Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.
The position or attitude of the body.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Apart from the latter two, which occur in excitable cells (neurons, muscles, and some secretory cells in glands), membrane ... see reference #1, above). "Muscles". users.rcn.com. 2015-01-24. Archived from the original on 2015-11-07. Retrieved 2016-06-01 ... that explained the resting potential of nerve and muscle as a diffusion potential. Action potential Depolarization ...
The internal cavity forms: a mouth that can usually be closed by muscles; a pharynx ("throat"); a wider area in the center that ... Both ctenophores and cnidarians have a type of muscle that, in more complex animals, arises from the middle cell layer, and as ... The mouth and pharynx have both cilia and well-developed muscles. In other parts of the canal system, the gastrodermis is ... The ciliary rosettes in the canals may help to transport nutrients to muscles in the mesoglea. The anal pores may eject ...
Play media Medusae swim by a form of jet propulsion: muscles, especially inside the rim of the bell, squeeze water out of the ... These appear between or sometimes on top of the muscle cells. Nerve cells. Sensory cells appear between or sometimes on top of ... However, both cnidarians and ctenophores have a type of muscle that, in more complex animals, arises from the middle cell layer ... The mesoglea contains small numbers of amoeba-like cells, and muscle cells in some species. However, the number of middle-layer ...
This is because vibrations stimulate muscle spindles in the calf muscles. The muscle spindles alert the brain that the body is ... It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone. These muscles, acting ... and receives muscle fibers on its inner surface, particularly from the soleus muscle, almost to its lower end. Gradually ... Both muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve. Because the fibres of the tendon spiral about 90 degrees, fibres from the ...
The sliding filament theory explains the mechanism of muscle contraction based on muscle proteins that slide past each other to ... He demonstrated in 1942 that ATP was the source of energy for muscle contraction. He actually observed that muscle fibres ... The first muscle protein discovered was myosin by a German scientist Willy Kühne, who extracted and named it in 1864. In 1939 a ... According to them: the backbone of a muscle fibre is actin filaments which extend from Z line up to one end of H zone, where ...
He was 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in) tall, weighed 67 kg (148 lb) and was ironically nicknamed "Muscles" by his fellow-players because of ... Steve Tignor (10 October 2012). "Catching the Tape: The Artist Known as Muscles". www.tennis.com. Tennis.com. Greatest Player ... Rosewall & Rowley 1976, p. 15 Rosewall & Rowley 1976, p. 1 Rosewall & Rowley 1976, p. 2 Muscles, Ken Rosewall as told to ... Naughton, Richard (2012). Alexander, Helen (ed.). Muscles. Richmond, Vic.: Slattery Media Group. ISBN 9781921778568. OCLC ...
However, higher protein in the diet helps reduce lean body mass loss, but will not lead to an increase in size of muscle unless ... Maintenance needs should still be met by low-protein diets, and the muscle turnover (i.e. synthesis and breakdown) will also ... With an Appendix, Containing a Minute Anatomical Description of the ... Skeleton of the Horse; the ... Muscles ... and the ...
Cardiac muscles are found in the heart and are used only to circulate blood; like the smooth muscles, these muscles are not ... Muscle contraction is stimulated by the motor neuron sending a message to the muscles from the somatic nervous system. ... Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and arranged in opposing groups around joints. Muscles are innervated, to communicate ... Skeletal muscles of the human body Skeletal muscle Muscular system Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed ...
"Japan can't stop looking at modeling idol's big, beautiful...muscles! 【Photos】". 26 January 2016. "DEADLIFT LOLITA OFFICIAL". ...
"Atlas and epitome of special pathologic histology, Liver; urinary organs; sexual organs; nervous system; skin; muscles; bones ...
Superficial muscles. Posterior surface of the forearm. Superficial muscles. The radial artery. The radial and ulnar arteries. ... the brachioradialis is a posterior compartment muscle and consequently is innervated by the radial nerve. Of the muscles that ... The muscle is used to stabilize the elbow during rapid flexion and extension while in a midposition, such as in hammering. The ... The brachioradialis is a muscle of the forearm that flexes the forearm at the elbow. It is also capable of both pronation and ...
Big Muscles • Snake Vs. Lizard • Jesus Christ Makes A Shotgun Sound • Werewolf With Robot Hands • Shark Pants July 2, 2005 @ ...
