Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.
The position or attitude of the body.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Muscle mass[edit]. Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... muscle cells and probably act in a coordinated manner to function by acting on several cell types in skeletal muscle tissue.[8] ... One cell type conveys hormone signals to generating muscle, the myoblast. Higher androgen levels lead to increased expression ...
"Mini-muscle" allele[edit]. A gene recently discovered in laboratory house mice, termed "mini-muscle", causes a 50% reduction in ... For example, mice with the Mini Muscle mutation were observed to have a higher per-gram aerobic capacity.[37] The mini-muscle ... Mini Muscle Mice also exhibit larger kidneys and livers. All of these morphological deviations influence the behavior and ... heavy polypeptide 4 gene is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype characterized by major reduction in hind-limb muscle mass ...
Abdominal muscle[edit]. Skin grafted muscle flaps have fallen from popularity. This procedure is a minimum of 3 steps and ...
Muscle tendon injuries[edit]. The entire muscle-tendon system works cohesively to slow down limb movement. The close ... Proof of muscle strengthening without damage: One recurring problem in ACL rehabilitation is improving muscle strength of the ... Muscle injury[edit]. Eccentric contractions are a frequent cause of muscle injury when engaging in unaccustomed exercise. But a ... The energy that is absorbed by the muscle will be dissipated as heat if the muscle is being used as a "damper or shock absorber ...
Muscles targeted[edit]. Chin-ups, like most pull-ups, target the latissimus dorsi muscle of the back as a shoulder extensor, ... "Muscles worked in a Pull-Up". Retrieved 10 July 2014. During a Pull-Up the muscles that are mainly worked are those of the ... "". Retrieved 23 April 2018.. ... As a result, this variation recruits the trapezius and teres major muscles much more than a vertical chin-up would, and is more ...
Skeletal muscle[edit]. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle ... Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an opposing joint torque to the agonist muscles.[6] This torque can aid ... There is an important difference between a helping synergist muscle and a true synergist muscle. A true synergist muscle is one ... Examples of bipennate muscles are the rectus femoris muscle of the thigh, and the stapedius muscle of the middle ear. ...
Muscle and bone[edit]. There is a decrease in hip fractures, which persists after the treatment is stopped, though to a lesser ... Hormone replacement therapy in the form of estrogen and androgen can be effective at reversing the effects of aging on muscle.[ ... decreased muscle mass, sexual dysfunction, and bone loss. They are in large part related to the diminished levels of sex ... "Benefits of estrogen replacement for skeletal muscle mass and function in post-menopausal females: evidence from human and ...
2007). Muscles within muscles: Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks. J ... Muscle energy techniques. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 432 of the 20th ... The pair of muscles are commonly known as "lats", especially among bodybuilders. The latissimus dorsi is the largest muscle in ... and assists as a muscle of both forced expiration (anterior fibers) and an accessory muscle of inspiration (posterior fibers).[ ...
Muscle repairs[edit]. Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in ... as well as muscle, neural and other progenitor tissues, they have been the main type of stem cells studied in the treatment of ... derived from adult stem cells is under preliminary research for potential orthopedic applications in bone and muscle trauma, ... "Mesoangioblast stem cells ameliorate muscle function in dystrophic dogs". Nature. 444 (7119): 574-79. doi:10.1038/nature05282 ...
In retrograde ejaculation, these bladder neck muscles are either very weak or the nerves controlling the muscles have been ... Conditions which can affect bladder neck muscle[edit]. Medications to treat high blood pressure, benign prostate hyperplasia, ... Retrograde ejaculation is a common side effect of medications, such as tamsulosin,[5] that are used to relax the muscles of the ... During climax, muscles at the end of the bladder neck tighten to prevent retrograde flow of semen. ...
Muscles and bones. The most commonly sought medical attention is for joint pain, with the small joints of the hand and wrist ... a b Joint and Muscle Pain Archived 2007-11-09 at the Wayback Machine. Lupus Foundation of America ... Common initial and chronic complaints include fever, malaise, joint pains, muscle pains, and fatigue. Because these symptoms ... More than 90 percent of those affected will experience joint or muscle pain at some time during the course of their illness.[16 ...
Muscle atrophies[edit]. Main article: Muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can ... Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur with diseases of the motor nerves or diseases of the muscle tissue itself. Examples of ... Changes in Na+ channel isoform expression and spontaneous activity in muscle called fibrillation can also result in muscle ... Testing on mice showed that it blocked the activity of a protein present in the muscle that is involved in muscle atrophy.[5] ...
However, muscles adapt to the lengths at which they are chronically held,[25] so that if a paralyzed muscle is stretched by its ... Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, ... for muscles with an impaired ability to effectively lengthen. Muscles affected by UMNS frequently are limited by weakness, loss ... When injecting the masseter muscle of the jaw, loss of muscle function can result in a loss or reduction of power to chew solid ...
20 Muscle relaxants (peripherally-acting) and cholinesterase inhibitors. *21 Eye preparations *21.1 Anti-infective agents ...
The deltoid muscles lie just lateral to the trapezius muscles, originating from several fibers spanning the clavicle and ... Pectoantebrachialis muscle is just one-half inch wide and is the most superficial in the pectoral muscles. Its origin is the ... This muscle is the innermost abdominal muscle. Its origin is the second sheet of the lumbodorsal fascia and the pelvic girdle ... The Splenius is the most superficial of all the deep muscles. It is a thin, broad sheet of muscle underneath the clavotrapezius ...
1.4 A04: Muscles (musculi). *1.5 A05: Alimentary system (systema digestorium). *1.6 A06: Respiratory system (systema ...
... muscle, and nerve regeneration, and bone transplantation from one person to another.[9] Sections of bones, muscles, and nerves ... Bone, muscle, and nerve transplantation experiments. From about September 1942 to about December 1943 experiments were ... "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Deposition concerning medical experiments at Ravensbrueck [bone/muscle/nerve experiments]". ...
Muscles engaged[edit]. Primary muscles. Gluteus maximus (glutes), quadriceps (quads)[8] Secondary muscles (synergists/ ... the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when ... The muscles around the hips provide the power out of the bottom. If the knees slide forward or cave in then tension is taken ... Clarkson, HM, and Gilewich, GB (1999) Musculoskeletal Assessment: Joint Range Of Motion And Manual Muscle Strength. Baltimore, ...
The quadratus lumborum is a muscle of the posterior abdominal wall. It is the deepest abdominal muscle and commonly referred to ... resulting in muscle fatigue.[3] A constantly contracted QL, like any other muscle, will experience decreased blood flow, and, ... in time, adhesions in the muscle and fascia may develop, the end point of which is muscle spasm. ... Quadratus lumborum is a continuation of transverse abdominal muscle. Nerve supply[edit]. Anterior branches of the ventral rami ...
For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign ...
Muscle Shoals settlement[edit]. In January 1791, a group of land speculators named the Tennessee Company from the Southwest ... It sat a few miles below the foot of the thirty-five-mile-long Muscle Shoals, near the mouth of Coldwater Creek and about three ... At the time of the conference in Nashville, two Chickasaw out hunting game along the Tennessee in the vicinity of Muscle Shoals ... Several hundred kilometers downriver, the Donelson party ran up against Muscle Shoals, where they were attacked at one end by ...
... smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle has no striations when examined microscopically. It contracts ... Muscle cells (myocytes) form the active contractile tissue of the body. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause ... Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle ... Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the uterus, bladder, intestines, stomach, oesophagus, respiratory airways, and blood ...
Other muscle disorders[edit]. Strabismus is caused by imbalances in the actions of muscles that rotate the eyes, and can ... However, muscles adapt to the lengths at which they are chronically held,[18] so that if a paralyzed muscle is stretched by its ... Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, ... for muscles with an impaired ability to effectively lengthen. Muscles affected by UMNS frequently are limited by weakness, loss ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Muscle fiber growth[edit]. Muscle fibers grow when exercised and shrink when not in use. This is due to the fact that exercise ... A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell)[1] is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that ...
Muscles[edit]. In observational studies 10-15% of people who take statins experience muscle problems; in most cases these ... Serious muscle problems such as rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscle cells) and statin-associated autoimmune myopathy occur in ... "The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx mediates statin-induced muscle toxicity". The Journal of Clinical ... Side effects of statins include muscle pain, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and abnormal blood levels of liver enzymes.[4 ...
Muscle tonus is dependent on neurological input into the muscle. In medicine, observations of changes in muscle tonus can be ... "muscle tone" refers to the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscles' resistance to passive ... The core muscles of the torso are trained before the shoulder and arm muscles that assist them. Exercises often alternate ... Muscle is denser than fat, so someone who builds muscle while keeping the same body weight will occupy less volume; if two ...
Rib cage and abdominal muscle contributions[edit]. Intercostal muscle activity decreases in REM sleep and contribution of rib ... Rib cage and abdominal muscle contributions[edit]. Rib cage contribution to ventilation increases during NREM sleep, mostly by ... The other ventilatory muscles compensate for the increased resistance, and so the airflow decreases much less than the increase ... Obstructive sleep apnea is apnea either as the result of obstruction of the air passages or inadequate respiratory muscle ...
Muscles used[edit]. Extension, adduction, and transverse abduction of the shoulder *Latissimus dorsi ... Muscle-up A pull-up with a maximal range of motion, transitioning to a dip. Generally the initial pull-up uses an overhand grip ... Most consecutive muscle ups: 25 by Jarryd Rubinstein (Australia) 2010.[27]. *Most Consecutive One-Armed pull-up is 22 by Rob ... "The most consecutive muscle ups performed is 25 by Jarryd Rubinstein (Australia) at Bondi Beach in Sydney, New South Wales, ...
Progressive muscle relaxation[edit]. Ideally done in a sitting position, this relaxation technique for certain muscle groups ... Pull in stomach muscles towards the spine, hold briefly before releasing. Feel the difference. ...
This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... The rectus capitis posterior major (or rectus capitis posticus major, both being Latin for larger posterior straight muscle of ... As the muscles of the two sides pass upward and lateralward, they leave between them a triangular space, in which the rectus ... Rectus capitis posterior major muscle. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Rectus capitis posterior major) ...
Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old Mice. Current News Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old ... Clinically, these findings could translate to older adults who either sustained a muscle injury or underwent muscle-damaging ... Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old Mice By: The McGowan Institute For Regenerative Medicine , Category: ... "We found that we were able to rescue, at least in part, the regenerative defect of aged skeletal muscle," said lead author ...
... also increasing awareness among people regarding Muscle Wasting Disorder boost the market growth ... Muscle Wasting Disorder Market Dominated by the North America treatment due to growing demand of muscle atrophy treatment in ... The tendency of the body to lose tissue is referred as muscle wasting disorder, or muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy can be ... Global Muscle Wasting Disorder Market: Snapshot The global muscle wasting disorder market is fueled primarily by the rising ...
Learn research-proven approaches to programming to overcome muscle confusion and achieve strength gains, while not forgetting ... Muscles are the same way. When you combine strength and cardio in the same session, your muscles get confused at the molecular ... Muscles get confused (just like you and I sometimes do). If you walk into a yoga studio ready to do yoga, but the room is ... Muscles need 48 hours for baseline strength to recover from high-intensity strength training. This finding is based on data ...
... how muscle type is over-rated and how it gets more credit then it deserves. ... This article will deal mainly with how people think the muscle type makes no difference, ... Muscle Recruitment So, aside from muscle fiber involvement why is the nervous system so important? The majority of the time, ... Individual muscles are made up of individual muscle fibers and these fibers are further organized into motor units grouped ...
Propecia Loss Of Muscle. Get The Lowest Prices. #1 Online Pharmacy. ... When it is stopped, the company begins to food grow even and propecia loss of muscle the disease will be lost. As a side, drug ... Obtain ecg in not all conditions zich but i do speak to propecia loss of muscle one propecia sex with a better canadian home in ... Billy is capsule on me to propecia loss of muscle record some of that potency only. Hair beaucoup habits, after all, are known ...
... and muscle soreness were measured before supplementation. Circulating chemistries, single-leg peak isometric force, and muscle ... increase in circulating biomarkers representative of muscle damage (ALT or AST) without ameliorating muscle soreness (P , 0.05 ... intended to induce muscle damage. During the exercise protocol, subjects were allowed to perform presses if they were unable to ... deficit in skeletal muscle strength) after muscular injury or damage. Although supplemental vitamin D increases serum 25(OH)D ...
The rotatores muscles (rotatores spinae muscles) lie beneath the multifidus and are present in all spinal regions but are most ... Multifidus muscle. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 400 of the 20th edition of ... Each muscle is small and somewhat quadrilateral in form; it arises from the superior and posterior part of the transverse ... The Rotatores muscles have a high density of proprioceptors and have been implicated in postural control.[1] ...
Pectoral muscles (colloquially referred to as "pecs") are the muscles that connect the front of the human chest with the bones ... Pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, which makes up the bulk of the chest muscle. It lies under the breast. It ... This article is about muscles of the human chest. For other uses, see Pectoral muscles (disambiguation). ... The pectoral fascia is a thin layer of tissue over the pectoralis major, extending toward the latissimus dorsi muscle on the ...
You have more than 600 muscles in your body! They do everything from pumping blood throughout your body to helping you lifting ... muscle.. Smooth Muscles. Smooth muscles - sometimes also called involuntary muscles - are usually in sheets, or layers, with ... A Hearty Muscle. The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. It is also known as the myocardium (say: my-uh- ... Skeletal Muscle. Now, lets talk about the kind of muscle you think of when we say "muscle" - the ones that show how strong you ...
Listen to songs and albums by Muscles, including Ice Cream, Sweaty, Chocolate Rasberry Lemon and Lime, and many more. ... A one-man dance music act begun in 2006, Muscles first made waves with the summer 2007 singles Sweaty and Ice Cream. ... Similar in scope and sound to the anthemic Andrew W.K. but maintaining an almost indie/emo take lyrically, Muscles released his ...
Muscles and Their Exercises is a pictorial muscle anatomy and exercise guide that takes readers through the major muscles of ... The Ultimate Muscle Building Program is a simple yet highly effective program for building muscle quickly. The book will lay ... each muscle and muscle group. It also provides beginning and finishing movement exercise demonstration pictures for the ... Do you like muscles... and fights? Then this is your book. More than a dozen independent comic book artists have collaborated ...
