Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
Nurses professionally qualified in administration.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
A group of metabolic disorders primarily of infancy characterized by the subacute onset of psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, ataxia, weakness, vision loss, eye movement abnormalities, seizures, dysphagia, and lactic acidosis. Pathological features include spongy degeneration of the neuropile of the basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Patterns of inheritance include X-linked recessive, autosomal recessive, and mitochondrial. Leigh disease has been associated with mutations in genes for the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX; CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE; ATP synthase subunit 6; and subunits of mitochondrial complex I. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p850).
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The genus of lion tamarins in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE. The common name refers to the mane on the shoulders.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (1/3817)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (2/3817)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. (3/3817)

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

Telomeric repeats on small polydisperse circular DNA (spcDNA) and genomic instability. (4/3817)

Small polydisperse circular DNA (spcDNA) is a heterogeneous population of extrachromosomal circular molecules present in a large variety of eukaryotic cells. Elevated amounts of total spcDNA are related to endogenous and induced genomic instability in rodent and human cells. We suggested spcDNA as a novel marker for genomic instability, and speculated that spcDNA might serve as a mutator. In this study, we examine the presence of telomeric sequences on spcDNA. We report for the first time the appearance of telomeric repeats in spcDNA molecules (tel-spcDNA) in rodent and human cells. Restriction enzyme analysis indicates that tel-spcDNA molecules harbor mostly, if not exclusively, telomeric repeats. In rodent cells, tel-spcDNA levels are higher in transformed than in normal cells and are enhanced by treatment with carcinogen. Tel-spcDNA is also detected in some human tumors and cell lines, but not in others. We suggest, that its levels in human cells may be primarily related to the amount of the chromosomal telomeric sequences. Tel-spcDNA may serve as a unique mutator, through specific mechanisms related to the telomeric repeats, which distinguish it from the total heterogeneous spcDNA population. It may affect telomere dynamics and genomic instability by clastogenic events, alterations of telomere size and sequestration of telomeric proteins.  (+info)

The effect of cotinine or cigarette smoke co-administration on the formation of O6-methylguanine adducts in the lung and liver of A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (5/3817)

4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, induces lung adenomas in A/J mice, following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. However, inhalation of tobacco smoke has not induced or promoted tumors in these mice. NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis is thought to involve O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) formation, leading to GC-->AT transitional mispairing and an activation of the K-ras proto-oncogene in the A/J mouse. NNK can be metabolized by several different cytochromes P450, resulting in a number of metabolites. Formation of the promutagenic DNA adduct O6MeG is believed to require metabolic activation of NNK by cytochrome P450-mediated alpha-hydroxylation of the methylene group adjacent to the N-nitroso nitrogen to yield the unstable intermediate, methanediazohydroxide. Nicotine, cotinine (the major metabolite of nicotine), and aqueous cigarette tar extract (ACTE) have all been shown to effectively inhibit metabolic activation of NNK to its mutagenic form, most likely due to competitive inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in alpha-hydroxylation of NNK. The objective of the current study was to monitor the effects of cotinine and cigarette smoke (CS) on the formation of O6MeG in target tissues of mice during the acute phase of NNK treatment. To test the effect of cotinine, mature female A/J mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of NNK (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mumole/mouse) with cotinine administered at a total dose of 50 mumole/mouse in 3 separate i.p. injections, administered 30 min before, immediately after, and 30 min after NNK treatment. To test the effect of whole smoke exposure on NNK-related O6MeG formation, mice were exposed to smoke generated from Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarettes at 0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 mg wet total particulate matter/liter (WTPM/L) for 2 h, with a single i.p. injection of NNK (0, 3.75, or 7.5 mumole/mouse) midway through the exposure. Cigarette smoke alone failed to yield detectable levels of O6MeG. The number of O6MeG adducts following i.p. injection of NNK was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in both lung and liver by cotinine and by cigarette smoke exposure. Our results demonstrate that NNK-induced O6MeG DNA adducts in A/J mice are significantly reduced when NNK is administered together with either cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, or the parental complex mixture, cigarette smoke.  (+info)

Direct selection for mutators in Escherichia coli. (6/3817)

We have constructed strains that allow a direct selection for mutators of Escherichia coli on a single plate medium. The plate selection is based on using two different markers whose reversion is enhanced by a given mutator. Plates containing limiting amounts of each respective nutrient allow the growth of ghost colonies or microcolonies that give rise to full-size colonies only if a reversion event occurs. Because two successive mutational events are required, mutator cells are favored to generate full-size colonies. Reversion of a third marker allows direct visualization of the mutator phenotype by the large number of blue papillae in the full-size colonies. We also describe plate selections involving three successive nutrient markers followed by a fourth papillation step. Different frameshift or base substitution mutations are used to select for mismatch-repair-defective strains (mutHLS and uvrD). We can detect and monitor mutator cells arising spontaneously, at frequencies lower than 10(-5) in the population. Also, we can measure a mutator cascade, in which one type of mutator (mutT) generates a second mutator (mutHLS) that then allows stepwise frameshift mutations. We discuss the relevance of mutators arising on a single medium as a result of cells overcoming successive growth barriers to the development and progression of cancerous tumors, some of which are mutator cell lines.  (+info)

Reverse genetic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans presenilins reveals redundant but unequal roles for sel-12 and hop-1 in Notch-pathway signaling. (7/3817)

Mutations in the human presenilin genes PS1 and PS2 cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mice indicate that one function of presenilin genes is to facilitate Notch-pathway signaling. Notably, mutations in the C. elegans presenilin gene sel-12 reduce signaling through an activated version of the Notch receptor LIN-12. To investigate the function of a second C. elegans presenilin gene hop-1 and to examine possible genetic interactions between hop-1 and sel-12, we used a reverse genetic strategy to isolate deletion alleles of both loci. Animals bearing both hop-1 and sel-12 deletions displayed new phenotypes not observed in animals bearing either single deletion. These new phenotypes-germ-line proliferation defects, maternal-effect embryonic lethality, and somatic gonad defects-resemble those resulting from a reduction in signaling through the C. elegans Notch receptors GLP-1 and LIN-12. Thus SEL-12 and HOP-1 appear to function redundantly in promoting Notch-pathway signaling. Phenotypic analyses of hop-1 and sel-12 single and double mutant animals suggest that sel-12 provides more presenilin function than does hop-1.  (+info)

Functional analysis of the promoter of the yeast SNQ2 gene encoding a multidrug resistance transporter that confers the resistance to 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide. (8/3817)

The yeast gene SNQ2, which encodes a multidrug resistance ABC superfamily protein, is required for resistance to the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4-NQO). The expression of the SNQ2 gene is under the control of a regulatory network that involves the transcription factor Yrr1p, as well as Pdr1p/Pdr3p (Cui et al., Mol. Microbiol., 29, 1307-1315 (1998)). By 5'-deletion analysis of the promoter by using SNQ2-lacZ fusion constructs, four regions: -745 to -639 (region I), -639 to -578 (region II), -548 to -533 (region III) and -533 to -485 (region IV) were found to be important for SNQ2 expression. Genetic analysis suggested that the site in region IV was responsible for the Yrr1p-mediated SNQ2 expression. A consensus motif known for the binding of Pdr1p/Pdr3p (PDRE) was not found in region IV.  (+info)

Usually, a particular mutagen/carcinogen forms adducts at many sites in DNA, making it impossible to determine which type of adduct causes which mutation and why. Adduct site-specific mutagenesis studies, in which a single adduct is built into a vector, can be used to overcome this problem. The adduct can be situated in double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA or in a single-stranded gap, and the benefit and concerns associated with each are addressed. An adduct site-specific study is most useful when it is compared to a mutagenesis study with its corresponding mutagen/carcinogen. Mutations induced by a particular mutagen/carcinogen can be influenced by DNA sequence context, mutagen/carcinogen dose (and other changes in conditions), level of SOS induction, cell type and other factors. Thus, it is important to match the conditions of the adduct study versus the mutagen/ carcinogen study as closely as possible. DNA sequence context can profoundly affect the quantitative and qualitative pattern of ...