"Muscles Shoals". Soundtrack.net. Autotelics, LLC. Retrieved 14 Oct 2016.. ... Aretha Franklin's recording of the song has appeared in the music documentary Muscle Shoals (2013) and in the dramatic film, ...
It affects the rectus abdominis muscle. The rectus abdominis muscle is divided down the middle by the tendinous line called the ... It causes the "smooth muscle" along the walls of the intestines to relax. Thus, making sure that the future mother will absorb ... It is kept in line by the transverse abdominal and oblique abdominal muscles. During pregnancy, the growth of the fetus exerts ... "Separated Muscles". Pregnancy Info: Birth, Baby, and Maternity Advice. 2011. Rohmann, Riana (11 August 2011). "Exercises To ...
Superficial muscles. Posterior surface of the forearm. Deep muscles. Elbow joint. Deep dissection. Posterior view. Elbow joint ... of some of the flexor muscles of the forearm: the flexor carpi radialis, the flexor carpi ulnaris, the flexor digitorum ...
Chest muscles. The breasts overlay the pectoralis major muscle, the pectoralis minor muscle, and the intercostal muscles ( ... the rib muscles, and the shoulder blade), and to the rectus abdominis muscle (a long, flat muscle extending up the torso, from ... The body posture of the woman exerts physical stresses upon the pectoralis major muscles and the pectoralis minor muscles, ... The pectoralis major muscle is covered with a thin superficial membrane, the pectoral fascia, which has many prolongations ...
Superficial muscles. Posterior surface of the forearm. Deep muscles. This article incorporates text in the public domain from ... Specifically, these extensor muscles include the anconeus muscle, the supinator, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor ... "the tendons that join the forearm muscles on the outside of the elbow. The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from ... and to a tendon common to the origin of the supinator and some of the extensor muscles. ...
The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle, which is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the ... "orbicularis oris muscle". TheFreeDictionary: Mosby's Dental Dictionary, 2nd edition. 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2010. "Muscles ... Men will give themselves away by a certain excited trembling in the muscles of the lower jaw upon seeing their beloved. Women ... Kissing is a complex behavior that requires significant muscular coordination involving a total of 34 facial muscles and 112 ...
"Muscles Used". Concept2. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020. "The Physical Characteristics of an ... Rowing is one of the few bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups, including quads, biceps, triceps, lats, ... Rowing tanks are used primarily for off-season rowing, muscle-specific conditioning and technique training, or simply when bad ... glutes and abdominal muscles. The sport also improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. High-performance rowers ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ".:. Arabian Muscles .:". Retrieved 13 July 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gerald Martinez (18 January 1987). "MISTER MUSCLES". New Straits Times. p. 22. ...
... 筋 muscles; 骨 bone; 髄 marrow; 節 joint; 皮 / 膚 / 肌 skin; 皺 wrinkle; 腺 gland 脳 brain; 髪 hair; 顔 face; 髭 beard; 額 forehead; 耳 ear; 目 ...
"THIS HALLOWEEN AICN COMICS REVIEWS JOKER+preview! DARK CRYSTAL! RISERS! MUSCLES&FRIGHTS! FINAL CRISIS...oh the horror! + MORE ...
Volume IV The spleen; the liver and gall bladder; the kidneys and the bladder; the genitalia; pregnancy; the muscles. The ...
Muscle MRI and especially whole body muscle MRI has recently been used to describe muscle abnormalities in patients with ... CMD with spinal rigidity present at birth can have poor muscle tone and weakness, reduced respiratory capacity, muscles could ... Integrin α7 weakness which is present at birth, poor muscle tone with late walking, loss of muscle tissue, intellectual ... Most infants with CMD will display some progressive muscle weakness or muscle wasting (atrophy), although there can be ...
The toxin or toxins paralyze muscle tissue; in particular: Skeletal muscles. This results in the overt paralysis for which the ... Heart muscle. This results in congestive heart failure and pulmonary oedema, seen also as labored breathing. Spring is the peak ... Respiratory muscles. Initially this results in rapid, shallow breathing with an inability to cough. In advanced stages it is ... Laryngeal muscles. This results in an altered 'voice' and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia (inhalation of food, saliva ...