Youll need resistance (or weights) to help rebuild lost muscle. It takes time and intense effort to see results but is well ... Help for Weak Muscles. What can I do to strengthen weak muscles?. * ... The level of exercise Im recommending is intensive, but such activity is the only known way to bulk up your muscles, and more ... The program I recommend in cases like yours is three sets of eight to 10 repetitions per muscle group, working at 60 to 80 ...
6 Muscles You Cant Ignore. These six muscles may never earn top billing, but they may rejuvenate your workouts and ignite new ... Why Your Muscles May Twitch When You Lift Weights. Those tics are annoying. Heres what causes them, and when you should ... How to Double Your Muscle Gains With Any Exercise. ​Add this simple method to your existing training routine and watch your ... How Popular Allergy Medicines Can Affect Your Muscle Gains. A new study looks at the effects of taking antihistamines on your ...
... muscle strié sous contrôle volontaire du système nerveux central (fr); one of three major muscle types (en); speco de muskolo ( ... skeletal muscle, striated voluntary muscle (en); skeleta stria muskolo (eo); Příčně pruhované svalstvo, Kosterní svaly, Příčně ... muscles squelettiques, muscle strié squelettique (fr); Skeletilihas (et); Скелетная мускулатура, Скелетные мышцы, Поперечно- ... Muscles of the pharynx, viewed from the back and side, and s Wellcome V0007815.jpg 2,481 × 3,080; 3.21 MB. ...
Find out how muscles move, how they repair themselves after injury, and why scientists say that antioxidants after exercise ... The muscles that move our body parts are called skeletal muscles, and they are a type of striated muscle. We can actively ... Muscle repair. When we exercise, we damage our muscles. Afterward, stem cells repair the damage and the muscles get stronger. ... What is an intercostal muscle strain?. Learn all about intercostal muscle strain, when the muscles between the ribs are damaged ...
But there are animal groups, that dont have any muscles at all, as they branched off from the evolutionary path before muscle ... "The early evolution of muscles has not been fully understood so far. According to current scientific knowledge muscle cells ... "There is a lot of evidence that the sponge epithelial cells and the muscle cells of all the other animals are going back to a ... Muscle contractions are the basis of all movements, at least according to general opinion. ...
... The esophageal muscles line the esophagus just above the point where it joins the stomach. The circular ... muscle fibers in the esophageal muscle walls are thickened. These fibers are usually contracted, and function to close the ... When peristaltic waves reach the stomach, the muscle fibers Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... ...
Amphioxus Muscles Lamprey Muscles Shark Muscles Teleost Muscles Amphibian Muscles Medial Motor Column Human Muscles A review of ... Mammalian Muscles Cross references: Motor Neuron Evolution Muscle Innervation Amphioxus Motor Nerves ... Related citation: See: Muscle Innervation . Motoneurons of twitch and nontwitch extraocular muscle fibers in the abducens, ... Tonic fibers are retained in some muscles of reptiles and birds, but are absent in axial muscles of mammals. 484,531 From: ...
... unions used their political muscle in the recent elections to help install Democratic governors, build labor-friendly ... From California to Maine, unions used their political muscle to defeat ballot initiatives against them and elect labor-friendly ... WASHINGTON (AP) - From California to Maine, unions used their political muscle in the recent elections to help install ...
... artificial muscles for robots that give them the power to lift up to 1,000 times their own weight. The advance offers a leap ... The muscles, known as actuators, are built on a framework of metal coils or plastic sheets, and each muscle costs around $1 to ... The artificial muscles "can generate about six times more force per unit area than mammalian skeletal muscle can, and are also ... They created "muscles that can contract down to 10 percent of their original size, lift a delicate flower off the ground, and ...
How to Build Calves , Train Calf Muscles Anywhere - Duration: 6 minutes, 19 seconds.. Muscle World ... Why you wont build muscle with pull ups - Duration: 4 minutes, 10 seconds.. Muscle World ... Muscle World is a channel that follows Max through his training and adventures. Expect challenges, fitness advice and adventure ... Find information on how to build muscle, increase strength, lose fat and tone up. I am currently running a series providing ...
You have more than 600 muscles in your body! They do everything from pumping blood throughout your body to helping you lifting ... These muscles keep the eyes focused.. A Hearty Muscle. The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. It is also ... muscle.. Smooth Muscles. Smooth muscles - sometimes also called involuntary muscles - are usually in sheets, or layers, with ... When you make a muscle in your arm, you tense your biceps (say: BYE-seps) muscle. When you contract your biceps muscle, you can ...
How much do you know about your muscles? Find out by taking this quiz! ... A) Smooth muscle, sports muscles, and skeletal muscles * B) Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle ... The three major types of muscles in the body are: * ... C) Smooth muscle, running muscle, and face muscles * D) Smooth ...
... allowing the rats to exhibit high levels of muscle activity when their muscles should have been inactive. The data suggest the ... During REM sleep, the deep sleep where most recalled dreams occur, muscles that move the eyes and those involved in breathing ... Brain cells called trigeminal motor neurons communicate the brain´s message to move to these muscles. Previous research thought ... The researchers measured electrical activity in the facial muscles responsible for chewing in sleeping rats. ...
... plantaris muscle (en); عضلة أخمصية (ar); musculus plantaris (nn); Mușchiul plantar (ro) muscolo (it); Muskel (de); muscle (en ... 1123 Muscles of the Leg that Move the Foot and Toes b.png 700 × 1,238; 378 KB. ... músculo plantar (es); muscle plantaire (fr); Tabanski mišić (hr); muskulu plantar (eu); Подошвенная мышца (ru); Musculus ... Plantaris muscle 2 by Sanjoy Sanyal.webm 1 min 29 s, 1,077 × 606; 22.06 MB. ...
... (8-Nov-1996). Director: John Murlowski. Writers: Jonathan Bond; Fred Mata; Dorrie Krum Raymond. Keywords: ...
Breast muscles Hi there,. Please could you give me some advice - Im a 19 year old girl whos never done much exercise so Im ... Breasts are predominantly made of fat and glandular tissue which you cant "train" like muscle, however, you can work the ... muscle underneath the breast - ie. work on the chest area.. Good luck. ...
Connecting your smartphone directly to the muscles in your arm with some electrodes, and then stimulating your muscles to ... Researchers use facial muscle tracking to predict how addictive games will be February 9, 2013 at 10:00 am Taiwanese ... Super-material could create robot muscles with 1000x human strength December 23, 2013 at 2:30 pm A new application for an old ... OpenWorm brings simulated life one step closer with real digital muscles December 20, 2013 at 3:14 pm The OpenWorm project ...
I wanna talk women with muscles. I used to work out at a LA fitness,on Saturdays there was a hot blonde with huge muscles.I ... I wanna talk women with muscles. I used to work out at a LA fitness,on Saturdays there was a hot blonde with huge muscles.I ...
The first cellular analysis of muscles from astronauts who have spent 180 days at the International Space Station shows that ... their muscles lost more than 40 percent of their capacity for physical \[…\] ... The study is a follow-up to an earlieranalysis of muscle size, where the researchers put the loss of muscle volume at 15 ... Astronaut Muscles Would Wither by Mars. Even if we could farm on Mars, astronauts might be too weak by the time they get there ...