2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a strong mutagen/carcinogen, belongs to a group of heterocyclic amines that are formed (ng/g amounts) during the cooking of protein containing food. The mutational specificity of IQ in Escherichia coli was determined in a forward mutation assay using the yeast URA3 gene as a target. The plasmid pTU-AC, containing the target URA3, was randomly modified in vitro using N-hydroxy-IQ, and subsequently transformed into an E. coli pyrF strain (DB6656). Mutant clones were directly selected by their ability to grow on medium containing 5-fluoro-orotic acid which is toxic to URA3+ clones and thereby selects for URA3- mutants. Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) was used to map the mutation-containing regions of URA3, so that it was necessary to sequence only the relevant, mutation-containing fragment and not the entire gene. At a modification level of 7 IQ-lesions/URA3 gene, the predominant mutations were base substitutions (approximately 70%), ...
www.MOLUNA.de Chemical Mutagens [4200674] - The best protection against environmental mutagens is to identify them before they ever come into general use. But it is always possible that some substance will escape detection and affect a large number of persons without this being realized until later generations. This article considers ways in which such a
Rapid and Sensitive RP-HPLC Method for Determination of Potential Genotoxic Impurity in Dasatinib Drug Substance, Sunil V Lanke, Sajid Syed Shahnawaz, Dhramveer Singh Shekhawat, Ni
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and epigenetic effects of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. AU - Pulliero, Alessandra. AU - Cao, Jia. AU - Vasques, Luciana Dos Reis. AU - Pacchierotti, Francesca. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84939522891&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84939522891&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1155/2015/608054. DO - 10.1155/2015/608054. M3 - Review article. C2 - 26345645. VL - 2015. SP - -. JO - BioMed Research International. JF - BioMed Research International. SN - 2314-6133. M1 - 608054. ER - ...
The S-12 fractions of lung peripheral parenchyma obtained from 80 male individuals, aged 17-71 years, were assayed as blind samples for the ability either to convert promutagens into bacterial mutagens or to decrease the potency of direct-acting mutagens in the Ames reversion test. In this system, lung preparations were completely ineffective in activating an N-nitroso compound (i.e., N-nitrosoniorpholine) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [i.e., 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene] or their metabolites [i.e., 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene-trans-7,8-diol]. They yielded a borderline and sporadic activation of a cigarette smoke condensate, and a weak but frequent activation of an aromatic amine (i.e., 2-aminofluorene), of a heterocyclic amine (i.e., 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) and of a diamide (i.e., cyclophosphamide). The pulmonary metabolism was more oriented in the sense of detoxification, as shown by the consistent decrease of potency of direct-acting ...
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This paper describes a new program SnpSift for filtering differential DNA sequence variants between two or more experimental genomes after genotoxic chemical exposure. Here, we illustrate how SnpSift can be used to identify candidate phenotype-relevant variants including single nucleotide polymorphi …
The three-dimensional structure of a DNA-damaging bacterial toxin has...The toxin called cytolethal distending toxin or CDT is used by bact...Principal investigator C. Erec Stebbins Ph.D. who conducted the rese... CDT may be a carcinogen because it damages DNA says Stebbins assi...While normal cells regularly replicate or make exact copies of themse...,Molecular,image,of,genotoxin,reveals,how,bacteria,damage,human,DNA,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Mutagens change DNA by punching holes in it or forcing parts of DNA to stay bound together even when they should separate, according to the Irish Cancer Society. Some mutagens also affect the way DNA...
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Safe Method of Use 13 Compounds that have Chronic Toxicity HSNO Categories 6.5 to 6.8 (Sensitisers, Carcinogenic Compounds, Mutagenic Compounds/ and Reproductive Toxins) HSNO Categories 6.5 to 6.8 (compounds
Human biological monitoring uses samples of body fluids or other easily obtainable biological material for the measurement of exposure to specific or...
2. Adjust to pH 7.0. 3. Autoclave for 30 minutes at 1.2 bar and 120 C. 4. Pour into petri dishes (60 - 90 mm in diameter with ventilation) under sterile conditions and allow to solidify.. 5. Wrap into a plastic bag and store at 4 C. ...
This public hearing was linked to the ongoing discussions on the legislative proposal amending Directive 2004/37/EC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work (rapporteur Claude Rolin (EPP, FR). The presentation of the proposal by Commissioner Marianne Thyssen was followed by presentations of representatives from OSHA, social partners, and an academic expert, as well as an exchange of views with Members. ...
The observation that MEKK1 can be proteolyzed to very specific fragments prompted us to determine whether p35 or CrmA could inhibit the generation of fragments A, B, C, and D. Figure 6A shows that p35 almost totally and CrmA partially inhibited the appearance of fragments B and C. Quantitation of the fragments in six independent experiments revealed that CrmA and p35, while leaving the relative proportion of fragment A unchanged, diminished the relative proportion of fragment B by 50 and 90%, respectively. This result indicates that these protease inhibitors prevented the formation of fragments B and C but had no effect on the proteolytic activity that cleaves MEKK1 into fragment A. Since the cleavage of MEKK1 into fragment A was unaffected by CrmA and p35, it was surprising to find that the amount of fragment D, the corresponding moiety of fragment A, was reduced in the presence of the inhibitors (Fig. 6A, right panel). However, since fragment D could be derived from fragment C, blocking the ...
Save and buy the Honeywell TP972A2002/U Pneumatic Thermostat Direct Acting Heating, Reverse Acting Cooling online - Honeywell is great for DIY projects.
A mutagen is a substance that increases the frequency of mutation in a plant or animal population. The consequences of mutation...
Millions of pounds of pharmaceuticals that can act as mutagens have been released into American waterways, including those that provide drinking water. The drugs range from antibiotics and opiates to tranquilizers.
Mutagens and managers, a chapter by Brian Martin in Intellectual Suppression: Australian Case Histories, Analysis and Responses, 1986
This is an independent optional sub-study parallel to TARGET-HCC (NCT02954094). The purpose of Direct-Acting Antiviral-Post Authorization Safety Study (DA
Humans have been breeding plants for thousands of years, and agriculture was a watershed in our evolution. Plants are bred to exhibit desirable traits, a process that was sometimes helped along by spontaneous mutations - such as the mutation that brought us sticky rice about 1,000 years ago (Ronald, 88). New techniques have developed over […]. ...
Genotoxicity refers to the destructive effects of mutagens such as high energy radiation and chemicals on cellular nucleic acids, particularly nuclear DNA.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect. . ...
BioAssay record AID 399992 submitted by ChEMBL: Mutagenic activity in Salmonella TA 98 by microsome assay in presence of rat liver S9 fraction.
Many studies have shown the presence of numerous organic genotoxins and carcinogens in drinking water. These toxic substances derive not only from pollution, but also from the disinfection treatments, particularly when water is obtained from surface sources and then chlorinated. Most of the chlorinated compounds in drinking water are nonvolatile and are difficult to characterize. Thus, it has been proposed to study such complex mixtures using short-term genotoxicity tests predictive of carcinogenic activity. Mutagenicity of water before and after disinfection has mainly been studied by the Salmonella/microsome (Ames test); in vitro genotoxicity tests have also been performed in yeasts and mammalian cells; in situ monitoring of genotoxins has also been performed using complete organisms such as aquatic animals or plants (in vivo). The combination of bioassay data together with results of chemical analyses would give us a more firm basis for the assessment of human health risks related to the ...
Large-scale initiatives, such as ToxCast, promote a shift in the paradigm for regulatory evaluations of new and existing substances; specifically, away from time-consuming in vivo assays towards predictive, short-term in vitro assays. Unfortunately, the assays included in such initiatives are ill-equipped to assess chemically-induced genetic damage and mutation. Moreover, many currently used mammalian cell genotoxicity assays generate an unacceptably high frequency of false or irrelevant positive results with respect to in vivo mutagenicity and/or carcinogenicity. A novel in vitro gene mutation assay utilizing primary hepatocytes from the transgenic Muta™Mouse was been developed to address the shortfalls of existing in vitro mutagenicity assays. In order to assess the utility of the Muta™Mouse primary hepatocyte assay, the cells were extensively characterized. Freshly isolated cells were found to have a hepatocyte-like morphology, with a large proportion of binucleated cells. After 24 hours ...
Nowadays, there are increasing numbers of studies about synthetic chemicals according to the supply demands of bioactive chemicals. The current study aims to investigate genotoxic potential of bioactive synthetic pyridine compounds, phenyl-3-pyridinylmethanone (1), p-tolyl-3-pyridinylmethanone (2), and 4-methoxyphenyl-3-pyridinylmethanone (3), using Ames/Salmonella and Escherichia coli WP2 bacterial reversion mutagenicity test systems. The mutant bacterial tester strains sodium azide-sensitive Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, 9-aminoacridine-sensitive S. typhimurium TA1537, and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-sensitive E. coli WP2uvrA were used to detect the mutagenic potential of the test compounds. The results indicated that none of the test substances showed significant mutagenic activity on S. typhimurium TA1535, TA1537, and E. coli WP2uvrA bacterial strains up to 1 mu g/plate concentrations ...
