A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
A departure from the normal gait in animals.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
An order of the class MAMMALS that consists of one family, TUPAIIDAE (tree shrews), 5 genera (one of which is TUPAIA), and 16 species. Their recent distribution is from India to the Philippines, southern China to Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and other islands in those regions.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Manner or style of walking.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The position or attitude of the body.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
Coombs, W. (1978). "Forelimb muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia)". Journal of Paleontology. 52 (3): 642-57. ... Reconstructions of ankylosaur forelimb musculature made by Coombs in 1978 suggest that the forelimbs bore the majority of the ... The forelimbs strongly increased in robustness while the hindlimbs did not become larger relative to the rest of the skeleton, ... It was quadrupedal, and its hind limbs were longer than its forelimbs. In the holotype specimen, the scapula (shoulder blade) ...
Coombs, Walter P. (1978-01-01). "Forelimb Muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia)". Journal of Paleontology. 52 (3 ... Muscles inserting on the tibia and fibula have longer moment arms. This pattern of retractor muscles points to an elephantine ... Hindlimb muscles of Euoplocephalus have been restored and the placement of several muscles inserting on the femur have very ... Restoration of Euoplocephalus forelimbs demonstrate similarities to crocodilian forelimb musculature. The most well developed ...
Coombs W. (1978). "Forelimb muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia)". Journal of Paleontology. 52 (3): 642-57. ... The scapula is massive and robust, and the very robust forelimbs are shorter than the hindlimbs. The tail is long and ends in a ... Based on the form of the humerus-shoulder articulation and the arrangement of the protracting muscles of the upper arm, it ... Georg Haas (1969) examined the evidence for the jaw muscles of two skulls (AMNH 5337 and 5405) and concluded that despite the ...
"Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 25 (4): 573-588. ... "Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 25 (4): 573-588. ... The muscles that sloths use to grip and produce a pulling motion are much more prominent than those that produce a pushing ... All sloths have three digits on their hindlimbs; the difference is found in the number of digits on the forelimbs; thus they ...
ISBN 978-0-19-504371-6. Oishi, M.; Ogihara, N.; Endo, H.; Ichihara, N.; Asari, M. (2009). "Dimensions of forelimb muscles in ...
"Forelimb muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia)". Journal of Paleontology 52(3): 642-657 Ösi, A. (2005). " ...
"Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 25 (4): 573-588. ... myosin fiber type expression and enzyme activity in the forelimb musculature of sloths (Pilosa: Xenarthra)". Journal of Applied ...
"Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 25 (4): 573-588. ... Large, curved claws and muscles specifically adapted for strength and stamina help them to keep a strong grip on tree branches ...
"Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 25 (4): 573-588. ... "Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 25 (4): 573-588. ... Crossing on the ground takes a lot of time and energy as their specialised muscle structure is adapted for hanging in trees, ... myosin fiber type expression and enzyme activity in the forelimb musculature of sloths (Pilosa: Xenarthra)". Journal of Applied ...
... and relatively small forelimbs. The teeth and jaw muscles of Lythronax would have contributed to strong bite forces, for not ... It was a heavily built tyrannosaurid, and as a member of that group, it would have had small, two-fingered forelimbs, strong ... Like other members of the group, it would have possessed small, two-fingered forelimbs, large and strong hindlimbs, broad jaws ... a large skull with powerful jaw muscles and robust teeth; reinforced sutures holding the skull bones together; ...
Murphy JT, Wong YC, Kwan HC (July 1975). "Afferent-efferent linkages in motor cortex for single forelimb muscles". Journal of ... Primary endings of muscle spindles "respond to the size of a muscle length change and its speed" and "contribute both to the ... Bell's idea was that commands are carried from the brain to the muscles, and that reports on the muscle's condition would be ... For example, consider the stretch reflex, in which stretch across a muscle is detected by a sensory receptor (e.g., muscle ...
Cats have retractile claws, slender muscular bodies and strong flexible forelimbs. Their teeth and facial muscles allow for a ... They actively protract the claws by contracting muscles in the toe, and they passively retract them. The dewclaws are expanded ...
The olecranon process was highly enlarged indicating the forelimb had powerful muscles. This feature also supports the idea ... The "fossor" indicates the fossorial, or digging, specialization of the forelimbs. The specific epithet, windscheffeli, is in ...
Its forelimbs were short, though very robust. Megalosaurus had a rather large head, equipped with long curved teeth. It was ... It is pierced by a large oval foramen but the usual boss for the attachment of the upper arm muscles is lacking. The humerus is ... The hindlimbs were long and strong with three forward-facing weight-bearing toes, the forelimbs relatively short but ... the main thigh muscle. Above the hip joint, on this surface a low vertical ridge is present with conspicuous vertical grooves. ...
There are three main muscle groups of the forelimb. The triceps muscle straightens the elbow and foreleg, running from the ... The vastus muscle flexes the hind leg and runs from stifle to hip, while the gluteal muscles, the large muscles in the hip, ... The upper portion of the stay apparatus in the forelimbs includes the major attachment, extensor and flexor muscles and tendons ... The muscles which extend the lower leg are called extensor muscles, while the flexion of the lower leg joints is achieved ...
E. lutris has significantly larger gluteus muscles than other mustelids. Sea otter forelimbs are small and not used in swimming ... Otters will store a stone in the pouch of skin under the arm to eat prey with both forelimbs, such as crabs, and then retrieve ... While all sub-species of otters use the forelimbs to rip open urchins, the Californian otters were observed to have used rocks ... Instead, these otters target soft-bodied prey like fish, or urchins which can be ripped apart with the forelimbs. Among tool ...
Researchers have discovered a key protein required to maintain muscle mass and muscle strength during aging. For the first time ... "MGH team develops transplantable bioengineered forelimb in an animal model". Massachusetts General Hospital. 2 June 2015. ... "Gene Therapy Treats All Muscles in the Body in Muscular Dystrophy Dogs; Human Clinical Trials Are Next Step". University of ... 13 January - The first lab-grown, contracting human muscle is announced by Duke University. 14 January NASA and ESA celebrate ...
Fetz studied the relation between motor cortex cells and forelimb muscles in behaving monkeys. He first investigated these ... He studied the post-spike effects of premotor neurons on forelimb muscles and related their activity during controlled ... He showed that motor cortex cells with correlational linkages to muscles affected multiple synergistic muscles and causally ... "Postspike facilitation of forelimb muscle activity by primate corticomotoneuronal cells". Journal of Neurophysiology. 44 (4): ...
The scapula served as the attachment site for a dinosaur's back and forelimb muscles. Chimpanzees are far better at brachiation ... levator scapulae muscle, rhomboid muscles (major and minor), serratus anterior muscle, and pectoralis minor muscle. The ... The five muscles that comprise the function of the shoulder girdle are the trapezius muscle (upper, middle, and lower), ... This muscle acts to elevate the clavicle. Shoulder Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism Physiological joints are called " ...
