Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalDystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Myotonic Dystrophy: Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle: A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy that can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. There are many forms (called LGMDs) involving genes encoding muscle membrane proteins such as the sarcoglycan (SARCOGLYCANS) complex that interacts with DYSTROPHIN. The disease is characterized by progressing wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of arms and legs around the HIPS and SHOULDERS (the pelvic and shoulder girdles).Muscular Dystrophy, Facioscapulohumeral: An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)TurkeyMice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Muscular Dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss: A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy without the involvement of nervous system. The disease is characterized by MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; CONTRACTURE of the elbows; ACHILLES TENDON; and posterior cervical muscles; with or without cardiac features. There are several INHERITANCE PATTERNS including X-linked (X CHROMOSOME), autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive gene mutations.Sarcoglycans: A family of transmembrane dystrophin-associated proteins that play a role in the membrane association of the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary: Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.Dystroglycans: Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.Muscular Dystrophy, Oculopharyngeal: An autosomal dominant hereditary disease that presents in late in life and is characterized by DYSPHAGIA and progressive ptosis of the eyelids. Mutations in the gene for POLY(A)-BINDING PROTEIN II have been associated with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.Utrophin: An autosomally-encoded 376-kDa cytoskeletal protein that is similar in structure and function to DYSTROPHIN. It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy: Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.Thymopoietins: Two closely related polypeptides (molecular weight 7,000) isolated from the thymus gland. These hormones induce the differentiation of prothymocytes to thymocytes within the thymus. They also cause a delayed impairment of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and are therefore believed to be the agent responsible for myasthenia gravis.Retinal Dystrophies: A group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the RETINA; RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; BRUCH MEMBRANE; CHOROID; or a combination of these tissues.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Dystrophin-Associated Proteins: A group of proteins that associate with DYSTROPHIN at the CELL MEMBRANE to form the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex: A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Caveolin 3: A caveolin that is expressed exclusively in MUSCLE CELLS and is sufficient to form CAVEOLAE in SARCOLEMMA. Mutations in caveolin 3 are associated with multiple muscle diseases including DISTAL MYOPATHY and LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Neuroaxonal Dystrophies: A nonspecific term referring both to the pathologic finding of swelling of distal portions of axons in the brain and to disorders which feature this finding. Neuroaxonal dystrophy is seen in various genetic diseases, vitamin deficiencies, and aging. Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by arrested psychomotor development at 6 months to 2 years of age, ataxia, brain stem dysfunction, and quadriparesis. Juvenile and adult forms also occur. Pathologic findings include brain atrophy and widespread accumulation of axonal spheroids throughout the neuroaxis, peripheral nerves, and dental pulp. (From Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p927)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Sarcoglycanopathies: Deficiencies or mutations in the genes for the SARCOGLYCAN COMPLEX subunits. A variety of phenotypes are associated with these mutations including a subgroup of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathies, and respiratory deficiency.Walker-Warburg Syndrome: Rare autosomal recessive lissencephaly type 2 associated with congenital MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY and eye anomalies (e.g., RETINAL DETACHMENT; CATARACT; MICROPHTHALMOS). It is often associated with additional brain malformations such as HYDROCEPHALY and cerebellar hypoplasia and is the most severe form of the group of related syndromes (alpha-dystroglycanopathies) with common congenital abnormalities in the brain, eye and muscle development.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Plectin: A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLMuscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: Autosomal dominant hereditary maculopathy with childhood-onset accumulation of LIPOFUSION in RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Affected individuals develop progressive central acuity loss, and distorted vision (METAMORPHOPSIA). It is associated with mutations in bestrophin, a chloride channel.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Morpholinos: Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion: An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Myotonic Disorders: Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Oxepins: Compounds based on a 7-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered a medium ring ether. A natural source is the MONTANOA plant genus. Some dibenzo-dioxepins, called depsidones, are found in GARCINIA plants.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Evans Blue: An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Depending on local rules and regulations, the wild turkey is hunted either in the spring or fall.[5] Spring hunts target gobblers (male turkeys) and fall hunts usually target either sex. Spring hunting coincides with the wild turkey mating season, where gobblers can be called into gun range with calls that mimic the sounds of a hen.[6] Fall seasons occur when turkeys are in flocks, and the typical fall hunt strategy is to "bust up" or "scatter" a flock of turkeys, and then use turkey calls to encourage the scattered birds to group back up together.[7] The shotgun is a popular weapon for hunting wild turkey. Shotgun gauges used in turkey hunting include 10, 12, 16, and 20 gauge.#2, #4, #5, and #6 lead shot is often used in 2 3/4", 3", or 3 1/2" shotshells. Bow and arrow is starting to become popular among hunters. Common hunting broadheads are used for body shots while ...
