Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenNeuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalMyoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Inbred C57BLThigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Paraspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs. (1/17862)

Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed.  (+info)

Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil. (2/17862)

Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations.  (+info)

In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (3/17862)

Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage.  (+info)

Synthesis and kinetic evaluation of 4-deoxymaltopentaose and 4-deoxymaltohexaose as inhibitors of muscle and potato alpha-glucan phosphorylases. (4/17862)

alpha-Glucan phosphorylases degrade linear or branched oligosaccharides via a glycosyl transfer reaction, occurring with retention of configuration, to generate alpha-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P). We report here the chemoenzymic synthesis of two incompetent oligosaccharide substrate analogues, 4-deoxymaltohexaose (4DG6) and 4-deoxymaltopentaose (4DG5), for use in probing this mechanism. A kinetic analysis of the interactions of 4DG5 and 4DG6 with both muscle and potato phosphorylases was completed to provide insight into the nature of the binding mode of oligosaccharide to phosphorylase. The 4-deoxy-oligosaccharides bind competitively with maltopentaose and non-competitively with respect to orthophosphate or G1P in each case, indicating binding in the oligosaccharide binding site. Further, 4DG5 and 4DG6 were found to bind to potato and muscle phosphorylases some 10-40-fold tighter than does maltopentaose. Similar increases in affinity as a consequence of 4-deoxygenation were observed previously for the binding of polymeric glycogen analogues to rabbit muscle phosphorylase [Withers (1990) Carbohydr. Res. 196, 61-73].  (+info)

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (5/17862)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

The effect of denervation and dystrophy on the adaptation of sarcomere number to the functional length of the muscle in young and adult mice. (6/17862)

In young animals the elongation of the limb bones increases the functional lengths of the muscles. In adult animals the functional length of a muscle can be increased by immobilizing it in the lengthened position. In both cases the muscle adapts by adding on more sarcomeres in series. The role of the nerve supply in this adaptation has been investigated using denervated muscles and muscles from dystrophic animals where there is thought to be an abnormality of the nerve supply. Postnatal sarcomere addition in denervated muscles falls short of that of controls. Although this might mean that the nerve supply is necessary for normal addition of sarcomeres, it is just as likely that there is a change in gait resulting from denervation, which affects the sarcomere number. Sarcomere number in fully grown mice is not affected by denervation, nor is the ability of the muscle to adapt to immobilization in the lengthened position. This is true for fast-twitch as well as slow-twitch muscles. In dystrophic muscles postnatal sarcomere addition is normal, although the presence of a few short fibres in the muscle may mean that some muscle fibres cannot adapt to an increase in the functional length of the muscle accompanying bone growth. Adult dystrophic muscle is capable of adapting to immobilization in the lengthened position. However, although the total number of additional sarcomeres is the same as in normal immobilized muscle, they are added on at a slower rate. The experiments show that although denervated and dystrophic muscle fibres are in a state of atrophy they are still capable of adding on sarcomeres in series when the functional length of the muscle is increased. It would appear that the mechanism which enables the muscle to respond in this way to an increased functional length does not involve the nerve supply. This work was supported by a grant from the National Fund for Research into Crippling Diseases.  (+info)

Gamma-Actinin, a new regulatory protein from rabbit skeletal muscle. I. Purification and characterization. (7/17862)

A new regulatory protein which we have designated as gamma-actinin has been isolated from native thin filaments of rabbit skeletal muscle. Depolymerized native thin filaments were fractionated by salting out with ammonium sulfate, and the precipitates obtained at 40--60% ammonium sulfate saturation were further subjected to DEAE-Sephadex and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The purified gamma-actinin was shown to have a chain weight of 35,000 daltons and had a strong inhibitory action on the polymerization of G-actin. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a unique amino acid composition of gamma-actinin as compared with other structural proteins of muscle. Non-polar and neutral amino acid residues were abundant. One cysteine residue was contained per one molecule of gamma-actinin and played a critical role in the maintenance of the inhibitory activity. Pelleting of gamma-actinin with F-actin showed that gamma-actinin binds to F-action.  (+info)

Connectin, an elastic protein from myofibrils. (8/17862)

The elastic protein isolated from myofibrils of chicken skeletal muscle was compared with extracellular non-collagenous reticulin prepared from chicken liver and skeletal muscle. The amino acid compositions of these proteins were similar except that their contents of Phe, Leu, Cys/2, and Hyp were different. The impregnations of the elastic protein and reticulin with silver were also different. The reticulin was not at all elastic. It also differed from reticulin in solubility and antigenicity. It is proposed to call the intracellular elastic protein connectin.  (+info)