The biceps brachii muscle of an adult T. rex was capable of lifting 199 kilograms (439 lb) by itself; other muscles such as the ... The forelimb or arm was very short. The upper arm bone, the humerus, was short but robust. It had a narrow upper end with an ... Even moderately fast speeds would have required large leg muscles. If the muscle mass was less, only 18 kilometers per hour (11 ... The M. biceps muscle of T. rex was 3.5 times as powerful as the human equivalent. A T. rex forearm had a limited range of ...
As a fossorial mammal, the American badger uses a scratch-digging process where the forelimbs are withdrawn to break the soil ... They also possess a strong humerus and large bony processes for the attachment of muscles. The mechanical advantage in badger ... forelimbs is increased by the specialized olecranon process and bones such as the radius and metacarpals. Measuring generally ...
... do forelimb muscles reflect adaptations to prehension?". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 127 (3): 661-680. doi: ...
Forelimb clonus Involuntary movement of the arms due to increased muscle stimulation. Rearing with forelimb clonus Broadening ... forelimb clonus, rearing with forelimb clonus, and rearing and falling with forelimb clonus. Racine stages can be used to ... This can be caused by a release of a neurotransmitter or the voluntary contractions of a muscle. An action potential must be ... Head nodding Uncontrollable muscle contractions in the neck cause slight to severe jarring of the head. ...
Of the forelimb only the humerus is preserved. Its lower end was asymmetrical and had enlarged accessory condyles (forward ... The basal tubera (a pair of extensions on the underside of the skull base that served as muscle attachments) were enlarged and ... It had a large biceps tubercle to which the biceps brachii muscle attached. The clavicle was robust, although more slender than ... The fourth trochanter, which projected from the back surface and anchored muscles that drew the hind leg backwards, was ...
It had stocky forelimbs with the lower half of these forelimbs lion-sized. It had large neck muscles designed to deliver a ...
The front paws were relatively short, and the bones of the forelimb were curved and laterally compressed. Haldanodon was a ... The articulation of the distal humerus was particularly expanded, indicating strong muscles for either digging or swimming. ... The fingers and claws of the forelimb seem to correspond closely to scratch-digging modern mammals like armadillos and ...
"Organization of the forelimb area in squirrel monkey motor cortex: representation of digit, wrist and elbow muscles". Exp. ... The more activity in the motor cortex neuron, the more muscle force. Georgopoulos and colleagues suggested that muscle force ... "Effect of forelimb use on postnatal development of the forelimb motor representation in primary motor cortex of the cat". J. ... may participate in integrating muscles in meaningful ways rather than in segregating the control of individual muscle groups. ...
They had tiny but stout forelimbs, with compact, bird-like hands. Their skeletons suggest that they had massive breast and arm ... The sternum, for example, is elongated and deeply keeled for an enlarged pectoralis muscle, as it is in neognathous birds and ... and combined with their forelimbs, this suggests their ecological niches were similar to those of aardvarks, pangolins, and ... muscles, possibly adapted for digging or tearing. They had long, tube-shaped snouts filled with tiny teeth. They may have been ...
In the front legs, their equine forelimb anatomy automatically engages the stay apparatus when their muscles relax. The horse ... Horses are able to sleep standing up because a "stay apparatus" in their legs allows them to relax their muscles and doze ... resulting in an increased supply of oxygen and glucose for energy to the brain and skeletal muscles, the most vital organs the ... blood pressure and heart rate all decrease and the increased oxygen and glucose being supplied to the muscles and brain are ...
"Organization of the forelimb area in squirrel monkey motor cortex: representation of digit, wrist and elbow muscles". Exp. ... The view that each point in the motor cortex controls a muscle or a limited set of related muscles was debated over the entire ... The motor neuron sends an electrical impulse to a muscle. When the neuron in the cortex becomes active, it causes a muscle ... The greater the activity in the motor cortex, the stronger the muscle force. Each point in the motor cortex controls a muscle ...
Norena, S. R.; Williams, T. M. (2000). "Body size and skeletal muscle myoglobin of cetaceans: adaptations for maximizing dive ... and the modification of the forelimbs into flippers (Basilosaurus 35 mya), and the shrinking and eventual disappearance of the ...
... since many of these muscles have attachment points in conjunction with their forelimbs (indeed, many of the muscles expand into ... Some turtles, such as the Indian flapshell (Lissemys punctata), have a sheet of muscle that envelops the lungs. When it ... By using a series of special muscles (roughly equivalent to a diaphragm), turtles are capable of pushing their viscera up and ... The difference is that the muscles for the crocodilian diaphragm pull the pubis (part of the pelvis, which is movable in ...
In conjunction with robust forelimbs and shoulder girdle, both Tiktaalik and Ichthyostega may have had the ability to locomote ... Early tetrapods had a wide gaping jaw with weak muscles to open and close it. In the jaw were moderate-sized palatal and ... The tetrapod tongue is built from muscles that once controlled gill openings. The tongue is anchored to the hyoid bone, which ... When the muscles are relaxed, the bony scales spring back into position, generating considerable negative pressure within the ...
regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. • embryonic forelimb morphogenesis. • immune system development ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle.[8] The protein encoded ... regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion. • positive regulation of ...
Compared to the large and powerful hind limbs, its forelimbs were small, but powerful for their size. They had two clawed ... in the skull reduced weight and gave places for muscle attachment, as in all carnivorous theropods. But in other respects ...
Inter- (from Latin inter 'between') is used to indicate something that is between.[15] For example, the intercostal muscles run ... For example, the top of a dog's paw is its dorsal surface; the underside, either the palmar (on the forelimb) or the plantar ( ... The palmar fascia is palmar to the tendons of muscles which flex the fingers, and the dorsal venous arch is so named because it ... such as the bulk of the pectoralis major muscle). In radiology, an X-ray image may be said to be "anteroposterior", indicating ...
The forelimbs are white, with black bands around the wrists, while the hindlimbs are dark. Thick black bands with white ... This is accomplished by its masticatory muscles,[20] which are relatively underdeveloped.[13] Jaw depression creates an oral ... This retraction is aided by the long sternoglossus muscle, which is formed by the fusion of the sternohyoid and the hyoglossus ... has exceptional muscle power, is a terrifying animal." Dalí depicted an anteater in the style of The Great Masturbator. It was ...
... as well as overall slenderizing of both hind and fore limbs. Muscles are also emphasized along the axis of limbs. ... The adaptions for leaping, grasping, and climbing include the lengthening of hind limbs in relation to fore limbs, ...
The forelimbs are modified into wings.[64]. Excretory system. Like the reptiles, birds are primarily uricotelic, that is, their ... Kovacs, Christopher E.; Meyers, RA (2000). "Anatomy and histochemistry of flight muscles in a wing-propelled diving bird, the ... The extinct Xenicibis was unique in having an elongate forelimb and massive hand which likely functioned in combat or defence ... Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in ...
