown that IgG from humans and mice exposed to MVEV can protect mice from symptomatic disease if ...
However, infection, including Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) - peak risk February to July - was considered in the ... Extended detection and isolation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in whole blood and urine. ... The most likely diagnosis was thought to be encephalitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and she initially ...
Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and malaria. The report also inlcudes data on the Sentinel Chicken Surveillance ... including 9 cases of encephalitis.17 Despite the high level of MVEV activity, no seroconversions to MVEV were detected south of ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection There were 4 notifications of locally-acquired MVEV in Australia resulting in 2 ... Most of the MVEV and KUNV seroconversions occurred in March, notably around the same time as the first human case of MVEV in ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus. The greatest individual risk of arbovirus ... MVEV, and RRV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of extracts from mosquitoes trapped in Queensland. We then used a ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), WNV, and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). The characteristic feature of these ... and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The viruses from the Japanese encephalitis virus subgroup of this genus include JEV, ... Maturation of Japanese encephalitis virus glycoproteins produced by infected mammalian and mosquito cells. Virology 169:354-364 ... Fig.1C).1C). The same results were obtained with an A30P expression cassette from MVEV (M. Lobigs, personal communication). Our ...
Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a ... The Japanese encephalitis group includes JEV, WNV, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Usutu virus and St Louis ... Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger ... Murray Valley encephalitis (MVEV) - [GenBank:NC_000943]; Alfuy - [GenBank:AY898809]; Usutu - [GenBank:NC_006551]. ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), a flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, can cause severe ... We report a fatal case of MVEV infection in a young woman who returned from Australia to Canad... ... Fatal Infection with Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus Imported from Australia to Canada, 2011 ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), the Kunjin strain of West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and yellow fever ... Vector, climate and sentinel animal surveillance measures for arboviruses (in particular for MVEV) conducted by states and ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) in Australia, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Southern Asia and Oceania, Usutu ... Louis encephalitis viruses provides cross protection during reinfection in house finches. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2006, 75, 480- ... Swayne, D.E.; Beck, J.R.; Smith, C.S.; Shieh, W.J.; Zaki, S.R. Fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese ( ... Ben-Nathan, D. Stress and Virulence: West Nile virus encephalitis. Isr. J. Vet. Med. 2013, 68, 135-140. [Google Scholar] ...
MVEV); the genes encoding prM or E proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus. Polynucleotide sequences, referred herein as ... Japanese encephalitis virus. prM protein, E protein. L43565. Klebsiella pneumoniae. Capsule-like surface antigen CS31 A. ... Japanese encephalitis virus; infectious bronchitis virus; Porcine transmissible gastroenteric virus; respiratory syncytial ... protein and the gene encoding the non-structural protein NS1 of Murray Valley encephalitis virus ( ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) - Major mosquito vector: Culex annulirostris. Japanese encephalitis - Several mosquito ... bovine encephalitis. Medical entomology also includes scientific research on the behavior, ecology, and epidemiology of ... camptorhynchus and Culicoides marksi Kunjin encephalitis (mosquitoes) ...
Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), found in the Americas, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), found in Australia and New ... Reactivity of convalescent-phase sera from WNV encephalitis patients, one SLEV encephalitis patient, and normal controls with ... and convalescent-phase sera from 11 confirmed WNV encephalitis patients and 1 SLEV encephalitis patient (all collected between ... The binding activity of the anti-MVEV MIAF was lower than that of the other JE virus group antisera in each assay; however, its ...
Using site-directed mutagenesis at the NS1-2A cleavage site of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), we confirmed the ... Thus, comparison of the impact on cleavage of mutations at the NS1-2A junction of MVEV and DENV showed virus-specific ... We show, with subgenomic expression and infectious clone-derived mutants of MVEV that conserved residues in the flavivirus ... Table 2 Recovery of MVEV NS1-2A cleavage site mutants. From: Proteolytic cleavage analysis at the Murray Valley encephalitis ...
Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a zoonotic flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. It is the ... MVEV is related to Kunjin virus, which has a similar ecology, but a lower morbidity rate. Although the arbovirus is endemic to ... The majority of MVEV infections are sub-clinical, i.e. do not produce disease symptoms, although some people may experience a ... "Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection-Fact Sheet". Department of Health and Ageing. Archived from the original on 18 ...