  • Individual muscles are made up of individual muscle fibers and these fibers are further organized into motor units grouped within each muscle. (
  • A motor unit is simply a bundle or grouping of muscle fibers. (
  • When you engage in very low intensity activities like lifting a spoon to your mouth, your brain recruits motor units that have a smaller number of muscle fibers and the fibers that make up these smaller motor units are slow twitch, meaning they don't contract as fast or contract with the same level of force as type II fast twitch motor units and fibers. (
  • The main difference between a slow twitch motor unit and a fast twitch motor unit is the fast twitch motor unit controls more muscle fibers or cells and these cells are bigger. (
  • Thousands, or even tens of thousands, of small fibers make up each muscle. (
  • These are your skeletal muscles - sometimes called striated (say: STRY-ay-tud) muscle because the light and dark parts of the muscle fibers make them look striped (striated is a fancy word meaning striped). (
  • These striations are due to the arrangement of muscle fibers, which form parallel lines. (
  • Specific molecules within the muscle fibers allow striated muscles to contract rapidly, allowing us to move. (
  • The circular muscle fibers in the esophageal muscle walls are thickened. (
  • The muscle fibers in mammalian axial muscles can be divided into at least 3 fiber types: slow twitch, fast twitch oxidative and glycolytic, and fast twitch glycolytic (also identified as types I, IIA, IIB by some authors). (
  • Tonic fibers are retained in some muscles of reptiles and birds, but are absent in axial muscles of mammals. (
  • The sources of monosynaptic input to "fast" and "slow" abducens motoneurons (MNs) were revealed in primates by retrograde transneuronal tracing with rabies virus after injection either into the distal or central portions of the lateral rectus (LR) muscle, containing, respectively, "en grappe" endplates innervating slow muscle fibers or "en plaque" motor endplates innervating fast fibers. (
  • The different connectivity of fast and slow MNs parallel differences in properties of muscle fibers that they innervate, suggesting that muscle fibers properties, rather than being self-determined, are the result of differences of their premotor innervation. (
  • Motoneurons of twitch and nontwitch extraocular muscle fibers in the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei of monkeys. (
  • Eye muscle fibers can be divided into two categories: nontwitch, multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs), and twitch, singly innervated muscle fibers (SIFs). (
  • There is no gravity and so any fibers within those muscles are unloaded. (
  • In an Aug. 17 Journal of Physiology study , Fitts' team tested muscle fibers from calf biopsies of nine astronauts, taken before and after their space station stay. (
  • Prolonged Space Flight-Induced Alterations in the Structure and Function of Human Skeletal Muscle Fibers. (
  • You may use new muscles, strain your muscles, or get small tears in your muscle fibers. (
  • The first anatomists who dissected and studied the human body cut through and discarded the fascia and connective tissue that surrounds the fibers of each muscle. (
  • A tough lifting session also creates microtrauma-or thousands of tiny tears-to your muscle fibers. (
  • The authors continue that these loads have been conventionally considered best for recruiting more motor units (the nerve and muscle fibers innervated by the nerve). (
  • Muscle Fascicles are surrounded by perimysium and made up of muscle fibers/cells. (
  • Muscle fibers/cells are surrounded by endomysium and then the cell membrane thats deeper is called the sarcolemma.Muscle cells also are covered by a sarcolemic reticulum which store calcium and t-tubules which transport calcium. (
  • Muscle fibers in mice with hyperactive mTORC1 (Red: accumulated waste). (
  • The quote in Human Muscles of the extremely good article from Wikipedia confirms that we humans have both slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers, but it doesn't discuss their innervation. (
  • Moreover, different types of muscle fibers are innervated by small and larger motor neurons. (
  • and large motor neurons innervate fast-twitch, fatigable muscle fibers . (
  • Most muscles contain both fast- and slow-twitch fibers, but in different proportions. (
  • Alpha motoneurons innervate extrafusal muscle fibers (typically referred to simply as muscle fibers) located throughout the muscle. (
  • Gamma motoneurons innervate intrafusal muscle fibers found within the muscle spindle . (
  • A single motor neuron may synapse with one or more muscle fibers. (
  • The motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers to which it connects is a motor unit . (
  • The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. (
  • Just like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle works all by itself with no help from you. (
  • Miami (AFP) - Inspired by the folding technique of origami, US researchers said Monday they have crafted cheap, artificial muscles for robots that give them the power to lift up to 1,000 times their own weight. (
  • The artificial muscles "can generate about six times more force per unit area than mammalian skeletal muscle can, and are also incredibly lightweight," it added. (
  • A new application for an old super-material has allowed researchers to start building real artificial muscles, though they can be several thousands of times stronger than any human! (
  • Muscle magic Sleeves of material woven from artificial muscles that massage the arm to combat lymphoedema in breast cancer patients are nearing a trial phase. (
  • The design concepts are one of the promising developments to emerge from the University of Wollongong 's research into artificial muscles. (
  • New materials pave the way for artificial muscles just as strong as Arnold himself. (
  • According to Yoseph Bar-Cohen, senior research scientist as NASA and author of Electroactive Polymer Actuators as Artificial Muscles , (currently the only published book on the subject), "This is an exciting field. (
  • Artificial muscles are flexible actuators with capabilities similar to, or even beyond, natural muscles. (
  • Numerous studies focus on rapid design and low-cost fabrication of artificial muscles with customized performances. (
  • Here, we present an architecture for fluidic artificial muscles with unprecedented performance-to-cost ratio. (
  • These artificial muscles can be programed to produce not only a single contraction but also complex multiaxial actuation, and even controllable motion with multiple degrees of freedom. (
  • Moreover, a wide variety of materials and fabrication processes can be used to build the artificial muscles with other functions beyond basic actuation. (
  • Artificial muscles hold promise for safe and powerful actuation for myriad common machines and robots. (
  • However, the design, fabrication, and implementation of artificial muscles are often limited by their material costs, operating principle, scalability, and single-degree-of-freedom contractile actuation motions. (
  • Here we propose an architecture for fluid-driven origami-inspired artificial muscles. (
  • A fabrication method is introduced to rapidly manufacture low-cost artificial muscles using various materials and at multiple scales. (
  • The artificial muscles can be programed to achieve multiaxial motions including contraction, bending, and torsion. (
  • Our artificial muscles can be driven by fluids at negative pressures (relative to ambient). (
  • This feature makes actuation safer than most other fluidic artificial muscles that operate with positive pressures. (
  • This architecture for artificial muscles opens the door to rapid design and low-cost fabrication of actuation systems for numerous applications at multiple scales, ranging from miniature medical devices to wearable robotic exoskeletons to large deployable structures for space exploration. (
  • Artificial muscles ( 1 , 2 ) are a long-sought class of actuators for applications in industrial robots, wearable devices, and medical instruments ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 10 ). (
  • Treated animals grew more new muscle tissue at the site of injury compared to untreated controls, and their strength after recovery rivaled that of genetically normal mice. (
  • The tendency of the body to lose tissue is referred as muscle wasting disorder, or muscle atrophy. (
  • The pectoral fascia is a thin layer of tissue over the pectoralis major, extending toward the latissimus dorsi muscle on the back. (
  • Muscles are all made of the same material, a type of elastic tissue (sort of like the material in a rubber band). (
  • Tendons are cords made of tough tissue, and they work as special connector pieces between bone and muscle. (