The therapsids had sprawling forelimbs and semi-erect hindlimbs.[116][138] This suggests that Carrier's constraint would have ... This arrangement limited the size of the braincase, because it forced the jaw muscles to run round and over it. Hadrocodium's ... The newborn marsupial uses its forelimbs (with relatively strong hands) to climb to a nipple, which is usually in a pouch on ... The mother feeds the baby by contracting muscles over her mammary glands, as the baby is too weak to suck. The newborn ...
This muscle is located inside the larynx and it is the only tensor muscle capable of aiding phonation.[76] By comparing the ... Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera;[a] with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals capable of true ... This skin membrane consists of connective tissue, elastic fibres, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. The muscles keep the ... It takes a lot of energy and an efficient circulatory system to work the flight muscles of bats. Energy supply to the muscles ...
The groin is the same colour of the forelimbs. The base of the tail is light in colour, while the tip is dark brown. The summer ... its projections are more strongly developed and its muscles of mastication are more powerful. The steppe polecat's growth rate ...
The forelimbs became flippers and the hind limbs became a tail terminating in two fins, called a fluke in the case of cetaceans ... Standen, EM (2009). "Muscle activity and hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" (PDF). The ... In 2004, Hugh Herr at MIT prototyped a biomechatronic robotic fish with a living actuator by surgically transplanting muscles ... 2011) "Development and Evolution of the Muscles of the Pelvic Fin" PLoS Biology, 9 (10): e1001168. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio. ...
The scapula serves as the attachment site for a dinosaur's back and forelimb muscles. ... and stabilising and rotating muscles. The intrinsic muscles of the scapula include the muscles of the rotator cuff-the ... The extrinsic muscles include the biceps, triceps, and deltoid muscles and attach to the coracoid process and supraglenoid ... Four muscles attach to the medial border. Serratus anterior has a long attachment on the anterior lip. Three muscles insert ...
The male grasps the female tightly with his forelimbs either behind the arms or in front of the back legs, or in the case of ... The pectoral girdle is supported by muscle, and the well-developed pelvic girdle is attached to the backbone by a pair of ... The forelimbs may be partially developed and the hind limbs are rudimentary in pond-living species but may be rather more ... Members of this order are eel-like aquatic salamanders with much reduced forelimbs and no hind limbs. Some of their features ...
... jaws are constructed somewhat differently from those of other mammals, and the jaw opening muscle is different. As in ... and like them have relatively well-developed forelimbs that enable them to crawl around. In fact, given that monotremes lack ...
Additional climbing strength is achieved with thigh muscles that attach to the shinbone lower than other animals.[38] The koala ... forelimbs, and shoulders, as well as functioning respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems. The joey crawls into its mother's ...
... was a large, long-necked quadrupedal animal with a long, whip-like tail, and forelimbs that were slightly shorter ... The slow locomotion of sauropods may be due to the minimal muscling or recoil after strides.[41] ... Various uses have been proposed for the single claw on the forelimb of sauropods. They were suggested to have been for defence ... Brontosaurus had a single large claw on each forelimb, and the first three toes possessed claws on each foot.[10] Even by 1936 ...
... of a human is the lack of a collarbone-the horse's forelimbs are attached to the spinal column by a powerful set of muscles, ... A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and ... because their bones and muscles are not solidly developed.[58] For endurance riding competition, horses are not deemed mature ...
Standen, EM (2009). "Muscle activity and hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)". The Journal of ... The paired pectoral fins are located on each side, usually just behind the operculum, and are homologous to the forelimbs of ... Apart from the tail or caudal fin, fish fins have no direct connection with the spine and are supported only by muscles. Their ... The forelimbs became flippers, while the hindlimbs were either lost (cetaceans) or also modified into flipper (pinnipeds). In ...
Standen, EM (2009). "Muscle activity and hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)". The Journal of ... The forelimbs became flippers and the hind limbs became a tail terminating in two fins, called a fluke in the case of cetaceans ... In 2004, Hugh Herr at MIT prototyped a biomechatronic robotic fish with a living actuator by surgically transplanting muscles ... "to trace the evolution of pelvic fin muscles to find out how the load-bearing hind limbs of the tetrapods evolved."[52][53] ...
Finally, it wipes its mouth with a forelimb. These actions constitute a series of well-defined behavioral patterns. ... such as the hypoglossal nucleus which harbors the motor neurons of the tongue muscles. In combination with additional ... mouth-wiping with forelimb (Ewert 1974). This series of movement constitutes a stimulus-response chain, where each reaction of ...
The position of FGF10 expression is regulated by Wnt8c in the hindlimb and Wnt2b in the forelimb. The forelimb and the hindlimb ... The lateral plate cells produce the cartilaginous and skeletal portions of the limb while the myotome cells produce the muscle ...
The forelimbs were relatively short. The bones of the hand were fused together, as in modern birds, and a ridge on the ulna ( ... The adults showed a greater degree of skeletal fusion in the tarsometatarsus and tibiotarsus, and also more prominent muscle ...
The main inhibitors of a large gape for mammals are the temporalis and masseter muscles at the back of the jaw. These muscles ... cervical forelimb and forelimb anatomy, was largely unknown.[16][17] Prior to the excavation of Batallones-1, the predominating ... Smilodon would have had one-third the bite force of a lion, had it used only its jaw muscles. However, the neck muscles that ... When the jaw was hyper-extended, the jaw muscles could not contract, but the neck muscles pressed the head down, forcing the ...
The hindlimbs were short compared to the forelimbs, and the feet were as long as the small third finger.[2][1][4] ... Istiodactylus appears to have had large jaw muscles, and therefore a strong bite, and the skull was deep, which would have ... The forelimbs of istiodactylids were large, up to 4.5 times longer than their legs. The long wing-finger may have occupied 50 ... The vertebral column, forelimb, and trunk bones were pneumatised by air sacs. The neural arches of the vertebrae had tall, ...
It is nonetheless still powerfully structured and well adapted to anchoring exceptionally strong jaw muscles[5] which give it ... The hind legs are significantly shorter than the forelimbs, thus causing the back to slope downwards. The legs are relatively ...
The four species of Bipes are unusual in having a pair of forelimbs, but all limbless species have some remnants of the pelvic ... Burrowing is achieved with an accordion-like motion, with longitudinal muscles in the skin bunching up the annuli, anchoring it ... While the genus Bipes retains forelimbs, all other genera are limbless. Although superficially similar to the snakes and blind ... Such characters are vulnerable to convergent evolution; in particular, the loss of the forelimbs and the evolution of ...
Unlike the forelimbs, both hind limbs are preserved on the right side of the animal, reflecting a torsion of the animal's body ... The left femur is mostly hidden beneath the pelvis.[75] Two muscle scars are visible on the femur, which John Ostrom compared ... The forelimbs of the Berlin specimen are among the best-preserved elements of the skeleton. Both arms are spread in dorsal view ... The forelimb preserves parts of the wing skeleton on the main slab, which displays the distal left humerus and both forearm ...