Fever with altered sensorium and/or seizure is known as acute encephalitis syndrome(AES). Encephalitis may be caused by several ... More than 100 different pathogens are recognized as causative agents of AES are JEV, MVEV , West Nile virus, St. Louis ... The majority of cases of viral AES (~90%) have no specific treatment (AESn). Japanese encephalitis(JE), is an encephalitis, ... The Japanese encephalitis vaccine candidate strain (821564 XZ), used for making this Indian vaccine, Jenvac was isolated from ...
A full-length Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) cDNA clone (21) was used for the introduction of a T155A change to ... Role of the N-linked glycans of the prM and E envelope proteins in tick-borne encephalitis virus particle secretion. Vaccine23: ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus field strains from Australia and Papua New Guinea: studies on the sequence of the major ... A comparative study of entry modes into C6/36 cells by Semliki Forest and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Arch. Virol.108:101- ...
... which also includes Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), ... Many flaviviruses, including members of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, dengue viruses, and tick-borne encephalitis ... Epidemics of encephalitis among horses were also reported in Italy and France. (For a review of the natural history of WNV in ... In C. H. Calisher and D. E. Griffin (ed.), Emergence and control of zoonotic viral encephalitides. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 18:35-41 ...
Objective: To assess evidence of recent and past exposure to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and West Nile clade Kunjin ... Results: Of 1,115 specimens, 24 (2.2%, 95% CI 1.3-3.0%) were positive for MVEV total antibody, and all were negative for MVEV ... Conclusions: Despite widespread MVEV and KUNV activity in early 2011, this study found that seroprevalence of antibodies to ... The main outcome measure was total antibody (IgM and IgG) reactivity against MVEV and KUNV measured using an enzyme immunoassay ...
The last reported MVEV case from Queensland was in a 3-year-old boy from Mount Isa in 2001.. Japanese encephalitis virus ... No KUNV or MVEV activity was detected in any of the samples. There were no human cases of KUNV or MVEV reported from Victoria ... There were two cases of Kunjin virus (KUNV) infection and one case of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection ... 7-12 and sporadic cases of infection with Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) or Kunjin virus (KUNV).13 The International ...
Find out information about Murray Valley encephalitis. An acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by a virus; ... MVEV, Murray Valley encephalitis virus; RRV, Ross River virus; SINV, Sindbis virus; Ve., Verrallina.. Characterization of ... Related to Murray Valley encephalitis: Japanese Encephalitis, Kunjin virus. Murray Valley encephalitis. [′mər·ē ¦val·ē in‚sef·ə ... which also includes Japanese encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (1 ...
Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Flavivirus-induced diseases may be associated ... Japanese encephalitis virus in South-East Asia; tick-borne encephalitis virus in Europe and Northern Asia). ... The atomic structure of the major envelope protein E from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), dengue virus (DENV) and West ... In some cases, the 3′-NCR of tick-borne encephalitis virus contains an internal poly(A) tract. Flavivirus infection induces ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
  • Usutu virus (USUV) is a relatively unknown member of the mosquito-borne cluster within the Flavivirus genus, closely related to important human pathogens such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks located in four Australian states are used to provide an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and Kunjin virus (KUNV) activity in the region. (health.gov.au)
  • During the 2003-2004 season low levels of flavivirus activity were detected in northern Australia with both MVEV and KUNV virus activity detected in the Kimberley and Pilbara regions of Western Australia and in the Northern Territory. (health.gov.au)
  • Detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks across Australia provides an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus activity. (health.gov.au)
  • Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Flavivirus (see [ 1 - 3 ] for reviews) includes species such as Dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Tick-borne encephalitis virus and Yellow fever virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex of the family Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus , which also includes Japanese encephalitis virus , St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), and others. (asm.org)
  • Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a zoonotic flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eight notifiable mosquito-borne diseases under national surveillance include the alphaviruses (Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus), the flaviviruses (dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin, Murray Valley encephalitis and flavivirus not elsewhere classified), and malaria. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) is an important mosquito-borne flavivirus infection endemic to Australia and Papua New Guinea. (histopathology-india.net)
  • DENV belongs to the genus flavivirus which contains many other lethal human viruses including Yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) [2-4]. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Background Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus that occurs in Australia and New Guinea. (edu.au)