Prior to the implementation of more sophisticated genetic techniques, mutagenesis was often performed using simple chemical mutagens including N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MMNG) and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) . The basic approach involves exposing a population of cells to a controlled dose of mutagen, to generate progeny that carry random genetic mutations The application of this technique has traditionally been limited by two important considerations First, it often proves difficult to strike a balance between efficiency and selectivity; exposure to the mutagen must be carefully controlled in order to maximize the frequency of single mutations Second, it should be noted that chemical mutagenesis is random; the experimenter needs to select or identify mutants of interest from a large pool of random mutants. For more detailed information on the background and procedures involved in chemical mutagenesis, we refer the reader to Miller (1992) The basic protocols that have been described ...
311 chemicals were tested under code, for mutagenicity, in Salmonella typhimurium; 35 of the chemicals were tested more than once in the same or different laboratories. The tests were conducted using a preincubation protocol in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation, and in the presence of liver S-9 from Aroclor-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters. Some of the volatile chemicals were also tested in desiccators. A total of 120 chemicals were mutagenic or weakly mutagenic, 3 were judged questionable, and 172 were non-mutagenic. The remaining 16 chemicals produced different responses in the two or three laboratories in which they were tested. The results and data from these tests are presented.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutagenic activity of surface waters adjacent to a nuclear fuel processing facility. AU - Pancorbo, O. C.. AU - Lein, Pamela J. AU - Blevins, R. D.. PY - 1987/9. Y1 - 1987/9. N2 - Surface waters adjacent to a nuclear fuel processing facility were extracted, using XAD-resin adsorption followed by solvent elution, and the extracts were assayed for mutagenic potential by the Ames Salmonella-mammalian microsome test. Dose-related mutagenic responses with TA102 (+ S9) were produced with the extracts of water samples obtained from a creek receiving waste-water from the processing facility (specific mutagenic activities of 7,250 to 8,250 net revertants per L equivalent of water). The creek water extracts were not mutagenic with TA102 in the absence of S9, or with any other tester strain (i.e., TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) in the presence or absence of S9. Surface water samples downstream and upstream of this creek were not mutagenic; apparently indicating the lack of persistence of ...
Studies were chosen as key when the available study was of relevance and of sufficient quality for classification, labelling and for risk assessment. A key bacterial mutagenicity study according to OECD TG 471 and GLP is available for the registered substance. No evidence for a test-substance related increase in the number of revertants was observed when tested up to cytotoxic concentration in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA 1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) in two independent experiments without and with metabolic activation. Appropriate positive and solvent controls were included and gave expected results. Under the conditions of this study, the registered substance was concluded to be non-mutagenic in the strains tested (Hüls AG, 1996). No data are available for mutagenicity to a bacterial strain capable of detecting cross-linking or oxidising mutagens. In view of the lack of genetic toxicity demonstrated in studies on mammalian cells, and the absence of structural features that ...
Purchase Chemical Mutagens Environmental Effects on Biological Systems - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780122571503, 9780323153256
Enzyme proteins are not regarded as either genotoxic and/or carcinogenic substances. Genotoxicity testing is in general performed to confirm that the production strain does not produce any genotoxic or carcinogenic metabolites. Basically all enzyme substances have therefore been tested in the Ames test and in the Chromosome Aberration test in vitro and/or an in vitro micronucleus test, and a few enzyme substances also in the Mouse Lymphoma test (ref. 11-40). In none of these test systems did enzyme proteins show evidence of genotoxicity. Enzymatic drugs have been used since the 19th century without providing any evidence of a genotoxic or carcinogenic effect (ref. 2-10; 41-44). Review of the extensive literature concerned with the safety of enzymes from microbial sources strongly supports the general assumption that enzymes from non-toxigenic, non-pathogenic organisms are safe. Numerous tests for in vitro genotoxicity have failed to reveal the presence of a single mutagen or clastogen. These ...
Target CAS no. 68391-31-1 - Basic yellow 57 : Summary Genetic toxicity in vitro In a weight of evidence study (Prediction report - Sustainability Support Services (Europe) AB, 2016): 1) The mutagenicity of Basic yellow 57 is estimated using QSAR toolbox 3.3.The substance Basic yellow 57 is estimated to be non-mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA 1535 in the presence of Rat liver S9 metabolic activation in a bacterial reverse mutation assay. 2) The mutagenicity of Basic yellow 57 is estimated using QSAR toolbox 3.3.The substance Basic yellow 57 is estimated to be non-mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA 1538 in the absence of Rat liver S9 metabolic activation in a bacterial reverse mutation assay. In a weight of evidence study (SCCS report, 2009): · Bacterial gene mutation assay was performedby the plate incorporation and pre-incubation method usingSalmonella typhimuriumstrainTA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and TA1537.DMSO solution was used as a vehicle. Test chemical conc. used were 3.16, 10, 31.6, 100, 316 and ...
In this expanded study, we confirmed a previously reported association between in vitro BPDE-induced mutagen sensitivity and the risk of SCCHN ( 9). Because Dr. T. C. Hsu developed the mutagen sensitivity assay with bleomycin as an effective inducer of chromosomal aberrations in vitro, this assay has been widely used in epidemiologic studies to assess genetic susceptibility to various types of cancer. The assay has been modified with a variety of etiologically related challenge mutagens to evaluate cancer susceptibility in association studies, such as BPDE for tobacco-related cancers of the lung ( 4, 6- 8) and SCCHN ( 9- 11), γ-radiation for glioma ( 22, 23), and UV light or 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide for skin cancer ( 24, 25). These studies have consistently showed that in vitro induced mutagen sensitivity phenotype is a risk factor for developing cancers.. Because the above-mentioned studies used a case control study design, it is questionable whether mutagen sensitivity is a tumor marker or a ...
Genotoxins and the initiation of sporadic breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed female malignancy world-wide. The aetiology of the majority of cases remains obscure and the only genotoxin as yet known to initiate breast cancer is ionizing radiation, High penetrance susceptibility genes probably account for no more than 5-10% of cases, The breast, which consists of 70-90% adipose tissue, has a unique morphological structure. Dispersed within it are the functional elements that are lined with cancer-susceptible epithelial cells. Numerous dietary and/or environmental fat- soluble compounds are known to be rodent mammary carcinogens. Extracts of lipid obtained following collagenase digestion of elective reduction mammoplasty tissues from UK resident women showed activity in short-term genotoxicity assays in 40% of cases. More active lipid extracts tended to come from donors whose human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) exhibited pre- existing DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs). ...
Role of nucleotide- and base-excision repair in genotoxin-induced neuronal cell death. - G E Kisby, H Lesselroth, A Olivas, L Samson, B Gold, K Tanaka, M S Turker
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimutagenic effects of chrysin (CR), a flavonoid compound contained in many fruits, vegetables and honey. Earlier investigations with bacterial indicators showed that CR is one of the most potent antimutagens among the flavonoids. In the present study, we tested the compound in the Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 in combination with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP) and found pronounced protective activity over a concentration range between 10 and 100 microg/ml. The compound itself was devoid of mutagenic activity at all concentrations tested. In the micronucleus (MN) assay with human-derived HepG2 cells, a different pattern of activity was seen. CR itself caused significant induction of MN at dose levels > or =15 microg/ml; in combination experiments with B(a)P and PhIP, U-shaped dose-response curves were obtained and protection was found only in a narrow dose range (5 - 10 microg/ml). Our ...
The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings Enhanced Edition two abilities, from the first (top) tree, but no mutagen slots for any other abilites, what do I. I did start my game with my old Witcher 1 saves. 2. avatar. Unrated_Edition: Mutagen slots arent appearing for me on any of the Training. List of talents containing mutagen slots: Training tree: Click on Training, look at the tiny circle [top right] of the top 2 talents. Right click on. Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered. Start a New Discussion. Assassins of Kings FAQs. Umlenken von Pfeilen 1 und Tapferkeit 1 also die beiden End-Skills im Traingsbaum. Jemand schon eine Idee, welche Mutagene am besten sind? Arqade is a question and answer site for passionate videogamers on all platforms. In The Witcher 2 gibt es jetzt um die Talente zweite Stufe mintegerechnet aber nur 34 oder 35 Punkte zu vergeben, weil man nur einen pro Stufe bekommt. Bypass View Profile View Forum Posts. Googleyourelmo Googleyourelmo 6 years ...