  • Breasts are predominantly made of fat and glandular tissue which you can't "train" like muscle, however, you can work the muscle underneath the breast - ie. (
  • This arrangement allows the cells to grow and interact until they form working muscle tissue that is nearly indistinguishable from something removed from a human subject. (
  • Muscle cells, for example, orient themselves in the same direction to create tissue that can contract. (
  • Over the next few days, the distinct rows visible here will disappear as the cells divide, communicate, organize, and merge into a single piece of muscle tissue. (
  • The muscle tissue is printed in one pass, since a single layer of it is optimal for drug testing, but the printer is just as adept at building multilayered tissue such as functional blood vessels. (
  • It has long been known that essential amino acids play an essential role in the building of muscle tissue in the body. (
  • It's great to eat before or after a workout because of its slow-burning complex carbs, significant protein content and rich levels of lysine, an amino acid that assists the body in tissue and muscle repair. (
  • They thought the tissue was not important and needed to be removed to fully understand how a muscle works. (
  • Creatine is a naturally occurring substance within our muscle cells, primarily around the skeletal muscle tissue where approximately 95 percent of the body's creatine supply can be found. (
  • Identify the muscle tissue type described by each of the characteristics listed below. (
  • Some characteristics will apply to more than one muscle tissue. (
  • Peri means around and myo, mys means muscle, so perimysium mean tissue around the muscle. (
  • The whole muscle is covered with a strong connective tissue sheath ( epimysium ) and attached at each end to a bone by inextensible tendons . (
  • The answer seems to lie in the fact that our muscles are smart-they know the difference between cardiovascular, strength and flexibility work. (
  • When you combine strength and cardio in the same session, your muscles get confused at the molecular level. (
  • Therefore, we will look at ways to program to overcome muscle confusion and achieve strength gains, while not forgetting about cardiovascular and flexibility training. (
  • Muscles need 48 hours for baseline strength to recover from high-intensity strength training. (
  • Based on what we saw above on recovery, if you design a program that includes both muscle strength and endurance goals, it is best to schedule each type of exercise on alternate days . (
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations associate with skeletal muscle weakness (i.e., deficit in skeletal muscle strength) after muscular injury or damage. (
  • We conclude that supplemental vitamin D may serve as an attractive complementary approach to enhance the recovery of skeletal muscle strength following intense exercise in reportedly active adults with a sufficient vitamin D status prior to supplementation. (
  • Today, the association between low serum 25(OH)D concentrations and muscle strength has evolved as results from cell and experimental animal studies are continuously translated to the causative explanation of muscular weakness in patients with low serum 25(OH)D concentrations. (
  • The association between muscle strength and vitamin D has led to the thesis that increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations could be a complementary approach to enhance strength (skeletal muscle) following intense exercise that induces immediate and persistent deficits in muscular strength. (
  • Together, the skeletal muscles work with your bones to give your body power and strength. (
  • This PDF download will help you to pack on muscle mass while building strength to back it up. (
  • progressive overload, this Muscle and Strength system will have you training 4 days per week. (
  • While a program of aerobic activity - brisk walking, jogging, swimming - may boost your energy level, the only way to strengthen muscles is through strength training or "resistance" exercise (in other words, weight lifting). (
  • The level of exercise I'm recommending is intensive, but such activity is the only known way to bulk up your muscles, and more importantly, to increase your strength. (
  • Make the most of those muscles by eating right when strength training. (
  • Find information on how to build muscle, increase strength, lose fat and tone up. (
  • If you don't rest, you can cause muscle fatigue or damage, rather than muscle growth and strength. (
  • A study led by the University of Sydney in Australia has found that gradually increasing muscle strength through activities such as weightlifting improves cognitive function. (
  • However, the study did demonstrate a proportional relation between improvement in brain function and improvement in muscle strength. (
  • What we found in this follow-up study is that the improvement in cognition function was related to their muscle strength gains. (
  • But if you want to pack on muscle and increase strength, mental stress can slow your fitness adaptations. (
  • and 2) to investigate whether the immediate post-workout increase in body hormones was associated with skeletal muscle mass or strength changes. (
  • In addition, post-exercise levels of circulating hormones did not change as a result of the RT intervention and the researchers summarized they were unrelated to changes in muscle mass and strength. (
  • The combined use of heavier and lighter loads or 'rep zones', as in periodized programs, will offer variety in the resistance training stimulus and result in equally effective gains in muscle size and strength, as long as all training sets are completed to failure. (
  • They might be increasing strength, but it doesn't seem to translate into visible muscle mass. (
  • It's fun being the lanky guy at the gym who can lift more than most, but you're dead set on bulking up (who doesn't like a bit more muscle to go along with that strength? (
  • If you want to increase strength and build muscle, testosterone is absolutely required (don't worry, though: no injections necessary! (
  • The pathways that regulate contraction in striated and smooth muscles are very different. (
  • Some smooth muscles are in a permanent state of contraction, and the muscles that line our blood vessels are in this category. (
  • This is "an interactive computer-based tutorial was developed to simulate eye movements provoked by the contraction of individual and synergistic extraocular skeletal muscles. (
  • The OpenWorm project hits a major milestone in its development, as its simulated life-form now exhibits realistic motion through the firing of digital neurons and contraction of digital muscles. (
  • I need to know the microscopic anatomy of muscles and muscle contraction. (
  • The peroneus longus muscle, whose name means "long muscle of the fibula" is a major muscle of the lower leg that plantar flexes and everts the foot at the ankle. (
  • By raising Klotho levels in old animals, or by mitigating downstream effects of Klotho deficiency, the researchers could restore muscle regeneration after injury. (
  • Researchers built dozens of muscles, using metal springs, packing foam or plastic in a range of shapes and sizes. (
  • The researchers measured electrical activity in the facial muscles responsible for chewing in sleeping rats. (
  • Taiwanese researchers at the Academia Sinica and National Taiwan University are using electromyography (EMG) to track small muscle movements in the faces of the focus group members. (
  • Researchers at the Hasso Plattner Institute in Germany have found an intriguing and rather unpleasant solution for force feedback in mobile devices: Connecting your smartphone directly to the muscles in your arm with some electrodes, and then stimulating your muscles to create a haptic, force feedback experience. (
  • The researchers isolated single muscle strands and tested their ability to generate force and velocity. (
  • The study is a follow-up to an earlier analysis of muscle size , where the researchers put the loss of muscle volume at 15 percent. (
  • Once the researchers have enough cells, they apply an enzyme that frees them from the growing surface and then use a centrifuge to pack them into a small, dense pellet like the one seen at the bottom of the vial on the left, which holds skeletal muscle cells. (
  • Researchers at the University of Barcelona in Spain wanted to know what effect moderate sustained swimming would have on the muscles of young fingerling gilthead sea bream, a type of teleost fish (image above). (
  • Researchers from the University of Florida decided to explore how aging effects skeletal muscles of horses. (
  • The researchers concluded that training to volitional failure is the most important variable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy gains in males. (
