Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Voice Training: A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Larynx, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Speech, Esophageal: A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Kymography: The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Laryngeal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Tigers: The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.Stroboscopy: The observation of successive phases of MOVEMENT by use of a flashing light.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Viscoelastic Substances: Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Laryngoplasty: Restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of a defective or damaged LARYNX.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
  • This muscle is the only laryngeal muscle innervated by the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve known as the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (rather than the recurrent laryngeal nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve causes changes to normal phonation as a result of unilateral paralysis to the vocal fold, in this case the right vocal fold (Benumof, & Hagberg, 2007). (prezi.com)
  • Control over these muscles is provided by two branches of the vagus nerve: the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal nerve. (ohsu.edu)
  • 2. A device as described in claim 1, further comprising means for generating an electrical current to the leads such that the electrodes produce an electrical stimulus, wherein the electrical stimulus has a frequency which is selected to evoke a predetermined amount of stimulation in at least one laryngeal muscle and a current effective to selectively stimulate at least a portion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (google.com)
  • Apart from the cricothyroid muscle which is innervated by the external laryngeal branch, the rest are supplied by the inferior laryngeal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (healthhype.com)
  • Functional voice disorders include disorders caused by improper muscle functioning or improper learning patterns to use the voice. (medindia.net)
  • During normal inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and the ribcage elevates. (visiblebody.com)
  • Pressure-volume measurements of rib cage and abdominal compartments can provide the basis for mechanical analysis of the diaphragm, rib cage, and abdominal muscles , allowing inferences about which muscles contribute to a particular breath or respiratory maneuver. (fitness-vip.com)
  • This is because it is possible to generate inspiratory pressures at the airway opening by the rib cage muscles in the absence of significant diaphragm contribution. (fitness-vip.com)
  • The diaphragm is the motor muscle of breath, which can be automatic, forced, or controlled. (cureus.com)
  • The loud and effortful phonatory tasks of the LSVT® are aimed at improving respiratory drive, vocal fold adduction, laryngeal muscle activity and synergy, laryngeal and supralaryngeal articulatory movements, and vocal tract configuration. (bmj.com)
  • These muscle movements are initiated, coordinated, and controlled by the brain, and monitored through hearing and touch. (nyhq.org)
  • Researchers believe it may be caused by abnormal functioning in the basal ganglia of the brain, which helps coordinate movements of muscles throughout the body. (nyhq.org)
  • Research on the neural bases of other aspects of motor control, such as learned hand-arm movements, suggests that phonemes reflect instruction sets for commands in the motor cortex that ultimately control the muscles that move our tongues, lips, jaws, and larynxes as we talk. (the-scientist.com)
  • The two movements were combined to draw Lissajous trajectories of the vocal fold during phonation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Objective acoustic parameters analyzed during the same period included fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, highest frequency, frequency and intensity range, and maximal phonation time. (springer.com)
  • Pre and post-test measures of maximal phonation tasks, maximum sound pressure level, maximum frequency range, maximum expiratory and inspiratory pressure, physiologic measures of swallow function, and quality of life related to voice and swallowing were compared to determine effects of the treatment. (ufl.edu)
  • This implies that extensive training of syringeal muscles is essential to achieve their maximal performance and that the duration and trajectory of song learning are not solely set by neural circuit formation. (eneuro.org)
  • Hyperfunctional and hypofunctional disorders can often be differentiated by isolating the abductor and adductor muscle groups. (medscape.com)
  • Distraction techniques and relaxed throat breathing techniques, such as asking the patient to pant (which activates the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, the main vocal cord abductor), or placing the tongue on the floor of the mouth and breathing through pursed lips may alleviate an attack. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The role of syringeal muscles in controlling the aperture of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, was evaluated directly for the first time by observing and filming through an endoscope while electrically stimulating different muscle groups of anaesthetised birds. (biologists.org)
  • In songbirds (brown thrashers, Toxostoma rufum , and cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis ), direct observations of the biomechanical effects of contraction largely confirm the functions of the intrinsic syringeal muscles proposed from indirect studies. (biologists.org)
  • The syringeal muscles are intrinsic or extrinsic. (biologists.org)
  • The syringeal muscles undoubtedly play an important role in preparation for phonation and in controlling the acoustic properties of emitted sound. (biologists.org)
  • The ability to provide absolute calibrated measurement of the laryngeal structures during phonation is of paramount importance to voice science and clinical practice. (harvard.edu)