Mutagen Ooze este substanta misterioasa care a transformat testoasele in eroi. Substanta a ajutat de asemenea la creerea prietenilor testoaselor si a dusmanilor lor asa ca utilizati-o cu grija. Substanta poate avea 4 culori diferita si contine cate o mini broasca testoasa de colectie. Fiecare recipient contina aproximativ 56 g de substanta. Incarcati substanta in containerele speciale ce insotesc diferitele figurine Ninja Turtles. Nota: O substanta non toxica cu un gust neplacut a fost adaugata in Mutagen Ooze pentru a descuraja ingerarea de catre copii si animalele de companie. Va rugam spalati-va pe maini dupa folosirea substantei. Atentie: Protejati suprafetele spatiului de joaca. A nu se folosi pe suprafete care pot fi distruse de substante ce contin apa. Substanta se poate lipi de anumite suprafete sau le poate pata. Evitati covoarele, hainele, peretii si mobila. Indepartarea: Pentru indepartarea Mutagen Ooze de pe haine sau materiale acestea pot fi spalate manual cu putin detergent si apa ...
George Demetri, MD, professor of medicine, Harvard Medical School, director of the Sarcoma Center, Dana Farber Brigham Womens Cancer Center, on the mutagenic properties of dacarbazine.
Gentronix is passionate about innovation and service. We have developed world leading technology GreenScreen HC and BlueScreen HC to help you identify genotoxic hazard quickly and accurately whilst ensuring your safe compounds are not incorrectly labelled as toxic. We also provide a range of complementary assays and technology expertise that gives you comprehensive access to the information you need to be able to progress your compounds and projects quickly and cost effectively.. GreenScreen HC , BlueScreen HC , Ames MPF , OECD 471 Ames Bacterial Reversal Mutation test (Non-GLP) , GLP Ames , Microflow® Micronucleus Test , in vivo Micronucleus Test , OECD 487 in vitro Micronucleus test using Primary Human Lymphocytes (Non GLP) , GLP MNT , Apoptosis Suite , H2AX by flow cytometry , Flow cytometry Services , Comet assay , Predictive Toxicology. ...
The test substace was evaluated for potential genotoxic activity using the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) test. Preliminary experiments were performed with CHO cells to determine an appropriate range of test concentrations in which the highest concentration would kill no more than (approximately) 90% of the treated cells. Test concentrations for the SCE test were chosen in a range of 40 to 60% growth inhibition so that sufficient numbers of cells in the second division (M2) would be available for determination of SCEs. Test results with DEGHE indicated that concentrations of 3 mg/ml or higher were lethal to CHO cells. The highest suitable concentrations tested were 2.0 mg/ml without S9 and 2.5 rng/ml with S9 activation for the CHO test. For the SCE test maximum concentrations tested were 2.0 mg/ml both with S9 and without S9 activation. For determination of direct genotoxic action, CHO cells were exposed to DEGHE and appropriate controls for 5 hours without S9 activation. Indirect activity, ...
The goal of artificial mutagenesis is to increase the rate of mutation for the desired characteristic. The selection of mutagens depends upon some extent to their availability and effectiveness for achieving the desired genetic changes, Cuitivars have different responses to mutagenic treatments. Mutagenic treatments cause some physiological damages in Mj plant. This study was conducted to determine the responses of Gediz-75 ve Sofu durum wheat cuitivars to EMS treatment and gamma irradiation in Tokat-Kazova conditions in 1996 and 1997. The seeds were irradiated with 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy by gamma rays or treated with 0. i %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % EMS. The seeds were treated with EMS at 24 °C for 8 hours without presoaked and were washed for 6 hours after treatment. Either of treated varieties were grown separately in the trial. Besides, the treatments of gamma rays and EMS separately were Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mutagens caused different effects ...
Screening of a multi-copy vector-based yeast genomic library in haploid cells of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded transformants hyper-resistant to various chemical mutagens. Genetical analys
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
Mutagenic activity associated with amino-imidazoazaarene food-derived mutagens such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) appears to be dependent upon N-hydroxylation, though additional metabolic pathways may be involved in the production of the ultimate reactive intermediate whi …
Benefits of the system. One of the major benefits over the Ames test is that the entire DNA content of the cell functions as a target for the genotoxin to display its effect. In contrast, the Ames test monitors mutations only in genes related to histidine synthesis. This results in a significantly lower sample concentrations (up to 1000 fold) required for the Vitotox test.. Simultaneously cytotoxicity assay. An important control for the system is a cytotoxicity test performed together with each sample to ensure that a positive signal in the genotoxicity test is not due to a nonspecific enhancement in luminescence and that a negative response is not due to toxicity of the test compound resulting in cell death. Performing Vitotox assay. The test is very simple and cost efficient to perform. Compounds are pipetted into 96-well or 386-well microplates in a dilution series along with blanks, positive control samples, and with or without S9 metabolic extract. The cultured test bacteria are added and ...
margolin: Margolin et al. (1981) present data from an Ames Salmonella assay, where y is the number of revertant colonies observed on a plate given a dose y of quinoline. The data were subsequently analysed by Breslow (1984), Lawless (1987) and Saha and Paul (2005).
PHILLIPSON, CE, IOANNIDES, C, BARRETT, DCA and PARKE, DV (1985) THE HOMOGENEITY OF RAT-LIVER MICROSOMAL CYTOCHROME-P-448 ACTIVITY AND ITS ROLE IN THE ACTIVATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE TO MUTAGENS ...
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Nickelodeons Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Mutagen Mayhem collects the first six episodes of Season Two, as the Turtles try to recover a shipment of ooze.
Abstract Epidemiological data suggest that environmental genotoxins are risk factors for some forms of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present commentary focuses on mechanisms involved in genotoxin-induced pancreatic β-cell and neuronal damage. These two cell types seem t...
Examples of mutagens can be found in workplaces, in common consumer products and even in food. In this article you will learn about some of these toxic agents and about a database tool you can use to checkout these types of hazardous substances.
Buy online Giochi Preziosi Character Ninja turtles 12 cm MUTAGEN OOZE GPZ93800 Giochi Preziosi, with free and fast shipping, the best games and toys on Futur...
1 Vial Semisolid TA100 1 Vial Semisolid TA98 1 Vial Semisolid TA1535 1 Vial Semisolid TA1537 1 Vial Ampicillin Growth Media, Exposure Media and Indicator Media Aroclor 1254 Induced Lyophilized Rat Liver S9 Positive Controls: 2-NF, 2-AA, 9-AA, 4-NQO, N4-ACT. All media and strains provided are sufficient to analyze at least 1 compound, triplicates, 6 concentrations, negative and positive controls, +/- S9. The Ames MPF 98/100/1535/1537 assay comprises the histidine auxotrophic Salmonella tester strains and TA98 and TA1537 for detecting frameshift mutations, as well as TA100 and TA1535 which are reverted by base-pair substitutions and all media required to perform the assay. These kits are shipped at ambient temperature. Strains must be stored at -70°C upon arrival.
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It is necessary to mention that there are 2 mutation types realized in plants selection. Quite weak exposure, for example, of ultraviolet irradiation or of various chemical mutagens causes plastid mutations. They lead to colour change (this will be discussed for the next time). Some serious changes in plants size are possible only if there are genetic disorders inside of a cell nucleus that emerge in case of stronger external exposure - gamma-irradiation. Dwarfish sorts of Anubias, for example, Petite, Bonsai, Gabon and others were bred by this very method. Each kind is individual as it is obtained in the course of a unique single experiment. Further reproduction is effected in a vegetative way with the use of tissue cultures. That is why all the disputes of aquarians whether Petite tells from Bonsai or not - are quite absurd. Despite a big similarity of appearance they are likely to be different plants, experimental conditions of their breeding are just similar. ...
Environmental Mutagens, Natl. Res. Council (1979-83) Instructor, Cold Spring Harbor Labs (1970-87) Wander Memorial Lecturer ( ... the effects of chemical mutagens, and the roles of large chromosomal rearrangements. He developed important genetic tools for ...
Some are mutagens. They also have a large chemical oxygen demand (COD). Ascorbic acid and its isomers, and other similar sugar ...
And it yielded mutagens. The extracts were given to unimmunised mice, causing lung reaction and leading to cases of pulmonary ...
Sugimura T, Nagao M, Wakabayashi K (May 1996). "Carcinogenicity of food mutagens". Environmental Health Perspectives. 104 ( ...
Mutagen. 23 (1): 51-63. PMID 8125083. OEHHA Archived 2006-05-12 at the Wayback Machine Inchem.org National Toxocology Program ...
Mutagen., 55: 449 -456. doi:10.1002/em.21860 Group, Schuler. "EST Profile - Hs.445377". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-05 ...
Mutagen. 36 (3): 201-5. doi:10.1002/1098-2280(2000)36:3. 3.0.CO;2-1. PMID 11044901. Bortoluzzi S, d'Alessi F, Romualdi C, ...