Read "Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Expression is Enhanced in Cultured Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Home » Muscle. muscle (Science: anatomy) tissue specialised for contraction. See twitch muscle, catch muscle: cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is a striated but involuntary muscle responsible for the pumping activity of the vertebrate heart. The individual muscle cells are joined through a junctional complex known as the intercalated disc and are not fused together into multinucleate structures as they are in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is a rather non-specific term usually applied to the striated muscle of vertebrates that is under voluntary control. The muscle fibres are syncytial and contain myofibrils, tandem arrays of sarcomeres. Smooth muscle is muscle tissue in vertebrates made up from long tapering cells that may be anything from 20-500m long. Smooth muscle is generally involuntary and differs from striated muscle in the much higher actin/myosin ratio, the absence of conspicuous sarcomeres and the ability to contract to a much smaller fraction of its resting length. Smooth muscle ...
As pointed out by others is the concept of resilient relaxation (fang song). My understanding of what is involved here physiologically is that you want the muscles used for movement - the fast twitch muscles which are typically located towards the exterior of the muscle groups - to be as relaxed as possible while supporting the structure/postures with the slow twitch muscles located more internally. Thus you get "steel wrapped in cotton," and this seems to be what is trained in either standing meditation or holding postures from the form for lengthy periods of time. Holding postures for long periods of time tire out the fast twitch muscles until they are forced to relax while the slow twitch muscles can continue to hold ones structure/posture (or take over from the fast twitch muscles if they were being relied upon) and get built up. The more that the body is trained to use the slow twitch muscles for supporting its structure and the more relaxed the fast twitch muscles can become, then the more ...
It is now common, even in the health club arenas, to hear the terms "stabilizing exercise", and "core muscles". But what do these terms really mean, what are such muscles, and why are such exercises and muscle groups so important?. MUSCLES HAVE SPECIFIC ROLES. When we look at our skeletal muscle system, we know that not all muscles are the same in their function and physiological makeup. Some muscles are located deep and close to our joints, have predominantly slow twitch type muscle fibers, are often short muscles, and can contract for prolonged periods and have some tension most of the time. These are endurance type muscles, whose primary function is to ensure that the joints can move in a mechanically normal fashion. They thereby provide stability to the joints. These are the stabilizing, or true "core muscles" in our body.. An authority on the muscular system, Vladimir Janda, M.D. referred to these muscles as the "tonic muscles". They are there to provide support, not to move our limbs or ...
Instrumentation has been developed to detect rapidly the polarization of tryptophan fluorescence from single muscle fibers in rigor, relaxation, and contraction. The polarization parameter (P⊥) obtained by exiciting the muscle tryptophans with light polarized perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fiber had a magnitude P⊥ (relaxation) , P⊥ (contraction) , P⊥ (rigor) for the three types of muscle fibers examined (glycerinated rabbit psoas, glycerinated dorsal longitudinal flight muscle of Lethocerus americanus, and live semitendinosus of Rana pipiens). P⊥ from single psoas fibers in rigor was found to increase as the sarcomere length increased but in relaxed fibers P⊥ was independent of sarcomere length. After rigor, pyrophosphate produced little or no change in P⊥, but following an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-containing solution, pyrophosphate produced a value of P⊥ that fell between the contraction and relaxation values. Sinusoidal or square wave oscillations of the ...
17 best ideas about human muscle anatomy on pinterest , muscle at muscles. Human Muscle Pictures delightful to help my blog site, in this occasion Ill show you in relation to Human muscle pictures.. And now, here is the initial image, human muscle pictures, human cadaver muscle pictures, real human muscle pictures, human skeletal muscle pictures, human body muscle groups pictures, trichinella spiralis in human muscle pictures :. ...
One objective of the red-white muscle experiment was simply to test the function of the newly assembled porcine microarray, from which two gene lists were generated (Tables 1 and 2). Genes that were expected to be differentially expressed and genes that were novel were found on each list. The microarray results validated our prior hypothesis of differential gene expression in red and white muscles, thus demonstrating the functional integrity of our newly constructed microarray. One of the well established distinguishing features of red muscle is its relatively high oxidative phosphorylation capacity, reflected by an abundance of mitochondria in red muscles. It is reassuring that genes from the mitochondrial genome were well represented in the red muscle pool of differentially expressed genes (Table 1). White muscles comprise predominantly more fast-glycolytic fibres than red muscles. Our findings were consistent with expectations, in that most of the 45 clones selected as more highly expressed ...
The muscles of the head perform a wide variety of functions and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some of these muscles are the smallest muscles of the body, others have the highest ratio of neuron to muscle fibers in the body, and others can generate more force per unit area than any other muscle. They perform functions that range from chewing food to manipulating speech, from moving the eyes to creating the wide variety of facial expressions, and they even modify the strength of the sound waves approaching the inner ear. These interesting muscles arise from two distinct developmental programs in the embryo - the branchial, or pharyngeal, arches and the head somites. Each of these embryonic tissues has an associated cranial nerve. As the embryonic muscle mass develops to its final postnatal group of muscles, each of these muscles is innervated by the same nerve that innervated the embryonic muscle primordium. While, the embryonic somites are the principal source of skeletal muscle tissue ...
A muscle biopsy is a procedure used to diagnose diseases involving muscle tissue. Tissue and cells from a specific muscle are removed and viewed microscopically. The procedure requires only a small piece of tissue to be removed from the designated muscle.. The tissue sample is obtained by inserting a biopsy needle into the muscle. If a larger sample is required, your doctor may make an incision in the skin (open biopsy) and remove a larger section of muscle.. The muscle selected for the biopsy depends on the location of symptoms which may include pain or weakness. The muscles often selected for sampling are the bicep (upper arm muscle), deltoid (shoulder muscle), or quadriceps (thigh muscle).. A related procedure that may be used to diagnose neuromuscular problems is electromyography (EMG). EMG measures the electrical activity of muscle during rest, slight contraction, and forceful contraction. Please see this procedure for additional information.. ...
Definition of muscle f's, fast twitch in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is muscle f's, fast twitch? Meaning of muscle f's, fast twitch as a legal term. What does muscle f's, fast twitch mean in law?
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The muscular system is the major force-producing tissue of animals. In particular, the skeletal muscles enable precise body movements of invertebrates and vertebrates. For these accurate movements, each muscle must be properly connected to the skeleton. This is achieved by the attachment of both ends of the muscle fiber to tendons, which in turn connect to the skeleton. In large animals, it is often hundreds of fibers that are packed into muscle fiber bundles that run parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Thus, muscle is a highly polar tissue, which harbors a defined contraction axis between both tendon attachments (Hill and Olson, 2012).. The sarcomere is the contractile unit of each muscle fiber (Clark et al., 2002; Gautel and Djinovic-Carugo, 2016). Each sarcomere is symmetrically organized between two Z-discs, which cross-link antiparallel polar actin filaments, also called thin filaments. The centrally located thick filaments comprise bipolar myosin filaments. These thick filaments are ...