The cardiac muscle pattern is elegant and complex, as the muscle cells swirl and spiral around the chambers of the heart, with ... There are two types of cells in cardiac muscle: muscle cells which have the ability to contract easily, and pacemaker cells of ... The middle layer of the heart wall is the myocardium, which is the cardiac muscle-a layer of involuntary striated muscle tissue ... There are specific proteins expressed in cardiac muscle cells. These are mostly associated with muscle contraction, and bind ...
All other muscles are like the human's as well, but are not distinguishably different from an ape or monkey the same, either ... Calf muscles. Wider in the shoulders and pectorals. Longer heel. Adipose membrane next to the skin. Unperforated peritoneum in ...
Gillette, Felix (January 29, 2015). "SpongeBob Muscles Up". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on April 7, 2017 ...
Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions. Small saphenous vein and its tributaries. The popliteal, posterior tibial ... Muscles of thigh. Lateral view. Hamstring Buckenmaier III C; Bleckner L (2008). "Chapter 20: Popliteal nerve block". The ... strong fascia covering the popliteus muscle. Structures within the popliteal fossa include, (from superficial to deep): tibial ...
Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old Mice. Current News Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old ... Clinically, these findings could translate to older adults who either sustained a muscle injury or underwent muscle-damaging ... Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old Mice By: The McGowan Institute For Regenerative Medicine , Category: ... "We found that we were able to rescue, at least in part, the regenerative defect of aged skeletal muscle," said lead author ...
... also increasing awareness among people regarding Muscle Wasting Disorder boost the market growth ... Muscle Wasting Disorder Market Dominated by the North America treatment due to growing demand of muscle atrophy treatment in ... The tendency of the body to lose tissue is referred as muscle wasting disorder, or muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy can be ... Global Muscle Wasting Disorder Market: Snapshot The global muscle wasting disorder market is fueled primarily by the rising ...
Learn research-proven approaches to programming to overcome muscle confusion and achieve strength gains, while not forgetting ... Muscles are the same way. When you combine strength and cardio in the same session, your muscles get confused at the molecular ... Muscles get confused (just like you and I sometimes do). If you walk into a yoga studio ready to do yoga, but the room is ... Muscles need 48 hours for baseline strength to recover from high-intensity strength training. This finding is based on data ...
... how muscle type is over-rated and how it gets more credit then it deserves. ... This article will deal mainly with how people think the muscle type makes no difference, ... Muscle Recruitment So, aside from muscle fiber involvement why is the nervous system so important? The majority of the time, ... Individual muscles are made up of individual muscle fibers and these fibers are further organized into motor units grouped ...
Propecia Loss Of Muscle. Get The Lowest Prices. #1 Online Pharmacy. ... When it is stopped, the company begins to food grow even and propecia loss of muscle the disease will be lost. As a side, drug ... Obtain ecg in not all conditions zich but i do speak to propecia loss of muscle one propecia sex with a better canadian home in ... Billy is capsule on me to propecia loss of muscle record some of that potency only. Hair beaucoup habits, after all, are known ...
... and muscle soreness were measured before supplementation. Circulating chemistries, single-leg peak isometric force, and muscle ... increase in circulating biomarkers representative of muscle damage (ALT or AST) without ameliorating muscle soreness (P , 0.05 ... intended to induce muscle damage. During the exercise protocol, subjects were allowed to perform presses if they were unable to ... deficit in skeletal muscle strength) after muscular injury or damage. Although supplemental vitamin D increases serum 25(OH)D ...
The rotatores muscles (rotatores spinae muscles) lie beneath the multifidus and are present in all spinal regions but are most ... Multifidus muscle. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 400 of the 20th edition of ... Each muscle is small and somewhat quadrilateral in form; it arises from the superior and posterior part of the transverse ... The Rotatores muscles have a high density of proprioceptors and have been implicated in postural control.[1] ...
Pectoral muscles (colloquially referred to as "pecs") are the muscles that connect the front of the human chest with the bones ... Pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, which makes up the bulk of the chest muscle. It lies under the breast. It ... This article is about muscles of the human chest. For other uses, see Pectoral muscles (disambiguation). ... The pectoral fascia is a thin layer of tissue over the pectoralis major, extending toward the latissimus dorsi muscle on the ...