In anatomy, a sesamoid bone (/ˈsɛsəmɔɪd/[1][2]) is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.[3] It is derived from the Latin ... bones found at the back of the fetlock or metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joints in both hindlimbs and forelimbs. ... The cyamella is a small sesamoid bone embedded in the tendon of the popliteus muscle. It is a variant of normal anatomy. It is ... fabella is a small sesamoid bone found in some mammals embedded in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle ...
Can you name the Dorsal Left Forelimb Muscles of the Cat (deep)? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and ... Can you name the Dorsal Left Forelimb Muscles of the Cat (deep)?. by wiltak ... Science Quiz / Dorsal Left Forelimb Muscles of the Cat (deep). Random Science Quiz ...
A: Tigers primarily defend themselves with their claws, large teeth and powerful forelimbs that allow them to hold other ...
Influence of Muscle-Tendon Wrapping on Calculations of Joint Reaction Forces in the Equine Distal Forelimb. Jonathan S. Merritt ... Jonathan S. Merritt, Helen M. S. Davies, Colin Burvill, and Marcus G. Pandy, "Influence of Muscle-Tendon Wrapping on ... Calculations of Joint Reaction Forces in the Equine Distal Forelimb," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2008, ...
... within the long heads of the triceps brachii and extensor carpi radialis muscles of 8 horses maintained under halothane ... Wick catheters were used to measure intracompartmental muscle pressures (ICMP) ... The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in ... One horse had forelimb lameness for 36 hours after anesthesia, which was clinically diagnosed as a myoneuropathy. The ICMP ...
Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Muscle Cell Development, Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Methylation-Dependent ... Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Muscle Cell Development Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Muscle Cell Development ... Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Muscle Maintenance Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Muscle Maintenance: ... Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Muscle Maintenance to Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Embryonic Forelimb ...
... activity of 7 skeletal muscles in the forequarters and 1 in the hindquarters of 6 Thoroughbred horses during overground walking ... EMG activity of the muscles of the neck and forelimbs during different forms of locomotion Equine Vet J Suppl. 1999 Jul;(30): ... Walking in the water treadmill may require more intensified EMG activity of the forelimb than the trot in the same treadmill. ... Bipolar fine wire electrodes were inserted into the muscles and the EMG signals were recorded using a telemetric system. The ...
tg hindlimb, #: ikke-tg forelimb vs tg forelimb, ¤: ikke-tg hindlimb vs. ikke-tg forelimb, grå *: tg hindlimb vs. tg forelimb. ... Sort: Ikke-transgene hindlimb, sort knust: ikke-transgene forelimb, grå: transgene hindlimb, grå stiplet: transgene forelimb. ... Sort: hindlimb, grå: kontralaterale forelimb, grå stiplet: ipsilaterale forelimb. Resultaterne præsenteres som gennemsnit ± SD ... In Vivo Electrophysiological Measurement of Compound Muscle Action Potential from the Forelimbs in Mouse Models of Motor Neuron ...
Forelimb muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia) W. P. Coombs W. P. Coombs ... W. P. Coombs; Forelimb muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia). Journal of Paleontology ; 52 (3): 642-657. doi: ...
Abdalla, F. S., K.P. Kunchi Mohamed, F., & Rambely, A. S. (2013). Biomechanical characterization of bovine forelimb muscles. ... Abdalla, FS, K.P. Kunchi Mohamed, F & Rambely, AS 2013, Biomechanical characterization of bovine forelimb muscles, Advances ... Biomechanical characterization of bovine forelimb muscles. / Abdalla, F. S.; K.P. Kunchi Mohamed, Faizal; Rambely, Azmin Sham. ... The examined muscles were obtained fresh from four slaughtered bovine forelimbs and tested fresh and preconditioned using an ...
Effect of habitat on forelimb muscle activation patterns. The majority of the pectoral girdle muscles examined are active at ... Concurrent with video acquisition, electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle firing patterns of target forelimb muscles ... Motor patterns for forelimb protractors are not consistent with those observed in functionally analogous hindlimb muscles, but ... However, these predictions are not universally borne out for the forelimb muscles we examined. Our data for T. scripta show no ...
The growth of a rat forelimb grown in the lab offers hope that one day amputees may receive fully functional, biological ... In two to three weeks, the blood vessels and muscles had been rebuilt. Ott finished off the limb by coating the forelimbs with ... However, they didnt test for muscle movement or rejection.. While they have decellularised around 100 rat forelimbs, ... Worlds first biolimb: Rat forelimb grown in the lab. The growth of a rat forelimb grown in the lab offers hope that one day ...
The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in ... The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in ... The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in ... The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in ...
EYE MUSCLES Anatomy Point-and-Click by Sebastian Castano 14p42 plays ...
Forelimb muscle function in pig-nosed turtles, Carettochelys insculpta: testing neuromotor conservation between rowing and ...
The forelimb muscles of the two semifossorial species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: common rice tenrec; and Tenrecinae: ... The two semifossorial species had similar muscle weight ratios in the lateral and long heads of M. triceps brachii and M. teres ... The semifossorial function of the forelimb in the common rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the streaked tenrec (Hemicentetes ...
Why does a lion have heavily muscled forelimbs and shoulders?. * Q: What sound does a tiger make?. ...
The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, ... Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance ... LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently ... gastrocnemius muscles Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10; exercise performance; forelimb grip strength; gastrocnemius muscles ...
... have come to the conclusion that it was due much more to the growth of forelimbs than a reduction in size of the tail. The team ... Muscle reconstruction reveals how dinosaurs stood More information: Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor ... But that, they add, also means adding more hind leg muscle to support the crouch-its a far less energy efficient posture. They ... Computer simulations show evolution of birds crouch likely due to increase in forelimb size (w/ video). by Bob Yirka , Phys. ...
However, there are no direct MI or SI connections to the deep cerebellar nuclei, the cerebellar hemisphere, or the muscles. ... Sharp, F. R., & Ryan, A. F. (1984). Regional (14C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake during forelimb movements evoked by rat motor cortex ... Sharp, Frank R ; Ryan, A. F. / Regional (14C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake during forelimb movements evoked by rat motor cortex ... Sharp, FR & Ryan, AF 1984, Regional (14C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake during forelimb movements evoked by rat motor cortex ...
McGuigan, M P and Wilson, A M (2003) The effect of gait and digital flexor muscle activation on limb compliance in the forelimb ... The effect of gait and digital flexor muscle activation on limb compliance in the forelimb of the horse Equus caballus ...
Somite contribution to the early forelimb bud Mol Biol Med. 1989 Aug;6(4):263-74. ... Somite contribution to the early forelimb bud ... Muscles / cytology * Muscles / embryology* * Pregnancy ...
forelimb muscle mass. Mm,h. hindlimb muscle mass. P. power. horizontal peak power during propulsion averaged over all sequences ... Muscle-specific mechanical power was calculated from the GRFs and divided by the forelimb muscle mass Mm,f, determined as a ... work by the forelimbs. Wp,h. horizontal work during propulsion. Wl,h,f. horizontal work during landing by the forelimbs. Wp,v. ... stiffness of forelimbs. Kh. stiffness of hindlimbs. K̄ f. stiffness of forelimbs averaged over all sequences. K̄ h. stiffness ...