A muscle biopsy is a procedure used to diagnose diseases involving muscle tissue. Your healthcare provider will remove tissue and cells from a specific muscle and view them under a microscope. Your provider will only need to remove a small piece of tissue from the muscle. Your healthcare provider takes the tissue sample by inserting a biopsy needle into your muscle. If a larger sample is required, your healthcare provider may make an incision in your skin (open biopsy) and remove a larger section of muscle. The muscle selected for your biopsy depends on the location of symptoms, which may include pain or weakness. The muscles often selected for sampling are the bicep (upper arm muscle), deltoid (shoulder muscle), or quadriceps (thigh muscle). ...
This finally brings us to the real hero of your life story- cardiac muscle. Like skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is striated and like the other muscle in your body is primarily powered by mitochondria. The cardiac muscles, however, have as much as 10 times the density of mitochondria as your other muscles, at about 35% of the volume of your cardiac muscle.. It should also be noted that individual muscle cells in the heart actually do get regular rest thanks to how the heart beat actually works, which well get into in the Bonus Fact in a bit. But the net result is that about 60%-70% of your life a given part of your heart is actually in a resting state.. Combining these micro-rests with the extreme amount of mitochondria and a large amount of oxygen from the hearts awesome blood supply, this allows your heart all the ATP it needs to not get tired, assuming youre not in an extreme state of starvation or doing some extreme form of exercise for extended periods well beyond your normal fitness ...
... is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion . They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture , locomotion , as well as movement of internal organs , such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis . Muscle tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis . There are three types of muscle, skeletal or striated, cardiac , and smooth . Muscle action can be classified as being either voluntary or involuntary. Cardiac and smooth muscles contract without conscious thought and are termed involuntary, whereas the skeletal muscles contract upon command. Skeletal muscles in turn can be divided into fast and slow twitch fibers. Muscles are predominantly powered by the
Muscle myoblast (primitive embryonic muscle cell) differentiating in to a skeletal muscle cell, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). A myoblast is a type of stem cell that occurs in muscles. Skeletal muscle fibres are made when myoblasts fuse together. As a result muscle fibres have multiple nuclei. Magnification: x1,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0165
Muscle differentiation is a complex process finely tuned by the interplay of positive and negative factors. Although key positive regulators have been identified, there is rather little evidence of restraining molecules that can control the time and place of muscle differentiation. Identification of such molecules and analysis of their function during muscle differentiation is therefore necessary to gain new insight into the molecular events that regulate this process. My work centred on a gene, Dmeso17A that was identified in the Taylor laboratory in a screen to isolate novel genes specifically expressed in muscle progenitors in Drosophila (Taylor, 2000). Its pattern of expression suggested it could be an inhibitor of muscle development. My aim was to analyse both the role and mechanism of action of Dmeso17A. Dmeso17A expression rapidly declines as muscle differentiation starts, but persists in the adult muscle precursors that remain undifferentiated at this stage. Using the GAL4/UAS system ...
021b1c530e2e11ef4617e7ab780b4170 Whats the strongest muscle in the human body? That question is actually difficult to answer. The human body has three different kinds of muscles (cardiac, skeletal, and smooth) and there are hundreds of muscles in the body. Each muscle works to help make the body strong as a whole. However, there are a few muscles that do more work than many of the others. Eye Muscles The muscles in your eyes, particularly the muscles on the outside of your eyes do a lot of work. These external muscles help your eye adjust its position so it can keep a steady gaze. They can move over 10,000 times in an hour. Thats a lot of work! Gluteus Maximus The gluteus maximus is a large muscle. In fact, its the largest in your body. It helps to keep your body upright and controls your posture. It also works against gravity, which means it has to be very strong. Heart Many people think the heart is your strongest muscle because it works the hardest. Your heart pumps blood 24 hours
RONNIE COLEMAN: Every exercise I do is a favorite isolation exercise, but its also a favorite mass-building exercise. I dont distinguish between the two. My purpose as a bodybuilder is to ensure that every muscle has received its optimum amount of training by the time Ive finished my workout. That, to me, is isolation.. Somewhere along the way, bodybuilders began to define isolation in what I call negative terms; i.e., the removal of all supporting muscles from the movement, so that only a single target muscle is allowed to contract. If other muscles are involved, they either prevent the target muscle from doing the work or they cause the body to fatigue before the target muscle is fully exercised.. I prefer a more positive approach. Instead of trying to isolate a muscle, I think in terms of trying to isolate maximum forces into a muscle. With concentration and proper control of the movement, I command supporting muscles to make the target muscle work even harder. Here are some of my favorite ...
Here are my questions (I have several). 1) Are the fast twitch muscle fibers dominant or recessive as opposed to the slow?. 2) Are people of mixed race/greatest genetic diversity in their background, tend to be the best athletes and the healthiest in general?. Allow me to clarify the first point: Obviously no one in the world is either 100% fast twitch or 100% slow twitch. Lets put this another way: (and Im just using random numbers here that are probably unrealistic, bear with me). Lets say someone who is 80% fast twitch and 20% slow twitch has a baby with someone who is precisely the other way. Would the child develop more of the fast twitch or more of the slow twitch?. ...
Many people use their body too seldom and too little varied. Everyday life is for most people affected by a lot of sitting. That often causes pain and tenderness in muscles, tendons and joints. The nerves that set the muscles in motion will die if they are not used. Thus the muscles also die. Its ancient wisdom that pains in muscles while exercising will disappear with more exercise. We know that the muscles repair themselves when they are being used. The muscles also become bigger and stronger. New muscle cells are formed from the muscles stem cells and existing ones grow.. Weight loss is another advantage of working out. The number of mitochondria, the cells "power plants", increases when we exercise. This accelerates the energy production in the muscle cells, thus we burn more fat. The best way to strengthen muscles and at the same time burn more fat is to use heavy weights and take long pauses between the different exercises. Using lighter weights and shorter breaks helps improving your ...
Groups of muscles in the human body form the muscular system and because many of these muscles are attached to bones, this system is often referred to, along with the skeletal system, as the musculoskeletal system.. There are 639 muscles in the human body which fall into one of three categories - striated, smooth, and cardiac.. Striated muscles are the skeletal muscles such as the ones in the arms, legs, back, and chest.. Smooth muscles are the involuntary muscles and are found in the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems. For instance, the walls of blood vessels contain smooth muscle as do the bladder and intestines.. While the function of the heart muscle is to pump blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body, the purpose of skeletal muscles is to provide movement, posture, balance, strength, and body heat.. ...