You have more than 600 muscles in your body! They do everything from pumping blood throughout your body to helping you lifting ... muscle.. Smooth Muscles. Smooth muscles - sometimes also called involuntary muscles - are usually in sheets, or layers, with ... A Hearty Muscle. The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. It is also known as the myocardium (say: my-uh- ... Skeletal Muscle. Now, lets talk about the kind of muscle you think of when we say "muscle" - the ones that show how strong you ...
Listen to songs and albums by Muscles, including Ice Cream, Sweaty, Chocolate Rasberry Lemon and Lime, and many more. ... A one-man dance music act begun in 2006, Muscles first made waves with the summer 2007 singles Sweaty and Ice Cream. ... Similar in scope and sound to the anthemic Andrew W.K. but maintaining an almost indie/emo take lyrically, Muscles released his ...
Muscles and Their Exercises is a pictorial muscle anatomy and exercise guide that takes readers through the major muscles of ... The Ultimate Muscle Building Program is a simple yet highly effective program for building muscle quickly. The book will lay ... each muscle and muscle group. It also provides beginning and finishing movement exercise demonstration pictures for the ... Do you like muscles... and fights? Then this is your book. More than a dozen independent comic book artists have collaborated ...
Youll need resistance (or weights) to help rebuild lost muscle. It takes time and intense effort to see results but is well ... Help for Weak Muscles. What can I do to strengthen weak muscles?. * ... The level of exercise Im recommending is intensive, but such activity is the only known way to bulk up your muscles, and more ... The program I recommend in cases like yours is three sets of eight to 10 repetitions per muscle group, working at 60 to 80 ...
6 Muscles You Cant Ignore. These six muscles may never earn top billing, but they may rejuvenate your workouts and ignite new ... Why Your Muscles May Twitch When You Lift Weights. Those tics are annoying. Heres what causes them, and when you should ... How to Double Your Muscle Gains With Any Exercise. ​Add this simple method to your existing training routine and watch your ... How Popular Allergy Medicines Can Affect Your Muscle Gains. A new study looks at the effects of taking antihistamines on your ...
... muscle strié sous contrôle volontaire du système nerveux central (fr); one of three major muscle types (en); speco de muskolo ( ... skeletal muscle, striated voluntary muscle (en); skeleta stria muskolo (eo); Příčně pruhované svalstvo, Kosterní svaly, Příčně ... muscles squelettiques, muscle strié squelettique (fr); Skeletilihas (et); Скелетная мускулатура, Скелетные мышцы, Поперечно- ... Muscles of the pharynx, viewed from the back and side, and s Wellcome V0007815.jpg 2,481 × 3,080; 3.21 MB. ...
Find out how muscles move, how they repair themselves after injury, and why scientists say that antioxidants after exercise ... The muscles that move our body parts are called skeletal muscles, and they are a type of striated muscle. We can actively ... Muscle repair. When we exercise, we damage our muscles. Afterward, stem cells repair the damage and the muscles get stronger. ... What is an intercostal muscle strain?. Learn all about intercostal muscle strain, when the muscles between the ribs are damaged ...
But there are animal groups, that dont have any muscles at all, as they branched off from the evolutionary path before muscle ... "The early evolution of muscles has not been fully understood so far. According to current scientific knowledge muscle cells ... "There is a lot of evidence that the sponge epithelial cells and the muscle cells of all the other animals are going back to a ... Muscle contractions are the basis of all movements, at least according to general opinion. ...
... The esophageal muscles line the esophagus just above the point where it joins the stomach. The circular ... muscle fibers in the esophageal muscle walls are thickened. These fibers are usually contracted, and function to close the ... When peristaltic waves reach the stomach, the muscle fibers Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... ...
Amphioxus Muscles Lamprey Muscles Shark Muscles Teleost Muscles Amphibian Muscles Medial Motor Column Human Muscles A review of ... Mammalian Muscles Cross references: Motor Neuron Evolution Muscle Innervation Amphioxus Motor Nerves ... Related citation: See: Muscle Innervation . Motoneurons of twitch and nontwitch extraocular muscle fibers in the abducens, ... Tonic fibers are retained in some muscles of reptiles and birds, but are absent in axial muscles of mammals. 484,531 From: ...