So pronation (physiol.) putting a fore limb into a prone position. XVII. - F. or medL. (f. late L. prōnāre). pronator muscle ...
Forelimb vs. hindlimb differences. Carnivore vs. herbivore digestive tracts. Muscle/Skeletal Specialization of Forelimbs. ... Forelimb vs. Hindlimb Differences. Forelimbs and hindlimbs have different roles in cursorial quadrupeds. Consequently they are ... Forelimbs (thoracic limbs) carry 60% of static body weight. They are designed to catch body weight as it is thrown forward by ... It walks on the hoof of a single digit of an elongate manus/pes in which muscle is replaced by ligament. The digestive ...
The arrangement of striated muscle in modern humans conforms to the basic plan seen in all pronograde quadrupedal vertebrates ... Their forelimbs are relatively elongated; they hold their trunk erect; and, for the short periods that they spend on the ground ... Muscles of the head and some of the neck muscles originate from the mesoderm of branchial arches. Muscles of the limbs ... with an increase in size of the latissimus dorsi muscle and the pectoralis major muscle. The human pectoralis minor muscle has ...
Massive gluteal muscles. Curved sacrum with short dorsal spines. Hind limbs longer than forelimbs. Femur:. - Condyles equal in ...
Coombs, W. (1978). "Forelimb muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia)". Journal of Paleontology. 52 (3): 642-57. ... Reconstructions of ankylosaur forelimb musculature made by Coombs in 1978 suggest that the forelimbs bore the majority of the ... The forelimbs strongly increased in robustness while the hindlimbs did not become larger relative to the rest of the skeleton, ... It was quadrupedal, and its hind limbs were longer than its forelimbs. In the holotype specimen, the scapula (shoulder blade) ...
Coombs, Walter P. (1978-01-01). "Forelimb Muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia)". Journal of Paleontology. 52 (3 ... Muscles inserting on the tibia and fibula have longer moment arms. This pattern of retractor muscles points to an elephantine ... Hindlimb muscles of Euoplocephalus have been restored and the placement of several muscles inserting on the femur have very ... Restoration of Euoplocephalus forelimbs demonstrate similarities to crocodilian forelimb musculature. The most well developed ...
... whereas no difference is detected in their forelimbs. *p , 0.01 (Students t test). B, Quantitative analysis of muscle spindles ... Proprioceptive sensory neurons and muscle spindles are marked reduced in adult Swl/+ mice. A, Mature muscle spindles, stained ... B, Quantitative analysis of muscle spindles demonstrates that Swl/+ mice have 88% fewer muscle spindles than those of WT mice ... 3B), although existent Swl/+ muscle spindles, visualized at P0.5 and P91, appeared unaltered compared with the WT muscle ...
Forelimb muscles of the Ankylosauria (Reptilia: Ornithischia). Journal of Paleontology 52:642-658. ... The humerus of ankylosaurs has a well developed deltopectoral crest for several muscles involved in locomotion (Coombs, 1978a ... The olecranon on the ulna in ankylosaurs is well developed and provides a tall lever for extensor muscles of the elbow. The ...
  • Since the forelimbs are considerably shorter than the hindlimbs and provide less deceleration distance, impact forces on the front limbs are expected to be high. (biologists.org)
  • Equine limbs have become so specialized, they resemble 'machines' (reliance more on bone & ligament and less nerve and muscle). (umn.edu)
  • Forelimbs (thoracic limbs) carry 60% of static body weight. (umn.edu)
  • A new articulated postcranial specimen of an indeterminate ankylosaurid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (middle-upper Campanian) Baruungoyot Formation from Hermiin Tsav, southern Gobi Desert, Mongolia includes twelve dorsal vertebrae, ribs, pectoral girdles, forelimbs, pelvic girdles, hind limbs, and free osteoderms. (nature.com)
  • Based on dissections of fresh equine cadaver limbs, it provides a visual map for equine physical therapists, veterinarians and horse riders, helping them to understand how pathologies, injuries, or movement abnormalities of the equine forelimb arise and/or progress from one area of the limb to another. (routledge.com)
  • The condition can be quite painful in the forelimbs, the hind limbs or both, and will cause limping and whining," says Amanda Forgeng, DVM, medical director of VCA Boulevard Animal Hospital in Newport News, Virginia . (dogster.com)
  • The final symptom that may be seen is muscle atrophy in the effected limbs. (dogster.com)
  • The gibbons' unusual morphology facilitates a division of labour among the hind limbs, forelimbs and trunk, resulting in modest power requirements compared with more specialized leapers. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The tortoise's hind limbs differ markedly from the forelimbs. (desertusa.com)
  • Whereas the hind limbs are elephantine, the forelimbs are flattened with well-developed muscle. (desertusa.com)
  • The most common appearance of affected dogs is 'cramping'/'spasm' involving the hind limbs, which is seen as an increase in the muscle tone of the limbs. (vetspecialists.co.uk)
  • Certainly Anhanguera had a different launch mechanism, with the largest forelimbs and smallest hind limbs and feet in pterosaurland. (cmnh.org)
  • Exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, swimming time to exhaustion, and physiological levels of fatigue-related biomarkers (serum lactate, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose levels) after physical challenges. (mdpi.com)
  • Can you name the Dorsal Left Forelimb Muscles of the Cat (deep)? (sporcle.com)
  • Electrical stimulation of the right forelimb motor (MI) sensory (SI) cortex in normal, adult rats produced repetitive left forelimb movements. (elsevier.com)
  • Kinematics (120 Hz) and electromyography (EMG) (2000 Hz) data were collected simultaneously from the left forelimb of each horse. (cambridge.org)
  • The white rhino had fight wounds spread generally across the whole body with the most significant one being on the left forelimb close to the middle toe. (sheldrickwildlifetrust.org)
  • Anurans take off by extending their hindlimbs and using their forelimbs for landing. (biologists.org)
  • Forelimbs and hindlimbs have different roles in cursorial quadrupeds. (umn.edu)
  • The specimen includes twelve dorsal vertebrae, ribs, pectoral girdles, forelimbs, pelvic girdles, hindlimbs, and free osteoderms, which present the most complete postcranial skeleton of an ankylosaurid from the Baruungoyot Formation. (nature.com)
  • Brontosaurus was a large, long-necked quadrupedal animal with a long, whip-like tail, and forelimbs that were slightly shorter than its hindlimbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both forelimbs and hindlimbs are extremely reduced in size and appear nonfunctional, although the animals move them. (tolweb.org)
  • they have good, strong hindlimbs, but much stronger forelimbs). (cmnh.org)
  • This book provides a detailed account on the comparative anatomy, development, homologies and evolution of the head, neck, pectoral and forelimb muscles of vertebrates. (routledge.com)
  • larger muscles associated with the forelimb and pectoral girdle. (cmnh.org)
  • Comparisons of our forelimb data to previously collected data from the slider hindlimb allow us to test whether limb muscles with similar functional roles show qualitatively similar modulations of activity across habitats. (biologists.org)
  • Although patterns of modulation between water and land are similar between the fore- and hindlimb in T. scripta for propulsive phase muscles (retractors), we did not find support for the predicted pattern of intensity modulation, suggesting that the functional demands of the locomotor medium alone do not dictate differences in intensity of muscle activity across habitats. (biologists.org)
  • New, puzzling insights from comparative myological studies on the old and unsolved forelimb/hindlimb enigma. (howard.edu)
  • For comparison of grip strength of forelimb or hindlimb, splay of hindlimb, locomotor activity counts, body weights, food consumption, urinary quantitative analysis, hematology, blood chemistry and absolute or relative organ weights, Bartlett's test for homogeneity of variance was first performed. (europa.eu)
