Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.von Willebrand Disease, Type 2: A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from qualitative deficiencies of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. The subtype is divided into several variants with each variant having a distinctive pattern of PLATELET-interaction.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Protein PrecursorsGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Gene Products, rex: Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Guanylate Kinase: Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)von Willebrand Diseases: Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.PhosphoproteinsRNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMultiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
... classes of human papillomavirus type 16 E1 mutants suggest pleiotropic conformational constraints affecting E1 multimerization ... Thyroid receptor-interacting protein 13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIP13 gene. TRIP13 has been shown to ... "Two classes of proteins dependent on either the presence or absence of thyroid hormone for interaction with the thyroid hormone ... Suzuki H, Fukunishi Y, Kagawa I, Saito R, Oda H, Endo T, Kondo S, Bono H, Okazaki Y, Hayashizaki Y (Oct 2001). "Protein-protein ...
For example, sumoylation may affect a protein's localization in the cell, its ability to interact with other proteins or DNA. ... classes of human papillomavirus type 16 E1 mutants suggest pleiotropic conformational constraints affecting E1 multimerization ... Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. The UBC9 protein ... a novel mutant p53-specific protein partner with oncogenic properties". Oncogene. 18 (24): 3608-16. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202937 ...
AChR experiences multimerization within the post-synaptic membrane largely due to the signaling molecule Agrin. The axon of the ... BDNF-null mutants show significant defects in neuronal growth and synapse formation. Aside from neurotrophins, cell-adhesion ... Evidence for this can be seen in the up-regulation of genes expressing vesicle proteins shortly after synapse formation as well ... Recently data have emerged showing that the Wnt protein family has roles in the later development of synapse formation and ...
This suggests that these proteins are PTPrho substrates. PTPrho also dephosphorylates BCR protein. The ability of PTPrho to ... Over-expression of wild-type and catalytically inactive mutant forms of PTPrho result in an increase in the number of ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of Y912 results in increased multimerization of PTPrho, likely in cis, with other PTPrho molecules. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ...
In normal, non-mutant, cells FANCD2 is mono-ubiquinated in response to DNA damage. Activated FANCD2 protein co-localizes with ... "Oxidative stress/damage induces multimerization and interaction of Fanconi anemia proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (29): 30053-9. ... In the non-mutant mouse, FANCG protein is expressed in spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes and spermatocytes in the ... Fanconi anemia group G protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FANCG gene. FANCG, involved in Fanconi anemia, ...
Genetic engineering Protein engineering Mutant Chimeric Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... or multimerization (e.g., streptavidin or leucine zippers). Fusion proteins can also be manufactured with toxins or antibodies ... Examples include: Gag-onc fusion protein Bcr-abl fusion protein Tpr-met fusion protein Antibodies are fusion proteins produced ... Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created ...
... or postsynaptic density protein 93 (PSD-93) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLG2 gene. Chapsyn-110/PSD-93 a ... Hsueh YP, Kim E, Sheng M (1997). "Disulfide-linked head-to-head multimerization in the mechanism of ion channel clustering by ... Twenty four tests were carried out on homozygous mutant mice and five significant abnormalities were observed. Both sexes had ... Garcia RA, Vasudevan K, Buonanno A (2000). "The neuregulin receptor ErbB-4 interacts with PDZ-containing proteins at neuronal ...
Amongst known FANC proteins, most evidence points for a direct interaction primarily between FANCA protein and BRCA1. Evidence ... "Oxidative stress/damage induces multimerization and interaction of Fanconi anemia proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (29): 30053-9. ... FANCA mutant males exhibit an increased frequency of mispaired meiotic chromosomes, implying a role for FANCA in meiotic ... This mechanic is also supported by the protein-protein interactions between BRG1 and both BRCA1 and FANCA, that serve to ...
One of the first well-characterized mutants of EPX was a G→A transition resulting in a nonconservative mutation at the protein ... Eosinophil peroxidase has been demonstrated to oxidize tyrosine residues on proteins, which has also been implicated in ... Myeloperoxidase's characteristics are somewhat different, owing to its multimerization state as well as its alternative heme ... In fact, when the calcium ion is removed, the protein precipitates out of solution. The protein contains only a single modular ...