  • Led by mechanical engineer John Madden, a project leader in Ian Hunter's BioInstrumentation Laboratory, and working in collaboration with MIT chemist Timothy Swager, the researchers have developed materials with properties closer to human muscles than anything yet seen. (
  • Circulating chemistries (25(OH)D and alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases), single-leg peak isometric force, and muscle soreness were measured before supplementation. (
  • Circulating chemistries, single-leg peak isometric force, and muscle soreness were also measured before (immediately) and after (immediately, 1-h [blood draw only], 24-h, 48-h, 72-h, and 168-h) the damaging event. (
  • This is called delayed-onset muscle soreness. (
  • Your muscle soreness lasts for more than a week. (
  • The muscles have tightened up to cause that soreness in those muscles. (
  • i know a website that has answers as to what causes muscle soreness and natural remedies. (
  • Yup, rub that stuff onto your skin and the muscle soreness will be gone within a few days. (
  • If you are sore, do some easy low-impact aerobic exercise - this will increase blood flow to the affected muscles, which may help reduce soreness. (
  • Two references located by this search which did not differentiate between slow and fast twitch have been summarized in Human Muscles . (
  • Fortunately, lentils and other beans are protein powerhouses that can help build and maintain muscles. (
  • Kale not only contains protein, and a significant amount of iron, a mineral key to muscle development, it's also rich in vitamin K, which fights inflammation and protects against stiff joints. (
  • Among other roles, testosterone is an important muscle-building growth factor that favorably affects protein synthesis in addition to working with other hormones (like GH and IGF-1) to improve their function (more on this later). (
  • Measurements of protein content, citrate synthase activity, and respiratory rates in vitro per unit mitochondrial volume reveal no significant differences between hummingbird and mammalian skeletal muscle mitochondria. (
  • The Max Muscle Labs SARMS is a decent bodybuilding steroid and its anabolic formula is responsible for increasing the amount of nitrogen retention and is very good at facilitating the increase in the protein synthesis within the human body. (
  • The muscle development needs a very good supply of protein from the body and unfortunately, there is less ways inside the body to save them.Therefore, the only option is to produce them regularly inside the body.Therefore, because of this drug the body learns to produce a good amount of protein that supports higher muscles gain that is the ultimate goal of the drug. (
  • The protein complex mTORC1 promotes muscle growth. (
  • Until recently, it was assumed that the protein complex mTORC1 in the skeletal muscle plays a key role in growth regulation but not in the process of autophagy. (
  • Running through each fibre are smaller fibres ( myofibrils ) having alternate light and dark bands, which contain protein filaments responsible for the muscle's contractile ability and give the muscle its typical striped appearance under the microscope. (
  • Smooth muscles - sometimes also called involuntary muscles - are usually in sheets, or layers, with one layer of muscle behind the other. (
  • Introduces muscles and their parts, their voluntary and involuntary functions within the body, muscle diseases, and how to keep muscles healthy. (
  • Skeletal muscles are held to the bones with the help of tendons (say: TEN-dunz). (
  • The tendons are attached so well that when you contract one of your muscles, the tendon and bone move along with it. (
  • Tight hamstring muscles cause the tendons that attach them to the bone to feel taut and make them vulnerable to injury. (
  • The origin of the first lumbrical muscle is a single head on the medial side of the flexor digitorum longus, while the other three lumbricals each arise from two heads between their respective tendons. (
  • All four lumbrical muscles pass along the medial sides of their respective toes to insert into extensor tendons of the extensor digitorum longus on the front of the foot at the proximal phalanges. (
  • Etiology for muscle atrophy includes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, guillain-barre syndrome, long-term corticosteroid therapy, motor neuropathy and alcohol-associated myopathy. (
  • The muscle passes obliquely across the forearm, and ends in a flat tendon, which is inserted into a rough impression at the middle of the lateral surface of the body of the radius , just distal to the insertion of the supinator . (
  • The lateral border of the muscle forms the medial boundary of the triangular hollow known as the cubital fossa , which is situated anterior to the elbow . (
  • The four lumbrical muscles of the foot are small skeletal muscles on the foot's plantar surface, extending the lateral toes from the interphalangeal joints and flexing them from the metatarsophalangeal joints. (
  • Numbered one through four from the medial side outward, the first and most medial of the lumbrical muscles is somewhat distinct from the other three more lateral muscles, being served by different nerves and arteries among other distinctions. (
  • The peroneus longus muscle has its origin along the lateral edge of the head and proximal shaft of the fibula, just below the styloid process of the fibula. (
  • From its origin, it descends along the lateral edge of the leg as a thin strap of muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg. (
  • the most medial of the lumbrical foot muscles) and lateral plantar nerve branches of the tibial nerve, the lumbrical muscles help articulate and curl the lesser toes. (
  • Although the muscle is largely categorized as a prime mover of the shoulder and upper arm, its attachments to the skull and cervical vertebrae make it a prime mover in cervical extension, lateral flexion, and rotation as well. (
  • Figure 3: Posterior cervical muscles produce three basic movements of the neck and head: extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. (
  • A pair of these muscles spans longitudinally across three vertebrae (or four), from medial to lateral, along the length of the vertebral column. (
  • Like the multifidus, this is a small muscle, and although capable of contributing to rotation, lateral flexion, and extension, its primary function is to stabilize the vertebral column. (
  • Recti muscles can refer to: Superior rectus muscle Inferior rectus muscle Medial rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Recti muscles. (
  • The scalene muscles are a group of three pairs of muscles in the lateral neck, namely the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene. (
  • The scalenes used to be known as the lateral vertebral muscles. (
  • Also known as the fibularis longus, it is the longest muscle that attaches to the fibula and is used specifically when balancing one's weight on one foot. (
  • Each of the trapezius muscles attaches at the superior end at the occipital bone and then spans down and medially to the lower thoracic vertebrae. (
  • To exercise your lower face muscles, first make an "O" shape with your mouth and hide your teeth with your lips. (
  • Afterward, stem cells repair the damage and the muscles get stronger. (
  • Spend about 10 to 15 minutes warming up your body, and then stretch out your muscles a bit afterward while they are loose. (
  • The lumbricals serve as accessory muscles to the flexor digitorum longus, which runs across the sole of the foot and the medial (tibial) side of the heel. (
  • This is a multimedia interactive HTML document which will help medical students learn the muscle actions of the human body. (
  • Muscle actions are always described as departures from the standard position of the body, the anatomical position. (
  • Suffice it to say that treatment works its article still, now virtually due, on propecia loss of muscle the 5-alpha dicament in two men: the scalp and the body kdykoli. (
  • After 28-d of supplementation, one randomly selected leg performed an exercise protocol (10 sets of 10 repetitive eccentric-concentric jumps on a custom horizontal plyo-press at 75% of body mass with a 20 second rest between sets) intended to induce muscle damage. (
  • Did you know you have more than 600 muscles in your body? (
  • Your brain and body tell these muscles what to do without you even thinking about it. (
  • But smooth muscles are at work all over your body. (
  • The thick muscles of the heart contract to pump blood out and then relax to let blood back in after it has circulated through the body. (
  • You may not think of it as a muscular body part, but your face has plenty of muscles. (
  • Facial muscles don't all attach directly to bone like they do in the rest of the body. (
  • The muscles that move our body parts are called skeletal muscles, and they are a type of striated muscle. (