Mutagen. 50 (4): 285-90. doi:10.1002/em.20452. PMC 2666781. PMID 19170196. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002 ...
Mutagen. 37 (4): 311-23. doi:10.1002/em.1038. PMID 11424181. S2CID 10441407. Sachin apurwa; Wilson MD; Rubio JM; Post RJ (March ... Environ Mol Mutagen. 33 (4): 320-324. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1999)33:4. 3.0.CO;2-S. PMID 10398380. Väli U, Brandström M, ...
Mutagen. 50 (4): 285-90. doi:10.1002/em.20452. PMC 2666781. PMID 19170196. Hosgood HD, Menashe I, He X, Chanock S, Lan Q ( ...
Mutagen. Suppl 1: 35-45. doi:10.1002/tcm.10068. PMID 12616595. Mahy, Brian W J (2001). A dictionary of virology (3. ed.). San ...
Mutagen. 28 (2): 133-44. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1996)28:2. 3.0.CO;2-G. PMID 8844995. Hundal BS, Dhillon VS, Sidhu IS ( ...
Mutagen. 48 (5): 380-94. doi:10.1002/em.20290. PMC 2682332. PMID 17370338. Breitling R (2006). "Biological microarray ...
Mutagen. 56 (6): 491-504. doi:10.1002/em.21944. PMID 25773265. S2CID 32371215. Meyer B, Voss KO, Tobias F, Jakob B, Durante M, ...
Examples of chemical mutagens follow. Sodium bisulfate is effective at mutating G/C rich genomic sequences. This is because ...
The rate of mutation may be increased by mutagens. Mutagens can be physical, such as radiation from UV rays, X-rays or extreme ... Induced mutations are alterations in the gene after it has come in contact with mutagens and environmental causes. Induced ... Whereas in former times mutations were assumed to occur by chance, or induced by mutagens, molecular mechanisms of mutation ... Each of these classes of chemical mutagens has certain effects that then lead to transitions, transversions, or deletions. ...
Nowadays other mutagens are used. Hydroxylamine can also be used to highly selectively cleave asparaginyl-glycine peptide bonds ... It may be absorbed through the skin, is harmful if swallowed, and is a possible mutagen. Cytochrome P460, an enzyme found in ...
Possible mutagen. Possible teratogen. Harmful in contact with skin, and if swallowed or inhaled. Irritant. Toxicity data ORL- ...
Klopman G, Kalos A, Frierson M, Rosenkranz HS (1986). "NPPD (spy dust) is predicted to be a mutagen". Environ Mutagen. 8 (4): ...
Nagao M, Fujita Y, Wakabayashi K, Nukaya H, Kosuge T, Sugimura T (August 1986). "Mutagens in coffee and other beverages". ... Methylglyoxal is a by-product of normal biochemistry that is a carcinogen, a mutagen and can chemically damage several ...
"Metabolic activation of carcinogens and mutagens." Molecular Biology of Mutagens and Carcinogens. Springer US, 1983. 97-141. ...
Ames, B. N.; Gold, L. S. (1991). "Endogenous mutagens and the causes of aging and cancer". Mutation Research/Fundamental and ... Environ Mol Mutagen. 45 (5): 442-54. doi:10.1002/em.20119. PMID 15690342. S2CID 32204458. Narayanan, L; Fritzell, JA; Baker, SM ...
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005 Jun;45(5):442-54. doi: 10.1002/em.20119. PMID: 15690342 Stuart GR, Oda Y, Boer JG, Glickman BW. No ...
Environ Mol Mutagen. 44 (4): 329-45. doi:10.1002/em.20053. PMID 15476194.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). ... for the detection of environmental mutagens and carcinogens". Mutation Research. 147 (5): 219-229. doi:10.1016/0165-1161(85) ...
Frantz MC, Wipf P (Jun 2010). "Mitochondria as a target in treatment". Environ Mol Mutagen. 51 (5): 462-75. doi:10.1002/em. ...
Livestock) "Mutagen" (ft. Hangnail & Modulok) "Rain Buckets" "Duplicate Version" (ft. Noah23) "Regime" Tracks 1, 5-10 & 14-16 ...
Environ Mol Mutagen. 1999;33(4):257-265. PMID 10398372 DOI:10.1002/(sici)1098-2280(1999)33:4. 3.0.co;2-0 Royal Society of ... Canada: 104th President Environmental Mutagen Society Genetics Society of Canada: Robert H. Haynes Young Scientist Award. ...
Environ Mol Mutagen. 13 (3): 271-6. doi:10.1002/em.2850130311. PMID 2651119. S2CID 46535054. Catherine Larkin, "Cloned Animals ...
Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1985;5(3):205-17.PMID 2866603. Sedowofia SK, Innes J, Peter A, Alleva E, Manning A, Clayton RM. ...
Environ Mol Mutagen. 41 (4): 237-242. doi:10.1002/em.10154. PMID 12717778. Cordell, Suzanne C.; Elva J. H. Robinson; Jan Löwe ( ...
Such mutagens are called clastogens. Mutagens may also modify the DNA sequence; the changes in nucleic acid sequences by ... Mutagens may therefore be also carcinogens. However, some mutagens exert their mutagenic effect through their metabolites, and ... Different mutagens act on the DNA differently. Powerful mutagens may result in chromosomal instability, causing chromosomal ... As many mutations can cause cancer, such mutagens are therefore carcinogens, although not all necessarily are. All mutagens ...
Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of ... Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of ... Levin, D., E. Yamasaki, and B.N. Ames, A new Salmonella tester strain, TA97, for the detection of frameshift mutagens: A run of ... Tamura, G., C. Gold, A. Ferro-Luzzi, and B. N. Ames, Fecalase: A model for activation of dietary glycosides to mutagens by ...
Mutagen X (MX), or 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-one, is a byproduct of the disinfection of water by ...
Millions of pounds of pharmaceuticals that can act as mutagens have been released into American waterways, including those that ... Mutagens found in US waterways Published time: 21 Apr, 2009 09:21 Edited time: 21 Apr, 2009 13:21 ... Millions of pounds of pharmaceuticals that can act as mutagens have been released into American waterways, including those that ... Lincomycin is known as a mutagen, changing genetic information in bacteria, algae, microscopic aquatic animals, and fish. Some ...
Purchase Chemical Mutagens Environmental Effects on Biological Systems - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780122571503, ... Chemical Mutagens Environmental Effects on Biological Systems 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... It also discusses the types of mutation chemical mutagens induce in the various test systems that have been utilized. This book ... Chemical Mutagens: Environmental Effects on Biological Systems brings together relevant facts about synthetic and naturally ...
Exposure to carcinogens, mutagens and biological agents. Regulation 9 requires employers and self-employed workers to report ... Cases of cancer are not reportable when they are not linked with work-related exposures to carcinogens or mutagens. As with ... These hazards include all known human carcinogens and mutagens, including ionising radiation. ...
N. E. Spingarn and J. H. Vfeisburger, Formation of mutagens in cooked foods. I. Beef, Cancer Lett. 7: 259 (1979).PubMedCrossRef ... M. W. Pariza, S. H. Ashoor, F. S. Chu, and D. B. Lund, Effects of temperature and time on mutagen formation in pan-fried ... L. F. Bjeldanes, M. M. Morris, J. S. Felton, S. Healy, D. Stuermer, P. Berry, H. Timourian, and F. T. Hatch, Mutagens fron the ... L. F. Bjeldanes, M. M. Morris, J. S. Felton, S. Healy, D. Stuermer, P. Berry, H. Timourian, and F. T. Hatch, Mutagens fran the ...
... , a chapter by Brian Martin in Intellectual Suppression: Australian Case Histories, Analysis and Responses ... Mutagens and managers. Published in Brian Martin, C. M. Ann Baker, Clyde Manwell and Cedric Pugh (editors), Intellectual ... This environmental mutagens testing unit (EMTU) provided a service for the testing of chemicals, and was found useful by many ... Jennifer Adamson, Mutagen testing (news release) (Adelaide: Office of the Minister for Health, 4 July 1980); Smith, op. cit. ...
The main food mutagens found in cooked meat products are heterocyclic amines. Several of them have been tested in long-term ... Cooking procedures and food mutagens: a literature review.. Skog K1.. Author information. 1. Department of Applied Nutrition ... From a health point of view, it is desirable to reduce or prevent the formation of food mutagens. Therefore, a deeper ... Creatine is generally accepted to be a precursor of the mutagens and, interestingly, the conversion of creatine to creatinine ...