  • Jonathan S. Merritt, Helen M. S. Davies, Colin Burvill, and Marcus G. Pandy, "Influence of Muscle-Tendon Wrapping on Calculations of Joint Reaction Forces in the Equine Distal Forelimb," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , vol. 2008, Article ID 165730, 9 pages, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Differences between aquatic and terrestrial forelimb movements are reflected in temporal modulation of muscle activity bursts between environments, and in some cases the number of EMG bursts as well. (biologists.org)
  • and during wiping behavior, forelimb movements help to protect the skin by keeping it moist. (biologists.org)
  • In situ measurements of muscular twitch speed reveal one of the fastest vertebrate limb muscles on record, which evolved in association with extravagant courtship displays that include rapid limb movements. (elifesciences.org)
  • Voluntary muscle contraction is used to move the body, and can be finely controlled, like movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh . (bionity.com)
  • Improvement by 6 months post-injury in forelimb movements and muscle activity during walking. (ucsd.edu)
  • Such disorders are recognised in animals with stereotypic (i.e. repeatedly similar), episodic muscle movements. (vetspecialists.co.uk)
  • Girdle skeleton consisting of a set of bones linking the axial series to the forelimb/fin skeleton and offering anchoring areas for forelimb/fin and caudal musculature. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • One horse had forelimb lameness for 36 hours after anesthesia, which was clinically diagnosed as a myoneuropathy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Affected animals are usually presented for examination because of unilateral forelimb lameness. (vin.com)
  • Males also grip females with their forelimbs during amplexus ( Duellman, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. (rug.nl)
  • RESULTS: Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. (rug.nl)
  • The therapeutic dosage Withaferin A treatment attenuated this reduction in grip strength, whereas the supratherapeutic dosage of Withaferin A was found to be toxic/lethal and demonstrated a further decline in functional muscle strength and an increased rate of mortality on par with vehicle treatment. (springer.com)
  • The forelimb of T. coccinarum was very short, only ∼0.65 the length of the hind limb, possesses some adaptations found in digging taxa, and was held in a sprawling or 'semi-erect' position. (bioone.org)
  • Using a countermovement before the final push-off stretches the muscles and tendons of the hind limb, facilitating higher force production [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the case of the rat forearm, this included the collagen structures that make up blood vessels, tendons, muscles and bones. (newscientist.com)
  • A brief introduction to the forelimb musculoskeletal anatomy (with images) helps readers familiarize themselves with muscles and bones portrayed in photographs. (routledge.com)
  • This supplement has been used for strengthening the bones and muscles, and for increasing immunity [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • But flight requires fully formed, interlocking feathers and hollow bones, not to mention the flight muscles and keeled sternum to anchor the muscles. (icr.org)
  • Endothermic vertebrate Feathers and a 4-chamber heart Lay eggs Adaptations for FLIGHT include: Hollow bones Forelimbs form wings Large chest muscles Feathers. (slideserve.com)
  • The basic elements of the mammalian limb are present in bats, although the relative sizes of most bones and muscles differ from those of nonflying mammals. (tolweb.org)
  • They point to real life dinosaur examples, such as Archaeopteryx, Microraptor and the Velociraptor as proof of their theory-each sported shorter tails, bigger forelimbs and a crouched position due to a more forward center of gravity. (phys.org)
  • For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3). (frontiersin.org)
  • We argue that the frequency response of vestibular reflexes is governed by the mechanical systems under their control, with the neck system exhibiting a broader bandwidth than the appendicular muscles. (frontiersin.org)
  • The higher frequency response in neck muscles can be modulated but not inhibited, and in contrast to the lower frequency response observed in the appendicular muscles, its contribution to muscle activity does not dependent on a neck muscle's contribution to postural control. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is a well marked area for the attachment of neck muscles and a nuchal ridge. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • In this chapter we focus mainly on from where the head and neck muscles arose and how they evolved within the three major extant mammalian clades: monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. (springer.com)
  • Often the examiner can detect muscle atrophy of the forelimb by loss of muscle mass adjacent to the spine of the scapula. (vin.com)
  • The atrophic changes induced by the xenografted tumor were significantly ameliorated by treatment with Withaferin A. The combination of functional muscle weakening and induction of myofibrillar atrophy corroborate a cachectic phenotype, which was functionally rescued by Withaferin A. Further, treatment completely abolished the slow-to-fast myofiber type conversion observed in the settings of cancer-induced cachexia. (springer.com)
  • The most common bone affected is the ulna in the forelimb. (dogster.com)
  • There was a septic bite wound to the vertebral muscles dorsal to the sacrum, this extended deep into the sacral bone. (sheldrickwildlifetrust.org)
  • We addressed this question by quantifying forelimb kinematics and muscle activity during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in a generalized freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta ), using digital high-speed video and electromyography (EMG). (biologists.org)
  • It is classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle [2] , and its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs . (bionity.com)
  • Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by tendons to bone and is used to affect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture. (bionity.com)
  • To answer these questions, most of our research examines vertebrate muscle and bone function during locomotion, with a major focus on reptiles (especially turtles and alligators), amphibians, and fishes. (clemson.edu)
  • The different functional demands of water and air lead to a prediction that muscle activity for limb protractors (e.g. latissimus dorsi and deltoid for the forelimb) should be greater during swimming than during walking, and activity in retractors (e.g. coracobrachialis and pectoralis for the forelimb) should be greater during walking than during swimming. (biologists.org)
  • The deltoid complex is well developed, indicating a large moment arm for the deltoid and latissimus dorsi muscles, which increases the capacity for force production on humeral flexion. (bioone.org)
  • Thus limb elongation, bone reduction, digit elimination, and conversion of muscle to ligament is moderated. (umn.edu)
  • 15 The development of SARMs is intended to offer anabolic effects in muscle and bone, and they might also revert other castration-related adverse effects such as those in adipose tissues. (rsc.org)
  • Sequence-specific transcription factors that were activated were involved in cell specification, including bone and muscle formation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 6 In contrast, limb muscles, such as triceps brachii (TRI) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), are relatively less responsive. (rsc.org)
  • Next, he injected a mixture of cells from mice that included myoblasts, the cells that grow into muscle, in the cavities of the scaffold normally occupied by muscle. (newscientist.com)
  • Chen Y-M, Wei L, Chiu Y-S, Hsu Y-J, Tsai T-Y, Wang M-F, Huang C-C. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Mice heterozygous for the radiation-induced Sprawling ( Swl ) mutation display an early-onset sensory neuropathy with muscle spindle deficiency. (jneurosci.org)
  • BGP showed some characteristics of the SARM and might improve skeletal muscle function through the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenic genes and oxidative capacity, and ameliorated the castration-induced decline of skeletal muscle function in mice. (rsc.org)