... despite unrelated protein sequences. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including ... upregulation of uncoupling proteins reduction of TNF-alpha Regulation of adiponectin Obesity is associated with decreased ... Liu M, Liu F (October 2012). "Up- and down-regulation of adiponectin expression and multimerization: mechanisms and therapeutic ... "Characterization and nucleotide binding properties of a mutant dihydropteridine reductase containing an aspartate 37-isoleucine ...
protein homodimerization activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • identical protein binding. • extracellular matrix structural ... the third is a 65-amino acid region with similarity to collagenous proteins; the last is a globular domain. Overall this ... "Characterization and nucleotide binding properties of a mutant dihydropteridine reductase containing an aspartate 37-isoleucine ... "Up- and down-regulation of adiponectin expression and multimerization: mechanisms and therapeutic implication". Biochimie. 94 ...
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are protein enzymes that remove phosphate moieties from tyrosine residues on other proteins. ... Gross S, Blanchetot C, Schepens J, Albet S, Lammers R, den Hertog J, Hendriks W (2002). "Multimerization of the protein- ... By blocking the expression of PTPmu protein with antisense technology, or by expressing catalytically inactive mutants of PTPmu ... Disruption of cadherin proteins, by genetic alteration or by changes to the structure or function of the protein, has been ...
The mutant VWF protein in types 2A, 2B and 2M are defective in their platelet-dependent function, whereas the mutant protein in ... in the von Willebrand factor propeptide that results in defective multimerization and secretion. Blood. 2000 Jul 15;96(2):560-8 ... a possible general mechanism for dominant mutations of oligomeric proteins. Blood. 2001 Nov 15;98(10):2973-9. PMID:11698279 ... GP1BA_HUMAN] GP-Ib, a surface membrane protein of platelets, participates in the formation of platelet plugs by binding to the ...
... and/or CD26 protein in their cell membrane, or from any cell type "engineered" to express such proteins. The resultant virions ... In addition,multimerization of these sequences (i.e., rev-responsive "CRS/CAR" or tat-responsive "TAR" elements for HIV) may be ... This nucleotide analog is toxic specifically for cells that express TK and thus a rare mutant in the TK gene ofDH would be ... 255:6947-6953, 1980), pokeweed antiviral protein (Irvin, Pharmac. Ther. 21:371-387,1983), antiviral protein (Barbieri et al., ...
Mutant Proteins / metabolism * Mutation / genetics* * Protein Binding * Protein Multimerization * Protein Processing, Post- ... Mutations that alter RcdA surface residues decouple protein localization and CtrA proteolysis in Caulobacter crescentus J Mol ... We assayed the ability of each RcdA variant to support CtrA proteolysis and polar protein localization in Caulobacter. Deletion ... CtrA and the AAA+ protease ClpXP colocalize at one cell pole along with three accessory proteins, RcdA, CpdR, and PopA, and ...
Protein multimerization‎ (175 В). *. ► Muscle proteins‎ (3 К, 27 В). *. ► Mutant proteins‎ (1 К, 99 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzyme consists of two catalytic (C) subunits and a regulatory (R) subunit dimer (R(2)C(2)). The ... Mutant Proteins / metabolism * Oligopeptides / pharmacology * Protein Multimerization / drug effects * Protein Structure, ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / chemistry * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / ... Protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzyme consists of two catalytic (C) subunits and a regulatory (R) subunit dimer (R(2)C(2)). The ...
This notion is supported further by the properties of mutant proteins that seem to be frozen, in either the nonmultimerized or ... ATP binding to the sigma 54-dependent activator XylR triggers a protein multimerization cycle catalyzed by UAS DNA.. Pérez- ... ATP hydrolysis by XylR, the cognate regulator of the system, is preceded by the multimerization of XylR at the enhancer, which ... is itself triggered by the sole allosteric effect of ATP binding to the protein. Since ADP is unable to support multimerization ...
Proteins are essential for all known forms of life and in many lethal diseases protein failure is the cause of the disease. To ... Similar results were found for the S677/680A mutant of the protein. The nature and importance of the excited state is still ... Multimerization of the kinase domain may enable the assembly of complexes of downstream proteins and could be important for Eph ... to detect millisecond dynamics at Cα positions in proteins, using the CPMG dispersion relaxation experiment at lower protein ...