... the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive), expanding its scope and including and/or revising occupational exposure limit values ... Protecting workers against carcinogens and mutagens: Third proposal 20-03-2019 The European Commission is undertaking a phased ... The European Commission is undertaking a phased process to amend Directive 2004/37/EC (the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive ... process to amend Directive 2004/37/EC (the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive), expanding its scope and including and/or ...
... ... depending on mutagen, dose, and tissue examined. ...
... inflicting 3 Nature damage and increasing damage taken from Mutagen by 25%. In addition, this effect increases movement speed, ... Mutagen. All attributes and enhancements increased by 5%.. Movement speed increased by 5%.. Damage taken from Mutagen increased ... A volatile mutagen coats your skin, inflicting 3 Nature damage and increasing damage taken from Mutagen by 25%. In addition, ...
CAD/CMD (OELs) Chemical Agents Directive and Carcinogens or Mutagens Directive Occupational exposure limit (OEL) values are ...
Limits on exposure to carcinogens and mutagens at work 23-06-2016 ...
... mutagen_1.4-1.diff.gz to pool/main/m/mutagen/mutagen_1.4-1.diff.gz mutagen_1.4-1.dsc to pool/main/m/mutagen/mutagen_1.4-1.dsc ... to pool/main/m/mutagen/mutagen_1.4.orig.tar.gz python-mutagen_1.4-1_all.deb to pool/main/m/mutagen/python-mutagen_1.4-1_all.deb ... python-mutagen - audio metadata editing library Changes: mutagen (1.4-1) unstable; urgency=low . * New upstream version. * ... Accepted mutagen 1.4-1 (source all). *To: [email protected] ...
Examples of mutagens can be found in workplaces, in common consumer products and even in food. In this article you will learn ... Mutagens are different from carcinogens since some mutagens do not cause cancer in humans but only in animals. They often lead ... Mutagens- are substances that can alter the structure or makeup of cells or the DNA which can be caused by electromagnetic ... Types of Hazardous Substances, Mutagen Examples and More. written by: ciel s cantoria•edited by: Sarah Malburg•updated: 5/18/ ...
carcinogens-mutagens-dir-2004-37. carcinogens-mutagens-dir-2004-37 Carc and Muta Directive, Annex I - Substances, Mixtures & ... 2 carcinogen and mutagen (CM) definitions and Annex I of the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive. Category 1A and 1B carcinogens ... CAD/CMD (OELs) Chemical Agents Directive and Carcinogens or Mutagens Directive Occupational exposure limit (OEL) values are ... and mutagens are derived from the CLP Regulations Table 3 of Annex VI (1272/2008/EC). Employers are obligated to minimize ...
Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer.. John EM1, Stern MC, Sinha R, Koo J. ...
Mutagens change DNA by punching holes in it or forcing parts of DNA to stay bound together even when they should separate, ... These mutagens are known as biological mutagens, says the Irish Cancer Society. ... Mutagens change DNA by punching holes in it or forcing parts of DNA to stay bound together even when they should separate, ... A mutagen is any substance that causes DNA to mutate, as defined by the National Cancer Institute. These substances are ...
... has a story with long enough legs for a full-length play, which makes it all the more a pity that it was ... Planet of the Mutagens. By Mary Gail. Directed by Douglas Green. Mutt Rep. 120 28th St. (Ta Dah! Space). Equity showcase ( ...
A mutagen is a substance that increases the frequency of mutation in a plant or animal population. The consequences of mutation ... Mutagens can cause birth defects. People first began to understand how mutagens worked in the 1920s, when researchers in the ... mutagens can also cause birth defects. Furthermore, mutagen exposure may result in the transmission of a sort of genetic time ... Are these radiation levels high enough to be mutagens? Should we be worried about them? Post your comments. Please enter the ...
edit] Three Categories of Mutagens-Carcinogens. Mutagens and carcinogens in food can be divided into three groups. The first ... A mutagen is defined as a chemical or physical agent that induces or increases a change in genetic material (DNA). (A common ... However, other mutagens are formed in cooking as a result of reactions involving proteins, fats and heat. Dietary practices, ... For example, natural mutagens are present in substantial quantities in fruits and vegetables, an essential part of any diet. ...
Chemical and biological mutagens very often transform the structure of human chromosomes in the course of DNA synthesis. ... Structural chromosome damages - bioindicators of exposure to mutagens. Đ. Horvat ; Institut za medicinska istraživanja i ... Their presence is an indication of exposure to mutagens. The persons in whom significant structural chromosome aberrations have ...
... mutagens, and teratogens. Emphasis was placed on the development and utilization of critical life stage exposures to minimize ... Effects of Carcinogens, Mutagens, and Teratogens on Non-human Species (Aquatic Animals).. ... mutagens, and teratogens. Emphasis was placed on the development and utilization of critical life stage exposures to minimize ...
Either this project has not been set up to use Launchpad for translation, or mutagen in Ubuntu Bionic does not have any strings ...
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models of Mutagens and Carcinogens focuses on the use of QSAR modeling in ... This book provides the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary presentation of QSAR studies on chemical mutagens and carcinogens ... SARs and QSARs of Mutagens and Carcinogens: Understanding Action Mechanisms And Improving Risk Assessment ... Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models of Mutagens and Carcinogens. 1st Edition. ...
Microsomal enzymes isolated from human liver tissue, but not lung tissue, also converted quinoline to a mutagen. ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Training; Preservatives; Quinolines; Industrial-chemicals; Carcinogens; Mutagens; Biochemistry ... and MCA treated responsive C57BL mice also metabolized quinoline to a mutagen, but phenobarbital (50066) and pregnenolone- ...
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Food mutagens, Forensic and Toxicology at LGC Standards. Over 100,000 Products Online, Explore our Extensive Range and Purchase ...
  • The European Commission is undertaking a phased process to amend Directive 2004/37/EC (the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive), expanding its scope and including and/or revising occupational exposure limit values for a number of cancer- or mutation-causing chemical agents. (europa.eu)
  • 2 carcinogen and mutagen (CM) definitions and Annex I of the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive. (europa.eu)
  • The firefighters' network is very appreciative of the work done through the ETUI and ETUC to tackle work-related cancers, including to ensure binding occupational exposure limits (BOELs) for priority carcinogens are adopted in the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive - MCD (2004/37/EC). (epsu.org)
  • of 29 April 2004 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work (Sixth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) Directive 89/391/EEC) as last amended by Directive (EU) 2019/130 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 January 2019 (3rd amendment to the Directive). (europa.eu)
  • This Directive covers the protection of workers from health and safety risks from exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work. (europa.eu)
  • On 20 December 2017 EPSU submitted a contribution to the second phase social partner consultation on revisions of the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (2004/37/EC). (epsu.org)
  • A consultation of trade unions and employers' associations on the future of the EU Directive on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work was launched by the European Commission on 26 July. (etui.org)
  • The aim of this Directive is to protect workers against risks arising from exposure to carcinogens and mutagens at work. (subsport.eu)
  • On 5 April 2018, the European Commission launched its proposal for a third amendment to Directive 2004/37/EC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work (CMD). (ceemet.org)
  • While we welcome the revision of this Directive and see its benefit as a method to protect workers from exposure to carcinogens and mutagens, there are a number of topics with which we take issue. (ceemet.org)
  • Veuillez trouver ci-joint le document Ares(2016)1455433 concernant "Request for clarification - Freedom of Information request - Industry lobbying re the revision of the carcinogens and mutagens directive, the chemical agents directive and other issues concerning workplace-related cancers - gestdem 2016/892" envoyé par M/Mme GREVFORS ERNOULT Charlotte le 24/03/2016. (asktheeu.org)
  • In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that permanently changes genetic material, usually DNA, in an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. (wikipedia.org)
  • As many mutations can cause cancer, such mutagens are therefore carcinogens, although not all necessarily are. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all mutations are caused by mutagens: so-called "spontaneous mutations" occur due to spontaneous hydrolysis, errors in DNA replication, repair and recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutagenic property of mutagens was first demonstrated in 1927, when Hermann Muller discovered that x-rays can cause genetic mutations in fruit flies, producing phenotypic mutants as well as observable changes to the chromosomes, visible due to the presence of enlarged "polytene" chromosomes in fruit fly salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical mutagens were not demonstrated to cause mutation until the 1940s, when Charlotte Auerbach and J. M. Robson found that mustard gas can cause mutations in fruit flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutagen produces mutations in the DNA, and deleterious mutation can result in aberrant, impaired or loss of function for a particular gene, and accumulation of mutations may lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because mutagens can lead to genetic mutations, some of them can contribute to the development of cancers, making these mutagens carcinogenic in addition to mutagenic. (wisegeek.com)