Do you have big muscles? Even if you dont lift weights or play sports, you might be surprised to learn just how strong some of your muscles are. But which of your many muscles is the strongest?. Actually, theres no easy answer to that question. It all really depends upon how you define "strong." Many different muscles might be considered strongest, depending upon exactly what kind of strength youre talking about. Different muscles will have to fight it out to see which one can truly claim to be the strongest. How appropriate!. Lets get one common misconception out of the way to start. From time to time, youll see lists of interesting facts about the human body. Many times these lists will claim that the tongue is the strongest muscle in the human body. This is incorrect for a couple of reasons.. First, the tongue isnt a single muscle. Its actually made up of eight different muscles. Second, while very strong and flexible, the tongue cannot lay a valid claim to be the strongest muscle in ...
Sent: Wednesday, August 22, 2001 8:46 AM Subject: porcine muscle fiber typing > Hi everybody, > > I wonder whether there have been done any refinements on the old > methods of muscle fiber typing for their contractile and metabolic > character (e.g. Brooke and Kaiser, 1970). As far as I know there is no > combined staining method that enables me to differentiate 4 fiber types > as the molecular genetic methods do. Furthermore Im looking for > software that allows to a) (semi)automatically detect the fiber types > and b) to calculate area and diameter of the fibers. > > I appreciate any advice! > > Daniel Moerlein > Institut for Animal Breeding > Martin-Luther-University > Halle > Germany ...
1. The endings of the motor nerves in striped muscle remain on the outside of the sarcolemma. Aside from the surfaces of contact of muscle and nerve fibre, the end fibres are covered down to their tips with the sheath of Schwann and are provided with nuclei. The precise condition of things at the places of contact of muscle and nerve is an unsolved problem of histology.. 2. The ivy-like or festooned arrangement of motor nerves in the frogs muscle has been misinterpreted. Properly interpreted it demonstrates that the nerve fibres that are to influence the muscle fibre are not naked and that they need not be end fibres. It shows that mere contact between muscle fibre and nerve fibre is all that is necessary.. 3. The sheath of Henle in the frog and in the smaller muscle fibres of the snake is open, thus permitting escape of the cerebrospinal fluid.. 4. In other animals Henles sheath extends over the end fibres of the motor nerve and the cells lining it envelop the end fibrils. I find that the ...
1. The structure and distribution of the components of striated muscle cells vary with the species and with the specialization of muscle fiber function. 2. There appear to be two, easily distinguishable, general categories of striated muscle structure. A. High frequency muscle (represented by flight muscle of higher insects and hummingbird, and cicada tympanal muscle) is characterized by widely spaced, non-branching fibrils of large diameter and short period, little endoplasmic reticulum, and large quantities of large mitochondria (low fibril-sarcoplasm ratio). This structure is correlated with heavy tracheolization or vascularization, high oxidative activity, and dark color as compared with other muscles of the same species. B. Low frequency muscle is characterized, in general, by high fibril-sarcoplasm ratio, relatively long period, few mitochondria increasing with activity and decreasing with absolute power of the fiber. Oxidative capacity and color are proportional to the quantity of ...
Muscle growth is the primary objective of meat animal livestock producers and represents a major source of amino acids and energy within the animal. Endogenous and exogenous factors that impinge on muscle cell development may influence the animal throughout its life cycle. In the adult animal, treatment with hormones, such as anabolic steroids or insulin, can affect muscle metabolism. Attempting to determine a compounds effects on muscle cell development and metabolism can be obscured in animal trials, since other organs and tissues are altering the environment. Muscle cell culture provides a research tool to determine the direct effects of a specific compound. There are several advantages to cell culture use. First, the cells can be grown as a pure culture. Ideally, the cells are of the same type. Secondly, the culture environment can be controlled. The environment includes the atmosphere, temperature, pH, and the available nutrients. Finally, the sample processing can be simple and rapid. Cell
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Crdiac muscle (heart muscle) is involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium. Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. These three types of muscle all form in the process of myogenesis. The cells that constitute cardiac muscle, called cardiomyocytes or myocardiocytes, contain only three nuclei ...
FLAT VS. FAT. Remember when I said some fat is a good thing? When fat is stored interstitially (with- in the muscle fibers), it creates both a more full muscle but also an additional leverage point for muscles to push against, thereby increasing both size and strength. This is great for big muscle bellies like your quads, chest, and lats, but not so good for thinner muscles like your abs. Furthermore, in smaller, thinner muscles like the abs, which are separated by a ligamentous tissue, those separations dont keep their hard end points as both the water you consume and the fat you build like to set up camp between your muscles. As you are also likely aware, as you consume more carbs along with water, your muscles will fill up, making you look great if timed properly. No doubt you also know that after a period of time, the water (and carbs) will seep out and fill up the space between muscle bellies making you look ...
Movement is made more flexible with joints. Here, ligaments hold bones together. They limit the movement thus preventing dislocation. The joints move due to the force of muscles acting on them. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons that are made of collagen fibres. When a muscle contracts, the tendon and its attached bone are pulled towards the contracting muscle. Many joints work due to the action of antagonistic muscles; one set causes the joint to move one way, the other set causes it to return. When one muscle in the pair is contracting, the other is relaxing (not stretching). An example of this arrangement is the elbow joint controlled by the biceps and triceps muscle. There are three types of muscle, skeletal, cardiac and smooth... Skeletal: Cardiac: Smooth: Function: Locomotion Pumping blood through heart Line blood vessels, digestive tract (peristalsis), uterus, etc. Cells: Striated Specialised striated Unstriated Control of contraction:
www.MOLUNA.de Multiple Muscle Systems [4196443] - The picture on the front cover of this book depicts a young man pulling a fishnet, a task of practical relevance for many centuries. It is a complex task, involving load transmission throughout the body, intricate balance, and eye head-hand coordination. The quest toward understanding how we perform such tasks
Muscles and their associated tendons come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The different shapes and sizes coupled with the relationships they form with one another, with the skeleton, and at the joints they cross create the large variety of musculoskeletal action that is such an integral part of the bodys function. It is also from the differences in shape and size that muscles derive their names. When the early anatomists began naming muscles they used a logical, descriptive approach. Understanding the logic behind the name can help you learn about the muscle. The characteristic features of a muscle name include adjectives and genitives that modify the noun muscle. Keep in mind that the full name of any muscle of the body begins with musculus, a masculine noun. The English language has dropped this from common usage and allows the adjective and the genitive that describe the muscle to stand alone as the English noun. For example, musculus latissimus dorsi becomes the latissimus dorsi ...
This type of muscle tissue is found only in the heart.. The heart must beat from the end of the third week of embryonic development, right through until the time we die.. If individual cardiac muscle cells are removed from the heart and kept alive in a glass culture dish containing a suitable nutrient medium, they continue to contract rhythmically.. Like skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells have a striated appearance, but unlike skeletal muscle cells they have a branching structure.. However, in the living person the intrinsic rhythm of the individual cardiac cells is over-ridden by the nerve supply to the heart. In this way, the rate of contraction of the heart is adjusted to match the needs of the person - whether asleep or dashing for a bus.. Most of us cannot consciously change the rate of our heart beat (although some individuals have been able to train themselves to achieve this), so we say that cardiac muscle is under involuntary control. ...