Adult wild turkeys have long reddish-yellow to grayish-green legs. The body feathers are generally blackish and dark, sometimes grey brown overall with a coppery sheen that becomes more complex in adult males. Adult males, called toms or gobblers, have a large, featherless, reddish head, red throat, and red wattles on the throat and neck. The head has fleshy growths called caruncles. Juvenile males are called jakes; the difference between an adult male and a juvenile is that the jake has a very short beard and his tail fan has longer feathers in the middle. The adult male's tail fan feathers will be all the same length.[5] When males are excited, a fleshy flap on the bill expands, and this, the wattles and the bare skin of the head and neck all become engorged with blood, almost concealing the eyes and bill. The long fleshy object over a male's beak is called a snood. Each foot has three toes in front, with a shorter, rear-facing toe in back; males have a spur behind each of their lower ...
The Slate, or Blue Slate, is a breed of domestic turkey known for the slate gray color of its plumage. Lighter birds are sometimes called Lavender turkeys. Turkeys of the Slate breed may actually be any number of shades between pure black and white, but only ash-gray birds are eligible for showing under the directive of the American Poultry Association's ''Standard of Perfection'', into which they admitted as a variety in 1874. Slate turkeys are listed as critically endangered by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, and meet the definition of a heritage turkey breed. Ekarius, Carol (2007). Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. Storey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58017-667-5. "Slate Blue Turkey". feathersite.com. "Slate Turkey". albc-usa.org. American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. List of turkey breeds Heritage ...
Stocking density is an issue in the welfare of commercial turkeys and high densities are a major animal welfare concern. Permitted stocking densities for turkeys reared indoors vary according to geography and animal welfare farm assurance schemes. For example, in Germany, there is a voluntary maximum of 52 kg/m2 and 58 kg/m2 for males and females respectively. In the UK, the RSPCA Freedom Foods assurance scheme reduces permissible stocking density to 25 kg/m2 for turkeys reared indoors.[21] Turkeys maintained at commercial stocking densities (8 birds/m2; 61 kg/m2) exhibit increased welfare problems such as increases in gait abnormalities, hip and foot lesions, and bird disturbances, and decreased bodyweight compared with lower stocking densities.[22] Turkeys reared at 8 birds/m2 have a higher incidence of hip lesions and foot pad dermatitis than those reared at 6.5 or 5.0 birds/m2.[23] Insufficient space may lead to an ...
... is an imitation bacon usually prepared from cured, smoked, chopped and formed turkey, which is commonly marketed as a low-fat alternative to pork bacon. Turkey bacon can also be used as a substitute for bacon where religious restrictions forbid the consumption of pork. Turkey bacon can be cooked by pan-frying or deep-frying. Cured turkey bacon made from dark meat can be 90% fat free. It can be used in the same manner as bacon (such as in a BLT sandwich), but the low fat content of turkey bacon means it does not shrink while being cooked and has a tendency to stick to the pan, thus making deep-frying a faster and more practical option. Turkey bacon is lower in fat and calories than pork bacon, but can be used in a similar manner to pork bacon (such as in a BLT sandwich), but its lower fat content makes it unsuitable in some situations, such as grilling. Turkey bacon is also an ...
Turkey is in the OECD and the G-20 and is one of the 20 largest economies. The Turkish currency is called the Lira. The first coins were made in Turkey. In the 1970s, many Turks moved to other countries, like Germany, to escape the bad economy at the time and to get better jobs. They often come back to Turkey for summer holidays. Today, many of the people who left in the 1970s want to move back to Turkey. Until the 1980s the government owned most companies, but then Prime Minister Turgut Özal sold them. Before, foreigners were usually not allowed to buy companies, land or property. Turkey's international trade is mostly with the EU, the United States, the Russian Federation, and Japan. Turkey and the EU agreed not to put a lot of tax on what they buy and sell to each other. After that it was easier for Turkish factories to sell products to the EU and for business people in the EU to buy companies in ...
At the end of 2001 law professor Dr. Zafer Üskül stated that 40 of its 78 years the Republic of Turkey had, in some or other part of it, been under extraordinary rule.[1] In December 1978 martial law was imposed in 13 provinces in response to violent incidents in Kahramanmaraş. During the nine months after the Kahramanmaraş riots the government extended martial law to cover 20 provinces.[5] When the military seized power on 12 September 1980 the five generals of the General Staff announced martial law in all of the existing 67 provinces of Turkey. From December 1983 military rule was gradually withdrawn. It was finally lifted throughout Turkey in July 1987.[5] On 1 July 1982 five states (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, France and the Netherlands) filed an application against Turkey with the European Commission of Human Rights. In December 1985 a friendly settlement was reached that demanded that Turkey should lift martial law ...
The Broad Breasted White is commercially the most widely used breed of domesticated turkey. These birds have shorter breast bones and larger breasts, sometimes rendering them unable to breed without human assistance (typically via artificial insemination). [1] They produce more breast meat and their pin feathers are less visible when the carcass is dressed due to their white color. These properties have made the breed popular in commercial turkey production but enthusiasts of slow food argue that the development of this breed and the methods in commercial turkey production have come at a cost of less flavor. These birds are grown in large, fully automated grow-out barns, which may house as many as 10,000 birds. The growing process for these birds has been so well refined, the birds often grow to larger than 40 lbs. Average birds are typically 38-40 lbs. Because of their size, they are flightless and prone to health problems associated with being overweight ...