  • Xenografting of the A2780 cell line resulted in a significant rate of mortality, which was attenuated by a therapeutic dosage of Withaferin A. Mice that received vehicle treatment following xenografting exhibited functional muscle decline over the course of the study. (springer.com)
  • however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system's contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • More specifically, it focuses on the differences in the frequency response and task dependence of vestibular reflexes controlling appendicular and spinal muscles in order to better understand the neurophysiological principles governing how humans achieve stable upright posture of the head and body. (frontiersin.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Transcriptional Regulatory Network in Embryonic Stem Cell and miRs in Muscle Cell Differentiation . (genecards.org)
  • Muscle (from Latin musculus , diminutive of mus "mouse" [1] ) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. (bionity.com)
  • RESULTS: We used antibodies against histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylations, a modification associated with promoters and open/active chromatin, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylations associated with Polycomb-repressed regions, and ribonucleic acid polymerase II associated with transcriptional initiation to identify the chromatin state signature of the mouse forelimb during mid-gestation at embryonic day 12. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It walks on the hoof of a single digit of an elongate manus/pes in which muscle is replaced by ligament. (umn.edu)
  • These features indicate greater muscular development and capacity for force production in the pronators and supinators of the forelimb and manus and flexors of the manus. (bioone.org)
  • Effect of protective padding on forelimb intracompartmental muscle pressures in anesthetized horses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wick catheters were used to measure intracompartmental muscle pressures (ICMP) within the long heads of the triceps brachii and extensor carpi radialis muscles of 8 horses maintained under halothane anesthesia while their breathing was controlled by intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The ICMP values were markedly elevated in the muscle bellies of the lower limb of all horses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in anesthetized horses because the ICMP may exceed the critical closing pressure of 30 mm of Hg required for capillary blood flow. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 7 skeletal muscles in the forequarters and 1 in the hindquarters of 6 Thoroughbred horses during overground walking, swimming in a circular pool, and walking and trotting in a water treadmill. (nih.gov)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of protective padding on forelimb intracompartmental muscle pressures in anesthetized horses. (elsevier.com)
  • To counteract that, the muscles ( gluteus minimus and gluteus medius ) that are used by the chimpanzee to push the leg back (hip extensors ) have shifted in modern humans in relation to the hip joint so that they now act as abductors to balance the trunk on the weight-bearing leg during walking. (britannica.com)
  • Our study reveals a common theme of head muscle stem cell development that is quite different from the trunk. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike trunk muscle stem cells, head muscle stem cells do not have a previous history of Pax7 expression, instead Pax7 expression emerges de-novo . (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, it is often overlooked that muscular dystrophies differentially target muscle groups in the head and in the trunk (reviewed in Emery, 2002 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The lateral rotation of the Saturnalia femur is corroborated through calculations of muscle moment arms. (scielo.br)
  • Importantly, it also reviews data obtained in the fields of evolutionary developmental biology, molecular biology and embryology, and explains how this data helps to understand the evolution and homologies of vertebrate muscles. (routledge.com)
  • Cranial muscle development in the model organism Ambystoma mexicanum: Implications for tetrapod and vertebrate comparative and evolutionary morphology and notes on ontogeny and phylogeny. (howard.edu)
  • To shed light on this, we traced the emergence of head muscle stem cells in the key vertebrate models for myogenesis, chicken, mouse, frog and zebrafish, using Pax7 as key marker. (frontiersin.org)
  • In adult skeletal muscle, RIα protein levels increased to partially compensate for the loss of RIIα. (pnas.org)
  • Adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) accompany contractile muscle fibers and efficiently repair muscle after injury (reviewed in Relaix and Zammit, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We compared the forelimbs of adult C. azarae with those of 13 species within other genera of caviomorph rodents to identify morphofunctional variation in osseous elements related to fossorial habits. (bioone.org)
  • The arrangement of striated muscle in modern humans conforms to the basic plan seen in all pronograde quadrupedal vertebrates and mammals (that is, all vertebrates and mammals that assume a horizontal and four-legged posture). (britannica.com)
  • Why does a lion have heavily muscled forelimbs and shoulders? (reference.com)
  • Heavily muscled forelimbs and shoulders add strength for capturing large prey. (angelfire.com)
  • If the forelimbs also play a major role during landing by damping the kinetic energy from the flight phase, the extensor muscles of the forelimbs are expected to work as dampers. (biologists.org)
  • Forelimbs improve gait efficiency by minimizing wasteful up/down energy expenditure (they absorb kinetic energy of downward movement , store it as potential energy in stretched ligaments, and in turn convert that to upward kinetic energy). (umn.edu)
  • Exceptional muscle physiology (like that of the bonobo [ 14 ]) and/or behavioural strategies could, however, contribute to the remarkable leaping performance of the gibbons. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A. Elissamburu and L. De Santis "Forelimb proportions and fossorial adaptations in the scratch-digging rodent Ctenomys (Caviomorpha)," Journal of Mammalogy 92(3), 683-689, (9 June 2011). (bioone.org)
  • Their diminutive forelimbs had digits similar to a hand, but consisting only of digits one, two, and three. (icr.org)
  • Moreover, dose-dependent myofibrillar protein synthesis resulting from beef ingestion was enhanced with resistance exercise in middle-aged men [ 7 ], and BE supplementation increased the relative weights of both the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in rats [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, the corticospinal tract - a collection of nerve cell fibers linking the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord - is much more important for muscle movement in primates than in rats. (ucsd.edu)
  • Wu P, Zhang S, Spinner RJ, Lizardi MT, Gu Y, Yu C, Yaszemski MJ, Windebank AJ, Wang H . A novel triple immunoenzyme staining enables simultaneous identification of all muscle fiber types on a single skeletal muscle cryosection from normal, denervated or reinnervated rats. (mayo.edu)
  • Loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength is often associated with disability and poor quality of life. (rsc.org)
  • 1 Sarcopenia, a gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age, and cachexia, weight loss due to an underlying illness, are the two most common muscle wasting disorders and represent important syndromes impacting quality and quantity of life in the geriatric population. (rsc.org)
  • Skeletal muscle performance sets the course of rapid speciation by defining the evolutionary trajectory of reproductive behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • As an example of mammalian diversity and also of an issue that is fundamental for the evolution of our own species as well as to illustrate the highly complex linkage between the evolutionary history of muscles, external characters, behavior, and ecology, we briefly comment on the relationships between facial expression, color patterns, mobility, and social group size during primate and human evolution. (springer.com)