  • MU recruitment in thyroarytenoid/lateral cricoarytenoid (TA/LCA) muscle complex results were 1+ for 4 patients, 2+ for 5, 3+ for 6, and 4+ for 6. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Contraction of the dorsal muscles, m. syringealis dorsalis (dS) and m. tracheobronchialis dorsalis, constricts the syringeal lumen and thus reduces airflow by adducting connective tissue masses, the medial (ML) and lateral (LL) labia. (biologists.org)
  • Contraction of m. tracheobronchialis ventralis enlarges the syringeal lumen and thus increases airflow by abducting the LL but does not affect the ML. The largest syringeal muscle, m. syringealis ventralis, plays a minor role, if any, in direct aperture control and thus in gating airflow. (biologists.org)
  • Contraction of the superficial intrinsic muscle, m. syringealis superficialis, adducts the LTMs further into the tracheal lumen but does not close the syringeal aperture fully. (biologists.org)
  • The spiritus asper is caused by a too slow contraction of the vocal cords and their too gradual approach for phonation . (dictionary.com)
  • The threshold current for initiating noticeable muscle contraction was 0.03 mA. (hindawi.com)
  • Abdominal displacement (Vab) gastric pressure (Pga) characteristic during relaxation and contraction of abdominal muscles . (fitness-vip.com)
  • The resulting compound action potentials and subsequent muscle contraction allow for measurement of the efficiency of neural and neuromuscular transmission. (fitness-vip.com)
  • Rocuronium bromide injection is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent indicated as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate both rapid sequence and routine tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. (nih.gov)
  • Rocuronium bromide injection is indicated for inpatients and outpatients as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate both rapid sequence and routine tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. (nih.gov)
  • The substance blocks the activity of skeletal muscle and in large doses causes complete paralysis. (larynxlink.com)
  • and insulin administration or a nonfasting state can cause diffuse skeletal muscle uptake since insulin drives glucose (and FDG) into skeletal muscles (9) (Figure 3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Skeletal muscle pathology included fiber destruction, lysosomal vacuolation, and autophagic abnormalities (i.e., buildup), particularly in fibers with minimal lysosomal enlargement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings indicate that ERT does not fully halt or reverse the underlying skeletal muscle pathology in IPD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, many previously unknown complications have emerged [ 8 ], and the impact of long-term ERT on the relative contribution of lysosomal and autophagic pathologies to skeletal muscle damage is not known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paresthesias are reported over the area of nerve distribution, along with tenderness over nerve fibers and muscles supplied by the involved nerve. (chiro.org)
  • It is composed of muscle, connective tissue and mucous membrane, with the bulk of the uvula consisting of glandular tissue with diffuse muscle fibers intersperced throughout. (ncemi.org)
  • The forces ultimately generated by muscles strongly depend on dynamic body motion and environmental conditions through the muscle's nonlinear force-length and force-velocity properties ( Düring and Elemans, 2016 ). (eneuro.org)
  • Theoretically, if these muscles are functionally affected then phonation and vocalization should be impaired, as well. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatta ) is an excellent model to study this hypothesis because its vocal repertoire is well known, and a vocalization such as the 'coo' call ( Fig. 1 ) shows a very specific rising-and-falling f 0 contour that can only be achieved if laryngeal intrinsic muscles stiffen the vocal fold tissue to the correct stress level and simultaneously compensate for stress relaxation if necessary. (biologists.org)
  • Nonnasal sounds are produced when the soft palate (a muscle) moves upward and backward to make contact with the pharyngeal walls to block air from escaping through the nasal port. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During the acts of degluttination and phonation, the uvula and soft palate are directed upward, thereby walling off the nasal cavity from the pharynx. (ncemi.org)
  • In our on-going reinnervation studies, the SM muscle has been chosen as a studied muscle in a rat model because this muscle has anatomical advantages over other neck muscles. (hindawi.com)
  • Oral motor functioning depends on an intricate process of sending and receiving messages to various facial, throat and neck muscles to coordinate breathing, talking, chewing, swallowing and digestion. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • In chronic cases, there may be paresis of muscles partly supplied by the affected root but not overt paralysis. (chiro.org)
  • Periodic paralysis as described by Talbott 55 is characterized by intermittent attacks of flaccid paralysis of the muscles of the extremities, with loss of both deep tendon reflexes and response to electrical stimulation of motor nerves 39 without mental impairment. (annals.org)
  • The paralysis begins peripherally, progressing centrally with more profound involvement of the extensor muscles of the legs than of the flexors. (annals.org)
  • Although the nerve-muscle pedicle (NMP) technique has been commonly employed to treat laryngeal and facial paralysis in animal experiments and clinical practice, controversy exists concerning the optimal results and success rate of the functional recovery [ 13 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Under the experimental conditions used in this study, full constriction of the syringeal lumen could not be achieved by stimulating adductor muscles. (biologists.org)
  • A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. (bioportfolio.com)