  • People first began to understand how mutagens worked in the 1920s, when researchers in the process of exploring radiation noted a variety of mutations in organisms exposed to high levels of radiation. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition to causing mutations in living organisms, as for example when exposure to a mutagen leads to the development of a cancerous tumor, mutagens can also cause birth defects. (wisegeek.com)
  • In biology , a mutagen ( Latin , literally origin of change ) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA ) of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. (wikidoc.org)
  • As many mutations cause cancer , mutagens are typically also carcinogens . (wikidoc.org)
  • Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome I: on the role of mutagen specificity in delimiting the set of genes identifiable using temperature-sensitive-lethal mutations. (genetics.org)
  • In order to assess the degree to which problems of mutagen specificity had limited the set of genes detected using Ts- lethal mutations, we isolated a new set of such mutations after mutagenesis with UV or nitrogen mustard. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that only a minority of the essential genes in yeast can be identified using Ts- lethal mutations, regardless of the mutagen used, and thus emphasize the need to use multiple genetic strategies in the investigation of cellular processes. (genetics.org)
  • Mutagens cause changes (mutations) in the genetic material of cells. (ehspublishing.com)
  • This implicated these mutagens actually induced mutations of mitochondrial genomes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the 1920s, Muller studied the role of temperature as a possible mutagen, or cause of genetic mutations. (asu.edu)
  • The Mutagens are substances that can trigger mutations in the genome of organisms. (observertree.org)
  • Cooking procedures and food mutagens: a literature review. (nih.gov)
  • The main food mutagens found in cooked meat products are heterocyclic amines. (nih.gov)
  • From a health point of view, it is desirable to reduce or prevent the formation of food mutagens. (nih.gov)
  • 7 Science & Technology Review September 1995 Food Mutagens they are chemically changed by metabolizing enzymes present in animal tissues, such as the liver. (sputtr.com)
  • The first mutagens to be identified were carcinogens, substances that were shown to be linked to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These substances are classified as chemical, physical or biological mutagens. (reference.com)
  • Substances found in vinyl chloride, overcooked foods, cigarette smoke and molds are classified as chemical mutagens, reports the Irish Cancer Society. (reference.com)
  • In science fiction , mutagens are often represented as substances that are capable of completely changing the form of the recipient. (wikidoc.org)
  • This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The employer shall assess and manage the risk of exposure to carcinogens or mutagens. (europa.eu)
  • Ceemet agrees that there is need for further actions at an EU level to protect workers from exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at the workplace. (ceemet.org)
  • Examples of Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens: What are Their Distinctions? (brighthub.com)
  • Effects of Carcinogens, Mutagens, and Teratogens on Non-human Species (Aquatic Animals). (cdc.gov)
  • Studies were conducted of aquatic systems and organisms both under field and laboratory conditions to develop indicator, screening, and modeling capabilities for the detection and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Carcinogens, Mutagens , and Teratogens Page 1 of 10 Approved 10/21/98 CHAPTER 2 CARCINOGENS, MUTAGENS , AND TERATOGENS 2.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to outline guidelines for the use and handling of carcinogens, suspected carcinogens, mutagens , and teratogens at the Laboratory. (sputtr.com)
  • Reproductive hazards may be described as mutagens or teratogens. (sputtr.com)
  • Mutagens, teratogens and carcinogens are similar in that each causes some form of mutation. (ehspublishing.com)
  • All mutagens have characteristic mutational signatures with some chemicals becoming mutagenic through cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies by Ames showed around 90% of known carcinogens can be identified in Ames test as mutagenic (later studies however gave lower figures), and ~80% of the mutagens identified through Ames test may also be carcinogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some mutagens exert their mutagenic effect through their metabolites, and therefore whether such mutagens actually become carcinogenic may be dependent on the metabolic processes of an organism, and a compound shown to be mutagenic in one organism may not necessarily be carcinogenic in another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical Mutagens: Environmental Effects on Biological Systems brings together relevant facts about synthetic and naturally occurring mutagenic chemicals. (elsevier.com)
  • Creatine is generally accepted to be a precursor of the mutagens and, interestingly, the conversion of creatine to creatinine has been shown to be blocked by an excess of sugars, which also caused the mutagenic activity to decrease. (nih.gov)
  • The mutagenic activity differed for different amino acids used in the model systems, and various thermic mutagens were produced from the amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Sugar has also been shown to either enhance or inhibit the yield of mutagenic activity, depending on its molar ratio versus the other reactants, which suggests that the Maillard reaction may be used to control the formation of mutagens. (nih.gov)
  • These two mutagens have srong mutagenic action to especiaaly mitochondrial genomes and toxicity for mitochodrial respiratory function. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation and some natural fibers are classified as physical mutagens. (reference.com)
  • Mutagens are usually chemical compounds or ionizing radiation . (wikidoc.org)
  • The second part deals with the individual chemical mutagens of environmental significance, including their manufacture, occurrence, method of detection, degradation, and metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently the security vulnerability Mutagen Astronomy (CVE-2018-14634) was published. (ethz.ch)
  • This source package is sharing translations with python-mutagen trunk series . (launchpad.net)
  • Assessments of impacts of hazardous agents (i.e., chemical and physical mutagens) on human health have focused on defining the effects of chronic exposure on individuals, with cancer being the main effect of concern. (unt.edu)
  • Several of the complementation groups can be distinguished on the basis of nondisjunction and cross sensitivity to mutagens. (genetics.org)
  • Mutagen sensitivity: a biological marker of cancer susceptibility. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The strength of the association between cancer risk and mutagen sensitivity, despite the inherent problems in the size and design of the studies, is noteworthy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutagen sensitivity as a susceptibility marker for human hepatocellular carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Levin, D., E. Yamasaki, and B.N. Ames, A new Salmonella tester strain, TA97, for the detection of frameshift mutagens: A run of cytosines as a mutational hot-spot, Mutation Research (1982), in press. (springer.com)
  • Survey by Ames/ Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein rich foods of the American diet, Food Chem. (springer.com)
  • A cautionary note the use of nitroreductase-deficient strains of Salmonella typhimurium for the detection of nitroarenes as mutagens in complex mixtures including diesel exhausts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It also discusses the types of mutation chemical mutagens induce in the various test systems that have been utilized. (elsevier.com)
  • A mutagen is a substance which increases the frequency of mutation in a plant or animal population, which can lead to a variety of consequences. (wisegeek.com)
  • Mutation Induction in Melilotus alba annua by Chemical Mutagens" by A. Kleinhofs, Herman J. Gorz et al. (unl.edu)
  • In The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings , mutagens are powerful mutation-triggering agents and (with patch 1.3 installed) alchemy ingredients. (fandom.com)
  • To undergo mutation, enter meditation and then select the " Character " option and find a skill with a mutagen slot . (fandom.com)
  • A mutagen is any substance that causes DNA to mutate, as defined by the National Cancer Institute. (reference.com)
  • The mutagen might cause the development of a recessive trait which is brought out when two descendants of people exposed to the substance have children. (wisegeek.com)
  • To identify a substance, natural or man made, as a mutagen or carcinogen, is just a first step. (copperwiki.org)
  • The employer shall reduce the use of carcinogens or mutagens by replacing them with a substance that is not dangerous or less dangerous. (europa.eu)
  • When sufficient evidence establishes a causal connection between human exposure to a chemical and heritable genetic effects, the substance is classified as a mutagen. (ehspublishing.com)
  • A large number of chemical mutagens have since been identified, especially after the development of the Ames test in the 1970s by Bruce Ames that screens for mutagens and allows for preliminary identification of carcinogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ames B.N. (1982) Mutagens, Carcinogens, and Anti-Carcinogens. (springer.com)
  • The S-12 fractions of lung peripheral parenchyma obtained from 80 male individuals, aged 17-71 years, were assayed as blind samples for the ability either to convert promutagens into bacterial mutagens or to decrease the potency of direct-acting mutagens in the Ames reversion test. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bjeldanes L.F., Felton J.S., Hatch F.T. (1984) Mutagens in Cooked Food: Chemical Aspects. (springer.com)
  • A mutagen is defined as a chemical or physical agent that induces or increases a change in genetic material (DNA). (copperwiki.org)
  • Chemical and biological mutagens very often transform the structure of human chromosomes in the course of DNA synthesis. (srce.hr)