Researchers at Juntendo University report in the journal Leukemia how mutants of the protein calreticulin lead to molecular ... misfolded proteins, triggering their degradation. Mutant CALR, in turn, is known to promote the activation of another protein, ... Araki and colleagues could attribute the multimerization to particular chemical motifs in the mutant molecules. The researchers ... Researchers at Juntendo University report in the journal Leukemia how mutants of the protein calreticulin lead to molecular ...
D) Yeast two-hybrid analysis of mutant Tsg101 protein multimerization. Y190 cells were transformed with GAL4-Tsg101 along with ... protein. In fact, each of the A1 to A5 mutant Tsg101(303-390) proteins proved to be fully capable of binding to the full-length ... Yeast two-hybrid assays.Assays of protein-protein interaction in yeast were done with GAL4 and VP16 fusion protein expression ... mutant A3]), we examined whether the series of alanine scanning mutants were capable of multimerization in the context of a ...
The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between mutant huntingtin (Htt) and mitochondrial dynamics in the ... Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics, metabolism*. Nuclear Proteins / genetics, metabolism*. Protein Multimerization*. RNA, ... 0/Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins; 0/HTT protein, human; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0/Nuclear Proteins; 0/RNA, ... The mutant Htt oligomers and the mitochondrial structural proteins were quantified in the striatum and frontal cortex of HD ...
The wild-type and bpss1439 mutant were grown i ... The bpss1439 mutant displayed reduced biofilm formation which ... The autotransporters are a large and diverse family of bacterial secreted and outer membrane proteins, which are present in ... Protein Multimerization*. Minor. *Animals. *Bacterial Adhesion/genetics. *Melioidosis/microbiology. *Mice. *Mutation. * ... The bpss1439 mutant demonstrated a significant reduction in biofilm formation at 48 hours in comparison to its parent 10276 ...
Differential susceptibility of NSP4 mutant proteins to trypsin digestion.To determine if multimerization of oligomers into ... 10, all the mutants, with the exception of the C-terminal methionine mutant Hgm15, required 100-fold more protein to bind DLPs ... Trypsin digestion of NSP4 mutant proteins.Aliquots of 10 μg each of the NSP4 mutant proteins dialyzed against 10 mM Tris-HCl ( ... Analysis of the purified N-terminal deletion mutants of NSP4.All the mutant proteins used in this study were soluble when ...
Impaired multimerization of human adiponectin mutants associated with diabetes. Molecular structure and multimer formation of ... Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and leads to the activation of unfolded ... Protein Lysates, Immunoprecipitation, and Western Blot. Protein lysate, cytosol and nuclear protein extraction, ... protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6, ER protein 44, and disulfide bond oxidoreductase A-like protein. Thus, we ...
... encodes a periplasmic binding protein that is most similar to proteins from the periplasmic oligopeptide binding protein family ... Another mutant, altered in the DMI3 gene, has a similar mutant phenotype to dmi1 and dmi2 mutants but displays normal calcium ... protein multimerization, and interaction with RNA polymerase at nod gene promoters. ... similar to sunn mutants. In contrast with the sunn-1 mutant, nodulation in the lss mutant is more extensive and is less ...
Adsorbed proteins were detected using a rabbit polyclonal anti-C4BP Ab. E, Adsorbed rWT C4BP or deletion mutants lacking ... The α-chain is composed of eight CCP domains with the C-terminal region that is responsible for multimerization of a single ... Visualization of human C4b-binding protein and its complexes with vitamin K-dependent protein S and complement protein C4b. ... Human C4b-binding protein has overlapping, but not identical, binding sites for C4b and streptococcal M proteins. J. Immunol. ...
Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism. *Protein Binding/drug effects. *Protein Multimerization/drug effects ... Superoxide dismutase-1 mutations decrease protein stability and promote aggregation. The mutant monomer is thought to be an ... Superoxide dismutase-1 mutations decrease protein stability and promote aggregation. The mutant monomer is thought to be an ... Here we find that the monomeric copper-apo, zinc-holo protein is structurally perturbed and the apo-protein aggregates without ...
Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing AXH domain in the selected ... Expansion of this tract is believed to result in a gain of function by the mutant protein, perhaps through altered self- ... and instead localized the multimerization region to amino acids 495-605 of the wild type protein. These results, while ... Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing AXH domain.. This tree includes only several representative species. The complete ...
Mutants of the TRF2 protein impaired in various functions (multimerization, wrapping, DNA binding) are constructed and analyzed ... Telomeres are constructed around specialized proteins that bind the telomeric DNA such as the protein TRF2 which plays a vital ... In our model, the t-loop is formed and stabilized by a process driven by protein-protein association and topological ... for their physical (NMR, X-ray crystallography, SAXS, AFM), biochemical (DNA-protein, protein-protein interactions, DNA ...
This demonstrates that duplications within the N-terminal oligomerization domains of CFHR proteins can cause multimerization, ... a mutant CFHR1 protein with internal duplication of exons II-IV in the CFHR1 gene (41) and a CFHR3/CFHR1 hybrid protein (42) ... This chromosomal deletion manifests on the protein level. Plasma of both patients had lower levels of CFHR2 and CFHR5 proteins ... The CFHR21,2-CFHR5 protein binds to C3b and competes with factor H for C3b binding. The CFHR21,2-CFHR5 hybrid protein was ...
These basic region mutants were not able to bind to DNA as heterodimers with the wild-type E47 proteins, demonstrating that two ... The effect of site-directed mutagenesis on E47 protein multimerization and DNA binding was examined. Mutations in either ... structure was recognized recently in a number of regulatory proteins, including the E47 and E12 proteins that bind to the kappa ... Mutations that disrupt DNA binding and dimer formation in the E47 helix-loop-helix protein map to distinct domains.. A Voronova ...
Next, we investigated the multimerization of the p7-RR/QQ mutant and wild-type JFH-1 p7, as well as their interaction with Core ... we tested all fusion proteins in two combinations: YFP-protein A with CFP-protein B, and YFP-protein B with CFP-protein A. ... 2003) Protein-protein interactions between hepatitis C virus nonstructural proteins. J. Virol. 77, 5401-5414. ... 2011) NS2 protein of hepatitis C virus interacts with structural and non-structural proteins towards virus assembly. PLoS ...
A suppressor screen of dominant-negative synaptotagmin-induced lethality in Drosophila identifies key properties of the protein ... In terms of whether the mutant proteins can alter the lethality of the syt1 null, we performed a new set of experiments to ... Protein quantification at the single vesicle level reveals that a subset of synaptic vesicle proteins are trafficked with high ... Multiple studies suggest Syt1 multimerization may be important in vivo. As such, we next explored the stability of the Syt1 ...
Mad mutant cDNAs were cloned into the XbaI and KpnI sites in pUAST (Brand and Perrimon, 1993). SMAD4 mutant cDNAs (Schutte et ... whereas all of the tested mutations in the multimerization domain are loss of function, indicates that missense mutations in ... DNA-binding domain mutations in SMAD genes yield dominant-negative proteins or a neomorphic protein that can activate WG target ... DNA-binding domain mutations in SMAD genes yield dominant-negative proteins or a neomorphic protein that can activate WG target ...
... and PSD-95 wild-type and mutants in COS cells and neurons, they suggest that the assembly of PSD proteins at synapses may also ... Shank1 multimerization. Two possible direct mechanisms of Shank multimerization have been previously described: Naisbitt et al ... Cell lysate (∼100 μg of total protein) or 0.6 nmol of purified recombinant protein was added to the GST fusion protein-loaded ... GKAP may therefore function as scaffolding proteins that link PSD protein complexes to motor proteins (Naisbitt et al., 2000). ...
... not only binds to Egr proteins but also mediates multimerization of NAB molecules. The activating mutants exert a dominant ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... Novel mutants of NAB corepressors enhance activation by Egr transactivators. Svaren, J., Sevetson, B.R., Golda, T., Stanton, J. ... Novel mutants of NAB corepressors enhance activation by Egr transactivators.. The NGFI-A binding corepressors NAB1 and NAB2 ...