What is Protein? It is a well-known fact that protein is essential for muscle development. Protein is macronutrient. It is composed of amino acids which are the building blocks of muscles. Amino acids are responsible for muscle growth, repair, and maintaining muscle tissues. Hence, body development and muscle growth are impossible without protein.. Protein is also made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Adding protein in your diet supports an anabolic state. It is a condition wherein the body has well-balanced nitrogen levels. That is why eating a sufficient amount of protein is a crucial requirement for successful muscle growth.. How does it Work? Albeit eating protein is significant for body development, it does necessarily mean youll grow muscles by eating this macronutrient alone. Having a balanced diet with foods rich in protein, complex carbohydrates, vitamins, and healthy fats, partnered with regular exercises is the key.. The muscles are made of two types of proteins called ...
This electron microscopic study deals with the structure of the Z disc of frogs skeletal muscle, with special regard to the I filaments-whether they pass through the Z disc or terminate at it. In most longitudinal sections the I filaments terminate as rod-like projections on either side of the Z disc, one I filament on one side lying between two I filaments on the opposite side. This indicates that the I filaments are not continuous through the Z disc. The rod-like projections are often seen to consist of filaments (denoted as Z filaments) which meet at an angle.. In cross-sections through the Z region the I filaments and Z filaments form tetragonal patterns. The I filaments are situated in the corners of the squares; the oblique Z filaments form the sides of squares. The tetragonal pattern formed by the Z filaments is rotated 45 degrees with respect to the tetragons formed by the I filaments on both sides of Z. This structural arrangement is interpreted to indicate that each I filament on one ...
The lumbrical muscles of the hand are four small, fleshy muscles that are associated with tendons between the four fingers of the hand. Each lumbrical muscle flexes the corresponding digital joint to extend the finger in question.. ...
One of the biggest myths in the exercise world is that you can turn fat into muscle. Fat and muscle are two entirely different tissues. Fat is made up of triglycerides and muscle is made up of proteins. There is no mechanism to turn triglycerides into protein. Turning fat into muscle is a different way of saying, "I want to burn fat and build muscle.". Now that you know what turning fat into muscle really is, you can understand how to accomplish it. First, you will need to start burning the fat your body has stored by reducing your calorie intake and increasing your exercise.. You can figure out how many calories you burn by using the Calorie Calculator. To burn fat, you need to eat less than this so that your body can start using its fat stores for energy. Over time you will lose weight and your body fat percentage will decrease.. To build muscle you need to engage in resistance or strength training. Training your muscles involves pushing them farther than you did your previous work in order to ...
Some Essential elements may aid in Lean muscle growth aiding recovery and fat loss. Some of these elements have been clinically proven for over 20 years. They also may help strengthen bones and tendons and enhance cellular metabolism.. These elements that prevent muscle breakdown essentially have NO Hormone altering effects (testosterone or Oestrogen) as they naturally occur. No muscle wastage means it can be said to have a PURE anabolic effect.. There are many elements that may help save muscle to promote a good metabolism. Muscle is our metabolism and we need to protect it from wastage to maintain its optimal functioning. Muscle is also essential and has been proven to aid heart patients, as loss of muscle means a lack of support for the lymphatic system and cardiovascular detriment.. Essential elements that may help prevent muscle breakdown and decrease chances of becoming catabolic may include:. Carnitine. 5-methyl-7-methoxy-isoflavone: synthetic extract version of a major plant based ...
EMS follows the same principle of muscle training. Training 8 major muscle group i.e legs, gluteus, lower back, upper back, middle back, chest, abdominal and arms at a same time the amount of calories you burn will be more. Normal workout takes 48 hours to recover but in EMS training your body takes 4 to 5 days to recover. So in those 4 to 5 days your body is still burning calories to recover your muscle.. If EMS is done on regular basis, it helps to reduce excess body fat, gain muscle and thereby increasing bodys metabolism. EMS training stimulates all large muscle groups with high intensity at the same time. This strengthens the core muscles and thereby help in building body mass with proper toning of body , So we get a proper sculpted, In-shape body.. ...
Purpose. The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of muscle strengthening in a vertical squat jump based on a neuro-musculo-skeletal model and a forward dynamics simulation. Methods. During simulation trials, 16 major muscle groups of the lower extremities were gradually strengthened up to 20%. Results. Complex yet systematic deviations in body kinematics, kinetics and the neural control pattern were observed as a result of gradual muscle strengthening. Conclusions. Based on the generated results it was concluded that: (i) the pattern of kinematical changes depends on which muscles are strengthened, while the magnitude of the changes depends on how much the muscles are strengthened. (ii) Adjustment of muscle coordination, in some cases, can be performed without adjustment of neural control. (iii) The adjustment of neural control is done in an adaptive manner. (iv) Inter-segmental coordination is further altered if a smaller number of muscles are strengthened. (v) The ...
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By Editorial Staff. For everyone out there who thinks cardio is the only exercise you need, think again. Particularly as we get older, muscle is an essential component of healthy living. Heres why.. As we get older, we naturally lose muscle if we dont maintain / build it: up to 3-5 percent loss per decade, beginning as young as age 30 or so. Muscle is also harder to develop as we age, even if you stay physically active. Thats two strikes against us. The third strike, if we let it happen, is where the real problem lies: Lack of muscle can increase the risk of injury, falls, weight gain and more; and even reduce our overall life expectancy.. Yes, muscle can truly be a life saver, and recent research proves it. A study in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise put the theory to the test by evaluating 4,449 participants ages 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Low muscle strength increased the risk of all-cause mortality (risk of death) ... regardless of ...
Calcium pumping ATPase enzyme. Computer model of the ATPase enzyme that pumps calcium in and out of muscle cells and controls muscle contractions. The name ATPase refers to this enzymes ability to break up the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecule and release energy. This ATPase uses the energy to pump calcium ions in and out of muscle cells, and it is found in muscle cell membranes. Calcium ions are central to the process of muscle contraction. Enzymes are catalysts and so promote reactions and are not used up. They are also proteins. Proteins are long chains of amino acids. This protein has around 1000 amino acids and about 15,000 atoms. - Stock Image A605/0157
Muscle fibre cells are joined together in order to gain strength. They all share muscle sarcoplasm which is made up of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm and nuclei.. Microscopic structure. There are two main proteins involved in myofibrils:. Myosin: These are thick, rod shaped proteins with protruding bulbous heads.. Actin: Two thin strands wrapped round each other.. The myofibril seems *****ed as it two types of bands. The A band is the darker ***** where the actin and myosin overlap, and the I band is where they dont overlap.. Marking the end of the sarcomere is the Z line, and between the two darker *****s there is an H zone.. Types of muscle Fibre. Slow twitch: Muscle fibre that need aerobic respiration to prevent the build…. ...