  • Surprisingly, they found that it wasn't slowly diminishing tails that caused the animals to shift their stance, it was the development of larger forelimbs, which of course, over many more millions of years, for some, led to the development of wings. (phys.org)
  • Wings, which evolved from forelimbs , gave birds the ability to fly , although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds , including ratites , penguins , and diverse endemic island species of birds . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bats also have five unique muscles present in the patagium, and use additional muscles in the chest and back to move the wings up and down. (tolweb.org)
  • Skeletal structure immediately behind the head attached to the vertebral column by muscles and supporting the forelimbs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Bird forelimbs consist of digits two, three, and four. (icr.org)
  • The comparative forelimb muscle attachment sites of a crocodylian, Anhanguara , and a bird. (deviantart.com)
  • The dual use of bird forelimbs (think Archaeopteryx and Hoatzin) was secondary as demonstrated by Coelophysis and kin. (cmnh.org)
  • Evaluation of the wick catheter as used to measure intracompartmental muscle pressure in equine musc. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first book in equine anatomy to illustrate the fascial (soft connective tissue) connections of the equine forelimb. (routledge.com)
  • The first of its kind in equine anatomy, this clear, concise anatomical guide illustrates the fascial (soft connective tissue) connections of the equine forelimb. (routledge.com)
  • Her PhD (supervised by Helen MS Davies) focused on mapping out the fascial connectivity in the equine forelimb. (routledge.com)
  • Vestibular reflexes vary across and within muscle groups and are modulated by spatial and temporal factors related to a muscle's contribution to the system dynamics, the different neural pathways innervating each muscle, and the congruency of sensory signals and motor commands for a given task. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tigers primarily defend themselves with their claws, large teeth and powerful forelimbs that allow them to hold other animals down. (reference.com)
  • [8] Brontosaurus had a single large claw on each forelimb, and the first three toes possessed claws on each foot. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two semifossorial species had similar muscle weight ratios in the lateral and long heads of M. triceps brachii and M. teres major. (nih.gov)
  • The study aimed to investigate the effect of speed and incline on EMG activity in the brachiocephalicus muscle and the long and lateral heads of the triceps brachii muscle. (cambridge.org)
  • Duration of EMG activity was prolonged in the long head of the triceps brachii muscle and in the brachiocephalicus muscle as velocity increased. (cambridge.org)
  • Not when pterosaur ancestors and the first pterosaurs were incapable of touching the ground with their forelimbs (while balancing glenoids over toes) -- and they had big thighs with a pelvis 1/3 the torso length. (cmnh.org)
  • This sensory information is used by the central nervous system to elicit reflexes and control appendicular, axial and extraocular muscles that are crucial for posture and gaze. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of these structures must be due to activation of polysynaptic pathways, sensory feedback from the moving forelimb, or both. (elsevier.com)
  • In those species having only the scapula, no joint exists between the forelimb and the thorax, the only attachment being muscular[WP]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to modern depictions, Brown's stegosaur-like reconstruction showed robust forelimbs, a strongly arched back, a pelvis with prongs projecting forwards from the ilium and pubis, as well as a short, drooping tail without a tail club, which was unknown at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, skeletal muscle function and repair is much the same in all areas of the body. (frontiersin.org)
  • One unique feature of bats is their modified forelimbs, which support a wing membrane (patagium). (tolweb.org)
  • During the breeding season, male frogs use forelimbs in combat to repel rival males ( Peters and Aulner, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • Autophagy serves as a cellular protective mechanism against alcohol-induced tissue injury in most tissues but could be detrimental in heart and muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, another transcription factor, Prdm1, has been shown to be crucial for zebrafish forelimb development. (biologists.org)
  • In fact, primates are an emblematic case study to show that, within the fascinating morphological diversity of hard and soft tissues of the head, including the jaws and the muscles that move them, the most evolvable and diverse ones are a group of muscles that is characteristic of, and played a crucial evolutionary role in, the Mammalia: the muscles of facial expression. (springer.com)
  • These results indicated that swimming evoked strong EMG activity in the antigravity muscles in spite of reduced gravitational force. (nih.gov)
  • Walking in the water treadmill may require more intensified EMG activity of the forelimb than the trot in the same treadmill. (nih.gov)
  • This activity demands strong isometric force production from the forelimb muscles with the forelimbs in a flexed position. (biologists.org)
  • Activation of skeletal muscle Ca 2+ channels is enhanced by activation of PKA, and potentiation of Ca 2+ channel activity by single 50-200 ms depolarizations or trains of 3 ms depolarizations requires phosphorylation by PKA ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • It can contract more quickly and with a greater amount of force than oxidative muscle, but can sustain only short, anaerobic bursts of activity before muscle contraction becomes painful (often incorrectly attributed to a build-up of lactic acid ). (bionity.com)
  • Nerve cells in this area play an important role in initiating and controlling movement and any abnormal activity here can result in spontaneous and uncontrolled muscle activity. (vetspecialists.co.uk)
  • Currently, the in vitro manipulation and culture of these cells is still in its infancy, yet muscle stem cells may be the most promising route toward the therapy of muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophies. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is often overlooked that muscular dystrophies affect head and body skeletal muscle differently. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in a number of diseases including muscular dystrophies, cancer and HIV/Aids, the ability of muscle stem cells to repair muscle is compromised. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with increased skeletal muscle mass in humans and other mammals. (genecards.org)
  • This is the fastest muscle type in humans. (bionity.com)
  • N.B. in some books and articles this muscle in humans was, confusingly, called type IIB. (bionity.com)
  • The effectiveness of a forward armswing is probably more pronounced for gibbons compared with humans, because their forelimbs make up approximately 17 per cent of their body mass [ 15 ] compared with approximately 11 per cent in humans [ 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The semifossorial function of the forelimb in the common rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the streaked tenrec (Hemicentetes hemispinosus). (nih.gov)
  • 7,8 Hormone replacement therapy with androgens improved muscle function in both castrated animals 9 and hypogonadal individuals. (rsc.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy (hypertrophic - feline) is an inappropriate thickening of the ventricular heart muscle causing abnormal heart function. (petplace.com)
  • Photographic and Descriptive Musculoskeletal Atlas of Orangutans - With Notes on the Attachments, Variations, Innervations, Function and Synonymy and Weight of the Muscles (Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2013). (howard.edu)
  • Paramount to establishing the existence of an involuntary muscle movement is ensuring that the affected animal maintains a normal mental state (normal consciousness) during the episode and that there is no loss of bladder/bowel function or excessive salivation. (vetspecialists.co.uk)