  • In addition, mutation of a putative leucine zipper or residues important for Tsg101 multimerization also impairs the ability of Tsg101 to support HIV-1 budding. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, mutation of either the SAM (sterile α motif) or TIR (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor) domains abolishes the ability of SARM to promote axonal degeneration, while a SARM mutant containing only these domains elicits axon degeneration and nonapoptotic neuronal death even in the absence of injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • We now identify the homozygous mutation in the Chapel Hill strain of canine type 3 VWD that results in premature termination of von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein synthesis. (lonza.com)
  • In addition, a mutant derivative with the Cys100Ser mutation was identified as an improved version which did not form dimers or multimers. (dissertation.com)
  • We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however Q388stop mutation results in elevated steady-state levels and more frequent nuclear aggregation of the protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both wild-type protein and its mutants negatively affect neurite network complexity of unstimulated cultured neurons when overexpressed, with Q388stop mutation being the most deleterious. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this report, employing a large number of methods and deletion and amino acid substitution mutants, we provide evidence for the cooperation between the extreme C terminus and a putative amphipathic α-helix located between aa 73 and 85 (AAH 73-85 ) at the N terminus of ΔN72, a mutant that lacked the N-terminal 72 aa of nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) from Hg18 and SA11. (asm.org)
  • Rev is a 116 amino acid protein and can be divided into three discrete function domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EHEC O157:H7 Tir is a 558-amino-acid protein inserted into the host cell plasma membrane in a hairpin loop conformation ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • A targeting assay using a few AtObgC N-terminal truncation mutants revealed that AtObgC localizes to chloroplasts and its transit peptide consists of more than 50 amino acid residues. (deepdyve.com)
  • In essence, any nucleotide bias reduces the probability for generating specific amino acid substitutions that may be required at key positions along the protein, dramatically reducing the potential for recovering protein variants with a desired set of properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical experience with all HIV-1 agents has clearly demonstrated the ability of HIV-1 to easily evade the antiviral effects of any monotherapeutic drug administration strategy through the rapid accumulation of amino acid changes in the targeted proteins-reverse transcriptase, protease, envelope, and integrase [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Because the gene encoding the primary protein structure is generally expressed in a host system foreign to that in which it is normally transcribed and translated, the resultant product protein, while having the correct amino acid sequence, has different characteristics from the native protein. (google.com)
  • The putative 622-amino acid protein has a leucine-zipper motif at its N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, various recombinant hosts are thought to have differing environments with respect to the level of oxidation or reduction that normally is associated with the cellular components, resulting in recombinant proteins with disulfide bond compositions which differ from those of the native protein, and, in general, altered three-dimensional dimensional structures. (google.com)
  • The outcome of the most intensively studied Wnt pathway - the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway - relies to a large extent on the regulation of the stability/abundance of the β-catenin protein ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with organic disulfides, preferably glutathione disulfide, or with inorganic compounds of similar function results in a bFGF composition of enhanced stability and resistance to multimerization. (google.com)
  • The T4bPS secretins require small periplasmic proteins for stability and multimerization [, ] that also have putative N0 domains. (nih.gov)
  • Nullbasic also altered the subcellular localizations of Rev and other cellular proteins, including CRM1, B23 and C23 in a Rev-dependent manner, suggesting that Nullbasic may disrupt Rev function and trafficking by intervening with an unidentified component of the Rev nucleocytoplasmic transport complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To seek a possible mechanism that could explain how Nullbasic inhibits Rev activity, we used a proteomics approach to identify host cellular proteins that interact with Nullbasic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, it is well established that PTB recruitment in internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activates the translation of picornaviral and cellular proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The protein is localized in the outer membrane, with the C-terminal 479 amino acids of the Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin protein (invasin pstb ) exposed on the bacterial cell surface ( 22 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • These genes encode mutated forms of penicillin-binding protein 1 (PBP 1) ( 27 ) and PBP 2 ( 36 ), the major outer membrane protein PorB IB ( 24 ), the type IV pilus secretin protein PilQ ( 44 ), and the transcriptional repressor MtrR ( 14 , 25 ), which negatively regulates the expression of the mtrCDE -encoded efflux pump. (asm.org)