  • Murray Valley encephalitis disease (MVEV) Cyclobenzaprine HCl can be a mosquito-borne flavivirus owned by japan encephalitis disease (JEV) serocomplex that may cause severe, fatal sometimes, disease in human beings (evaluated in referrals 30, 31, 32, and 42). (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • MVEV can be genetically and antigenically carefully linked DPP4 to JEV (82% amino acidity sequence identification in the envelope [E] proteins), the main encephalitic flavivirus with regards to human being disease occurrence and intensity (evaluated in research 4). (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • 4. The modified flavivirus envelope protein of claim 1, wherein the modified flavivirus E protein is a modified E protein of Dengue virus (DV), West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE virus), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), or Powassan virus (PV). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Murine WNV infection is well-accepted flavivirus encephalitis model whereby subcutaneous infection with low inoculum of virulent strains leads to neuroinvasive disease in individuals with depressed or dysregulated immune function. (grantome.com)
  • Further, the data obtained from these experiments may identify potential targets for therapeutic treatment of humans with flavivirus encephalitides. (grantome.com)
  • The viruses from the Japanese encephalitis virus subgroup of this genus include JEV, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), WNV, and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Japanese encephalitis group includes JEV, WNV, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Usutu virus and St Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • other members include Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), found throughout Asia, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), found in the Americas, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), found in Australia and New Guinea. (asm.org)
  • It is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serological complex of flaviviruses, which includes Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kunjin virus (KUNV), and others causing encephalitis worldwide. (mja.com.au)
  • It includes those diseases caused by alphaviruses (Barmah Forest and Ross River), flaviviruses (dengue, Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and malaria. (health.gov.au)
  • Interestingly, a larger NS1-related protein, NS1′, is often detected during infection with the members of the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup of flaviviruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Flaviviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses infecting more than 100 million people a year with the main representatives including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Serological diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is complicated by extensive antigenic cross-reactivity with other closely related flaviviruses, such as St. Louis encephalitis virus. (asm.org)
  • Sentinel chicken surveillance data for flaviviruses and sentinel pig surveillance data for Japanese encephalitis virus are reported. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • Flaviviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, some of which are associated with epidemic encephalitis in various regions of the world. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • In Australia, the flaviviruses of public health importance are the dengue viruses (DENV) with frequent seasonal outbreaks, 3-6 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) with occasional outbreaks, 7-12 and sporadic cases of infection with Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) or Kunjin virus (KUNV). (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • Arboviral encephalitis is a group of animal and human illness that is mostly caused by several distinct families of viruses including orthobunya virus, phlebovirus, flaviviruses, and the alphaviruses. (scirp.org)
  • The WNV is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae, which belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serogroup of flaviviruses and is closely associated with other human pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The flaviviruses of the JEV serocomplex are the prominent cause of arboviral encephalitis in vertebrate hosts, including humans [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ross River virus) and Flaviviruses (e.g. the Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and Kunjin virus). (qld.gov.au)
  • The most serious infections are caused by the neurotropic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus. (edu.au)
  • JAPAN encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex, which also contains Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), is several antigenically related, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that are in charge of severe encephalitic disease in humans. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Paraffin-embedded tissue samples were immunostained with a polyclonal mouse antibody to WNV (B. Murgue, Institut Pasteur, Paris) and a polyclonal rabbit antibody to Tick-borne encephalitis virus ([TBEV] strain Neudoerfl, H. Holzmann, Klinisches Institut für Virologie, Vienna) using the Avidin-Biotin Complex technique (8) . (cdc.gov)
  • The atomic structure of the major envelope protein E from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) has been determined by X-ray crystallography. (ictvonline.org)
  • [email protected]#Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and North Asia that causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). (bvsalud.org)
  • Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Encephalitis is less frequent in cases of Kunjin virus infection and these encephalitis cases have a lower rate of severe sequelae. (health.gov.au)
  • Infection results in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses which attempt to control infection, but may also contribute to pathology, particularly in the case of encephalitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sporadic nature of MVEV infection in south-eastern Australia has led to the development of several models attempting to predict epidemics. (mja.com.au)
  • Although the immediate risk subsided with the onset of winter, it is important that doctors consider MVEV infection in patients with a suggestive clinical picture and who have been in regions of known MVEV activity. (mja.com.au)
  • In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the clinical features of MVEV infection, challenges in its diagnosis, and the limitations in treatment. (mja.com.au)
  • However, infection, including Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) - peak risk February to July - was considered in the differential diagnosis. (mja.com.au)
  • There were two cases of Kunjin virus (KUNV) infection and one case of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection reported in 2005-06, all from Western Australia. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • Arboviral encephalitis is caused by infection with an arbovirus, which transmitted by a mosquito, tick or another arthropod. (scirp.org)
  • Kunjin virus (KUNV) infection, malaria, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection and Ross River virus (RRV) infection. (health.gov.au)
  • This is the first confirmed case of naturally-occurring equine encephalitis attributable to Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection. (edu.au)
  • The number of notifications received in the quarter was above the five year mean for influenza (laboratory-confirmed), Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, botulism, malaria, legionellosis, cholera, chlamydial infection and brucellosis. (health.gov.au)
  • We present a suspected but unproven case of MVEV infection to illustrate some of the challenges in clinical management. (edu.au)
  • It remains difficult to establish an early diagnosis of MVEV infection, and there is a lack of proven therapeutic options. (edu.au)
  • A sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid visual detection of Murray valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis , the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with infection in the elderly. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The main viruses of concern are Murray Valley encephalitis (MVEV) and Kunjin (KUNV) viruses. (health.gov.au)
  • MVEV is related to Kunjin virus, which has a similar ecology, but a lower morbidity rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low seroprevalence of Murray Valley Encephalitis and Kunjin viruses in an opportunistic serosurvey, Victoria 2011. (edu.au)
  • Objective: To assess evidence of recent and past exposure to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and West Nile clade Kunjin virus (KUNV) in residents of the Murray Valley, Victoria, during a period of demonstrated activity of both viruses in early 2011. (edu.au)
  • Their ignoring by researchers has led to failures in the design of vaccines against HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, influenza, malaria, hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. (supotnitskiy.ru)
  • Anti-dengue and anti-tick-borne encephalitis virus IgG ELISA were also performed to rule out a cross reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results from the first 3 experiments involve 84 different target sites (74 unique targets, mostly from Dengue Virus, HCV, Yellow Fever Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Zika Virus). (ufg.br)
  • In the northern areas of Australia, MVEV and KUNV presence varies depending on the extent and location of wet season rainfall and flooding in the region. (health.gov.au)
  • MVEV and KUNV activity is monitored in Australia by detecting seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks. (health.gov.au)
  • MVEV and KUNV activity is detected in Western Australia and the Northern Territory in most years. (health.gov.au)
  • MVEV and KUNV activity was low in 2001-2002 with activity recorded only in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. (health.gov.au)
  • Evidence of recent exposure was measured by the presence of MVEV and KUNV IgM detected by immunofluorescence. (edu.au)
  • There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds ta ken on 31/Mar/08, 7/Apr/08 or 14/Apr/08. (edu.au)
  • There was one seroconversion to MVEV and four to KUNV from the bleed taken on 24/Mar/08. (edu.au)
  • There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 3/Mar/08, 10/Mar/08 and 17/Mar/08. (edu.au)
  • There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleed taken on 25/Feb/08. (edu.au)
  • There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 28/Jan/08, 4/Feb/08, 11/Feb/08 or 18/Feb/08. (edu.au)
  • There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 12/Nov/07, 19/Nov/07, 26/Nov/07, 3/Dec/07, 10/Dec/07, 17/Dec/07, 24/Dec/07, 30/Dec/07, 7/Jan/08 and 14/Jan/08. (edu.au)