McKibben artificial muscles are one of the most pragmatic contractile actuators, offering performances similar to skeletal muscles. The McKibben muscles operate by pumping pressurized fluid into a bladder constrained by a stiff braid so that tensile force generated is amplified in comparison to a conventional hydraulic ram. The need for heavy and bulky compressors/ pumps makes pneumatic or hydraulic McKibben muscles unsuitable for microactuators, where a highly compact design is required. In an alternative approach, this article describes a new type of McKibben muscle using an expandable guest fill material, such as temperature-sensitive paraffin, to achieve a more compact and lightweight actuation system. Two different types of paraffin-filled McKibben muscles are introduced and compared. In the first system, the paraffinfilled McKibben muscle is simply immersed in a hot water bath and generates isometric forces up to 850 mN and a free contraction strain of 8.3% at 95C. In the second system, paraffin
Staying hydrated is essential for the effective building of muscle. You can injure your muscles if you do not keep your body well hydrated. Further, staying hydrated will help you gain muscle and keep your muscles solid.. Switch up your routine often. If a workout routine becomes mundane and boring, you are less likely to stick to it. Change your workout to do a variety of exercises, and alternate the muscle groups you work on in a single setting. By doing this you will remain motivated and help to prevent plateaus in progress too.. Try to build a routine that avoids muscle injury and keeps you motivated. Newcomers to the world of muscle development must restrict themselves to two intense workouts weekly, whereas experienced fitness buffs can perform three such workouts every week.. Its important to limit working out to three or four times weekly. By doing this, you are providing your body with time to rest and repair itself. When you workout too much, you can make your body overwork itself and ...
Pulled Lat Muscle Mendmeshop Pulled Muscle In Back, Pulled Lat Muscle Pulled Muscle In The Back F F 2017, Back Anatomy All About The Back Muscles Pulled Lat Muscle, Latissimus Dorsi Painsymptomscausestreatmentprevention Pulled Lat Muscle, ...
Hierarchy Of Organization Of Muscle Tissue Hierarchy Of Organization Of Muscle TissueStructure of Muscle Tissue and Associated Tissues. Tissue.The organization of a skeletal muscle from smallest to largest isas follows: myofilaments > myofibrils > muscle fiber > fascicle >muscle.St...
In the past we have explored the nervous system, brain function, cranial nerves, digestive function, adrenal function, and the immune system. Now lets take a look at the most glamorized, yet under-appreciated, part of our body-our mighty muscles and bones. So, how do the muscular and skeletal systems help us move?. Muscular Attraction. The muscles get a lot of attention with regard to how they can make us look attractive and sexy to others. Our muscle tone communicates how healthy our body is. The strength of the muscles, the lack of water retention or fat in the muscles, and how flexible we are, all indicate that we may be a good reproductive partner and produce strong, healthy offspring. This is one of the functions we all can relate to, but it is certainly not the most important function of our muscles.. Try to imagine what your life would be like if your muscle tissue could not form the shape of your body. What if it didnt allow you to physically move around your environment? Without ...
Muscle mass[edit]. Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... muscle cells and probably act in a coordinated manner to function by acting on several cell types in skeletal muscle tissue.[8] ... One cell type conveys hormone signals to generating muscle, the myoblast. Higher androgen levels lead to increased expression ...
"Mini-muscle" allele[edit]. A gene recently discovered in laboratory house mice, termed "mini-muscle", causes a 50% reduction in ... For example, mice with the Mini Muscle mutation were observed to have a higher per-gram aerobic capacity.[37] The mini-muscle ... Mini Muscle Mice also exhibit larger kidneys and livers. All of these morphological deviations influence the behavior and ... heavy polypeptide 4 gene is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype characterized by major reduction in hind-limb muscle mass ...
Abdominal muscle[edit]. Skin grafted muscle flaps have fallen from popularity. This procedure is a minimum of 3 steps and ...
Muscles targeted[edit]. Chin-ups, like most pull-ups, target the latissimus dorsi muscle of the back as a shoulder extensor, ... "Muscles worked in a Pull-Up". Retrieved 10 July 2014. During a Pull-Up the muscles that are mainly worked are those of the ... "Build-muscle-gain-weight.com". build-muscle-gain-weight.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.. ... As a result, this variation recruits the trapezius and teres major muscles much more than a vertical chin-up would, and is more ...
Skeletal muscle[edit]. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle ... Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an opposing joint torque to the agonist muscles.[6] This torque can aid ... There is an important difference between a helping synergist muscle and a true synergist muscle. A true synergist muscle is one ... Examples of bipennate muscles are the rectus femoris muscle of the thigh, and the stapedius muscle of the middle ear. ...
Muscle and bone[edit]. There is a decrease in hip fractures, which persists after the treatment is stopped, though to a lesser ... Hormone replacement therapy in the form of estrogen and androgen can be effective at reversing the effects of aging on muscle.[ ... decreased muscle mass, sexual dysfunction, and bone loss. They are in large part related to the diminished levels of sex ... "Benefits of estrogen replacement for skeletal muscle mass and function in post-menopausal females: evidence from human and ...
2007). Muscles within muscles: Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks. J ... Muscle energy techniques. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 432 of the 20th ... The pair of muscles are commonly known as "lats", especially among bodybuilders. The latissimus dorsi is the largest muscle in ... and assists as a muscle of both forced expiration (anterior fibers) and an accessory muscle of inspiration (posterior fibers).[ ...
Muscle repairs[edit]. Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in ... as well as muscle, neural and other progenitor tissues, they have been the main type of stem cells studied in the treatment of ... derived from adult stem cells is under preliminary research for potential orthopedic applications in bone and muscle trauma, ... "Mesoangioblast stem cells ameliorate muscle function in dystrophic dogs". Nature. 444 (7119): 574-79. doi:10.1038/nature05282 ...
In retrograde ejaculation, these bladder neck muscles are either very weak or the nerves controlling the muscles have been ... Conditions which can affect bladder neck muscle[edit]. Medications to treat high blood pressure, benign prostate hyperplasia, ... Retrograde ejaculation is a common side effect of medications, such as tamsulosin,[5] that are used to relax the muscles of the ... During climax, muscles at the end of the bladder neck tighten to prevent retrograde flow of semen. ...
Muscles and bones. The most commonly sought medical attention is for joint pain, with the small joints of the hand and wrist ... a b Joint and Muscle Pain Archived 2007-11-09 at the Wayback Machine. Lupus Foundation of America ... Common initial and chronic complaints include fever, malaise, joint pains, muscle pains, and fatigue. Because these symptoms ... More than 90 percent of those affected will experience joint or muscle pain at some time during the course of their illness.[16 ...
Muscle atrophies[edit]. Main article: Muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can ... Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur with diseases of the motor nerves or diseases of the muscle tissue itself. Examples of ... Changes in Na+ channel isoform expression and spontaneous activity in muscle called fibrillation can also result in muscle ... Testing on mice showed that it blocked the activity of a protein present in the muscle that is involved in muscle atrophy.[5] ...
However, muscles adapt to the lengths at which they are chronically held,[25] so that if a paralyzed muscle is stretched by its ... Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, ... for muscles with an impaired ability to effectively lengthen. Muscles affected by UMNS frequently are limited by weakness, loss ... When injecting the masseter muscle of the jaw, loss of muscle function can result in a loss or reduction of power to chew solid ...
20 Muscle relaxants (peripherally-acting) and cholinesterase inhibitors. *21 Eye preparations *21.1 Anti-infective agents ...