Turkey Creek is a shopping complex and mixed-use commercial development located in western Knox County, Tennessee, in the cities of Knoxville and Farragut. The development stretches for 3 miles (4.8 km) adjacent to a concurrent section of Interstates 40 and 75, spanning the distance between the Lovell Road and Campbell Station Road interchanges.[1] Shopping centers in the complex include The Pinnacle at Turkey Creek (formerly Colonial Pinnacle & Promenade) featuring approximately 65 stores and restaurants, covering a gross leasable area of 654,000 square feet (60,800 m2).[2] Colonial Promenade contains 20 stores, with a gross leasable area of 280,776 square feet (26,084.9 m2).[3] Both were developed by Colonial Properties. A city of Knoxville greenway is located within the area, adjacent to the Turkey Creek wetland, which is managed by the Izaak Walton League.[4] The Turkey Creek development project started in 1995 when a group of investors ...
... may refer to: Claude Moore Colonial Farm, a U.S. park recreating a 1771 era tenant farm Turkey Run (West Branch Susquehanna River), in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania Turkey Run State Park in Indiana Turkey Run Wildlife Management Area in West ...
This list of the tallest buildings and structures in Turkey ranks skyscrapers and towers in Turkey by height. An incomplete list of the tallest buildings in Turkey. For non-building structures, see List of tallest structures in Turkey:. ...
The Bourbon Red is a breed of domestic turkey named for its unique reddish plumage and for Bourbon County, Kentucky. The breed standard indicates mature Bourbon Red toms (males) weigh 15 kilograms (33 pounds), and mature hens (females) weigh 8.2 kilograms (18 pounds). The breed standard indicates the Bourbon Red should weigh 10.4 kilograms (23 pounds) for toms and 6.3 kilograms (14 pounds) for hens at slaughter age (28 weeks). These standard weights were published with anticipation of the potential of the Bourbon Red and when the breed was at its prime. Though there are efforts to restore and accomplish the Bourbon Red standard, today these weights are realized by few breeders and growers. Bourbon Reds have been unrefined for too long due to the lack of selective breeding to preserve the breed. However, Mature Turkeys in a breeding flock will exhibit an intense fluctuate ~30% from these published weights due to their relentless, extensive and highly instinctive breeding ...
Dustin the Turkey (liet. Dustinas kalakutas) yra lėlė personažas, populiarus Airijoje. Pirmą kartą personažas pasirodė RTÉ televizijos laidoje „The Den" 1989 m. gruodį. Lėlė, kurią sukūrė Zigo ir Zago kūrėjai, didelio pripažinimo susilaukė vaikų laidoje „The Den" ir ji yra išleidusi šešis albumus bei gausybę singlų. 2008 metais Dustinas kalakutas išrinktas Airijos atstovu 2008 m. „Eurovizijoje", tačiau su kūriniu „Irelande Douze Pointe" pusfinalyje užėmė 15 vietą ir į finalą nepateko. Euroviziniame kūrinyje yra minimi Bono ir Terry Wogan bei atsiprašoma už airių tradicinę šokių grupę „Riverdance". ...
A Study of CAP-1002 in Ambulatory and Non-Ambulatory Patients With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. *Muscular Dystrophies ... A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency Using AAV2-hAADC - An Expansion. * ... Embryo morphology - Number of pronuclei present following fertilization. *Embryo morphology - Number of cells present ... Ankara, Turkey. 50. NCT00843921. Recruiting. N-Carbamylglutamate (Carbaglu) In The Treatment Of Hyperammonemia. *Inborn Errors ...
MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY PROPERTIES OF MOUSE MODELS FOR DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. Neuromuscular Disorders, 24 (9-10). pp. 819-820. ... Third International Workshop for Glycosylation Defects in Muscular Dystrophies, 18-19 April 2013, Charlotte, USA. In: ... Brunton, L A and Reeves, H E and Snow, L C and Jones, J R (2014) A longitudinal field trial assessing the impact of feeding ... Paterson, Y Z and Rash, N and Garvican, E R and Paillot, R and Guest, D J (2014) Equine mesenchymal stromal cells and embryo- ...
Goran, Brant, Mamuk and Tizgar Turkey. Engender deployment and history of canine mdr1-1Delta, a pharmacogenetic mutation that ... Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent party chemotherapy as ... Powerfully built Dystrophy Consortium, 2009b) When a youngster is admitted to a non-specific module, wolf further mores to ... Absolute Retention A main driver object of real-time study of muscular amounts of data is the event of IMDBs that are gifted to ...
... fashionable remedy fitted muscular dystrophies remains on the whole sympathetic and seldom targeted Dive intermission narrowing ... abundance to heart our trials on the appropriate patients and to choose the nick endpoints an eye to the finicky trial Our ... Myotonic dystrophy, an inherited autosomal weakness of chromosome 19, is the most low-class of the myotonic syndromes These ... Turkey, France, Hungary, and Russia In 1932, he discovered that a dye named room’s DNA, keeping it from reproducing [url= ...

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