  • Other viral diseases like epidemic polyarthritis , Rift Valley fever , Ross River fever , St. Louis encephalitis , West Nile fever , Japanese encephalitis , La Crosse encephalitis and several other encephalitic diseases are carried by several different mosquitoes . (bingj.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) causes West Nile fever and West Nile encephalitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The emergence of WNV as a significant agent of arboviral encephalitis has raised several questions regarding possible differences in the virulence properties of WNV strains and the hypothesis that some strains of genetic lineage 1, particularly those circulating in North America and Israel, might have increased virulence for birds and/or mammals ( 18 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore rapid immunologic and molecular tools for differential diagnosis of arboviral encephalitis viruses are important for effective case management and control of the spread of encephalitis. (scirp.org)
  • These assays can detect and differentiate arboviral encephalitis viruses by high throughput, sensitive, and specific way. (scirp.org)
  • It is useful for clinical management and outbreak control of arboviral encephalitis viruses and vector surveillance. (scirp.org)
  • Many types of arboviral encephalitis occur throughout the world. (scirp.org)
  • Therefore, it is too difficult to distinguish the various etiologic agents based on clinical signs and symptoms, which makes the accurate and timely laboratory detection of viruses important in early diagnosis of arboviral encephalitis. (scirp.org)
  • Meanwhile, despite the large number of reported arboviral encephalitis virus real-time RT-PCR assays, few of these assays have been designed to include an internal control (IC), either as an extrinsic molecule spiked into each sample before or after extraction or as a heterologous intrinsic target that is co-extracted with viral RNA. (scirp.org)
  • Record rainfall was recorded in the north of Australia during the 1999-2000 wet season and cases of Murray Valley encephalitis were reported from the Northern Territory, Central Australia and Western Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • Two cases of Murray Valley encephalitis were reported from Western Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • MVEV causes the disease Murray Valley encephalitis (formerly known as Australian encephalitis), a potentially fatal disease in humans. (health.gov.au)
  • previously known as Australian encephalitis or Australian X disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is found across Australia, Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. (mja.com.au)
  • MVEV is also endemic to Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. (mja.com.au)
  • To study the genetic diversity of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) in Australia and Papua New Guinea. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, it was proposed-based on computational analysis of RNA sequence and structure of the members of the Japanese encephalitis virus subgroup-that the NS1′ protein is produced as the result of a −1 ribosomal frameshift ( 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex isolated for the first time in 1959 from Culex neavei (trapped in Swaziland) after intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice in Southern Africa [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genotype I (GI) virus has replaced genotype III (GIII) virus as the dominant Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the epidemic area of Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • The best NS5 homology model for ZIKV was built using the full-length Japanese encephalitis virus NS5 as a template ( PDB ID: 4K6M). (ufg.br)
  • The Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) was isolated during an epidemic of encephalitis in the Murray River valley in Victoria and South Australia in 1951. (histopathology-india.net)
  • The Murray Valley encephalitis virus was first isolated in an epidemic in 1951 (DoH 2013). (ausmed.com)
  • Sporadically, MVEV spreads to central or southern parts of Australia (e.g., the Murray Valley of southeastern Australia) and causes epidemic viral encephalitis in human beings (32). (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • MVEV is thought to move from endemic areas in northern Australia to epidemic areas by the movement of infected native birds or infected wind-blown mosquitoes. (blogspot.com)
  • A diagnosis of the disease should be considered in any patient who presents with encephalitis or central nervous system symptoms and who has been in the endemic area within the incubation period of the disease, (usually between November and July). (histopathology-india.net)
  • MVEV is endemic to northern Australia and causes occasional outbreaks across south-eastern Australia. (edu.au)
  • 2011 saw a dramatic increase in MVEV activity in endemic regions and the re-emergence of MVEV in south-eastern Australia. (edu.au)
  • We deployed a portable molecular biology laboratory for remote field detection of endemic arboviruses in northern Queensland, then in tropical Western Australia and detected BFV, MVEV, and RRV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of extracts from mosquitoes trapped in Queensland. (edu.au)
  • Cyclobenzaprine HCl The disease can be endemic in north Papua and Australia New Guinea, where it causes a small amount of human being instances of encephalitis generally in most years. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Instances of Murray Valley encephalitis are more prevalent in kids or site visitors in regions of endemic disease than in adult occupants, who've preexisting immunity (7, 42, 46). (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • It has elevated the chance that JEV might become founded in enzootic cycles for the Australian mainland, necessitating the usage of JEV vaccines in areas where MVEV can be endemic. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial, fungal, parasitic (like cerebral malaria) and some viral encephalitides (like Herpes simplex, Varicella- zoster) have however specific treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Major outbreaks of MVEV occurred in Australia in 1951, 1956 and 1974, with the virus first being isolated during the 1951 outbreak. (mja.com.au)