The deltoid muscles lie just lateral to the trapezius muscles, originating from several fibers spanning the clavicle and ... Pectoantebrachialis muscle is just one-half inch wide and is the most superficial in the pectoral muscles. Its origin is the ... This muscle is the innermost abdominal muscle. Its origin is the second sheet of the lumbodorsal fascia and the pelvic girdle ... The Splenius is the most superficial of all the deep muscles. It is a thin, broad sheet of muscle underneath the clavotrapezius ...
1.4 A04: Muscles (musculi). *1.5 A05: Alimentary system (systema digestorium). *1.6 A06: Respiratory system (systema ...
... was shown to ameliorate the age-related dysfunction of skeletal muscle by rescuing the function of aged muscle stem cells. In ... A 2017 study found that super-physiological levels of GDF11 induced muscle wasting in the skeletal muscle of mice.[38] ... GDF11 is closely related to myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth.[28][29] Both myostatin and GDF11 are involved in ... Effect on cardiac and skeletal muscle aging[edit]. GDF11 has been identified as a blood circulating factor that has the ability ...
Muscles engaged[edit]. Primary muscles. Gluteus maximus (glutes), quadriceps (quads)[8] Secondary muscles (synergists/ ... the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when ... The muscles around the hips provide the power out of the bottom. If the knees slide forward or cave in then tension is taken ... Clarkson, HM, and Gilewich, GB (1999) Musculoskeletal Assessment: Joint Range Of Motion And Manual Muscle Strength. Baltimore, ...
The quadratus lumborum is a muscle of the posterior abdominal wall. It is the deepest abdominal muscle and commonly referred to ... resulting in muscle fatigue.[3] A constantly contracted QL, like any other muscle, will experience decreased blood flow, and, ... in time, adhesions in the muscle and fascia may develop, the end point of which is muscle spasm. ... Quadratus lumborum is a continuation of transverse abdominal muscle. Nerve supply[edit]. Anterior branches of the ventral rami ...
For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign ...
Muscle Shoals settlement[edit]. In January 1791, a group of land speculators named the Tennessee Company from the Southwest ... It sat a few miles below the foot of the thirty-five-mile-long Muscle Shoals, near the mouth of Coldwater Creek and about three ... At the time of the conference in Nashville, two Chickasaw out hunting game along the Tennessee in the vicinity of Muscle Shoals ... Several hundred kilometers downriver, the Donelson party ran up against Muscle Shoals, where they were attacked at one end by ...
... smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle has no striations when examined microscopically. It contracts ... Muscle cells (myocytes) form the active contractile tissue of the body. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause ... Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle ... Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the uterus, bladder, intestines, stomach, oesophagus, respiratory airways, and blood ...
Other muscle disorders[edit]. Strabismus is caused by imbalances in the actions of muscles that rotate the eyes, and can ... However, muscles adapt to the lengths at which they are chronically held,[18] so that if a paralyzed muscle is stretched by its ... Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, ... for muscles with an impaired ability to effectively lengthen. Muscles affected by UMNS frequently are limited by weakness, loss ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Muscle fiber growth[edit]. Muscle fibers grow when exercised and shrink when not in use. This is due to the fact that exercise ... A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell)[1] is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that ...
Muscles[edit]. In observational studies 10-15% of people who take statins experience muscle problems; in most cases these ... Serious muscle problems such as rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscle cells) and statin-associated autoimmune myopathy occur in ... "The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx mediates statin-induced muscle toxicity". The Journal of Clinical ... Side effects of statins include muscle pain, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and abnormal blood levels of liver enzymes.[4 ...
Rib cage and abdominal muscle contributions[edit]. Intercostal muscle activity decreases in REM sleep and contribution of rib ... Rib cage and abdominal muscle contributions[edit]. Rib cage contribution to ventilation increases during NREM sleep, mostly by ... The other ventilatory muscles compensate for the increased resistance, and so the airflow decreases much less than the increase ... Obstructive sleep apnea is apnea either as the result of obstruction of the air passages or inadequate respiratory muscle ...
Muscle cramps. Definition. Muscle cramps are when a muscle gets tight (contracts) without you trying to tighten it, and it does ... Muscle cramps are common and may be stopped by stretching the muscle. The cramping muscle may feel hard or bulging. ... Muscle cramps are common and often occur when a muscle is overused or injured. Working out when you have not had enough fluids ... If the muscle is still sore, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines can help with pain. If the muscle cramps are severe, your ...
Treating muscle cramps requires a multi-tiered approach that includes lifestyle changes, dietary changes and nutritional ... What is a Muscle Cramp?. A muscle cramp is defined as the sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more of the muscles. This ... Critical Electrolytes for Muscle Spasms. Potassium. Potassium is an important factor in the function of the muscles and nerves ... Natural Remedies for Muscle Spasms and Cramping. With a variety of causes, muscle cramps also have a variety of treatments. ...
Muscle cramps are can be caused by overexertion, dehydration, magnesium or calcium deficiencies, a poor blood supply to the ... Perdido - Muscle cramps in the legs are really awful. As bad as they are, I think that muscle cramps in the feet are even worse ... Scientists do not know for sure what causes muscle cramps, but they have several theories. These include overuse of the muscle ... The muscles in my legs just were not used to this type of strain. As soon as I got back home and got off the bike, my thighs ...
... facts. *A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. ... Types of muscle cramps: True cramps. True cramps involve part or all of a single muscle or a group of muscles that generally ... Injury of the muscle alone may cause the muscle to spasm.. Vigorous activity: True cramps are commonly associated with the ... What is the treatment of skeletal muscle cramps?. Most cramps can be stopped if the muscle can be stretched. For many cramps of ...
... facial muscle explanation. Define facial muscle by Websters Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, ... facial muscle - any of the skeletal muscles of the face. buccinator muscle, cheek muscle, face, human face, masseter, musculus ... facial muscle --. facial nerve. facial profiling. facial recognition. facial tissue. facial vein. facially. Faciend. Facienda. ...
We could conclude too that in most of cases the deep temporal nerves penetrates in the inferior third of the temporal muscle. ... DETERMINATION OF THE LENGTH AND PENETRATION OF THE DEEP TEMPORAL NERVES IN THE TEMPORAL MUSCLE. Rev. chil. anat. [online]. 2002 ... in the temporal muscles. Twenty hemiheads were used, fastened in formaldehyde, of adult individuals of both sexes and of ... using as reference the oval foramen and the penetration point of the nerve in the muscle. For the determination of the ...
Weʼre raising money to fund a selective dorsal rhizotomy surgery which is a treatment for muscle spasticity which commonly ... fund a selective dorsal rhizotomy surgery which is a treatment for muscle spasticity which commonly effects people who have ...
Covers causes like strained muscles, dehydration, and needing more potassium or calcium in your body. Covers treatment and ... Discusses muscle cramps, also known as charley horses. ... What are muscle cramps?. A muscle cramp is a strong, painful ... What causes muscle cramps?. The cause of muscle cramps isnt always known. Muscle cramps may be brought on by many conditions ... Stretch and massage the muscle.. *Take a warm shower or bath to relax the muscle. A heating pad placed on the muscle can also ...