  • In Aeromonas hydrophila, outer membrane multimerization of the type II secretion system (T2SS) secretin ExeD requires the function of the inner membrane assembly factor complex ExeAB. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results support an assembly model in which, upon binding to PG, ExeA induces multimerization and pore formation in the sacculus, which enables ExeD monomers to interact with ExeB and assemble into a secretin that both is inserted in the outer membrane and crosses the PG layer to interact with the inner membrane platform of the T2SS. (diva-portal.org)
  • Secretins form megadalton bacterial-membrane channels in at least four sophisticated multiprotein systems that are crucial for translocation of proteins and assembled fibers across the outer membrane of many species of bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • At the onset of DNA replication (the G1-S cell cycle transition), CtrA and the AAA+ protease ClpXP colocalize at one cell pole along with three accessory proteins, RcdA, CpdR, and PopA, and CtrA is rapidly degraded. (nih.gov)
  • Rif1 suppresses origin firing in the mid-late replication domains by generating replication-suppressive chromatin architecture and by recruiting a protein phosphatase. (asm.org)
  • We had previously found mrc1 mutants can weakly bypass the Hsk1 function and also had shown that replication timing is altered in mrc1 mutants ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Our goal is to test the hypothesis that expression of Vif1-resistant A3G and A3F proteins in HIV-1 target cells will reduce viral loads and control HIV-1 replication. (cancer.gov)
  • Based on their observations, the scientists propose that the actual activation happens through homomultimeric mutant CALR interacting simultaneously with two MPL molecules, which in turn triggers the formation of JAK2 and subsequent biochemical signalling pathways during MPN development. (news-medical.net)
  • To characterize the biochemical function of rice Os1BGlu4, the Os1bglu4 cDNA was cloned and used to express a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. (jove.com)
  • It is also sometimes referred to as "ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2I" or "ubiquitin carrier protein 9", even though these names do not accurately describe its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumoylation is a process in which a Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) is covalently attached to other proteins in order to modify their behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study identifies a new role for UBQLN in regulating the maturation of autophagy, expanding the involvement of ubiquitin‐related proteins in this process. (embopress.org)
  • Yeast cells that express a K63R mutant of ubiquitin are compromised in DNA repair, but proteolysis is not affected in these cells ( 23 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In contrast to the extensive amount of data on ubiquitin chain formation ( 19 , 24 , 25 ), very little is known about multimerization of ubiquitin-like proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is highly conserved and belongs to the growing family of ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) involved in post-translational protein modification. (bostonbiochem.com)
  • SUMO proteins only have 10% primary sequence homology to ubiquitin, but they possess the characteristic ubiquitin-fold tertiary structure. (bostonbiochem.com)
  • Active transport utilizes motor proteins, namely the kinesin superfamily (KIFs) for anterograde transport, and cytoplasmic dynein for retrograde transport. (frontiersin.org)
  • Motor proteins not actively involved in transporting cargoes should remain inactive at sites of cargo loading to save energy and remain available for loading. (embopress.org)
  • Within the cell, it stands to reason that activation of motor proteins is tightly regulated to save energy and keep motors at sites of cargo loading ( Hackney et al , 1992 ). (embopress.org)
  • In addition to soluble proteins and organelles, autophagy can degrade insoluble inclusions ( Williams et al , 2006 ) and even bacteria ( Deretic, 2005 ). (embopress.org)
  • are synthesized as soluble proteins in the cytosol. (biologists.org)
  • When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. (jove.com)
  • With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. (jove.com)
  • Yet, when produced in Escherichia coli, EssB remains mostly soluble and the purified protein assembles into a highly organized oligomer that can be visualized by electron microscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HCV genome is translated into a polyprotein which is proteolytically processed into 10 viral proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Dengue, West Nile, or yellow fever virus NS1 directly associated with C4b binding protein (C4BP), a complement regulatory plasma protein that attenuates the classical and lectin pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • C4b binding protein (C4BP) is the primary fluid-phase regulator of the CP and lectin pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • To analyze DNA substrate specificities in this process, we designed recombination experiments such that coinfection of simian virus 40 mutant pairs generated heteroduplexes with distinctly unpaired regions. (asm.org)