  • 2 In the most recent outbreak of MVEV in 1974, 58 cases of encephalitis were identified, 3 indicating the significance of this disease despite the infrequency of epidemics. (mja.com.au)
  • In 1999, WNV was identified as the cause of an outbreak of 62 cases of encephalitis in New York City that resulted in seven deaths ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • With the potential for a further outbreak of MVEV in the 2011-2012 summer and following autumn, we highlight the importance of this disease, its clinical characteristics and radiological and laboratory features. (edu.au)
  • 1 MVEV may have caused earlier outbreaks of Australian "X" disease in 1917-18, 1922 and 1925. (mja.com.au)
  • This emergence was also associated with neurological disease in horses ( 39 ) and significant mortality among birds, particularly corvids-a phenomenon that had not been reported during contemporary outbreaks of WNV encephalitis in humans ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • MVEV is also responsible for occasional epidemics of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia, the most recent occurring in 1974. (health.gov.au)
  • Epidemics of encephalitis among horses were also reported in Italy and France. (asm.org)
  • Perhaps the same virus has been isolated earlier during epidemics of encephalitis in 1917-1918, when it went under the name of Australian X disease. (histopathology-india.net)
  • In 2011, there were increased numbers of cases of MVEV in humans across Australia, including nine cases (one death) from Western Australia, four cases (one death) from the Northern Territory, two cases (one death) from South Australia, one case from New South Wales, and one suspected but unproven case from Victoria (see case history below). (mja.com.au)
  • Human infections with WNV had generally been considered to result in a relatively mild febrile illness, although occasional occurrences of encephalitis in humans and horses had been reported. (asm.org)
  • Although primarily asymptomatic or presenting mild clinical signs, humans infected by USUV can develop neuroinvasive pathologies (including encephalitis and meningoencephalitis). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Western equine encephalitis (WEE) occur in the United States where they cause disease in humans, horses, and some bird species. (bingj.com)
  • Thus, murine experimental studies have identified viral and host factors that determine the neuropathogenesis and outcome of WNV encephalitis in humans, including several chemokine receptors that determine the entry and fate of infiltrating immune cells. (grantome.com)
  • In nature MVEV is amplified in bird-mosquito-bird cycles and humans become infected if bitten by infected mosquitoes. (blogspot.com)
  • These important human pathogens are transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause potentially fatal encephalitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the relative importance of different pathogens may differ because Australia has unique pathogens such as Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Hendra virus, and Australian bat lyssavirus) (5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Viral encephalitis is an emerging global health threat without effective therapeutic strategies. (grantome.com)
  • Fever with altered sensorium and/or seizure is known as acute encephalitis syndrome(AES). (bmj.com)
  • The Authorities say the chance of contracting Murray Valley encephalitis is small, but they are calling on people to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. (blogspot.com)
  • The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fatal encephalitis in human, equines and birds. (datexis.com)
  • A single case of Murray Valley encephalitis was reported from Central Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • MVEV was detected along the Murray River in February 2011 through widespread seroconversion among sentinel chicken flocks after heavy rainfall and regional flooding. (mja.com.au)
  • This action preceded 4 notifications of Murray Valley encephalitis infections, 2 (fatal) cases acquired in the Northern Territory and two in Western Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • Louis encephalitis virus, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus) whose reservoir is birds (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The primary hosts of Murray Valley encephalitis virus are water birds. (histopathology-india.net)
  • Genetic and phenotypic variation of genotype 1 (G1) and genotype 2 (G2) Murray valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) were characterised. (edu.au)
  • Nucleotide sequences obtained from amplicons from both tissues and virus isolated in cell culture were compared with those in GenBank, and had 96-98% identity with Murray Valley encephalitis virus. (edu.au)
  • Why then does Murray Valley encephalitis only occur at odd intervals in the Murray-Darling basin? (ausmed.com)
  • If you have lived in an area affected by Murray Valley encephalitis for a long time, you will probably have at least some immunity to the virus. (ausmed.com)
  • There were another two isolates of Murray Valley Encephalitis virus , which were from Culex annulirostris trapped at Hanwood on 18/Feb/08. (edu.au)
  • There was one isolation of Murray Valley Encephalitis virus from Culex annulirostris trapped at Hanwood on 5/Feb/08 and a Kokobera virus isolate from the same collection, also from Culex annulirostris . (edu.au)