  • This book provides the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary presentation of QSAR studies on chemical mutagens and carcinogens. (routledge.com)
  • Evaluation of the co-genotoxic effects of 1800 MHz GSM radiofrequency exposure and a chemical mutagen in cultured human cells. (emf-portal.org)
  • To study the effect of a 1800 MHz radiofrequency GSM signal combined with a known chemical mutagen (4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide: 4NQO) on human cells . (emf-portal.org)
  • On 30 June 1980 John Coulter was sacked from his job at the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science (IMVS) in Adelaide, and the environmental mutagens testing unit which he headed was closed down. (edu.au)
  • The Cato Institute) argue that low levels of environmental mutagens are not a cancer threat because cells possess DNA repair enzymes. (sputtr.com)
  • This meeting is a joint meeting with the Dutch and Belgium Environmental Mutagen Societies and will be the first time UKEMS have ventured outside of the United Kingdom. (vbs-gbs.org)
  • A major mission for organizing the series of International Conferences on Environmental Mutagens in Human Populations is to bring science and scientists to the sites where the field of environmental health is in developmental stages and environmental health is a serious concern. (unesp.br)
  • Frameshift mutagens were isolated and concentrated from smokers' urine employing a method recently described. (nih.gov)
  • We may use cookies to help improve your experience of https://mutagen.io . (mutagen.io)
  • If you don't wish to accept cookies from us, you should instruct your browser to refuse cookies from https://mutagen.io , with the understanding that we may be unable to provide you with some of your desired content and services. (mutagen.io)
  • Powerful mutagens may result in chromosomal instability, causing chromosomal breakages and rearrangement of the chromosomes such as translocation, deletion, and inversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conducted a pilot study of 28 patients with HCC and 110 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and ethnicity to determine whether constitutional genetic instability, based on the quantification of mutagen-induced chromatid breaks in cultured lymphocytes, modifies an individual's risk of HCC development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although TNF-α is not known to damage DNA directly and there is no published report of other cytokine-induced instability, our study revealed that TNF-α is a potent mutagen that causes DNA damage through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thompson, Larry H. / The human XRCC9 gene corrects chromosomal instability and mutagen sensitivities in CHO UV40 cells . (elsevier.com)
  • These mutagens are known as biological mutagens, says the Irish Cancer Society. (reference.com)
  • Mutagens can be acquired in two ways: you can loot them from defeated enemy corpses or you can create them as random by-products of alchemy. (fandom.com)
  • It is also recommended to have the Impregnation talent from the alchemy tree at level 2 before using any mutagens, because that skill does not affect mutagens which have already been applied. (fandom.com)
  • One may put enough points in the alchemy tree to get Impregnation to level 2, then invest in other trees (not the alchemy tree ) as much as possible to get Mutagen skills. (fandom.com)
  • With 2 points in this alchemy tree skill there will be a 10% chance of mutagens being created as a byproduct of alchemy. (fandom.com)
  • Mutagens and carcinogens may vary greatly in their potency in rodents, and extrapolation of risk from rodents to humans is difficult due to longevity difference, antioxidant factors and the multicausal nature of most human cancer (2). (copperwiki.org)
  • Consuming more than 10 cigarettes a day resulted in a higher urinary excretion of mutagens with medium-tar cigarettes than with high-tar cigarettes. (nih.gov)
  • Smoking 5 RCN cigarettes a day by habitual smokers resulted in a higher urinary excretion of mutagens than smoking 5 commercial brand of cigarettes. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, smoking 10 RCN cigarettes resulted in a lower urinary excretion of mutagens than smoking 10 commercial brand of cigarettes. (nih.gov)
  • Fetuses are particularly susceptible to mutagens because they are growing and developing so rapidly, which is why pregnant women are warned to be extra careful around radiation and chemicals. (wisegeek.com)
  • In the second talk, the Department of Genetics' Dr Colin Glen will ask 'Mutagens… do they echo in eternity? (healthcanal.com)
  • The use of medium to low heat, and placement of the meat further from the heat, can greatly reduce mutagen formation. (copperwiki.org)
  • As research continues to understand the formation of meat mutagens (specifically HAs), factors are identified which may help control the formation of these compounds. (copperwiki.org)
  • Lastly, although other meat-derived HCA mutagens have been shown to bind DNA in pancreatic tissue, indicating that exposure to HCAs from cooked meat cannot be discounted as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the results from this current study show that exposure to a single dietary dose of MeIQx does not readily form measurable DNA adducts under the conditions of the experiment. (osti.gov)
  • Therefore, a deeper understanding of the precursors and reaction conditions for mutagen formation during normal domestic cooking is very important. (nih.gov)
  • The identification of several thermic mutagens from the modelling experiments support the theory that creatine or creatinine, amino acids and sugars are precursors in the formation of thermic mutagens. (nih.gov)
  • Mutagen is a software company that provides an open-source file synchronization tool and allows developers to work remotely by extending local development tools. (golden.com)
  • Mutagen is a software company that provides real-time file synchronization and network forwarding that extends the reach of existing development tools and allows them to work with applications in remote environments. (golden.com)
  • Mutagen offers a synchronization algorithm that can move code and other files between locations in effectively real-time. (golden.com)
  • Mutagen supplements its synchronization features with network forwarding that can operate between any two endpoints, allowing access to applications running on remote systems, reverse forward traffic back to the user's laptop, or proxy traffic between two remote systems, without needing to expose ports to the internet. (golden.com)
  • Mutagen provides an open-source file synchronization tool. (golden.com)
  • for the first time, the Mutagen container will be built and Mutagen will perform an initial synchronization. (altis-dxp.com)
  • 4 February 2019) Several studies show that public authorities and employers are falling short on their responsibility to sufficiently protect firefighters from the risk of exposure to carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxics (CMRs). (epsu.org)
  • Mutagens and carcinogens in the environment represent a potential hazard, and it is important to screen large numbers of compounds and mixtures of compounds to which humans are exposed. (springer.com)
  • Some bacterial and viral organisms also act as mutagens, increasing the risk for certain types of cancer. (reference.com)
  • Even though many living organisms have very similar genetic codes, a mutagen may cause problems in one organism, but not in another. (wisegeek.com)
  • This documents presents a methodology which addresses the effects of a direct-acting mutagen (radiation) on aquantic organisms by applying sensitive techniques for assessing damage to genetic material. (unt.edu)
  • The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles were supposedly created by means of mutagens, as well as their master Splinter and (in the 1987 cartoon) their enemies Bebop and Rocksteady . (wikidoc.org)
  • The wave will include figures of Leonardo, Shredder, Bebop and Mutagen Man . (toynewsi.com)
  • As an alchemist gains in levels, the power of the wild mutagen improves. (pathfindercommunity.net)
  • Mutagen not only improves file read times but also allows you to optimise which files are shared between your host machine and the Docker containers. (altis-dxp.com)
  • Quinoline: conversion to a mutagen by human and rodent liver. (cdc.gov)
  • Microsomal enzymes isolated from human liver tissue, but not lung tissue, also converted quinoline to a mutagen. (cdc.gov)
  • A fetus will be particularly susceptible to mutagens because of how quickly they develop. (wisegeek.com)
  • This fungus was susceptible to mutagen treatment and capable of photoreactivation after UVL exposure. (newprairiepress.org)
  • You can help Mutagen Extinction Wiki by expanding it . (gamepedia.com)
  • Mutagen Extinction Wiki is a Fandom Gaming Community. (gamepedia.com)
  • The incorporation of carbon atoms originating from glucose into food mutagen molecules has shown glucose to be a precursor. (nih.gov)
  • Muller performed a series of three experiments in 1926 and 1927 exploring the role of x-rays as a mutagen. (asu.edu)
  • A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes. (sickkids.ca)
  • While the mutagen is in effect, the alchemist gains a +2 competence bonus on Intimidate skill checks. (d20pfsrd.com)
  • Mutagens" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • These hazards include all known human carcinogens and mutagens, including ionising radiation. (hse.gov.uk)
  • H. Hayatsu, S. Arimoto, K. Togawa, and M. Makita, Inhibitory effect of the ether-extract of human feces on activities of mutagens: Inhibition of oleic and linoleic acids, Mut. (springer.com)
  • Enzyme preparations from rats pretreated with p-448 dependent aryl-hydrocarbon hydroxylase (9037529) inducers (3- methylcholanthrene (MCA) (56495) and beta-naphthoflavone) and MCA treated responsive C57BL mice also metabolized quinoline to a mutagen, but phenobarbital (50066) and pregnenolone-16alpha- carbonitrile pretreatment did not yield active preparations. (cdc.gov)
  • L. F. Bjeldanes, K. R. Grose, P. H. Davis, D. H. Stuermer, S. K. Healy, and J. S. Felton, An XAD-2 resin method for efficient extraction of mutagens fran fried ground beef, Mat. (springer.com)
  • Mutagens are defined as agents that cause alterations in genetic material. (sputtr.com)