  • According to co-author Daniel Vogt, research engineer at the Wyss Institute, the vacuum-based muscles "have a lower risk of rupture, failure, and damage, and they don't expand when they're operating, so you can integrate them into closer-fitting robots on the human body. (
  • During REM sleep, the deep sleep where most recalled dreams occur, muscles that move the eyes and those involved in breathing continue to move, but the most of the body´s other muscles are stopped in order to prevent injury. (
  • It works by dissolving into warm water and absorbing into the skin to reduce inflammation, help muscle and nerve function, and replenish magnesium into the body. (
  • For example, running uses the muscles in your lower body. (
  • Because the training goal of many of these members was a defined, muscular look, the exercise equipment sold to gyms was designed to focus on training the way traditional bodybuilders train-one muscle or body part at a time. (
  • The human body is designed to be in constant motion with all joints and muscles working together to walk and move in an upright position. (
  • Following a movement-based exercise program based on these patterns means that you are using all of your muscles at the same time, which can be more effective for burning calories while also training the body for how it is designed to move. (
  • Abductor muscle , any of the muscles that cause movement of a limb away from the midplane of the body or away from a neighbouring part or limb, as in raising the arms to the side (effected by the deltoideus muscle) or spreading the fingers or toes. (
  • After I retired from a life of chronic cardio and started living Primally, I added 15 pounds of muscle, while keeping low body fat levels without really trying, so it's absolutely possible for a hardgainer to gain some. (
  • It helps muscle grow and, perhaps more importantly, it burns body fat. (
  • We had to learn all the muscles in the body and it was pretty easy but I still had to study. (
  • But if you are talking about being able to identify what muscles are where on the body. (
  • Take the hand on the same side of your body as the leg and wrap your fingers around the front of your leg, about midway, so you can press your thumb into the muscle in the back of your leg. (
  • Body builders and weight lifter use these drugs also called with a specific technical name anabolic-androgenic steroid in order to increase their muscle concentration so that it makes considerable changes in their professional life. (
  • voluntary muscle (skeletal muscle ) In human beings and other mammals, the most plentiful of the three types of muscle comprising the bulk of the body. (
  • It's their ability to coordinate a range of muscles around the body that makes the difference between failure and success. (
  • Stronger muscles reduce cognitive impairment in elderly patients. (
  • And inflammation helps heal the microtrauma so you can build stronger, bigger muscles. (
  • But, "these materials are 100 times stronger than mammalian muscle," Madden claims, with guarded enthusiasm. (
  • With stronger inputs, more motor neurons will be recruited, resulting in more force applied to the muscle (Play 2 and Play 3). (
  • Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, which means you can control what they do. (
  • voluntary muscle ( skeletal , striped , or striated muscle ) Muscle that is under the control of the will and is generally attached to the skeleton. (
  • An individual muscle consists of bundles of long muscle fibres , each bounded by a sarcolemma and containing sarcoplasm , sarcoplasmic reticulum , and many nuclei. (
  • [1 ] A single motor neuron may innervate many muscle fibres ( muscle cells ), and a muscle fibre can undergo many action potentials in the time taken for a single muscle twitch. (
  • You need to recruit as many muscle fibres as possible and get them to activate rapidly all at the same time. (
  • Rather than acting as primary movers in vertebral extension, these small muscles stabilize the vertebral column when they act in concert. (
  • Interspinales (Figure 4) - This muscle connects two adjacent spinous processes of the vertebrae along the length of the vertebral column. (
  • This allows you to contract your facial muscles just a tiny bit and make dozens of different kinds of faces. (
  • Exercising your facial muscles may help tone your face and minimize fine lines and wrinkles. (
  • This has led to a proliferation of muscular and spinal disorders, including muscle wasting disorders. (
  • Girls with muscle pictures of muscular girls and women. (
  • Some of the biggest and most powerful muscles are your calf and thigh muscles. (
  • Pull your foot towards you, and then point your foot back down while squeezing to work your calf muscle. (
  • Gastrocnemius muscle , also called leg triceps , large posterior muscle of the calf of the leg . (
  • It originates at the back of the femur (thighbone) and patella (kneecap) and, joining the soleus (another muscle of the calf), is attached to the Achilles tendon at the heel. (
  • Some of your biggest and most powerful muscles are in your back, near your spine. (
  • The supraspinatus is a relatively small muscle of the upper limb that takes its name from its origin from the supraspinous fossa superior to the spine of the scapula. (
  • The spine of the scapula separates the supraspinatus muscle from the infraspinatus muscle, which originates below the spine. (
  • A large, complex group of muscles makes up the back and supports the spine. (
  • Among my most troublesome problems are fatigue and muscle weakness, which my doctor attributes to lack of physical activity. (
  • Humans typically experience a loss of muscle mass or muscle weakness which can greatly reduce mobility and stability. (
  • However, the capacity for self-renewal decreases with age and participates in a wide range of age-related diseases such as cancer, heart disease and muscle weakness. (
  • The scientists suspect that an overactive mTORC1 complex may also contribute to the development of the age-related muscle weakness seen in man. (
  • Therefore, a closer examination of the mTORC1 regulation system in the context of aging may provide new therapeutic approaches for the counteracting of the muscle weakness. (
  • However, inner membrane surface areas per unit mitochondrial volume [Sv(im,m)] are higher than those in mammalian muscle. (
  • I was here because I'd once been told that belly dancing originated in rituals of childbearing, and helped strengthen muscles needed in labor. (
  • If you are among those who look to antioxidants to speed up muscle repair after your workout, it might be worth letting your muscles do their own thing. (
  • Persistent stress can impair your muscles' ability to recover from a hard workout , according to new research in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise . (
  • Also this drug not only concentrates on developing new muscles but also on repairing the injured tissues that may be damaged during a workout session. (
  • Respiration rates of muscle mitochondria in flying hummingbirds range from 7 to 10 ml of O2 per cm3 of mitochondria per min, which is about 2 times higher than the range obtained in the locomotory muscles of mammals running at their maximum aerobic capacities (VO2max). (
  • We investigated the location of motoneurons supplying SIFs and MIFs in the six extraocular muscles of monkeys. (
  • You just viewed Extraocular Skeletal Muscles . (
  • Muscle contractions are the basis of all movements, at least according to general opinion. (
  • Results suggest that slow MNs are involved exclusively in slow eye movements (vergence and possibly smooth pursuit), muscle length stabilization and gaze holding (fixation), and rule out their participation in fast eye movements (saccades, vestibulo-ocular reflex). (
  • The hamstring muscles are the three muscles that run down the back of the thigh. (
  • Posterior view of the right leg, showing the muscles of the hip, thigh, and lower leg. (
  • The muscles, known as actuators, are built on a framework of metal coils or plastic sheets, and each muscle costs around $1 to make, said the report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a peer-reviewed US journal. (
  • Artificial muscle-like actuators are one of the most important grand challenges in all of engineering," said co-author Rob Wood, professor of engineering and applied sciences at Harvard University. (
  • Now that we have created actuators with properties similar to natural muscle, we can imagine building almost any robot for almost any task. (
  • The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up through the esophagus (say: ih-SAH-fuh-gus) and out of the mouth. (
  • Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable of some pretty amazing things: Try rotating your head around, back and forth, and up and down to feel the power of the muscles in your neck. (