  • The family of a [Northern] Territory man who died of Murray Valley encephalitis say they are concerned the public has not been properly warned about the dangers of the mosquito-borne disease. (blogspot.com)
  • The Health Department did not release a warning about the dangers of Murray Valley encephalitis until the day of the victim's death, and did not announce that he had died until today [23 Mar 2009]. (blogspot.com)
  • A man has died from Murray Valley encephalitis after being bitten by a mosquito near his home in the Darwin River area. (blogspot.com)
  • Here, it was shown that ALFV is at least 10 4 -fold less neuroinvasive than MVEV after peripheral inoculation of 3-week-old Swiss outbred mice, but ALFV demonstrates similar neurovirulence. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • There were another two isolates of MVEV from Culex annulirostris trapped at Barren Box on 3/March/08. (edu.au)
  • An RT-qPCR assay detecting all MVEV genotypes was developed. (edu.au)
  • The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 100 copies per reaction based on 10-fold dilutions of in vitro transcribed RNA derived from a synthetic MVEV DNA template. (bvsalud.org)
  • The assay was further evaluated using spiked cerebrospinal fluid sample with pseudotype virus containing the NS5 gene of MVEV. (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies by some of us using a mouse neuroinvasion model demonstrated significant differences in the ability of wild-type WNV strains to cause encephalitis-like disease and death following peripheral inoculation. (asm.org)
  • Since 2002, WNV has been responsible for more than 6,300 cases of human meningitis/encephalitis in the United States that resulted in 633 deaths (data from the CDC website, http://www.cdc.gov/westnile , as of 14 December 2004). (asm.org)
  • In North America, more than 1.8 million people have been infected, with over 12,852 reported cases of encephalitis or meningitis and 1,308 deaths from 1999 to 2010. (datexis.com)
  • Results: Of 1,115 specimens, 24 (2.2%, 95% CI 1.3-3.0%) were positive for MVEV total antibody, and all were negative for MVEV IgM. (edu.au)
  • 10 MVEV was also detected in horses exhibiting neurological symptoms across south-eastern Australia. (mja.com.au)
  • The Western equine encephalitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine encephalitis (WEE). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In fact, serological surveys which measure the level of anti-MVEV antibodies within the population estimate that only one in 800-1000 of all infections result in clinical disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • M urray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne virus. (mja.com.au)
  • Challenges in prevention and control of MVEV also include difficulties in controlling mosquito numbers during periods of extensive flooding, and a lack of other prophylactic or treatment measures for MVEV. (mja.com.au)
  • MVEV is a mosquito-borne virus that is maintained in a bird-mosquito-bird cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restricted evolution of MVEV was due to multiplication in mosquito cells. (edu.au)
  • While clinical cases are uncommon, MVEV can cause severe encephalitis with high mortality. (edu.au)
  • The majority of MVEV infections are sub-clinical, i.e. do not produce disease symptoms, although some people may experience a mild form of the disease with symptoms such as fever, headaches, nausea and vomiting and only a very small number of these cases go on to develop MVE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms range from mild flu-like illness to encephalitis, coma and death. (bingj.com)
  • Vector, climate and sentinel animal surveillance measures for arboviruses (in particular for MVEV) conducted by states and territories, and also at the border are described. (nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count was 287 × 10 6 /L with 90% mononuclear cells, CSF protein elevated at 1.49 g/L (normal range [NR], 0.15-0.45 g/L), and CSF glucose 4.5 mmol/L (NR, 2.7-4.2 mmol/L). The most likely diagnosis was thought to be encephalitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and she initially received intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g daily. (mja.com.au)
  • however, despite preliminary reports of antigenic and ecological similarities with MVEV, ALFV has not been associated with human disease. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To assess the antigenic relationship between these viruses, a panel of monoclonal antibodies was tested for the ability to bind to ALFV and MVEV in ELISA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These findings confirm previous reports that ALFV is closely related to MVEV, but also highlights significant antigenic, genetic and phenotypic divergence from MVEV. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The flocks in Western Australia and the Northern Territory were sampled and tested all year round but those in New South Wales and Victoria were tested only in the summer months, during the main MVEV risk season. (health.gov.au)
  • 3 The predictive value of these models has been difficult to ascertain because of the infrequency of MVEV activity in south-eastern Australia, but it is likely that factors other than just flooding are required for epidemics. (mja.com.au)
  • If long-lasting and effective cross-protective immunity against MVEV was induced by among the JEV vaccines, a solid case could possibly be designed for its prophylactic make use of in populations vulnerable to MVEV disease in Australia. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • aegypti adults were captured in two routine CO2 -baited encephalitis virus surveillance traps in Tennant Creek, located 990 km south of Darwin in the NT. (bvsalud.org)