  • Phenotypic analysis of a suite of double mutants lacking both SS5 and other proteins implicated in starch granule initiation allows us to propose how SS5 may act in this process. (plantcell.org)
  • By interrogating and integrating online resources, we have mined for genes/proteins that display transcriptional co-expression or PPI with the core centromere/kinetochore components. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bpss1439 mutant demonstrated a significant reduction in biofilm formation at 48 hours in comparison to its parent 10276 wild-type strain. (nih.gov)
  • Examination of the wild-type and bpss1439 mutant strains under biofilm-inducing conditions by microscopy after 48 hours confirmed that the bpss1439 mutant produced less biofilm compared to wild-type. (nih.gov)
  • In a murine melioidosis model, the bpss1439 mutant strain demonstrated a moderate attenuation for virulence compared to the wild-type strain. (nih.gov)
  • The wild-type and bpss1439 mutant were grown in LB under static conditions at 37°C for 48 hours. (nih.gov)
  • The trans-complemented bpss1439 mutant (pME-1439), as well as the wild-type and bpss1439 pME strain, were also assessed for biofilm production as described previously. (nih.gov)
  • To assess if the unstudied predicted TAA encoded by bpss1439 has a role in either of these phenotypes, a comparative analysis of the bpss1439 mutant and its parent wild-type 10276 strain was performed. (nih.gov)
  • the bpss1439 mutant and wild-type strains demonstrated the same level of autoagglutination (data not shown). (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with this finding, deletion analysis excluded the involvement of the polyglutamine tract in ataxin-1 self-association, and instead localized the multimerization region to amino acids 495-605 of the wild type protein. (embl.de)
  • However, the two proteins are organized in clusters in COS cells and synaptic clusters in neurons when both are overexpressed and associated with wild-type PSD-95, but not with palmitoylation-deficient PSD-95. (jneurosci.org)
  • By contrast, emerging data suggest that the wild-type Malt1 protein uniquely contributes to NF-κB activation primarily through the control of two proteolytic cleavage mechanisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Initial descriptions of the activity of the wild-type Malt1 protein were based in large part upon analogy with the mechanism of NF-κB signaling by cIAP2-Malt1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Early models postulated that the wild-type Malt1 protein becomes oligomerized and ubiquitinates the IKK complex following antigen receptor engagement, and that this ubiquitination activity of Malt1 was both required for and uniquely responsible for antigen receptor activation of NF-κB. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, hormone release is rescued by expressing a wild-type SNAP-25 protein resistant to the toxin. (biologists.org)
  • Nevertheless, loss of SS5 reduces starch granule numbers that form per chloroplast in Arabidopsis, and ss5 mutant starch granules are larger than wild-type granules. (plantcell.org)
  • Nevertheless, overexpression from the wild-type proteins of these variations is changing in cell tradition, unlike their p110 cousin . (welbourneprimary.com)
  • When overexpressed in the fly eye, wild-type CREST or its mutants lead to severe retinal degeneration without obvious differences between the variants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many of the mutated BarA proteins had poor complementation activity but could counteract the activity of the wild-type sensor in a dominant-negative fashion. (asm.org)
  • MLIV-causing mutants of TRPML1 also interacted with wild-type TRPML1. (trpchannel.org)
  • The binding of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica invasin proteins to β 1 integrin receptors allows internalization of these organisms by cultured cells. (asm.org)
  • The mutant monomer is thought to be an intermediate in the pathway from the superoxide dismutase-1 dimer to aggregate. (nih.gov)
  • Here we find that the monomeric copper-apo, zinc-holo protein is structurally perturbed and the apo-protein aggregates without reattainment of the monomer-dimer equilibrium. (nih.gov)
  • though it is unknown whether a Syt1 monomer or oligomer represents the active state of the protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • The activating mutants exert a dominant negative effect on NAB repression by multimerizing with native NAB proteins and preventing binding of endogenous NAB proteins with Egr transactivators. (wikigenes.org)
  • Because of their specific ability to alleviate NAB repression of Egr target genes, the dominant negative NAB mutants will be useful in elucidating the mechanism and function of NAB corepressors. (wikigenes.org)
  • To get this hypothesis we demonstrate the fact that E4-ORF3 L103A mutant proteins works as a dominant-negative effector when coexpressed using the WT E4-ORF3 in mammalian cells. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • Gain-of-function mutants are also seen, and are characterized by increased microtubule-on rates and hypermotility. (frontiersin.org)
  • The BchI and BchD subunits belong to the family of AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) and form a two-ring complex with six BchI subunits in one layer and six BchD subunits in the other layer. (lu.se)