  • There is a lot of evidence that the sponge epithelial cells and the muscle cells of all the other animals are going back to a common contractile cellular predecessor. (
  • The way the muscle bounces and vibrates in response is transmitted back to the device, which then interprets these into data about the muscle's tone. (
  • In fact, the astronauts who were in the best shape before they launched were the most likely to come back with withered, or atrophied, muscles. (
  • In a small clean room tucked into the back of San Diego-based startup Organovo, Chirag Khatiwala is building a thin layer of human skeletal muscle. (
  • This drug can be used for longer periods of time and is commonly prescribed to relieve low back pain associated with muscle spasm. (
  • Valium is used to relieve low back pain associated with muscle spasm. (
  • Stretching also circulates blood away from your muscles and back to your heart to aid in recovery. (
  • When you no longer notice any releasing happening, slowly slide your foot back up to the chair, then release the pressure on the muscle but continue resting your foot by the chair for another 30 seconds. (
  • Trapezius (Figure 1) - The trapezius is a large bilateral pair of muscles commonly associated with the shoulders and upper back. (
  • The rotatores muscles as viewed from behind. (
  • The Rotatores muscles have a high density of proprioceptors and have been implicated in postural control. (
  • Rotatores (Figure 4) - The rotatores are multi-segment muscles that attach to two sequential vertebrae, joining the adjacent spinous process of the higher vertebra to the transverse process. (
  • Along with the surging demand for these diagnosis tools, the global market for muscle wasting disorder is also benefitting from the requirement of customized exercise, physical therapy, ultrasound, and surgery. (
  • It also provides beginning and finishing movement exercise demonstration pictures for the isolation exercises that work each muscle, as well as non-isolation exercises that each muscle participates in. (
  • To build new muscles through exercise, we make use of their remarkable ability to repair themselves when damaged. (
  • When we exercise, we damage our muscles. (
  • The first cellular analysis of muscles from astronauts who have spent 180 days at the International Space Station shows that their muscles lost more than 40 percent of their capacity for physical work, despite in-flight exercise. (
  • Image of a gilthead sea bream by Roberto Pillon - via Wikimedia Commons Similar to humans, muscle growth in fish is increased with exercise. (
  • Studies show that warming up your muscles before exercise may be better than stretching them. (
  • Give those muscles 2 days to rest and heal before you exercise them again. (
  • By its very nature, exercise stresses your muscles. (
  • To exercise the muscles around your eyes, first place your index fingers on the outer corners of your eyes and your middle fingers at the inner corners of your eyebrows. (
  • To exercise your forehead muscles, first place both of your hands on your forehead with your fingers spread out between your hairline and eyebrows. (
  • The posterior scalene, (Latin: scalenus posterior) is the smallest and most deeply seated of the scalene muscles. (
  • If you are learning simple anatomy, study only the muscles to leg, then the pelvis, or the forearm, or the abdomen. (
  • The muscles are named from Greek σκαληνός, or skalenos, meaning uneven as the pairs are all of differing length Musculi colli base Scalene muscles. (
  • In much the same way, the main difference between a slow twitch muscle fiber and a fast twitch muscle fiber is the fast twitch fiber is larger and can thus produce more force. (
  • My interest here is in the possibility that human slow and fast twitch muscles are separately innervated as is the case in the amphioxus. (
  • smooth muscle, cardiac (say: KAR-dee-ak) muscle, and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. (
  • You can't use your smooth muscles to make a muscle in your arm or jump into the air. (
  • Your smooth muscles come in handy if you're sick and you need to throw up. (
  • Smooth muscles are also found in your bladder. (
  • You'll find smooth muscles at work behind the scenes in your eyes, too. (
  • There are two types of muscle: striated and smooth. (
  • The contractions that smooth muscles produce tend to be more gradual than those produced by striated muscle. (
  • Smooth muscles do not have striations and we cannot actively control what they do. (
  • Smooth muscle cells can be activated by neuronal signaling or by hormones. (
  • Know the layers of the bands and know the skeletal muscles vs smooth muscles. (
  • Disuse atrophy is caused by the lack of physical activity, whereas neurogenic atrophy occurs due to an injury or disease to a nerve that connects the muscle. (
  • The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar head. (
  • The subclavian vein and phrenic nerve pass anteriorly to the anterior scalene as the muscle crosses over the first rib. (
  • The phrenic nerve is oriented vertically as it passes in front of the anterior scalene, while the subclavian vein is oriented horizontally as it passes in front of the anterior scalene muscle. (
  • This article will deal mainly with how people think the muscle type makes no difference, how muscle type is over-rated and how it gets more credit then it deserves. (
  • This article is about muscles of the human chest. (
  • Although there is no distinction between red and white muscles, this article is of interest because it was the first to report retrograde tracing from muscles and motor neurons to the source of the motor neurons. (
  • To read more about the new law, known as REACH, for Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals, and how it will affect the environment stateside, check out The Muscles From Brussels , my article in Mother Jones ' November/December issue. (
  • The orbicularis oculi muscles circle the eyes and are located just under the skin. (
  • For other uses, see Pectoral muscles (disambiguation) . (
  • Pectoral muscles (colloquially referred to as " pecs ") are the muscles that connect the front of the human chest with the bones of the upper arm and shoulder. (
  • It improves your heart and lungs, and builds strong bones and muscles. (
  • Doing exercises the right way helps protect you from muscle strain or injury. (
  • Since a muscle cannot expand, another muscle (the extensor ) is required to move the bone in the opposite direction and stretch the first muscle (known as the flexor ). (
  • The flexor and extensor are described as antagonistic muscles . (
  • You flex your management muscle all the time. (
  • When you're running a large department in a growing company, you flex your management muscle all the time. (
  • The lack of load' - pressure on muscles - 'is the main problem,' said biologist Robert Fitts of Marquette University. (
  • The main hormones that contribute to muscle anabolism are testosterone, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). (
  • The theory is the warmth generated by the cream gets down into your muscles and helps relieve the pain. (
  • What's more, rich magnesium content improves blood circulation to your muscles, which will lower the risk of cramping and develops healthier tissues. (
  • Some of the signs and symptoms of muscle atrophy are one arm smaller than other and patient feels physically inactive. (
  • Standards of perscription symptoms only over the propecia loss of muscle medication have then estimated the mg/day and patient of this person restoring the treatment of the hair within one cancer. (
  • The anterior and middle scalene muscles can be involved in certain forms of thoracic outlet syndrome as well as myofascial pain syndrome, the symptoms of which may mimic a spinal disc herniation of the cervical vertebrae. (
  • For example, use your left hand to squeeze the deltoid muscle on your right arm. (
  • Searching Google for "muscle innervation" yields 2,280,000 claimed hits. (
  • The corresponding foot muscles are the abductor digiti minimi pedis and the abductor hallucis, which act on the little and great toes, respectively. (
  • For example, when the muscles that line the blood vessels in our face relax, we blush. (
  • How do muscles work? (
  • Scientists continue to disagree on what allows actin and myosin work together to make an entire muscle contract. (
  • Stick out your tongue and wiggle it around to see those muscles at work. (
  • Your Muscles gives an introduction to muscles, how they work and how to keep them healthy. (
  • On a larger scale, this movement mimics that way mammalian muscles work, which is why Madden and his colleagues are so excited. (
  • Nothing says it's been an active weekend more than showing up for work Monday morning and being bowled over by that unmistakable nasal-clearing odour of someone's attempt to chemically mask muscle aches. (