... unions used their political muscle in the recent elections to help install Democratic governors, build labor-friendly ... From California to Maine, unions used their political muscle to defeat ballot initiatives against them and elect labor-friendly ... WASHINGTON (AP) - From California to Maine, unions used their political muscle in the recent elections to help install ...
... artificial muscles for robots that give them the power to lift up to 1,000 times their own weight. The advance offers a leap ... The muscles, known as actuators, are built on a framework of metal coils or plastic sheets, and each muscle costs around $1 to ... The artificial muscles "can generate about six times more force per unit area than mammalian skeletal muscle can, and are also ... They created "muscles that can contract down to 10 percent of their original size, lift a delicate flower off the ground, and ...
How to Build Calves , Train Calf Muscles Anywhere - Duration: 6 minutes, 19 seconds.. Muscle World ... Why you wont build muscle with pull ups - Duration: 4 minutes, 10 seconds.. Muscle World ... Muscle World is a channel that follows Max through his training and adventures. Expect challenges, fitness advice and adventure ... Find information on how to build muscle, increase strength, lose fat and tone up. I am currently running a series providing ...
You have more than 600 muscles in your body! They do everything from pumping blood throughout your body to helping you lifting ... These muscles keep the eyes focused.. A Hearty Muscle. The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. It is also ... muscle.. Smooth Muscles. Smooth muscles - sometimes also called involuntary muscles - are usually in sheets, or layers, with ... When you make a muscle in your arm, you tense your biceps (say: BYE-seps) muscle. When you contract your biceps muscle, you can ...
How much do you know about your muscles? Find out by taking this quiz! ... A) Smooth muscle, sports muscles, and skeletal muscles * B) Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle ... The three major types of muscles in the body are: * ... C) Smooth muscle, running muscle, and face muscles * D) Smooth ...
... allowing the rats to exhibit high levels of muscle activity when their muscles should have been inactive. The data suggest the ... During REM sleep, the deep sleep where most recalled dreams occur, muscles that move the eyes and those involved in breathing ... Brain cells called trigeminal motor neurons communicate the brain´s message to move to these muscles. Previous research thought ... The researchers measured electrical activity in the facial muscles responsible for chewing in sleeping rats. ...
... plantaris muscle (en); عضلة أخمصية (ar); musculus plantaris (nn); Mușchiul plantar (ro) muscolo (it); Muskel (de); muscle (en ... 1123 Muscles of the Leg that Move the Foot and Toes b.png 700 × 1,238; 378 KB. ... músculo plantar (es); muscle plantaire (fr); Tabanski mišić (hr); muskulu plantar (eu); Подошвенная мышца (ru); Musculus ... Plantaris muscle 2 by Sanjoy Sanyal.webm 1 min 29 s, 1,077 × 606; 22.06 MB. ...
... (8-Nov-1996). Director: John Murlowski. Writers: Jonathan Bond; Fred Mata; Dorrie Krum Raymond. Keywords: ...
Breast muscles Hi there,. Please could you give me some advice - Im a 19 year old girl whos never done much exercise so Im ... Breasts are predominantly made of fat and glandular tissue which you cant "train" like muscle, however, you can work the ... muscle underneath the breast - ie. work on the chest area.. Good luck. ...
Connecting your smartphone directly to the muscles in your arm with some electrodes, and then stimulating your muscles to ... Researchers use facial muscle tracking to predict how addictive games will be February 9, 2013 at 10:00 am Taiwanese ... Super-material could create robot muscles with 1000x human strength December 23, 2013 at 2:30 pm A new application for an old ... OpenWorm brings simulated life one step closer with real digital muscles December 20, 2013 at 3:14 pm The OpenWorm project ...
I wanna talk women with muscles. I used to work out at a LA fitness,on Saturdays there was a hot blonde with huge muscles.I ... I wanna talk women with muscles. I used to work out at a LA fitness,on Saturdays there was a hot blonde with huge muscles.I ...
The first cellular analysis of muscles from astronauts who have spent 180 days at the International Space Station shows that ... their muscles lost more than 40 percent of their capacity for physical \[…\] ... The study is a follow-up to an earlieranalysis of muscle size, where the researchers put the loss of muscle volume at 15 ... Astronaut Muscles Would Wither by Mars. Even if we could farm on Mars, astronauts might be too weak by the time they get there ...

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