Researchers have explored how low sodium contributes to muscle cramps and results have been mixed. This is because muscle ... "Ive heard that my muscle cramps on longer runs can be caused by low salt levels? Is this true and why does that happen?" ... The cause and solution for your muscle cramps is going to be a combination of these variables. The fun part of my job is ... Yes, low salt levels are one cause of muscle cramps during long runs. "Salt" generally refers to sodium, which is an essential ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ... Muscle Spasticity (Clasp-Knife Spasticity). A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper motor neuron disease. Resistance ... Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of muscle weakness. (From Adams et al., Principles of ... Detailed information through a personalized searchRanked list of diseases related to "Muscle Spasticity"Drugs, active ...
See more about Skeletal Facial Muscles, skeletal and facial muscles anterior view, skeletal facial muscles ... Tags: skeletal and facial muscles anterior view, skeletal facial muscles. Related Posts of "Skeletal Facial Muscles". *. ... 3 photos of the "Skeletal Facial Muscles". skeletal facial muscles 4850028279 56c9272225 b. ...
... facial muscles) : occipitofrontalis, levator labii superioris, zygomaticus minor, zygamticus major, buccinator, levator anguli ... This stock medical illustration depicts the following muscles of the face ( ... This stock medical illustration depicts the following muscles of the face (facial muscles) : occipitofrontalis, levator labii ... Description: This stock medical illustration depicts the following muscles of the face (facial muscles) : occipitofrontalis, ...
Aerobic, Muscle- and Bone-Strengthening: What Counts for School-Aged Children and Adolescents?. ... Aerobic, Muscle- and Bone-Strengthening: What Counts for School-Aged Children and Adolescents? ... and muscle- and bone-strengthening activity-on at least 3 days each week, either on the same 3 days or on separate days. Also, ... build muscles (like climbing or doing push-ups), and strengthen bones (like running or jumping). Here is a list of possible ...
Muscle tone and movement involve the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. Hypotonia may be a sign of a problem anywhere ... Disorders that affect the nerves that supply muscles. *Disorders that affect the ability of nerves to send messages to the ... The physical exam will include a detailed examination of the nervous system and muscle function. ... Disorders of the muscles, such as muscular dystrophy. * ... along the pathway that controls muscle movement. Causes may ...
A muscle biopsy is the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination. ... A muscle biopsy may be done to help identify or detect:. *Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or ... A muscle biopsy is done to find out why you are weak when the doctor suspects you have a muscle problem. ... There are two types of muscle biopsy:. *A needle biopsy involves inserting a needle into the muscle. When the needle is removed ...
Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old Mice. Current News Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old ... Clinically, these findings could translate to older adults who either sustained a muscle injury or underwent muscle-damaging ... Longevity Protein Rejuvenates Muscle Healing in Old Mice By: The McGowan Institute For Regenerative Medicine , Category: ... "We found that we were able to rescue, at least in part, the regenerative defect of aged skeletal muscle," said lead author ...
... also increasing awareness among people regarding Muscle Wasting Disorder boost the market growth ... Muscle Wasting Disorder Market Dominated by the North America treatment due to growing demand of muscle atrophy treatment in ... The tendency of the body to lose tissue is referred as muscle wasting disorder, or muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy can be ... Global Muscle Wasting Disorder Market: Snapshot The global muscle wasting disorder market is fueled primarily by the rising ...
HYPERMUSCLE: MUSCLES IN ACTION. By: *John Bruenger *Ted Fischer from Anatomy and Cell Biology *Chris Chapman *Jane Tucker *Amy ... Each muscle action is listed in the Table of Contents. You can read about each movement as you travel down the page or you may ... Muscle actions are always described as departures from the standard position of the body, the anatomical position.. Certain of ... This is a multimedia interactive HTML document which will help medical students learn the muscle actions of the human body.. ...
Learn research-proven approaches to programming to overcome muscle confusion and achieve strength gains, while not forgetting ... Muscles are the same way. When you combine strength and cardio in the same session, your muscles get confused at the molecular ... Muscles get confused (just like you and I sometimes do). If you walk into a yoga studio ready to do yoga, but the room is ... Muscles need 48 hours for baseline strength to recover from high-intensity strength training. This finding is based on data ...
... how muscle type is over-rated and how it gets more credit then it deserves. ... This article will deal mainly with how people think the muscle type makes no difference, ... Muscle Recruitment So, aside from muscle fiber involvement why is the nervous system so important? The majority of the time, ... Individual muscles are made up of individual muscle fibers and these fibers are further organized into motor units grouped ...
The muscles that control each limb bear a remarkable molecular resemblance to the muscle beating in our chests. For Christine ... The muscles that control each limb bear a remarkable molecular resemblance to the muscle beating in our chests. ... Most of these mutations are in two genes, one of which codes for myosin, a protein crucial to muscle contraction. These myosin ... At the time, Padrón was an HHMI international research scholar studying how muscle proteins interact in tarantulas (which he ...
Propecia Loss Of Muscle. Get The Lowest Prices. #1 Online Pharmacy. ... When it is stopped, the company begins to food grow even and propecia loss of muscle the disease will be lost. As a side, drug ... Obtain ecg in not all conditions zich but i do speak to propecia loss of muscle one propecia sex with a better canadian home in ... Billy is capsule on me to propecia loss of muscle record some of that potency only. Hair beaucoup habits, after all, are known ...
... and muscle soreness were measured before supplementation. Circulating chemistries, single-leg peak isometric force, and muscle ... increase in circulating biomarkers representative of muscle damage (ALT or AST) without ameliorating muscle soreness (P , 0.05 ... intended to induce muscle damage. During the exercise protocol, subjects were allowed to perform presses if they were unable to ... deficit in skeletal muscle strength) after muscular injury or damage. Although supplemental vitamin D increases serum 25(OH)D ...
The rotatores muscles (rotatores spinae muscles) lie beneath the multifidus and are present in all spinal regions but are most ... Multifidus muscle. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 400 of the 20th edition of ... Each muscle is small and somewhat quadrilateral in form; it arises from the superior and posterior part of the transverse ... The Rotatores muscles have a high density of proprioceptors and have been implicated in postural control.[1] ...
You have more than 600 muscles in your body! They do everything from pumping blood throughout your body to helping you lifting ... muscle.. Smooth Muscles. Smooth muscles - sometimes also called involuntary muscles - are usually in sheets, or layers, with ... A Hearty Muscle. The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. It is also known as the myocardium (say: my-uh- ... Skeletal Muscle. Now, lets talk about the kind of muscle you think of when we say "muscle" - the ones that show how strong you ...
  • Regulating the activity level and eating a balanced diet with plenty of water supports effective functioning and eliminates many symptoms of muscle cramping. (earthclinic.com)
  • Adding additional potassium to the diet reduces the risk of cramping by facilitating the effective functioning of the muscles. (earthclinic.com)
  • These somites also give rise to all other wing and wing-associated muscles of the shoulder and thorax. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The cells that ultimately form the pectoralis and other brachial muscles migrate from the somites into the lateral mesoderm between 2 and 2.5 days in ovo. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The purpose of the studies reported in this thesis was to obtain data concerning the embryonic origin and formation of the pectoralis major muscle of the chicken. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Others have cited evidence to show that some muscles, including the pectoralis major muscle of the chick, are derived from the somatopleuric mesoderm adjacent to the somites. (mcmaster.ca)
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